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ARTIFICIAL LIFT

OVERVIEW
Boosting ultimate recovery requires us to get more from each well and each reservoir. Clearly, while improving recovery is one of the best places to look for additional reserves, often the relationship between artificial lift and ultimate recovery has been forgotten. However, when artificial lift options are limited, as is the case for subsea wells, we quickly discover that recoveries drop to among the lowest in the industry. Today, selection of an artificial lift technique plays an increasingly important role in determining ultimate recovery. In addition to the challenges posed by subsea/deepwater production, unconventional reservoirs also require new ideas to improve recovery. For example, steam operations used to produce from heavy-oil reservoirs require downhole and surface pumps to operate at temperatures well beyond our experience base. Unconventional gas reservoirs, such as coalbed methane and ultralow-permeability sand/shale, also present unique challenges. In these cases, operating companies must solve problems associated with lifting liquids to the surface (i.e., liquid loading). The papers highlighted in this artificial-lift section illustrate some of the approaches applied in a wide variety of reservoirs. From installation of electrical submersible pumps in hot, high-gas/oil-ratio wells to rod-pumping applications for gas well unloading, these papers illustrate the adaptation of artificial-lift methods to keep wells producing and to extend field life. Work on improving the ability to predict the slug-to-annular-flow transition also is highlighted. This work is of great interest to the area of gas lift stability as well as predicting the onset of liquid loading. The recommended reading list highlights some of the latest thinking on the requirements and current state of the art in the rapidly evolving area of seafloor boosting. This particular type of artificial lift, by use of subsea multiphase pumps, is quickly becoming an integral part of the fielddevelopment plan for deepwater and ultradeepwater fields. Given the industry shift to deepwater and unconventional reservoirs, todays definition of artificial lift must encompass a much broader range of technologies than in the past. Also, the critical role that artificial lift plays in increasing ultimate recovery needs to be recognized up front so that effective artificial-lift JPT solutions can be incorporated in field-development planning. Stuart L. Scott, SPE, is an associate professor of petroleum engineering at Texas A&M University. Previously, he worked 9 years for Phillips Petroleum Company and 3 years as an assistant professor at Louisiana State University. Scott holds BS and PhD degrees in petroleum engineering and an MS degree in computer science, all from the University of Tulsa. An SPE Distinguished Member, he chaired the SPE Panhandle Section (1992), the SPE Production Operations Technical Committee (1992 and 2000), and the First SPE Forum on Multiphase Flow, Pumping, and Separation Technology (1992). Scott was coeditor of SPE Reprint No. 58Offshore Multiphase Production Operations (2004). Scott is active in the areas of multiphase flow, pumping, metering, oil/gas production, and hydraulic fracturing. He serves on the JPT Editorial Committee. Artificial Lift additional reading available at the SPE eLibrary: www.spe.org SPE 104037 Stability Analysis of Gas Lift Wells Used for Deepwater Oil Production by I. Guerrero-Sarabia, National Autonomous University of Mexico, et al. SPE 104314 Economic Pumping Technology for Coalbed Methane (CBM), Stripper Oil, and Shallow Gas Well Deliquification by Michael W. Dickey, SmithLift available at the OTC Library: www.otcnet.org OTC 18261 Subsea Processing and BoostingTechnical Challenges and Opportunities by R.M. Bass, Shell International E&P OTC 17899 Subsea Boosting of the Brenda Field Through Utilization of a Multipurpose Field Development Solution by J. Elde, SPE, Framo Engineering, et al.

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Dewatering Unconventional Gas Resources With Sucker-Rod-Pumping Equipment


Dewatering coalbed-methane and low-pressure gas wells is a challenge. Compared to electrical-submersible and progressing-cavity pumps, sucker-rod pumps are very forgiving, and wells can be pumped at very low pump-intake pressure without damaging the pumping equipment. New designs in sucker-rod-pumping equipment and rod-pumping systems for high gas/liquid ratios (GLRs), coal fines, and solids have changed the approach to dewatering unconventional gas resources.

Introduction Understanding gas wells and how they affect the sucker-rod pump is needed to apply sucker-rod pumps under mild-, medium-, and high-GLR conditions. Gas lock, gas interference, compression, and decompression often are misunderstood and lead to use of the wrong equipment. Gas Separation Downhole gas separation in front of pump intake can solve gas problems with sucker-rod pumps. The term gas lock often is used to describe any gas problem in a sucker-rod pump. Surface-valve checks and dynamometer-card analysis cannot distinguish between various gas problems. True gas lock exists when the hydrostatic pressure above the traveling-valve ball is greater than the pressure in the
This article, written by Technology Editor Dennis Denney, contains highlights of paper SPE 104547, New Methods and Equipment for Dewatering Unconventional Gas Resources Using Sucker-RodPumping Equipment, by Mark W. Mahoney, SPE, and Randy DeWerff, SPE, Harbison-Fischer, prepared for the 2006 SPE Eastern Regional Meeting, Canton, Ohio, 1113 October.

pump chamber at the bottom of the downstroke. On the upstroke, the gas expands in the pump chamber but the pressure in the chamber remains greater than the pump-intake pressure; therefore, the standing valve does not open. With true gas lock, the valves stay closed and the same column of fluid is raised and lowered with each cycle, with no fluid being pumped. Compression and decompression must be avoided. A better description of gas lock is the pump has pumped down to its pump-chamber decompression limit. The ideal-gas law gives the relationship between volume, pressure, and temperature. In simple terms, if the temperature is near constant, then pressure and volume are inversely proportional. On the upstroke, the pump chamber starts with an uncompressible volume according to the design constraints of the traveling and standing valves. As the plunger moves upward, the volume increases and the pressure decreases. When the pump-chamber pressure drops below the pump-intake pressure, the standing valve opens. Pumps contain a certain volume that does not contribute to the pumped volume. This nonpumping volume includes the standing-valve section with the valve ball, ball-guide portion, and the upper-fluid-port portion. Another nonpumping volume is the traveling valve, with its seat, seat retainer, and cage, that functions inside the pump barrel. Pumps are assembled such that the traveling valve does not touch the standing valve when the valve rod bushing is seated in the clutch of the valve rod guide. Space out, when the well is put on pump, can be too far off bottom, which increases the nonpumping volume.

New cage designs can reduce the nonpumping volume in a 1.25-in. pump from 9.5 to 6 in.3, increase the maximum hydrostatic head allowed, and increase the maximum pump depth. Most new designs have more ball-guide clearance and larger exit ports to allow particulates such as coal fines to pass through the valve without sticking the valves or packing-off the cage. Ideally, the space between the traveling and standing valves should be between 0.25 and 0.5 in., and an adjustable valve rod guide at the top of the pump could be used to achieve this close spacing. Gas Interference One type of interference occurs when the pump goes into a gas lift situation and the well unloads the tubing, and the gas coming through the pump prevents the valves from functioning properly. The well must load up with fluid before the pump will function again. One solution is to use a backpressure regulator to hold pressure on the tubing. Another more common type of gas interference occurs when gas is pulled into the pump chamber with the liquid and then expands with the pressure drop in the pump chamber. The result is that less liquid enters the pump, causing poor pump efficiency. This type of gas interference also causes gas pound with the resulting sucker-rod compression above the pump. To resolve this problem, a downhole gas-separator system can be used. Another solution is to use a pump designed to equalize the hydrostatic head on the traveling valve to stop gas compression. Other designs use a two-stage pump to relieve the gas pound and double the compression in the upper chamber. These types of pumps need the longest

For a limited time, the full-length paper is available free to SPE members at www.spe.org/jpt. The paper has not been peer reviewed. JPT MAY 2007 59

downhole stroke possible to operate efficiently. Two-stage pumps have a second plunger or a third valve mounted on top of a pull tube. On the downstroke, this valve closes, sealing off the upper chamber of the pump. As the plunger moves downward, the upper chamber volume increases, decreasing the pressure from hydrostatic pressure, the same pressure as that of the lower

pump chamber, which was at the pump-intake pressure but now has higher pressure because the downward movement of the plunger has decreased the volume of the lower chamber. When these two pressures equalize, the plunger traveling valve opens. This type of pump can be very useful for cases in which the downhole stroke is too short to overcome the hydrostatic load.

World Release Announced at OTC 07

Petroleum Engineering Software Reaches New Heights.

WellFlo 4.0
eProduction Solutions (eP), Weatherfords production optimization group, announces the world-wide release of WellFlo 4.0 software. WellFlo software is a production and engineering tool for designing completions, forecasting performance, diagnosing well problems, and optimization for existing installations. This completely redesigned and reinvigorated well engineering software tool reects Weatherfords latest technology breakthroughs and leadership in articial lift optimization, strides in software technology and advancement and changes in todays energy production environment. WellFlo software has been an industry standard for over a decade. Contact us at info@ep-solutions.com for more information about Wello software or any of our other comprehensive solutions.

Low GLR Many unconventional-gas-resource wells require removal of only small volumes of fluid for optimal gas production, and wellbore configurations (i.e., openhole completion or inadequate rathole) do not always allow adequate bottomhole separation to protect the pump. In such cases, the pump alternates between pump-off and gas lock. Use of an average GLR for analysis can be misleading. When the well production rate becomes very low, the GLR will be much higher because of the increased gas and decreased liquid amounts. This sequence will occur as the pump reaches the point of pump-off and the gas, generally free gas in this case, makes its way into the pump chamber in a volume too large for the pump compression chamber. In this scenario, the pump is dry pumping, thereby generating heat from both friction and compression and elevating the pressure slightly within the pump chamber. The pump then will complete several pump cycles with no new fluid entering the pump chamber, until a sufficient amount of liquid enters the wellbore and slowly builds high enough to create enough submergence pressure to increase the pump-intake pressure, allowing the fluids to push through the standing valve and enter the pump chamber. A pump operating in this condition will not be lubricated properly, resulting in accelerated wear of the sealing components, premature pump failure, and failure of stuffing-box packing. When these well conditions exist, a pump having a gas vent can optimize JPT operation in low-GLR wells.

Production Optimization

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Prediction of Slug-to-Annular Flow-Pattern Transition

Slug-flow to annular-flow transition occurring during upward gas/liquid flow is a source of flow instabilities often experienced in conventional gas lift as well as in unloading water accumulated at the bottom of gas wells. In both situations, a significant decrease in tubing pressure from perforations to wellhead is associated with a significant increase in superficial gas velocity and may induce flow-pattern transitions. The full-length paper uses field data and laboratory measurements to suggest that flow-pattern transition can result in flow instabilities and should be avoided.

Fig. 1Flow patterns for upward vertical flow.

Introduction Understanding and prediction of slugflow to annular-flow transition are essential for designing effective gas lift or unloading strategies. Mechanistic modeling of gas/liquid-flow systems including descriptions of major flow patterns and transitions is essential to develop suitable production strategies in both depleted and large offshore gas/ oil reservoirs. These include the ability to control the stability of a suitable gas/ liquid-flow pattern from perforations to wellhead and achieve the designed production volumes. To minimize the pressure drop, large-liquid-volume gas lift primarily uses a slug flow pattern, while production of gas with relatively
This article, written by Assistant Technology Editor Karen Bybee, contains highlights of paper SPE 100615, Prediction of Slug-to-Annular Flow-Pattern Transition (SAT) for Reducing the Risk of Gas Lift Instabilities and Effective Gas-Liquid Transport From Low-Pressure Reservoirs, by P. Toma, SPE, P.R. Toma Consulting Ltd., and E. Vargas and E. Kuru, SPE, U. of Alberta, prepared for the 2006 SPE Gas Technology Symposium, Calgary, 1517 May.

small amounts of condensate or water uses an annular flow pattern. Slug-to-annular flow-pattern transition including the intermediate churn condition is considered to be a potential source of instabilities. Fig. 1 shows flow patterns for upward vertical flow. Difficulties visually assessing the hydrodynamic evolution of this transition because of highly turbulent gas/liquid-flow reversals are a source of controversy, mainly related to the definition of churn as a standalone flow pattern or as a transition stage between slug and annular flow. Slug Flow Pattern. The slug flow pattern is characterized by a chain of bullet-shaped, rising Taylor bubbles. A relatively large amount of liquid and much smaller gas bubbles are contained in a slug found between two consecutive Taylor bubbles. The population of much smaller bubbles found in the slug subpattern is formed continuously through turbulent breaking of the trailing edge of large Taylor bubbles and disappears through coalescence (back into Taylor bubble). The slug-subpattern volume is essential to transport a

large amount of liquid upward during conventional gas lift operations. A backflowing liquid film (found between Taylor bubbles and the tubing) is an equally essential feature of any slug flow pattern and limits the depth from which liquid can be transported in a slug flow pattern from extremely lowpressure reservoirs. Annular Flow Pattern. The annular flow pattern is represented by a gas/liquid-droplet core transported upward at a relatively high gas velocity and by a highly turbulent liquid film sheared and moved upward by the gas-droplet core; droplets contained in the core flow are continuously generated through breaking of roll waves (formed at film/core interface) and by droplets redeposited in the liquid film under strong wall turbulent redeposition activity. This transport regime is specific to large volumes of gas transporting relatively small volumes of liquid, mainly observed with wellliquid removal. Transitional/Churn Flow Pattern. The transitional/churn flow structure

For a limited time, the full-length paper is available free to SPE members at www.spe.org/jpt. The paper has not been peer reviewed. JPT MAY 2007 61

mainly is controlled by a mechanism of reversing the direction of the liquid-film flow including sequences of upward and downward film-flow reversal, specific to a more general counter-current flood instability; the welldefined Taylor-bubble structure, found in the slug flow pattern, is concurrently twisted and broken into irregular gas formation, finally generating a continuous gas-droplet core (annular). The time and the upward length required for this reorganization of gas/ liquid structures have been identified as a major source of flow-instability propagation. Repetitive interruption of liquid-film backflow creates a liquid starved zone below. Depending on the reservoir response and the well layout (e.g., hilly terrain, vertical, horizontal), the local transition instability can further trigger a severe slugging condition with a large volume of liquids alternating with gas at a frequency measured in hours or even days. The local transition instability also can be observed as flow-rate and pressure pulsations (with a frequency measured in seconds to minutes) identified as gas lifting instabilities and sometimes as geysering-like phenomena particularly observed during steam/condensate heavy-oil production. Flow-Pattern Maps Gas and liquid superficial velocities often are used as coordinates for maps illustrating flow-pattern limits and transition boundaries. This becomes a preferred engineering representation, helping to relate multiphase flow to an essential flow parameter, instead of using a group of dimensionless variables as preferred during the earlier twophase-flow research period. However, flow-pattern maps may create the false impression that a certain flow-pattern domain can be simply mapped using universal functions, where transitions from a certain flow pattern to another can be described by a point in a border line. In fact, the flow-transition borders are redescribed for each location as a function of particular physical properties and flow conditions. Each flow-pattern transition involves a sequence of flow-structure-changing events and is better represented by a range of superficial velocities than by a simple point. A great number of experimental (empirical) models proposed during

19601970 still are used for calculating the pressure profile and actual gas/ liquid deliverability. However, during the last 4 decades, development of mechanistic flow models led to significant improvement in understanding of gas/liquid flow interaction and stability observed with each identifiable flow pattern. When compared with properly used empirical models, the mechanisticmodeling approach does not always improve the accuracy of the calculated pressure profile and reservoir deliverability; however, it is considered the method of choice for designing novel production strategies where experimental knowledge is limited. Field and Laboratory Experience Because of operation problems encountered with an electrical submersible pump (ESP) used for boosting liquid (90% water) production from a waterflooded field, a gas lift operation was implemented to replace the ESP. Gas lift instabilities were observed immediately and recorded through oscillations of production volume, wellhead pressure, and injected-gas rate. Because any attempt to eliminate the instability regime by increasing the separator pressure would reduce the amount of fluid produced, the decision was made to protect the gas lift compressor equipment by enlarging and modifying the gas/liquid separator. A numerical study was conducted to investigate the cause of the observed instability during gas lifting. Two noticeable pressure-profile-curve changes were detected: one at the point of gas injection at 650 m and one at approximately 180 m. Pressureprofile changes are related directly to flow-pattern transitions (first, from bubble to slug flow at the gas-injection depth; then, slug to annular flow at approximately 180 m). Immediate efforts to avoid this condition by introducing an automated choking valve eliminated the instability but reduced production and was aborted. Instead, a vertical extension of the gas/liquid separator was designed and implemented for compressor protection. The important lesson was that the slug-to-annular flow transition (eliminated by increasing the wellhead pressure) was responsible for generating the observed instability, not the

bubble-to-slug transition occurring at the gas-injection depth. An experimental investigation of slug-to-annular flow transition and its effects on liquid-transport velocity was performed. A hardware/software package was designed to quantify the pressure oscillations by use of a rootmean-square (RMS) calculation procedure. Two models were developed to assess the slug-to-churn transitions. Appendix A in the full-length paper describes these models. A simplified method was proposed for rapid assessment and elimination of gas lift instability induced by slug-to-annular flow transitions. The method uses two linear characteristics, superficial velocities at the wellhead and gas-injection depth and churnto-annular flow-transition velocities calculated at the same depths. If the two characteristics cross, a high slug-to-annular flow-instability risk is expected. This method was validated with five field cases. Conclusions 1. Field-observed gas lift instabilities have been related to the occurrence of calculated slug-to-annular flow-pattern transitions. 2. Occurrence of slug-to-annular flow-pattern transitions during gas/liquid upward flow, and the associated pressure and flow-rate perturbations, increases operational risk and should be avoided through proper design of tubing flow area and surface fluid-control system. 3. The objective of a proper wellliquid removal design is to maintain a robust annular flow pattern from bottomhole to wellhead; however, slug-toannular flow transition may occur in the lower well depths with negative effects on process stability and operation. 4. Laboratory investigations performed in 20-mm tubes observed the development and occurrence of slugto-annular flow transition and the effect of slug-to-annular flow transition on liquid-transport effectiveness and pressure fluctuation. 5. Direct observations using a novel RMS technique for assessing slugto-annular flow-transition instability level confirm that slug-to-annular flow transition involves a first stage identified as slug-to-churn transition and, then, a transition to the annular flow pattern. JPT

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ARTIFICIAL LIFT

Adco ESP Pilot

Adcos experience with electrical submersible pumps (ESPs) in deep, hightemperature, and high-gas/oil-ratio (GOR) wells has been discouraging. To ensure that future ESP applications in Adcos mature fields are successful, a comprehensive review was conducted to determine the causes of the previous failures and recommend methods to improve current practices. A multidisciplinary team was created to plan and execute an ESP pilot project. The result of this effort was the successful installation and operation of ESPs in two of the fields oil wells.

trial with the objectives of restoring production and accelerating data acquisition on well and reservoir performance at higher water cuts to refine field-development plans. The wells selected for the ESP project were three oil producers that had ceased to flow because of a high water cut. Because of mechanical-integrity problems with one of the wells, only two ESPs were installed. Adco ESP Review Although ESP performance in waterproduction wells and shallow oil wells is impressive, performance in deep and high-temperature oil wells has been beleaguered by a number of premature failures. To ensure that future ESP applications in these fields are successful, a comprehensive review was conducted to determine the causes of the previous failures and incorporate the findings into new designs and procedures for the pilot tests. After analysis of the past ESP experiences, the review team agreed that all past failures could have been prevented if attention had been paid to detail. The failures in the past were primarily the result of wellbore pollutants and debris; poor manufacturing, quality assurance, and quality control; and installation practices. On the basis of the review findings, the review team made several recommendations including the following. A project-management team should be formalized for each ESP project, with staff from different disciplines covering all surface and subsurface project aspects. The team was to meet on a regular basis to monitor progress and document action items and priorities. The ESP project-management team should ensure that the reservoir

Introduction The field is in southeast Abu Dhabi and was discovered by a seismic survey conducted in 1959. Crude oil from the reservoir is 42API with an 850-scf/STB GOR. The reservoir temperature is 250F. The field has been waterflooded for more than 25 years, resulting in a long history of producing wells ceasing to flow when the water cut reaches 40 to 60%. The long-term solution is to put these wells on artificial lift (AL) such as gas lift (GL) or ESPs. The slow increase in water cuts will change to a much more rapid increase upon fieldwide implementation of the first phase of AL scheduled in 2009. Although GL is seen as the preferred AL method for the field, ESPs could be used as a secondary method. An initial step to the fieldwide AL implementation was to plan an ESP
This article, written by Assistant Technology Editor Karen Bybee, contains highlights of paper SPE 101492, Adco ESP Pilot, by H.A. Hashim, Adco, prepared for the 2006 Abu Dhabi International Petroleum Exhibition and Conference, Abu Dhabi, UAE, 58 November.

data, and in particular well productivity index (PI), are accurate. Compression pumps should be used in the pilot test to increase operating envelopes to cope better with changes in reservoir conditions and to eliminate the need for variablespeed drives. Preventative measures, rather than remedial measures, should be addressed with regard to scaling and corrosion. Particular attention should be paid to the details of critical operations during workovers to secure a complete understanding of safety issues and critical success factors. Comprehensive programs for wellbore cleanup, running and installation procedures, and commissioning should be prepared carefully and discussed with the relevant parties. Tendering Process In line with the review findings, an ESP project-management team was created. To maximize the probability of project success, the team conducted a thorough tender exercise to select the ESP provider. The technical competence of the supplier was of paramount importance; therefore, the tender evaluation focused on technical, rather than commercial, evaluation. The decision was made to split the evaluation into two stages: first the technical evaluation, followed by the commercial evaluation. A 75% weight was attributed to the technical bid, and a 25% weight was given the commercial bid. The strategy was spelled out in the tender document so the bidders would be aware of the strategy. The technical evaluation of the bidders was made from a comprehensive technical questionnaire that was included in the tender document. The commercial bid was opened only

For a limited time, the full-length paper is available free to SPE members at www.spe.org/jpt. The paper has not been peer reviewed. 64 JPT MAY 2007

after the technical evaluation had been completed and approved by the relevant authority. The successful bidder had to be a service provider, not only a pump provider. Design Parameters Reservoir and well data were carefully gathered and checked before being used for pump sizing. All the data were captured in a document called ESP System Statement of Requirements, which was vital for the success of the project. Several considerations constrained the design of the ESP completions including the following. Bottomholeflowingpressurehad to remain above the bubblepoint. Production was to be limited to 3,000B/D. Free-gasvolumefractionatpump intake was to be less than 10%. The pump would need to operate under a large range of operating conditions. A design exercise using ESP-simulation software was used to develop designs and explore sensitivities. A summary of the numerous software runs was analyzed to determine the best system. On the basis of the design exercise, a system configuration was selected that can achieve production rates between 2,600 and 4,000 B/D with water cuts ranging from 60 to 95% and PIs ranging from 10to26bbl/(psi-D). Most importantly, the rating of the motor windings in this ESP-system design is 300F. On the basis of the design summary, the maximum motorwindingtemperaturewouldbe275F, providing a marginal safety factor. In addition, the presence of the bypass tubing reduces the flow area and increases the fluid velocity, thus increasing the cooling efficiency. The motor-winding temperature and the factors that affect it were analyzed carefully through various sensitivities during the design phase to avoid premature failure caused by temperature increases. The use of the compression design extends the pump operating envelope, while the motors selected for the pilot wells have better efficiency and run cooler than the previous motor series used. Also, the use of variable rated motors extends the operating range.
JPT MAY 2007

Because one of the main causes of previous failures was corrosion, special attention was focused on the selection of ESP-equipment material. Corrosive fluids often can be managed by the appropriate selection of metallurgy, coatings, and elastomers in the ESP-system components. Particular attention was paid to areas where fluid flow is expected to be turbulent (e.g., pump intake). In addition, the independent analysis and advice of a corrosion-engineering expert were sought before the material selection for the design was finalized. Completion Philosophy The completion design for the pilot wells included Y-toolandbypasstubingforreservoir accessibility by coiled tubing (CT)forlogging. Stingerinto7-in.linertofacilitate CT entry and prevent buckling. Packerlesscompletionwithannulus gas vented into flowline downstream of choke. Data transmission of the pump parameters. A downhole sensor was installed to monitor the ESP performance by measuring the following parameters. Intaketemperature. Intakepressure. Dischargepressure. Currentleakage. Motor-windingtemperature. Pump Installation Because several ESP failures were caused by solids contamination from scale and corrosion, before ESP deployment a thorough wellbore-cleanup program was performed as follows: The well was circulated with filtered brine until the returns were clean of any debris. CT with a jet blaster was run to total depth. TheESPsthenwereinstalled. The well was kicked off with nitrogen until reservoir fluids were produced at the surface. In addition, a functional test of each ESP was performed, consisting of a first startup for a period of time ranging from 15 to 19 hours to confirm that the reservoir and pump parameters were within the design parameters. This first startup was

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performed with the assistance of a wellsite generator. Before running the ESP, a comprehensive document containing the completion drawings, risk assessment of the operation, running and installation procedures, and startup and commissioning procedures was issued to and discussed with the relevant staff. The document incorporated the results of a completing the well on paper exercise performed with all parties involved in rig operations. Operational procedures for starting, stopping, and normal operations including decompression sequences when starting an ESP were established and distributed to the relevant operations staff. Results The ESP equipment was installed in two wells in September 2004, and once the surface infrastructure was completed, the pumps were started for the second time in February 2005, after which both ran successfully for more than 1 year, producing from 2,500 to 3,200 B/D with water cuts varying from 15 to 40%. In February 2006, the first ESP failed. The suspected reason for the failure was an electrical fault on the cable. During initial commissioning tests, a ground fault was detected in the downhole equipment. Because the ESP would be able to run despite the ground fault, the decision was made to start the equipment because it would have been impossible to repair the problem unless the string was pulled and the entire length of cable inspected. The second ESP string was removed from the well, and a standard completion was put in its place in March 2006 after production logging showed the well capable of sustaining natural flow because of an increase in the reservoir pressure as a result of continuous water injection in the surrounding area. During May 2005, an interdisciplinary workshop was held to further review the approach taken and determine the effective mechanisms that aided the success of the pilot project so they can be implemented in all future ESP projects, while taking care to avoid any shortfalls that occurred in the pilots.

In addition, two ESP strings were installed during the first half of 2006 in a different field with similar conditions using the same integrated approach, while another two for a third field are currently in the planning stages. Conclusions The period that the pumps have been running smoothly confirms the success

of the integrated project-management approach and indicates that a satisfactory ESP run life can be achieved under the current field conditions provided that special attention to and understanding of the requirements of the ESP system are taken in consideration. ESPs can be considered a feasible AL method for future development of resJPT ervoirs in Adco fields.

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