Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

-

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

Anirudh Tandon

Student , B.TECH. IV year Department of Electronics & Communication Engineering , SRMCEM , Lucknow-227105 (U.P. Technical University , Lucknow)

Abstract

The Radio frequency identification device (RFID) is the latest ,more secure and fastest technology in warehouse management. There has a considerable amount of reduction in transaction costs and decrease in stock shortage with the use of RFID. Most RFID networks include a wide range of automation technologies . These technologies are RFID tags , RFID readers, RFID smart sensors , RFID controllers .This paper also stresses on the need for synchronization between the readers in denser environments to avoid serious reader collisions.

Index Terms: RFID , Automation , Warehouse , Synchronization .

1. Introduction

Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a technology to realize no contact information transmission by the application to radio frequency signal and space coupling (alternating magnetic field or electromagnetic field) and identify with the information transmitted. As a promising technology, RFID products have been playing important roles inn materials circulation and supplychain management, anti-counterfeit and safety control, traffic management and control and production management and control and have improved the efficiency of management and commercial value of industries such as service,manufacture, commercial distribution, transportation, military, postal service and tobacco. It is predicted that RFID technology will be an important technology that changes people’s life in the 21st century.

2. Working Principle of RFID

2.1. The basic structure of RFID system

A whole set of RFID system is composed of

four parts, which

are,

Reader,

Tag

(also

known as responder), Antenna and

Application

Software

System.

The

basic

structure of RFID is shown as

C h a r t 1.Its

working

principle

is

as

such:

Reader transmits

certain frequency

radio

wave

energy of

a

to the receiver

so as to the

receiver circuit could sent forth the data inside

and the Reader then receives

and read

the

data

in

sequence

and

finally

sent

to

the

application

program

for

corresponding

processing.

 

(1)

Tag

Tag

is

the

real

carrier

of RFID system.

Generally speaking, a tag is made up of a tag

antenna and a special tag

chip.

Each tag has

one single electronic

code to be attached on

the target object of a substance. Tag functions as barcode symbol of the bar code technology

and is used for

the

memory

of information

needs identifying

and transmitting.

According

to

the

difference

between

the

power supply modes

of the

tag,

it could

be

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

divided into active tag and passive tag, from

the functions,

it could

be divided

into RO,

RW, tag with microprocessor

and

tag with

transducer, from the type of modulation,

tag

could also passive tag . (2) Reader

be

divided into active tag and

Reader is the device used to read or

write

the

tag information.

It

could

read,

write,

indicate

and

process solely

or

work

with

other

computers

 

or

systems

to

complete

the operation

to

the

tag .

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE divided into active tag and passive tag, from the

A

typical

Reader

is made

up of control

module,

radio

frequency

module,

 

and

interface

module

and

Reader

antenna.

Besides,

there

are

additional

interfaces

(RS232,

RS485

and

interfaces

of Ethernet,

etc.)

for

many

Readers

to

transmit

the

data received

to

application

system

or

receive

orders

from them.

 

(3) Antenna Antenna is the device used to provide radio

frequency signal

transmission

space

for

tag

and Reader.

It could be installed inside

the

Reader or connected

with

the

antenna

interface of it through coaxial cable.

(4) Data management system Data management system mainly

memories

and

manages

the

data

and

information as well as controlling the reading

and writing to the tag. It could be database or

management

information

system

in

an

enterprise. Users could

buy

highly

specialized inventory management database which is designed for certain industries

2.2. The work flow of RFID system

The

basic

work

flow

of RFID

system

is,

after Reader

transmitting

radio

frequency

signal

with

certain

frequencies

 

through

transmitting

antenna,

the

induced current

will

be

produced

while

entering

along

with

the target

object

of

the

tag

 

into

the

working

area

of transmitting

antenna

and

then,

relying

on

the

energy obtained

by

the

induced

current,

the

tag

transmits

the product

information

memorized

in

the

chip

or

transmit signal

of

a

certain

frequency

actively,

after

the

demodulation

and

decoding

of

carrier

wave

signal

sent from

the

tag

to

the

receiving

antenna,

the

Reader

sends the

information to data management system for relevant treatment, data management system

judges the validity of the

 

tag

by

logical

operation

and

processes

and

control

correspondingly

according

to

the

different

settings

and then send out command signal

to control the operation of actuator.

3. The Application of RFID Technology in Warehouse Management

3.1. The advantages of RFID technology compare with the traditional Bar Code

Compare with bar code, RFID electronic label has several advantages as following:

First, Quick Scan: Bar code scans

one

bar-code

each time, RFID identifier can scan

several RFID labels at the same time. Second, Volume Miniaturization

and

Figure Diversification:

The

accuracy

of

RFID access does not require fixed paper

size and quality of printing,

it

is

not limited

by measures and figures. Moreover, RFID

label could head for volume

miniaturization

and

figure diversification to

apply to different production.

Third,

Anti-pollution

and

Durability:

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

Traditional bar code is made

from

paper

which is easily polluted. However, RFID has a strong resistance of water, oil and chemistry medicine, etc. Besides, as the

bar code is always attached on the plastic

bag

or outer

packing

of cardboard boxes, it

is easily damaged,

RFID label stores the data

in the chip, so it is anti-pollution.

Fourth, Replication Using of RFID Label:

The bar code today can hardly changes the

information

after printing, RFID label could

add, amend and delete the data in the label

repetitively,

which

convenient

the

renew

of the information.

Fifth, Penetrability

and Exposed Reading:

RFID could penetrates communication

despite

paper,

wood,

plastic and

other

non

metal

or

non

transparent

materials.

Bar

code scanner

could

read

the data

only

in

a

near range and without other materials block.

Sixth,

Large

Data

Memory:

The

volume of one- dimensional bar code is

50Bytes

while two-dimensional bar code has

2-3000 Bytes. RFID has several MegaBytes volume maximum. With the development of memory carriers, data volume is on the trend of expansion. In future, the introduction could carry more and more data, thus the label need to expand its volume.

Seventh, Security: RFID carries electronic information whose data guided by the passing number and thus the content is not easy to imitate or revised.

3.2. Object

 

and

Task

of

RFID

Technique in Warehouse Management

(1) Management Object

 

Traditional

warehouse

management

depends

on

non automatic

system

which

is based

on

recorded

paper document

to

pursuing

the

import

and

export

goods, completely

performed

by

personnel.

So

the

depot

management

rate

is

very

low

and

the

scale

of

the warehouse is very small.

Warehouse management system based on RFID

refers to

the

system

which

imported

the

RFID technique. It exquisites

the

data

automatically

on

the

chains

of receiving

inspection,

warehousing,

cargo

delivery,

allocation,

cargo

shift,

inventory

check

and

other operation

process

to ensure

the

accuracy and speed of the input data. Thus the

enterprise

could

master

the

real storage

data

at the first time, which could help them

reasonably keep and control the storage. The

mainly management

objects

which

apply

to

RFID technique in enterprise warehouse are:

1) Warehouse

Goods:

It

is

the

direct

object in warehouse management. It is

classified into three forms: stock, box body and

bulk pack. At present RFID does not apply

to

single small goods management, so it is used in

whole

box

or

whole

stock (including

single

large goods) management.

 

2) Inventory

Location: It refers

to the district

used

to place

warehouse

goods

and

doesn’t

overlapping in room. Usually,

one

inventory

 

location

could

place

several warehouse goods

or a large one warehouse good occupies several

locations.

 

3)

Warehouse

Management

Device:

It

refers

to the devices used in warehouse

management,

e.g.

fork

lift truck and

hand

truck,

etc.

These

devices

should

be

proper

dispatched

in

time

and

location

so

as

to

 

improve

the utilization ratio in large and busy

warehouse. (2) Management Task

1)

Each

inventory

location

has

an

electronic label which called inventory label. During the operation of warehouse management, determine the operation location according the number of the label. 2) The warehousing goods, for management, each of them has an electronic

label which called goods label. The goods has

goods label should be whole large

goods

which easy to labeling.

During

the

warehouse operation, reading the number of

the label to check the

operation

goods.

On

the purpose to save the operation cost, goods

label should designed

to

be

the label

which

could be makes a full

use

and could be

pick

off for replication use at warehousing location.

3)

Set

up

wireless

LAN

which

covered

the whole shipping department

to

translate

the

operation

data immediately. Install the

fixed wireless date termination on the fork lift

truck, and hand held wireless date termination for each manual operation staff. The

wireless

date

termination

can

receive

the

operation order, confirm the operation location

and feedback the operation situation. 4)

Use

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

AGV

(Automatic

Guided

Vehicle)

as

the

platform to install the RFID scanner,

controlling device and

radio

communication

equipment.

The

AGV

truck which installed

the

scanner

could

check

the

warehouse

automatically

in

the

appointed

time

every

day

and

conduct

the result

to

the

system

management center.

  • 3.3. Framework of RFID in WMS

Warehouse Management System adopts the

framework

with

three

layers, described as

follows :

The first layer is Capture, that is, capture data mainly throughRFID equipment and other automatic discrimination equipment,

including

labels

of storage location, labels

of consignment, wireless data terminal, AVG

vehicle, etc.

The second

layer

is

Movement,

that

is,

transfer the captured

data

to

the

central

data

warehouse

through wireless

communication

technology,

including

wireless

access

equipment and some relevant network equipment. The third layer is Management, that is,

analyze and manage the captured data, including the server of some equipment, such as database, network, etc. together with some systematic software of warehouse management.

3.4. Composition of WMS Based on the RFIDTechnology The Warehouse Management System
3.4.
Composition
of
WMS
Based
on
the
RFIDTechnology
The
Warehouse
Management
System

is mainly composed by three main parts:

(1)Basic Management Subsystem: it takes charge of centralized management and maintenance of database of WMS, the establishment of stock plan and ex-warehouse plan and carry-out of orders, together with make out various management report forms. (2)Warehouse Location Management Subsystem: it issues labels of entering into the warehouse and undertakes real- timed stock management together with giving orders of warehouse management operation through wireless communication network. (3)Operation Management Implementation Subsystem: it completes specific operations of entering warehouse, ex-warehouse, shifting warehouse, distribution and check of warehouse, etc. The implementation of every tache can be queried according to assignment. The disposition of RFID equipment in warehouse management refers to Chart-3.

Chart-3 Disposition of RFID Equipment in Warehouse Management

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE AGV (Automatic Guided Vehicle) as the platform to install

1ˉ the computer server of stock management database 2

ˉ the wireless office computer

3ˉ the

printer of labels of warehouse entry 4ˉ the laser printer 5ˉ the wireless antenna 6ˉ the wireless equipment terminal of forklift 7

ˉ the

wireless

long

range

code

scanner

8ˉ the handheld wireless terminal

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

4. Synchronization Of Readers

4.1 Tuning

 

EPC

Radio-frequency

Identification

Protocols

Class

1

Generation

2

UHF

RFID

Protocol

for Communication at 860

MHz – 960 MHz”, in short EPC C1G2, is

the

standard protocol developed by EPC

global for

RFID devices for use

within the

supply chain. With the implementation of ETSI

302 208 and EPC C1G2, it was discovered

that

when

a

reader

is operating at a certain

sub-band or channel, this reader will

effectively prevent other readers from using

that channel within an unacceptable large area. Under the concept of reader synchronization,

all the RFID readers

in

a

certain

area,

for

example

all

the readers in a warehouse, are

networked together through a central control unit.

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE 4. Synchronization Of Readers 4.1 Tuning EPC Radio-frequency Identification

Fig 1. “listening” and “talking” mode

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE 4. Synchronization Of Readers 4.1 Tuning EPC Radio-frequency Identification

Fig2. Channeling of the allocated frequency spectrum

The connection method can be the common

Ethernet

connection,

or

equivalent.

All

the

readers are “Listen Before Talk” compatible.

They are configured to start to “Listen” at the

same time,

and

then at

the

end

of the

listen

period,

they

can

all

synchronously

start

to

“Talk”. All

the

readers, which start

“Listening”

at

the

same time,

will

start

“Talking” at

the

same

time.

If

a

reader is

turned

on

at

a

different time, or

if

a reader

loses synchronization

that

reader

 

will

start

again

in synchronism with the rest of

the readers, after the last reader has finished its

“Talk” session

“Talk” session

Two readers assigned to be

operating in a same channel will be as far apart

as possible. Also, the neighbouring

antennas

will be

using

channels

as

far

apart

as

possible. The spectrum is

split

into

10

channels, all 5 of the odd-numbered channels

are reserved for tag backscattering while all 5 of the even-numbered channels are assigned

for reader

 

The antenna on the

furthest left is using channel 2 for

interrogation. The

next

antenna

on

its

immediate right

is

using

channel

8,

which

is 6 channels

away.

Channel

10,

though

is

the

This

furthest channel

is

because

away, the arrangement of

is

not

chosen.

[2,

8,

4,

10,

6]

gives

best

channel separation

between every channel.

4.2 Using external sensors

Sensors can be used to turn RFID reader on only when tags are approaching to further reduce reader interference in that area. This will free up the channels allocated for those antennas, and also to avoid unnecessary interference to other surroundings reader antennas.

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE 4. Synchronization Of Readers 4.1 Tuning EPC Radio-frequency Identification

Fig3.using external sensors both the antennas at dock door 3 are switched off when absence of truck 3 is detected.

4.3 Using RF absorbing materials

Another effective, but more expensive, way to reduce readers interference and collision, is to utilize RF opaque or RF absorbing materials to contain the interrogating signal within the designated zone of interrogation. Although there collision, is to utilize RF opaque or RF absorbing materials to contain the interrogating signal within the designated zone of interrogation.

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE Fig3. use of RF absorbing mateials. Although there will

Fig3. use of RF absorbing mateials.

Although there will signal leakage through the door openings, it would not have caused

much interference. This is due to the fact

that

the

signal strengths at the

sides of the

antenna are relatively weak as compared to the front of the antenna. Accordingly the gain at the side of a typical RFID antenna is approximately 20 dB less than the gain at the front of the antenna.

5.Conclusion

RFID has gradually become an indispensable

technical tool

and

measure

to

improve

management

level

of logistics

and

supply

chain,

decrease

cost,

realize

the

informationization

of enterprise

management

and

increase

competitive

strength.

Many

typical

cases

abroad

suggest

that,

the

enterprises

which

have

presently

applied

RFID

technology

into

the

warehouse

management

information

system

have

decreased

the error

ratio of their producing

goods. This paper has identified

synchronization

of

RFID readers

as

a

mechanism

to

assist

in

RFID

readers

deployment

in

dense

reader

environments.

Several

fine-tuning

methods

are

also

presented in optimising the performance of a

synchronised RFID system. As compared

to

conventional

unsynchronised

RFID systems,

a synchronised RFID system can offer more

coverage,

less

reader

collision

 

or

interference,

while

strictly

following

the

European

regulations

and

the EPC C1G2

recommendation.

However,

these

benefits

require the

use

of

more complex hardware

and hence can marginally increase

deployment costs.

6. Acknowledgement

In the end I would like to acknowledge Hui Tan(Department of business management, Nanjing Institute of Industry Technology, Nanjing, Jiangsu ,China).

7 .Re f e r e nc e s

 

[ 1 ]. H u i

T a n , ” T h e

A p p l i c a t i o n

T e c h n o l o g y

i n

o f

RF I D

t h e

Wa r e h o u s e

S y st e m”

,I E E E

a n d

o n

M a n a g e m e n t

I n t e r n a t i o n a l

S y mp o si u m Co mm e r c e

E l e c tr o n i c

S e c u ri t y . p p . 1 -

3

, A u g u st 2 0 0 8 .

[ 2 ]. K i n

S e o n g

L e o n g , M u n

N g

, A lf i o

R.

G r a ss o

H . Co l e ,

” S y n c r o n i z a t i o n

,

o f

L e n g

P e t e r

RF I D

Re a d e r

E n v ir o nm e n ts ”

I n t e r n a t i o n a l

S y mp o si um

,I E E E o n

A p p l i c a t i o n s

a n d

t h e

Wo r k s h o p s. p p 3 - 4

I n t e r n e t

, 2 0 0 6 .

[ 3 ]. G l o v e r, B. ,B h a t t , H . , ” A n

I n tr o d u c t i o n

t o

RF I D ”

,C h a p .

1 .

 

R F I D

ES SE N TI A L S

. p p 1 2 -

1

4 , O ’R E I L L Y , 2 0 0 6 .

[ 4 ]. Ba d ri

T e c h n o l o g y

N a t h

, F r a n k l i n

a n d

Ro y Wa n t

, ”R F I D

Re y n o l d s

a n d

 

,I E E E

P e r v a si v e

A p p l i c a t i o n s ” Co m p u t i n g ,

v o l . 5 , n o . 1 , p p . 2 2 - 2 4 ,J a n - M a r c h

2

0 0 6 .

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE

WAREHOUSE MANAGEMENT WITH RADIO FREQUENCY IDENTIFICATION DEVICE