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Subject-EDC Tutorial Sheet-1

Semester-3rd

Q1. What is the energy gap? Q2. What is the importance of valence shell and valence electrons? Q3. What is the forbidden energy gap? How does it occur? What is its magnitude for Ge Si? Q4. Is a hole a fundamental particle in an atom? Q5. Define a hole in a semiconductor. Q6. What is the hole current? Q7. What is intrinsic semiconductor? Q8. Why silicon and germanium are the two widely used semiconductor materials? Q9. Which of the two semiconductor materials Si and Ge has larger conductivity at room Temperature? Why Q10. Give the names of at least two semiconductors and what is the order of conductivity Of semiconductors at absolute zero? Q11. Why does a pure semiconductor behave like an insulator at absolute zero temperature? Q12. What is the main factor for controlling the thermal generation and recombination? Q13. Define mean life time of a carrier. Q14. In which bands do the movement of electrons and holes take place?

Er.Raju Sharma

Subject-EDC Tutorial Sheet-2


Q1. Q2. Q3. Q4. Q5. Q6. Q7. Q8. Q9. Q10. Q11. Q12. Q13. Q14. Q15. Q16. Q17. Q18. Q19. Q20.

Semester-3rd

Why is silicon preferred over germanium in the manufacture of semiconductor devices? What does the arrow head represent in a schematic symbol of a P-N junction? What is a P-N junction. What is forward and reverse biasing of a P-N junction. What is the effect of reverse bias on the width of a P-N junction? How do the transition region and contact potential across a P-N junction vary with the applied bias voltage? Which type of charges are present on the two opposite faces of the junction? What type of carriers are present in space charge region. Why is space region called the depletion region? Define cut-in voltage of a P-N junction diode? What do you understand by reverse saturation current of a diode? What is the effect of temp on the reverse current of a PN junction? Define Peak Inverse Voltage? Define the limitations in the operating conditions of P-N junction. What are the two mechanisms of breakdown in a P-N junction. Name the breakdown mechanism in a lightly doped P-N junction under r/b condition. Name the breakdown mechanism in a heavily doped P-N junction under r/b condition. What is an ideal diode? In reverse saturation current of a junction diode independent of reverse bias voltage? Ge is more temperature dependent than silicon why?

Er.Raju Sharma

Subject-EDC Tutorial Sheet-3


Q1.

Semester-3rd

Q2.

The turns ratio of a transformer used in a half-wave rectifier is N1:N2=12:1. The primary is connected to the power mains=220V,50Hz. Assuming the diode resistance in forward bias to be zero, calculate the dc voltage across the load. What is the PIV of the diode? The turns ratio of the transformer used in a bridge rectifier is Na:N2=12:1. The primary is connected to 220V, 50Hz.Power mains. Assuming that the diode voltage drops to be zero, Find the dc voltage drops to be zero, find the dc voltage across the load.Wh is the PIV of each diode? If the same dc voltage is obtained by using a centre-tap rectifier, What is the PIV? In a centre-tap full-wave rectifier, the load resistance Rl=1K.Each diode has a forward-bias dynamic resistance rd of 10 . The voltage across half the secondary winding is 220 sin314t. Find (a) the peak value of current (b) the rms value of current (c) the dc or average value of current (d) the ripple factor and (e) rectification efficiency A half-wave rectifier uses a diode with an equivalent forward resistance of 0.3 .If the input ac voltage is 10V(rms) and load is a resistance of 20 ,Calculate Idc and Irms in the load. A half-Wave rectifier uses a diode with a forward resistance of 100 .If the primary ac volateg is 200V(rms) and laod resistance is of 2 K ,determine (1) Imax,Idc and Irms (2) Peak inverse voltage when the diode is ideal (3) load O/P voltage (4) dc O/P power and ac I/P power (5) ripple factor (6) transformer utilization factor and (7) rectification efficiency. If a power supply the dc output voltage drops from 44V with no load to 42 V at full load. Calculate the percentage of voltage regulation.

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Er.Raju Sharma

Subject-EDC Tutorial Sheet-4


Q1. Q2.

Semester-3rd

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A half-wave rectifier employs a diode having a forward resistance of 10.If the input voltage to the rectifier circuit is 12V rms, Find the dc o/p voltage at a load of 100ma and PIV. The load resistance of a centre-tapped full-wave rectifier is 500 and secondary voltage from centre tap to each end of secondary is 60sin (100t).Calculate (1) Peak, average and rms values of current (2) Ripple factor (3) efficiency of rectifier. Each diode has an idealized 1V characteristics having slope corresponding to a resistance of 50. A centre-tapped transformer has a 220V primary winding and a secondary winding rated at 12-0-12V and is used in a full-wave rectifier circuit with a load of 100.What is the dc o/p voltage, dc load current and the PIV rating required for diodes? A 220V,50Hz ac voltage is applied to the primary of 4:1 step-down transformer, which is used in bridge rectifier, having a load resistance of 1K.Assuming the diodes to be a ideal, determine the following. (1) Dc o/p voltage (2) DC power delivered to load (3) PIV of each diode (4) O/P frequency A half-Wave rectifier has a load resistance of 3.5K.If the diode and secondary of 800 and the input voltage has an ac signal of 240V (peak value), Determine (1) Peak, average and rms values of current flowing (2) Dc power o/p (3) Ac power i/p (4) rectification efficiency (5) ripple factor

Er.Raju Sharma

Subject-EDC

Semester-3rd Tutorial Sheet-5 Objective type Questions


(Semiconductor Physics)

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A germanium atom contains (a) four protons (c) only two electrons orbits

(b) four valence electrons (d) five valence electrons

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When atoms are held together by the sharing of valence electrons (a) they form a covalent bond (b) The valence electrons are free to move away from the atom (c) each atom becomes free to move (d) each shared electron leaves a hole An electron in the conduction bond (a) is bound to its parent atom (b) is located near the top of the crystal (c) has no charge (d) has a higher energy than an electron in the valence band An intrinsic semiconductor at absolute zero of temperature (a) behaves like an insulator (b) has a large number of holes (c) has a few holes and same no of electrons (d) behaves like a metallic conductor When a voltage is applied to an intrinsic semiconductor which is ta room temperature (a) electrons move to the +ve terminal and holes move to the negative terminal (b) holes move to the -Ve terminal and electrons move to the -Ve terminal (c) both holes and electrons move to the +Ve terminal (d) both holes and electrons move to the -Ve terminal When the temperature of an intrinsic semiconductor is increased (a) resistance of the semiconductor increases (b) holes are created in the conduction band (c) energy of the atoms is increased (d) heat energy decreases the atomic radius The movement of a hole is brought about by (a) The vacancy being filled by a free electron (b) The vacancy being filled by a valence electron from a neighboring atom (c) The movement of an atomic core (d) The atomic core changing from a +4 to a +5 V charge Er.Raju Sharma

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The conduction band (a) is always located at the top of the crystal (b) is also called the forbidden energy gap (c) is a range of energies corresponding to the energies of the free electrons (d) is not an allowed energy band Donor-Type impurities (a) create excess holes (c) must have only five valence electrons (b) can be added to germanium but not to silicon (d) must have only three valence electrons

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The forbidden energy gap in semiconductors (a) lies just below the valence bond (b) lies just above the conduction band (c) lies between the valence band and the conduction band (d) is the same as the valence band In the N-type semiconductor, the concentration of minority carriers mainly depends upon (a) the doping technique (b) the number of donor atoms (c) the temperature of the material (d) the quality of intrinsic material, Ge or Si A semiconductor that is electrically neutral (a) has no majority carriers (b) has no free charges (c) has no minority carriers (d) has equal amounts of +Ve and -Ve charges When a normal atom loses an electron, the atom (a) becomes a +ve ion (b) becomes a -ve ion (c) becomes electrically neutral (d) is then free to move about Resistivity is a property of a semiconductor that depends on (a) the atom of the semiconductor (b) the atomic nature of the semiconductor (c) the shape and the atomic nature of the semiconductor (d) the length of the semiconductor Which of the following constitutes an active component? (a) semi-conductor device (b) resistors (c) capacitors (d) inductors Er.Raju Sharma

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Which of the following is an active device? (a) Transformer (b) SCR (c) Electric bulb (d) loud speaker Which of the following is a passive component? (a) semiconductor devices (b) vacuum tube devices (c) capacitors (d) all of the above Which of the following is used as a passive component in electronic circuits? (a) tunnel diode (b) capacitor (b)transistor (d) vacuum tube The total energy of an electron in an atom will be maximum when it is (a) closest to the nucleus (b) is the even numbered orbit (c) odd numbered orbit (d) in an orbit farthest from the nucleus The forbidden energy gap for silicon is (a) 0.12 eV (b) 1.12 eV (c) 0.72eV (d) 7.2 eV The forbidden energy gap for germanium is (a) 0.12 eV (b) 0.32 eV (c) 0.72 eV (d) 0.92 eV Eg for silicon is 1.12 eV and that for germanium is 0.72 eV. Therefore, it can be concluded that (a) The conductivity of silicon will be less than that of germanium at room temperature (b) the conductivity of silicon will be more than that of germanium at room temperature (c) The conductivity of two will be same at 6 deg C (d) The conductivity of two will be same at 100 deg C The resistivity of a semi-conductor (a) decreases as the temperature increases (b) decreases as the temperature increases (c) remains constant even when temp varies (d) none of the above Semi-conductors have (a) zero temperature coefficient of resistance (b) +ve temp coefficient of resistance (c) -ve temp coefficient of resistance (d) none af the above A doped semi-conductor is called (a) impure semi-conductor (b) dipole semi-conductor (c) bipolar semi-conductor (d) extrinsic semi-conductor

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Which of the following semi-conductor is electrically positive? (a) intrinsic semi-conductor (b) extrinsic semi-conductor (c) P-type semi-conductor (d) none of the above In a N-type semi-conductor, the concentration of minority carriers is mainly depends on (a) the no of acceptor atoms (b) the no of donor atoms (c) the extent of doping (d) the temp of the material When a semi-conductor is doped, its electrical conductivity (a) increases (b) decreases is the direct ratio of the doped material (c) decreases in the inverse ratio of the doped material (d) remains unaltered Resistivity is a property of a semi-conductor that depend on (a) the atomic weight of the semi-conductor (b) the atomic nature of the semi-conductor (c) the atomic nature of the semi-conductor (d) the shape of the semi-conductor An electrically neutral semi-conductor has (a) no free charges (b) no majority carriers (c) no minority carriers (d) equal no of +ve and -ve charges

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