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COPYREADING AND HEADLINE WRITING

MEDEM FADRIQUELA, NEW ERA UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT

COPYREADING
The art of arranging, correc/ng, and selec/ng the quality and type of news that are within acceptable journalis/c standards in terms of style and editorial policy. Copyreading gives the ar/cle the nal touch before it goes to the printer. Copyreading, edi/ng, correc/ng the ar/cle are synonymous terms.

RESPONSIBILITIES OF A COPYREADER
edits errors on grammar (spelling, tenses, etc.)

edits errors of fact (accuracy check)


judges news value (grading of news)


edits verbose copy (keeps the copy /ght)


writes the headline

QUALITIES OF A GOOD COPYREADER


Must possess certain quali/es not everybody in the sta may have. Must have a good command of the language. Must have at his nger/ps a good working knowledge of the rules of grammar. Must have a wide vocabulary. Must be well-aware of libel news.

COPYREADERS MARKS & SYMBOLS


connect leEers ( cea se re won t be an issue )

transpose leEers (/me si glod)


transpose words (if you happen know to the rules)


delete leEers/words (to prevent the plounder/ reached a nal conclusion)


COPYREADERS MARKS & SYMBOLS


spell out (numbers) (10 human rights vic/ms) spell out (words) (VP Noli de Castro) abbreviate (numbers) (one-hundred per cent of the respondents) abbreviate (words) (President Barack Obama) insert leEers/words (the trimph of Pcquiao dela Hoya)

separate words (theissue on CharterChange) capitalize leEers (gen. jovito Palparan) make leEer lowercase (Two solons) period mark (The seamen were freed) restore (The kidnap vic/m was released)

COPYREADERS MARKS & SYMBOLS


insert space (andthey live happily everaPer) bold face (the pauper) paragraph (Villar called for an entrepreneurial revolu/on) do not paragraph (Villar called for an entrepreneurial revolu/on)

PROCEDURES ON COPYREADING
Whenever the copyreader sits down to work, he has the inten/on of making the copy free of errors.

It is the goal of copyreader, therefore, to do his work systema/cally and eciently.


It would be good to follow the following steps.


1. Read the whole ar/cle rst to determine what kind of story it is. 2. Having determined the type of story, read the ar/cle again. 3. This /me, determine which is the lead paragraph.

PROCEDURES ON COPYREADING
4. Read the story again and mark all paragraph beginnings. Then correct errors in grammar, spelling, punctua/ons and style using copyreading symbols. 5. Improve the organiza/on of the story. Make sure the lead features the lead fact. 6. Go over the whole story again. Remove all unnecessary and irrelevant materials. 7. Check the length of the story, then prepare the clean copy.

PROCEDURES ON COPYREADING
8. Write a very catchy and ]ng headline for the story. 9. Give the printer s mark for the body text and the headline. Encircle the slug line. 10. The ar/cle is now ready for prin/ng.

THE HEADLINE
An assemblage of words wriEen in bigger, bolder leEers than the usual page text at the beginning of the news, also known as the head, but not a /tle.

THE HEADLINE
The word headline is understood by many people to mean the biggest story of the day. In journalism however, headline is the /tle of a news story big or small.

GUIDELINES ON HEADLINE WRITING


Theres no doubt headlines are one of things to get right, unfortunately they can also be the most problema/c too. A good headline grabs the readers aEen/on, and compels them to read on.

GUIDELINES ON HEADLINE WRITING


Well-wriEen headlines grab the reader's aEen/on. They convey clear, concise thoughts while poorly wriEen headlines mislead and confuse a reader.

GUIDELINES ON HEADLINE WRITING


A well-wriEen story will go unread if the headline does not grab the reader. Headlines also serve as a graphic element on the page.

TYPES OF HEADLINES
NEWS HEADLINE Deals with hard facts and summary.
Example: Business leaders tackle global crisis.

FEATURES HEADLINE Deals with novelty and human interest element.


Example: The sea is on red alert! (pertains to red /de menace)

DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES


1. Observes the basic rules of headline wri/ng. 2. Sees to it that the headline tells what the story is about. 3. Avoids editorializing, that is, putting one's opinion in the headline. 4. Sees to it that the sizes and types of fonts used in the headline are appropriate.

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE
Headline summarizes the story. It highlights the main elements of the story. It is not label. It tells readers what kind of story it is as well as what the story is about.

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE

It allows the hurried reader to get a quick glimpse of the news. Later in the day, when he has the /me, he will read the story in its en/rety.

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE
Headline helps organize the news for readers. It shows where one story ends and the next one begins, serving as a visual cut-o rule.

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE
Contributes to the physical aErac/veness of the paper.

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE
Headline sells the story to the readers. It is like bait in that it should lure readers into the lead. The lead should then hook the reader into nishing the story. As they say in adver/sing, Sell the sizzle, not the steak.

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE
Headline priori/zes the news for readers. Stories with big headlines are generally more important than stories with smaller headlines. Stories which go across one or two columns are less important than those which go across three, four, ve or six columns.

FUNCTIONS OF A HEADLINE
Headlines reect the style and personality of the newspaper. Style is reected in the publica/on s standing heads and logos, the type style used and the way headlines are displayed. Personality is reected in the way editors and writers look at the news and how they employ humor, wit and cleverness.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HEAD


1. The headline presents the news in capsule, thus it is telegraphic. 2. It must contain the most important, the most intriguing, the most unusual fact of the story. It is not the place for details.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HEAD


3. The head is an adver/sement, and like all good adver/sements it should be honest, holding out no promise that the story does not fulll. It should be based on the facts as set forth in the story and nothing else.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HEAD


4. Like the story, the head should be simple. The head is a mosaic. Words must be Eed into a certain xed space, in such a way that the meaning will not be obscured. This is the head writer's chief problem to meet the mechanical requirements of the head and at the same /me make the thought so plain.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HEAD


5. Get ac/on into the head. Make the head a statement of fact, not a mere label. Never say "Shocking Accident " or Terrible Fire," but tell what happened as specically as possible. Try to get a verb in the head, either ex-pressed or implied.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HEAD

6. Heads are usually wriEen in the present tense unless they relate to a future event. This is the historical present, used instead of the past tense for the sake of greater vividness.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HEAD


On the contrary there are occasions when it would be absurd to use anything else. The copy reader would write, William Smith Dies" or William Smith is Dead," but in giving details of the dead man's life it would be manifestly foolish to say, Is Born in Maryland, Is a civil war veteran.

REQUISITES OF A GOOD HEAD

7. The headline makes use of special vocabulary which is not suitable for ordinary communica/on situa/ons. For example: the word stude is headline equivalent for student as in Four studes win in quiz bee. However, it is not acceptable to say there are 2,000 studes in our school.

WHAT TO AVOID
Allitera/on occasionally may be used with good eect in a head, but uninten/onal allitera/on as " Commercial Club Considers Cleaning Contracts " should be avoided. Slang, unless apt and /mely, has no greater jusOcaOon in the head than in the story

WHAT TO AVOID
Another style of head discouraged or forbidden altogether by some papers is the uninten/onal impera/ve. This is a head beginning with a verb in the third person plural form, which may be read as an injunc/on to do something Kill Thirty Men" may be the Head on a story of an insurrec/on. It Means, of course, Marines Kill Thirty Men,"

WHAT TO AVOID
Trite phrasing should be avoided in the head whenever possible. Score and probe" and " rap " are handy words for the copy reader because of their brevity and are liable to overuse. The head that contains worn-out expressions or that fails to get anywhere is, in the oce vernacular, wooden. Woodenness is an unpardonable sin. Try to give the head a swing and an element of originality.

WHAT TO AVOID

Avoid nega/ve statements in the head. Tell what happened rather than what didn't happen, unless a nega/on is the feature of the story. Other things being equal, the ac/ve voice is beEer than the passive. Pacman Defeats Hitman" is preferable to Hitman Is Defeated by Pacman."

WHAT TO AVOID
Don t use the ar/cles- a, an, the Wrong: A re hits the squaEers Correct: Fire hits squaEers area Don t use names unless the person is well-known Wrong: Simon electrocuted Correct: Electrician electrocuted

WHAT TO AVOID
Avoid unintended double meanings: Actor sent to jail for not nishing sentence

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Put an action verb, expressed or implied, in every headline:

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Do not begin with a verb, preposi/on, ar/cle or conjunc/on. Beginning with a verb turns the headline into a command, which usually results in an unintended meaning:

Eat right before surgery or Kill bill, says Newt

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Avoid the verb form to be. In most cases, a more suitable verb can be subs/tuted.

Weak: Matson to be at D.C. conference BeJer: Matson to speak in D.C. next week

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Avoid the verb form to be. In most cases, a more suitable verb can be subsOtuted.

Weak: Matson to be at D.C. conference Be(er: Matson to speak in D.C. next week

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Use present tense verbs in wri/ng headlines describing past events. Past tense is appropriate on occasion, but a majority of headlines are wriEen in present tense because it is easier to understand and it uses fewer words:

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Use future tense verbs to write headlines about future events:

House to start hearings on disease outbreaks

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Use the ing verb form to write headlines about events that are happening at the /me the newspaper is distributed:

Bank of America merging with Na/on Bank

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Use numbers in headlines only if they are important. Avoid star/ng a headline with a number. When numbers appear in a headline, they should be wriEen as gures:

12 Americans killed in embassy bombings


HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Abbreviate the month only when a specic date follows it:

October /me for ancient rites and > Halloween dance on Oct. 31

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Subs/tute a comma for the conjunc/on and:

Gang member tells of violence, killing


Use single quote marks in place of double quote marks in a headline:

Sims, Venables land Wizard of Oz leads


HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Don t split a verb phrase:

Delegates chosen to go to Youth Legislature


Don t split a preposi/on and its object:

Belfast man charged for Harrods bomb


HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Dont separate an adjective and the noun it modies:

Seniors to hold spaghetti dinner fundraiser next week


HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Use abbrevia/ons only if they are well-known. When ini/als are used, do not use spaces or periods between leEers.

KBP kicks its way into spotlight


GMA declares Friday Na/onal Day of celebra/on

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
The verb is said to be in the ac/ve voice when the doer of the ac/on is in the subject posi/on. Ac/ve voice is preferred over the passive voice because it is more vigorous; however, the passive voice must be used when the ac/on is more signicant than the doer of the ac/on.

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Exercise 1: Write the correct form of the verb in the following headlines. Observe agreement between subject and the verb.
CA ______ (deny) Levistes pe//on for bail World pirate aEacks ____(soar) in rst quarter Noli _____(hail) Syria as RP strategic partner Shell, Petron _______ (raise) gas prices SC ______ (uphold) oil deregula/on law Senate resolu/on _____ (eye) workers incen/ve PNP ______(gear) up for swine u outbreak Health experts _______(gauge) ue outbreak Fishermen _______(stage) Earth Day protest Rotary Club ________(donate) computers COMELEC ______(proclaim) 32 party list bets Failon _________(appeal) for privacy

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Cuadra ______ (cop) 3 Na/onal awards Researcher _________ (receive) US grant New AFP chief ______ (vow) to end insurgency RP, Spain _________ (ink) accord Pacquaio-HaEon ght ____ (carve) ring history

HEADLINE GRAMMAR
Exercise 2: Write the correct form of the verb in the passive voice:
Alleged NPA hitman _______ (kill) Two jail guards caught gambling _____ (re) Resto owner ______ (sue) Governor _______ (probe) for P72M decit Jueteng protectors in CL _______(iden/fy) Scout master _____ (kill) in camp site Shan/es in Quiapo _______ (demolish) Absentees _______ (warn) of expulsion Parents of honor studes ______ (cite) 4 holduppers ______ (nab) in Tondo

HEADLINE CHECKLIST
Does the headline express the main idea of the story?

Does the headline eec/vely label the story's content?


Will it create reader interest? Will it move readers into the story?

HEADLINE CHECKLIST
Does the headline focus match the lead focus?

Are the words short, common, colorful, powerful, specic?


Would you read a story with this headline?

IMPROVING YOUR HEADLINE


Eleven ways to improve your headlines:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Use ac/ve voice Use present tense Avoid abbrevia/ons Use short words Be specic Make posi/ve statements Don t repeat key word Man bites dog Robber ees (not eed) Actor wins trip to LV Panel or Group: CommiEee Editor wins award Pacquiao to win the ght Bank ousts bank s chair

IMPROVING YOUR HEADLINE

8. Be accurate State facts with aEribu/on 9. Avoid punctua/on as much as possible 10. Avoid to be words delete is-are helping verbs 11. Be impar/al Words can color headline watch for denies or claims

HEADLINE VOCABULARY
congressman decrease examina/on announce highlight speak conference inves/ga/on inves/gator disapprove dismiss dispute

solon dip quiz bare cap urge confab probe prober buck, scrap quash row

charge strengthen agreement prac/ce sign praise ques/on year urge delay mad killer

rap beef up accord hone up ink laud grill milestone prod snag amok

HEADLINE VOCABULARY
iden/fy capture start disregard end lessen approval arrest student writer government councilor nger net trigger rule out wind up allay nod nab student scribe govt dad

UNIT COUNTING
j i l t f
= unit = 1 unit = 1 unit = 1 unit

(question mark)

= 1 unit = 1 unit = 1 unit = 1 unit = 2 units = 1 unit

J I L T F
*ALL FIGURES

*SPACE
*ALL SMALL LETTERS

(dash)

m w M W
*ALL CAPS EXCEPT

M W J I L T F

HEADLINE INSTRUCTIONS
42 points - 3 cols. (21) max. count ___________________________ ___________________________(no. of decks) Race Bias in Schools -20 unit counts Described as Stupid -19.5 unit counts

VARIETY OF HEADTYPES
drop-line (like a staircase) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX hanging inden/on (top line ush at right) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX inverted pyramid (from wide to narrow) XXXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXX XXXX

VARIETY OF HEADTYPES
ush-leP (begin at leP hand corner) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX block (ush leP and right, from margin to margin) XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX XXXXXXXXXX cross-line (one-line headline) XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX

EXERCISES
headline: ___________________________________ Two people died and ve others were hurt when an uniden/ed man lobbed a fragmenta/on grenade along Baguio City s Leonard Wood Road shortly before dawn Tuesday, a police ocial said.

EXERCISES
headline: ___________________________________ The Philippine government will repatriate some Filipinos who were aected by the earthquake in Italy early this month, according to Overseas Workers Welfare Administra/on chief Carmelita Dimzon.

EXERCISES
headline: ___________________________________ Whoever becomes the next president of the country will face a bigger economic burden. Former budget secretary Benjamin Diokno yesterday warned that the next president will be inheri/ng from the Arroyo administra/on a weaker economy and higher unemployment.

EXERCISES
headline: ___________________________________ MANILA, Philippines A downpour at around noon on Wednesday caused oods ranging from thigh- to guEer-deep in several areas across Metro Manila, the Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) reported.

EXERCISES
headline: ___________________________________ MANILA, Philippines - The Philippines and Spain signed three agreements on assistance for health reform eorts in the Bicol and Caraga regions.

PARTING SHOT DONT FORGET:

The only way to learn how to write heads, aPer one knows the general principles, is to write them. Headline wri/ng is like learning to play a musical instrument -- the more you pracRce, the easier it gets and the beEer you become.

END OF THE LECTURE


MEDEM FADRIQUELA, NEW ERA UNIVERSITY HIGH SCHOOL DEPARTMENT