Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 3

Thinking and Cognition

Overview of Memory Memory is defined by researchers as indication that learning has persisted over time. The Central question of memory research is: What causes us to remember what we remember and forget what we forget? What are the processes that determine which events stick in our memories? Why and how do we lose information from memory? Researchers do not have the final answers to any of this questions but models and principles of memory have emerged from the research that give us insight into how we remember.

Models of Memory Several different models, or explanations, of how memory works have emerged from memory research. We will review two of the most important models: the three box / information processing model and the levels of processing model. They describe how memory works in different ways and can describe some memory experiences better than others.

The three box / information processing model

Sensory memory Sensory information from the environment Retains for 1 2 seconds to it can be processed Can handle large amount of information Short term memory(STM) Limited amount of information It can hold about seven items for no more than 20 or 30 seconds at a time Long term memory Unlimited capacity Storage thought by some to be permanent Information is organized and indexed Accounts for longer Storage.

The levels of processing model This theory concentrates on the process involved in memory. It is proposed by Craik and Lockhart in 1972. This theory explains why we remember what we do by examining how deeply the memory was processed or thought about. We can process information in 3 ways: Shallow Processing - This takes two forms 1. Structural processing (appearance) - which is, when we encode only the physical qualities of something. 2. Phonemic processing which is, when we encode its sound.

Example: if you simply repeat a fact to yourself several times and write it on your test as quickly as you can. You only shallowly processed that fact and you will forget it quickly. Deep Processing 3. Semantic processing - which happens when we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning. Example: if you study the context and research the reasons behind that fact, you have deeply processed it and will likely recall it later. Summary Levels of processing: If we process facts deeply and therefore we more likely to remember them. Retrieval It is the last step in any model and getting information out of the memory so we can use it. 2 types of retrieval Recognition (match): identify items previously learned Example: Have I smelled this before? Recall (cues): retrieve information learned before Example: What does aunt bekis perfume smell like? Forgetting 2 types of forgetting Decay: fading away of memory over time Example: Memorizing state capitals for a test and after the exam you will forget them soon Interference: blockage of a memory by previous memory Sometimes other information competes or block with you are trying to recall Memory Methods chunking: grouping items to make them easier to remember 09265935713 0926-593-5713 serial positions effect: recall best the last + first items in the list luria: creating a story Hat shoe tv bed Language Elements of language:

phonemes: single letters; individual sound that is basic structural element of language morphemes: words; smallest unit of meaning in a given language syntax: grammar; rules for combing words or phrases semantics: sentence context; understanding the meaning of words or phrases when they appear in certain sentences or context Thinking Thinking = changing + reorganizing info to make new thoughts units or description of thought: images: pictures symbols: representation of something else (ex. words) concepts: mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people (general ideas) prototypes: mental image or best example of the concept rules: relationship between different concepts pattern recognition: follow patterns using old ideas when uniting info Problem solving strategies convergent: depend on symbols, concepts, and rules divergent: free flow of thoughts with no plan; depends more on images metacognition: awareness of one's own cognitive process subgoals/algorithms: subdividing individual goals + step by step procedure to solve problem heuristics: shortcut thinking Creativity capacity to use info and/or abilities in a new + original way flexibility: ability to overcome rigidity; get away from mental sets/fixedness recombination: mentally rearranging elements of a problem to make an original solution insight: sudden realization of a solution to a problem