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Lessons Learned in Startup and Commissioning of Simple-Cycle and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbine Plants

1013357

Lessons Learned in Startup and Commissioning of Simple-Cycle and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbine Plants
1013357

Technical Update, March 2007

EPRI Project Manager D. Grace

ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE 3420 Hillview Avenue, Palo Alto, California 94304-1395 PO Box 10412, Palo Alto, California 94303-0813 USA 800.313.3774 650.855.2121 askepri@epri.com www.epri.com

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THIS DOCUMENT WAS PREPARED BY THE ORGANIZATION(S) NAMED BELOW AS AN ACCOUNT OF WORK SPONSORED OR COSPONSORED BY THE ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE, INC. (EPRI). NEITHER EPRI, ANY MEMBER OF EPRI, ANY COSPONSOR, THE ORGANIZATION(S) BELOW, NOR ANY PERSON ACTING ON BEHALF OF ANY OF THEM: (A) MAKES ANY WARRANTY OR REPRESENTATION WHATSOEVER, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, (I) WITH RESPECT TO THE USE OF ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE, OR (II) THAT SUCH USE DOES NOT INFRINGE ON OR INTERFERE WITH PRIVATELY OWNED RIGHTS, INCLUDING ANY PARTY'S INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY, OR (III) THAT THIS DOCUMENT IS SUITABLE TO ANY PARTICULAR USER'S CIRCUMSTANCE; OR (B) ASSUMES RESPONSIBILITY FOR ANY DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY WHATSOEVER (INCLUDING ANY CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES, EVEN IF EPRI OR ANY EPRI REPRESENTATIVE HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES) RESULTING FROM YOUR SELECTION OR USE OF THIS DOCUMENT OR ANY INFORMATION, APPARATUS, METHOD, PROCESS, OR SIMILAR ITEM DISCLOSED IN THIS DOCUMENT. ORGANIZATION(S) THAT PREPARED THIS DOCUMENT Washington Group International

NOTICE: THIS REPORT CONTAINS PROPRIETARY INFORMATION THAT IS THE INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
OF EPRI, ACCORDINGLY, IT IS AVAILABLE ONLY UNDER LICENSE FROM EPRI AND MAY NOT BE REPRODUCED OR DISCLOSED, WHOLLY OR IN PART, BY ANY LICENSEE TO ANY OTHER PERSON OR ORGANIZATION.

This is an EPRI Technical Update report. A Technical Update report is intended as an informal report of continuing research, a meeting, or a topical study. It is not a final EPRI technical report.

NOTE
For further information about EPRI, call the EPRI Customer Assistance Center at 800.313.3774 or e-mail askepri@epri.com. Electric Power Research Institute, EPRI, and TOGETHERSHAPING THE FUTURE OF ELECTRICITY are registered service marks of the Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. Copyright 2007 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved.

CITATIONS
This report was prepared by Washington Group International 7800 East Union Ave, Suite 100 Denver, CO 80237 Principal Investigator R. Keeth

This report describes research sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The report is a corporate document that should be cited in the literature in the following manner: Lessons Learned in Startup and Commissioning of Simple-Cycle and Combined-Cycle Combustion Turbine Plants. EPRI, Palo Alto: 2007. 1013357.

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REPORT SUMMARY

Over the last ten years, hundreds of combustion turbines (CT) have been installed to meet the needs of the power generation market in the U.S. A variety of CT models have been installed throughout this period, in both simple and combined cycle configurations. Some of the initial plants had issues related to performance and operation, and each new plant design could be improved based on the experience gained on the earlier installations and startups. This report provides a summary of some the lessons learned during CT plant startups, and how those lessons can be used to modify plant designs to improve startup and operating performance in the future. Ultimately, the goal would be to design a plant for successful trouble-free startups and long-term excellent performance. The report is divided into a sections related to various aspects of plant design and operation. The following major issues are covered: Plants Designed for Startup Planning and Preparation Subsystem Turnover Checkout and Initial Operation Acceptance Testing to Commercial Operation Case Histories

Background The engineering and construction organization that prepared this report has gained experience on hundreds of CT plant projects, including design, installation and startup responsibilities dating back to the 1980s. Each project has its own site-specific issues, but there are enough similarities from one plant to the next that lessons learned from one site can be transferred to future projects. The various classes of CT machines available on the market do provide significant variations in plant performance, most visibly in the areas of power output capacity and fuel consumption. Simple cycle generators also are significantly different from combined cycle operations. Plant locations can dictate plant performance due to variations in ambient conditions. Plants located in arid parts of the country might have to consider alternate cooling system designs. Emissions regulations also vary widely from one part of the country to another, resulting in major differences between performance and procurement specifications from one plant to the next.

Challenges & Objectives This report provides an overview of the lessons learned during a series of CT field start-up operations. All areas of plant operation and construction are covered in this report, supported by a series of Case Studies that provide concrete examples of how mistakes were identified, or where more efficient methods were confirmed after the completion of the various start-up tasks. Objectives of this report are: Provide guidance to power plant developers about how to achieve efficiently executed startup and commissioning of simple and combined cycle plants Describe incidents and issues experienced during initial plant startups through commencement of commercial operation. The accumulation of these lessons learned will help to design a plant that can be operated efficiently in the future. Provide the reader with a summary document that covers all aspects of CT plant start-ups so that the lessons learned by other companies can help to reduce the reoccurrence of similar mistakes in future plant start-up activities. Identify where Lessons Learned can impact design standardization Summarize how initial plant design can incorporate startup Lessons Learned to produce a plant that is Designed for Startup Provide Case Study examples that support the Lessons Learned discussion and be relevant to F-Class Simple and combined cycle plants, as well as G-Class combined cycle systems and other simple-cycle and combined-cycle plants based on aero-derivative and heavy-duty machines.

Approach Lessons Learned summary reports from previous projects were obtained from various staff members within the engineering and construction firms organization that authored this report. The startup group from Washington Group also provided specific examples of areas where startup problems on earlier plants resulted in changes in both the plant design and the way that projects were run in the future. Construction staff members were also asked for their input on the Lessons Learned during CT projects to identify where their experience on these contracts would directly impact startup activities once they completed their installation activities. In many cases the startup staff arrives at the site prior to the completion of construction to begin testing out subsystem performance as they are turned over by the construction team. All of the information retrieved during this survey process served as the basis for the Lessons Learned report. Results and Findings Experience from earlier projects can be used to improve every subsequent plant. However, even though a Lessons Learned program identified specific areas for improvement in future projects, it is extremely important that a company make this information readily available to future project teams, and that they actually take the suggestions into account in their future project plans and CT plant designs and installations. There have been many incidents where mistakes have reoccurred due to project staff only paying lip service to the Lessons Learned program. If the previous lessons learned are implemented, then the startup and operation of a new unit can be much more efficient. vi

The cost savings from one plant to the next can also be an attractive option to justify the implementation of a Lessons Learned program. The added capital expenditures can sometimes be shown to have significant reductions in the cost of startup and the duration of the startup process. Reducing the startup schedule by a month can give the client an extra month of power production, which can translate into significant benefits to both the client and the contractors. Contracts that include incentives for meeting or exceeding commercial turnover dates can provide significant motivation to all site contractors to complete their project activities on time. EPRI Perspective In the last ten years, combustion turbines in simple-cycle and combined-cycle configurations have accounted for the majority of the new power capacity in the U.S. and worldwide. During this time, Engineering and Construction (E&C) firms have gained significant experience in the design, construction and commissioning of these plants, particularly as design standardization ahs become more prevalent. Subsequent plants are then built incorporating the improvements in the design from one project to the next, incorporating the best practices and design options for operating flexibility. To improve future project execution performance, the project teams from Engineering and Construction firms typically capture the learning opportunities that occur during actual site construction and startup activities. The primary benefits from this activity are to avoid repetition of the same problems at the next site and to capitalize on previously successful approaches to the work. Significant cost benefits can be realized and future project teams can benefit by learning from earlier project experience. This report is intended for use by power generation utilities to obtain an understanding of the tasks that lead to a smooth and well-planned startup and plant commissioning. The report highlights areas to look for when evaluating E&C firm proposals and includes specific examples of how issues were corrected and resolved. Future updates are anticipated that will incorporate additional review and input as a means of capturing Lessons Learned throughout the industry. This update incorporates user comments based on the previous report update. Additional material was unavailable at press time. Future updates are anticipated as information becomes available. Key Words Gas turbine Combustion turbine Combined-cycle Startup Engineering Construction Planning

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ABSTRACT

Under EPRIs New Combustion Turbine/Combined Cycle Design, Repowering & Risk Mitigation Program (P80), EPRI provides this report summarizing the lessons learned from a series of simple cycle and combined cycle CT plant startups. The objective of the analyses provided in this report is to provide a concise summary of lessons learned during CT plant startups and how these lessons can be applied to initial plant designs to reduce startup durations and long term operating problems. Startup is defined as the transitional phase between completion of plant construction and commercial operation. It includes all of the activities that bridge these two phases of a CT plant project. Critical steps that need to be completed during the startup period include the following: Construction Release Subsystem Testing Integrated Plant Testing Plant Performance Testing Turnover of Facility to the Client

Lessons learned during startup are accumulated at the end of the startup process, which typically falls near the end of the total project. The ultimate goal of the Lessons Learned process is to leverage previous experience to improve future performance. The participants in a Lessons Learned process should include individuals with both project and functionally related backgrounds, including representatives from the following groups: Contractor Engineering Construction Client Environmental Equipment Suppliers Operations Quality Assurance/Quality Control Safety ix

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Startup Staff.

Lessons Learned programs can be applied to current or past projects, and should focus on both good and bad aspects of the project. The process should identify those processes and procedures that need improvement, as well as totally new initiatives that could provide benefit to future projects.

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CONTENTS

1 INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................................1-1 2 PLANTS DESIGNED FOR STARTUP ...................................................................................2-1 The Lessons Learned Process..............................................................................................2-1 Lessons Learned Data Compilation .................................................................................2-3 Owner and Developer Specifications ....................................................................................2-4 Engineer and Constructor Contracting ..................................................................................2-4 Options for Contracting Construction, Startup and Commissioning of CT Plants.............2-4 Contracting Structures......................................................................................................2-5 Contracting Structures......................................................................................................2-7 Payment Options ............................................................................................................2-11 Communications..................................................................................................................2-13 Internal Communications - Feedback from Previous Field Construction and Startup Projects...........................................................................................................................2-14 Vendor and OEM Requirements/Communications.........................................................2-14 Communications with the Local Residents.....................................................................2-15 Redundancy and Spare Parts .............................................................................................2-15 Design Input for Construction and Startup ..........................................................................2-15 Accessibility and Maintainability Criteria.........................................................................2-15 Accessibility Considerations ......................................................................................2-16 Maintainability Considerations ...................................................................................2-17 Clearance around Equipment for Maintenance.....................................................2-17 Removal Path........................................................................................................2-18 Piping and Electrical Tie-ins..................................................................................2-18 Mechanical and Electrical Isolation of Equipment.................................................2-18 Permanent Cranes and Monorails ........................................................................2-18 Constructability Review ..................................................................................................2-19 Temporary Piping and Valves .............................................................................................2-19

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Alloy Pipe Connections...................................................................................................2-19 Steam Blow Piping .........................................................................................................2-20 Water System Flush Piping ............................................................................................2-20 Lubricating Oil Piping......................................................................................................2-20 Temporary Isolation Valves ............................................................................................2-20 Chemical Cleaning Piping ..............................................................................................2-21 Hydrostatic Test Valves..................................................................................................2-21 3 STARTUP PLANNING AND PREPARATION .......................................................................3-1 Startup Team Organization ...................................................................................................3-1 Startup Program ...............................................................................................................3-1 Team Responsibilities ......................................................................................................3-3 Planning Example.............................................................................................................3-5 Key Startup Personnel Descriptions......................................................................................3-7 Operator Recruitment and Training.......................................................................................3-7 Qualifications ....................................................................................................................3-7 Training Options ...............................................................................................................3-8 Timing.............................................................................................................................3-13 Environmental Health, Safety and Security.........................................................................3-14 Jobsite Safety and Enforcement.....................................................................................3-14 Crane Inspection and Maintenance................................................................................3-17 Government Rules and Regulations ...................................................................................3-17 Regulatory Compliance Lesson Learned on Two Case Studies: ...................................3-17 Noise Limits and Testing ................................................................................................3-18 Waste Handling and Disposal ........................................................................................3-18 4 TURNOVER, CHECKOUT, TESTING AND COMMERCIAL OPERATION ...........................4-1 Construction and Subsystem Turnover .................................................................................4-1 System Turnover Criteria..................................................................................................4-2 Checkout and Initial Operations ............................................................................................4-3 Acceptance Testing...............................................................................................................4-4 Commercial Operations Acceptance.....................................................................................4-6 As-Built Documentation ....................................................................................................4-7 Warranties ........................................................................................................................4-8

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5 CASE HISTORIES..................................................................................................................5-1 Case for History for 1000 MW Wisconsin CTCC Plant .........................................................5-2 Civil/Foundations/Structural Steel Lessons Learned:....................................................5-2 Specific Civil/Foundation/Structural Steel Design Modifications from Block One to Block Two: ........................................................................................................................5-3 Design Philosophy Lessons Learned Civil/Foundation/Structural Steel from Wisconsin Project .............................................................................................................5-6 Piping Lessons Learned: ..................................................................................................5-7 Design Philosophy Lessons Learned Piping from Wisconsin Project ...........................5-8 Mechanical Systems Lessons Learned: ...........................................................................5-9 Electrical System Lessons Learned: ..............................................................................5-10 Design Philosophy Lessons Learned Electrical from Wisconsin Project.....................5-12 General Design Philosophy and Startup Lessons Learned at Wisconsin Site: ..............5-14 Case for History for Another Wisconsin LM 6000 CTCC Plant ......................................5-15 Case for Histories/Lessons Learned for a Series of G-Class Projects ...........................5-16 Lessons Learned at Plant A Applied at Plant B...................................................................5-18 Good Practice Bulletins .......................................................................................................5-18 6 KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS ..................................................................................6-1

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LIST OF FIGURES
Figure 1-1 Diminishing Opportunity to Influence Outcome with Time ........................................1-3 Figure 2-1 Lessons Learned Debriefing - Problems/Issues Categorization...............................2-2 Figure 2-2 Typical Capital Cost Breakdown for a 2 x 1 F-Class CTCC Project .........................2-3 Figure 3-1 Typical Startup Organization ....................................................................................3-3 Figure 3-2 Startup-ability Checklist..........................................................................................3-6 Figure 5-1 Foundation Installations around the Plant Site .........................................................5-4 Figure 5-2 Foundation Installation Near Existing Plant Structure ..............................................5-4 Figure 5-3 Gas Turbine Installation at the Wisconsin Site .......................................................5-10 Figure 5-4 Electrical Yard at Wisconsin Site............................................................................5-11 Figure 5-5 Transformer During Startup Testing .......................................................................5-12 Figure 5-6 General Overview of Site........................................................................................5-15

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LIST OF TABLES
Table 2-1 Vendor/Models Report Source Data..........................................................................2-1 Table 5-1 Case Histories for Plant A vs. Plant B .....................................................................5-19 Table 5-2 Case Histories Derived from Multiple Plants Good Practice Bulletins .................5-24 Table 6-1 English to SI Conversion Factors ..............................................................................6-5

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1
INTRODUCTION
The objective of the analyses provided in this report is to provide a concise summary of lessons learned during CT plant startups and how these lessons can be applied to initial plant designs to reduce startup durations and long term operating problems. Startup is defined as the transitional phase between completion of plant construction and commercial operation. It includes all of the activities that bridge these two phases of a CT plant project. Critical steps that need to be completed during the startup period include the following: Construction Release Subsystem Testing Integrated Plant Testing Plant Performance Testing Turnover of Facility to the Client

Lessons learned during startup are accumulated at the end of the startup process, near the end of the project. The ultimate goal of the Lessons Learned process is to leverage previous experience to improve future performance. The participants in a Lessons Learned process should include individuals with both project and functionally related backgrounds, including representatives from the following groups: Contractor Engineering Construction Client Environmental Equipment Suppliers Operations Quality Assurance/Quality Control Safety Startup Staff

Lessons Learned programs can be applied to current or past projects, and should focus on both good and bad aspects of the project. The process should identify those processes and procedures

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that need improvement, as well as totally new initiatives that could provide benefit to future projects. The Lessons Learned process can be characterized by the following steps: 1. Identify the primary contributors 2. Brainstorm issues Every attendee brings list of top 10 topics for discussion 3. Why is the process necessary? Get participant buy-in 4. Identify plusses and minuses 5. Complete in one day 6. Compile ideas in a report for distribution to future project teams Identify likely causes and possible solutions The success of any Lessons Learned procedures will be increased by using established methods to complete it. Not only should lessons learned be recorded in near real-time, a Lessons Learned meeting should be scheduled shortly after the completion of the project while all the issues remain clear in the minds of the participants. The meeting should be held at an off-site location to minimize project-related distractions. All the project participants should be in attendance owner, engineer, constructor, and equipment/commodity vendors. The process can achieve more in a shorter period of time by using a professional facilitator or a person who was not directly involved in the project. The facilitator will help to move the discussions along if participants get stuck in discussions of miscellaneous details or if communications break down between some of the attendees. The Lessons Learned report then has to be implemented on future projects. This can take the form of changes in basic procedures, modifications to equipment or installation specifications, or identification of critical equipment that has been shown to cause project delays (long lead items). The Lessons Learned report is then made available to new project teams as contract opportunities are identified. It should be noted that these lessons must be reviewed as early as possible in the project planning process. As can be seen in Figure 1-1, the ability to influence the project over its life cycle is far greater at the preliminary stages of the project. If you wait until the start of engineering, then you are likely to lose most of your ability to change the system design to insure that the new plant will not experience the same problems as an earlier installation. A significant fraction of the project budget is also expended by the point where detailed engineering design is started, potentially causing the project to run over budget if changes are required to eliminate future problems.

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Major Influence Rapidly Decreasing Influence Low Influence

Influence
Scope Definition

Expenditures

Conceptual Analysis and R&D

Pre-Project Planning

Basic Data and Scoping

Project Authorization

Production Engineering and Procurement

Construction

Engineering Complete

Turnover and Start-up

Project Life Cycle


Figure 1-1 Diminishing Opportunity to Influence Outcome with Time

Project Expenditures

Level of Influence

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PLANTS DESIGNED FOR STARTUP
The Lessons Learned Process
A lesson learned process should help to identify both problems that occurred on a previous project, as well as solutions to keep these inefficiencies from happening on a future project. They should also document where a more cost effective method to complete a common task may have been developed. Where new major components are being installed for the first time, new or unique work activities should be captured for use on future contracts. The lessons learned in this report should be applicable in general to a wide range of CT plant installations. The experience base used to construct this report included data from a variety of vendors and a wide range of models.
Table 2-1 Vendor/Models Report Source Data General Electric Siemens/Westinghouse MHI Alstom (ABB) 6B, 6FA, 7EA, 7FA, 7FB, 7H, LM6000, LM5000, LM2500 501F, V84.2 501G, 701F GT13 E2, 11N1

The database of lessons learned enables us to identify the major contributors to startup and operating problems. The percentage contribution of each category is presented in Figure 2-1. Based on the results of this multi-project Lessons Learned debriefing, it is clear that four main areas contribute to CT construction project startup issues: Poor project planning Improper use or ignoring standard practices and procedures Breakdowns in communications between project team members Insufficient staffing to get the work done in the time allowed by the schedule.

Why should lessons learned be used in future projects? The easiest way to justify dedicated application of lessons learned is to evaluate the cost impact of not doing everything you can to plan for a successful startup. In other words, it is costly in time and money not to apply previous experience to the next project

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30

25

Issues (%)
20

Percent

15

10

Figure 2-1 Lessons Learned Debriefing - Problems/Issues Categorization

A one week extension in the startup process prior to turnover of the plant directly translates into a week of unrecoverable cash flow to the Client. For a $100 million facility, this represents 2% of the total plant operating capital costs and profit, or can be estimated as more than $300,000 for this sized plant. Startup costs average 5.5% of the project construction costs. A one-month delay during startup can increase the fixed capital cost of a project by 4-8% (source = CII Education Module 121-12A Planning for Startup). Figure 2-2 provides a rough breakdown of the capital costs associated with the installation of a typical 2 x 1 F-Class CTCC plant.

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du lin g Pl an ni ng QA /Q Pr C oc ed Rep or ur tin es g /P ra ct Co ice ntr s ac Co t Is m su m es un ica tio ns Lin es St af of fin Re g sp on sib Ro Re ilit les s y Ea p o n si v ch en Pa es rtn s er Pl Co ay ns ed tru cta bi l De ity sig nC La om yo ple ut ten es s Op er ab ilit Ma y int ai n On ab -S i ite lity Co ntr o Fa De l br liv i ca er tio nP y ro ce ss Su r ve Te illa Ins sti nc ng tal e/ lat ion Insp ec /C tio om n mi ss i on i ng

Sc

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Power Block Equipment (42%)

Craft Labor (16%)

Construction Indirects (8%)

Professional Services (13%)

Bulk Quantities (13%) Engineered Equipment (5%) Specialty Subcontracts (7%)

Figure 2-2 Typical Capital Cost Breakdown for a 2 x 1 F-Class CTCC Project

Lessons Learned Data Compilation A Lessons Learned program is used to improve a companys performance on an on-going basis by identifying and implementing improvements in current work processes (e.g. revisions to procedures, specifications, guidelines), identifying new or improving current training opportunities for company personnel, identifying new or modified skill sets to allow for enhanced function performance (putting the right person in the right role) or identifying and documenting specific actions (or actions that need to be avoided) by the company on future projects. The Lessons Learned program is the means that a company uses to communicate the experiences of the company personnel in executing all phases of a project and carrying out work tasks as well as developing recommendations for future actions. The program documents these experiences and recommended actions for inclusion in a database, available for the benefit of all employees. The Lessons Learned program relies on individuals and project teams to contribute their experiences so they can be reviewed, evaluated by appropriate functional personnel and appropriate recommendations/actions developed and documented. The ultimate goal of the program is to: Avoid repetition of problems experienced on past projects or functional activities Capitalize on previously successful or new approaches to work - Best Practices Ensure that the company processes are as effective as possible Ensure that the focus of employee development is appropriate and effective. 2-3

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There are five elements necessary for a company to have a successful Lessons Learned program: 1. Everyone within the company has to know the program exists, understand its goals, believe it has value, be willing to participate in the process given their primary roles and responsibilities and be open to changes accordingly. 2. There has to be a means to receive potential Lessons Learned/Best Practices, filter out experiences/issues that are not appropriate candidates and ensure that potential lessons learned are analyzed by appropriate functions within the company to develop or verify the recommendations and actions that the company would want to implement. Focus should be on improving processes or programs for developing personnel and their actions in lieu of building a library of issues. 3. Functional leaders within the company have to include support for the processing of Lessons Learned candidates into their work programs and budgets. 4. Company management has to actively support the program. Contribution to the program has to be recognized as adding value to the company on par with other recognized behaviors/accomplishments. 5. There has to be a focus (Champion) for the program whose function is to (a) develop a means to make Items 1 through 4 a reality and (b) oversee the administration of the program.

Owner and Developer Specifications


The Owner/Developer Request for Proposal (RFP) must be very clear in scope and schedule requirements. The RFP must provide all available information for the contractor to understand the scope and must state exactly what information they need from each of the bidders to be able to make a fair comparison. If the Owner/Developer wants their own specifications and/or procedures to be used, they need to include them in the RFP for the bidders reviews. The Owner/Developer must be assured that the EPC contractor understands the documents and will work to them. The potential danger is that the EPC team may not pick up nuances that are important to the Owner/Developer and that can potentially lead to negative discussions or delays and rework. If the EPC contractor uses their own specifications and procedures that are acceptable to the Owner/Developer, the benefit is that they are documents that the contractor is familiar with, normally proven through the Lessons Learned process, and the chances for not meeting the requirements of these documents are much less.

Engineer and Constructor Contracting


Options for Contracting Construction, Startup and Commissioning of CT Plants The primary benefit of having the EPC contractor doing the startup and commissioning is that this is the same entity doing the cradle-to-grave effort. It is typically managed by one project manager and provides continuity that is difficult to achieve otherwise. The startup and commissioning staff have likely worked with the construction staff before and everyone is working to the same work processes and procedures. Everyone on the team has the same goals

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and thus they are more willing to work together. Everyone understands the same schedule and can work together to determine appropriate workarounds when challenges are identified. Contracting out Startup & Commissioning (S&C) services may end up with a lower initial cost for the service; however, there is a greater chance of claims, either against the Owner or E&C contractor by the S&C contractor. The S&C contract must be very carefully spelled out to mitigate the chance of these claims. Also, the contract must be very clear on what special tools must be supplied, what infrastructure is available to the S&C contractor, and the issue of access to their work during construction must be addressed. At the transition from construction to S&C, many times there are certain subsystems that may not be on schedule, and instead of working together to solve the problem, the contractor may chose to file a claim. Contracting Structures The following describes several factors that should be considered by a utility when selecting the best contracting option for the installation and startup of a CT system. The preferred option will depend on many parameters including the following: New plant vs. retrofit of existing units Stand-alone vs. integration with an existing plant Utility in-house engineering capability and experience Utility contract management resources Capital and yearly operating cash flow requirements Risk assessment Required degree of hands-on control of projects Working experience with the engineer and the OEM suppliers Engineer and OEM suppliers experiences with similar projects.

Normally, the owner will determine the preferred contracting option after internal and external consultations during the early phases of the project. A matrix of the factors listed above can be developed to aid in the selection of the best format for the CT contract(s). New Plant vs. Retrofit - Retrofit plants are difficult to fully characterize at the start of a project. They are subject to scope changes due to variations in assumptions regarding environmental licensing, underground structures, interferences with existing aboveground equipment and scope changes to ensure that the existing facilities can support the new equipment. As such, these types of projects can benefit from a cost-plus-incentives type of contract. New power plants are more easily characterized and are more readily handled by a fixed price approach. Stand-alone vs. Integration with Existing Units - For those plants that already have other generating facilities at the site and plan to retrofit additional units, a decision must be made on the extent of integration with the existing units. The required studies, cost estimates and construction sequencing of an integrated project are best handled either in-house by a dedicated 2-5

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engineering group or by a single-source engineering contractor. For stand-alone systems that do not require extensive integration with an existing system, the OEM supplier may take the lead role, with the external or in-house engineering group acting as the Owners agent in a review capacity. In-house Capabilities - For utilities without extensive in-house resources to engineer, coordinate and administer contracts, these activities are typically assigned to a single source, engineering contractor or to the responsible OEM system supplier who will then typically subcontract the required work. If resources are adequate and experienced, then the Owner, potentially with an external Owners Engineer acting in a review and advisory role, can administer and coordinate several major contracts at once. Cash Flow Requirements - Cash flow requirements will have an affect on the selection of the preferred contracting option. Build-Own-Operate-Maintain (BOOM) contracts may be most suitable for plants with limited financial and manpower resources. There is a tradeoff between lower capital outlay and labor costs against potentially higher total cost over the life of the facility, as well as an overall lack of control as the project progresses from award to commercial operation. Engineer and OEM Supplier Experience - The experience and expertise of the major equipment supplier and the Engineer may affect the choice of contracting option. Single prime contracts require firms that have proven track records of successful projects with similar scope (grass roots or retrofit) and equipment sizes as would be expected in the future project. Partnership arrangements can benefit the utility by the sharing of expertise among the project partners. Utility Culture and Method of Doing Business - This general factor considers intangibles such as the amount of control the owner normally decides to exercise during the course of large projects, and the utilitys capacity to farm out work to multiple contractors. Risk Assessment - The contracting method should take into account the ability to minimize and share risks and liabilities. The contract should be structured so that specific risks can be allocated to the party best able to foresee and control the risk. The following is a sample of risks that should be considered: Physical - Site conditions, obstructions, underground services, climate & weather, defective materials, defective design. Delay - Late site access; shortages of staff, labor, materials, time, financing. Direction & Supervision - Lack of communication, incompetence, inefficiency, incompatibility, poor measurement and value assessment procedures, acceleration or suspension of the work Government Policy - Changes in law, permitting and licensing, legal action by external parties that object to the project. Labor - Labor disputes, work rules, stoppages, and labor quality Payment - Inflation/escalation, currency exchange, insolvency of one of the parties or subcontractors, cash flow or funding constraints.

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Disputes - Delay and cost of resolving disputes, uncertainty of results due to lack of records or an ambiguous contract, legal limits on recovery of damages.

Contracting Structures Various options exist for contracting CT projects. It is assumed that force account work, in which all work is done without contract by the owners organization, is not feasible for these larger-scale jobs. Therefore, outside agencies will be placed under contract for the duration of the installation and startup contract. The following contract arrangements have been used for previous contracts. Each option is discussed in more detail in the material that follows: General Contracting Method Design/Bid/Build Single Prime Design/Build Multiple Prime Owner as General Contractor Construction Management at Risk CM/GC Alliances and Partnership Arrangements

General Contracting Method (Design-Bid-Build) - Single prime Design-Bid-Build contracts provide for single entities in both the design and construction phases of a project. The owner has a separate contract with the Engineer, who is responsible for the design and preparation of contractor bid documents, and one with the general contractor who would be responsible for the construction and administration of subcontracts. This contracting option is the most traditional and well-understood contracting method. Single Prime contracts are usually implemented in two stages. A pre-qualification process is used to select a shortlist of firms (usually 2-4) deemed capable of performing the project. The qualified firms are allowed to bid or offer a proposal for final contractor selection. If qualified, the prime general contractor may be the OEM supplier or an engineer/constructor. General Contracting contracts have the characteristic that the design has to be essentially complete before the bid and selection of the prime contractor, thereby extending the project duration. This method is best suited for those projects where the Owner and Engineer do not have the expertise or resources for construction management. However, this contract option is being superseded by other contracting methods that can overcome the disadvantages of long schedules and conflicting interests. Advantages: Administrative functions are transferred to the contractor. The role of each party is clearly defined and the bid process can lead to lower negotiated prices. This is the only contracting method that gives a firm idea of the total project cost prior to construction.

Disadvantages: 2-7

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Plants Designed for Startup

The owner must administer two contracts, Engineer and General Contractor, neither of which acts as the Owners agent in contractual matters. The project must be very well defined before contractor selection, lengthening the project duration. Care must be taken to prevent the general contractor from transferring all work to subcontractors, thereby minimizing his cost at the expense of overall project coordination. The inherent inflexibility of this approach and the bid process creates adversarial relationships between parties and incentives to cut corners and look for loopholes to raise profits. The Owner has greater exposure to claims than with other contracting methods. Contractors have concerns for high cost to bid and inflexible limits to innovation if the project design is already complete.

Single Prime (Design-Build) - Unlike Design-Bid-Build, a Design-Build prime contract provides for a single entity for both design and construction phases of a project. It is most often a single EPC contract with an engineering firm, an OEM supplier, or a consortium between these two entities that has capability of completing all phases of a project. The contract is turnkey from initial conception through to completion. Unlike the Design-Bid-Build form of prime contracting, construction input into the initial project design can significantly shorten the project duration and reduce constructability-related problems. Advantages: Single source responsibility for the entire project eliminates conflict between design and construction functions. All administrative functions are transferred to the contractor. Design-Build saves time by allowing construction to begin before the final design is completed. Allows maximum contractor flexibility. Provides additional construction expertise that may not have been available during the preliminary design phase.

Disadvantages: Not cost effective for cookie-cutter type projects that can be done in-house. Less effective for those projects that do not have tight time constraints. Owner may lose control of detailed project design unless these issues have been meticulously described in the bid documents. Traditional checks and balances can be lost. Owner should have oversight during design and construction, leading to potential for conflict. Requires an open and continuous communication environment between the Owner and contractor, since there are no built-in checks and balances. Contractors concerns for high costs to bid, and limits to innovation if project is already 3050% complete.

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Higher risks associated with design/build will necessitate higher fees than with traditional methods. If used with the lump sum payment approach, the contractor must include higher contingencies in their budgets to cover areas of uncertainty, leading to higher project costs.

Multiple Prime (Owner as General Contractor) - The construction management type of project requires that the owner contract separately for all major engineering, design, equipment, and construction services. The individual contractors may subcontract their work. The owner, functioning as general contractor, must assume the total management of the project. This method is appropriate for small, simple, projects (if the Owner has the necessary in-house capability) since the Owner keeps all profit that would ordinarily be earned by the general contractor. A variation is for the Owner to let a contract to a firm to perform the management functions for the whole project. All other contractors are then bound by the coordination from the management firm. This option is not recommended because the power of the management firm is not as strong as that with a general contractor, leading to increased friction and legal entanglements. Advantages: Owner keeps the cost normally associated with the general contractor. Greater owner control and efficiencies for small, simple projects.

Disadvantages: Not well suited for large power generation contracts. Greater risks for the Owner than with the single prime contractor methods.

Construction Management - The construction management contracting method requires that the Owner contract separately for engineering and design services, construction management, and a general contractor for actual construction services. It addresses one of the major disadvantages of the General Contracting method in that it allows construction input into the design phase for fast track jobs. It also addresses shortcomings of the Design-Build and Multiple Prime approaches in that it allows owner control throughout the job while limiting the owners risk and this method is suitable for large projects. The construction manager does not perform the construction work and, therefore, acts as an agent for the owner without guaranteeing construction cost or schedule. The firms that have direct contracts with the owner hold the project guarantees, similar to the multiple-prime approach. This contracting method lends itself to the cost-plus-fixed-fee method of payment to the construction manager since it allows for major project changes as the job evolves. The owner, architect/engineer, OEM system supplier and construction manager function more as a collaborative team with each entity taking the lead in various stages of the project. The construction manager becomes responsible for overall coordination. Advantages: There is less of a tendency to develop adversarial relationships than with single prime format. 2-9

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Plants Designed for Startup

A separate construction manager may be more knowledgeable and experienced than the OEM system supplier functioning in a turnkey single prime contract environment. Because of the collaborative nature of the project, all records and estimates are open book. Schedule and construction costs can be reliably predicted during the design phase. Competitive bidding is retained for all work. There will be increased input by the owner in the selection of subcontractors. Savings generated from value purchasing and engineering revert to the owner. System of checks and balances exists. Ability to pre-order long-lead items.

Disadvantages: Duplication of some costs between contractors (may be offset by value engineering). Owner may be exposed to many change orders if project is not fully designed at start of construction. Construction contractor may be qualified to perform construction tasks; if the owner requests construction tasks, then the construction contractor loses the role of being an agent of the owner.

Construction Management at Risk (CM/GC) - The traditional construction management type contract has recently undergone some changes to allow the construction manager to function as a general contractor and be at risk for the guarantees instead of being an agent of the owner. The major difference between the General Contractor and Construction Management at Risk approach is that, in this case, the CM enters the project before the design has been completed. Therefore, the firm can have input from the start of the job and absorbs the risk inherent in multiple prime contracts. There can be several variations of the CM/GC contract. One of the more popular has been costplus-fixed-fee with a guaranteed maximum price (GMP). If the GMP is exceeded, the contractor is responsible for the overrun. If the actual cost is less than the GMP, the savings are returned to the owner so that the firm can easily act as the owners agent. This requires open book accounting so that the integrity of the CM is assured. Recent power industry contracts include variations utilizing an open book target price with contingency instead of GMP. Some, or all, of the EPC contractors fee is at risk based upon cost, schedule, quality, safety and performance. Incentives, most often related to early completion, are also included. There is also an incentive to limit the cost since the contractor can share in the savings of the contingency account if the original allotment is not exceeded. Advantages: Same as with the Construction Management method, with the additional advantage that the CM shares in the risk while savings are returned to owner.

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Agreement and coordination of cost accounting procedures and additional resources are required by all parties to maintain the open book approach. Some issues, such as rework and warranty, are difficult to ascertain as to whether they are a normal part of the reimbursable cost or if they are excessive and should be penalized.

Alliances and Partnership Arrangements - Alliances and partnerships are an extension of the multiple prime form of contracting. It is similar to the Construction Management at Risk type of contract with the CM being a consortium of the major players (owner, engineer, constructor and OEM system supplier). The partners have a formalized, almost equivalent relationship and share in both the risks and incentives to bring a project to completion in the most timely and cost effective manner. Team building is a critical component of the arrangement. Direct contact at all levels between organizations is encouraged. Advantages (In addition to those of the multiple prime contract): Consensus building leads to everyone pulling in the same direction. Conflicts and potential litigation between partners are minimized. Incentives are spread to all parties so the projects interests become a priority.

Disadvantages: Major decisions tend to require negotiation and consensus. Can be difficult to implement because of the 800 pound gorilla sitting at the table.

For an additional perspective on contracting, refer to Chapter 3 of the EPRI report 1008392, HRSG Procurement, Design, Construction and Operation Update, 2005. Payment Options There are two main classes of contracts: Cost and Fixed Price, with several variations possible for each case. In general, Fixed Price contracts are usually better suited to projects that are completely defined before contract initiation. Cost contracts are more suitable when tight schedules, emerging technologies, and unknown retrofit problems cannot be resolved before initiation of the contract. A variation on the fixed price contract is the payments based on performance scenario that is described at the end of this section. Fixed Price (Lump Sum) - Fixed price contracts are suitable for those projects that are wellunderstood and defined, such as new plant construction. Competitive bids for clearly defined scopes can lead to very competitive prices. Advantages: Best competitive price. Most understood traditional approach. Costs are fixed at beginning of job with cost changes easily definable. 2-11

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Responsibility and liability for design and construction issues are more easily defined.

Disadvantages: Possibility of many costly scope changes to the owners account as jobs progress. Possibility of adversarial relationship due to scope changes and complex problem solving. Owner can lose control over the quality of the components.

Cost Reimbursable Plus Fee for Overhead & Profit - This method of pricing a project is based on the actual direct costs incurred by the main contractor(s) plus markups with an agreed overhead and profit margin. Cost plus fee can be fixed or based on a percentage. In addition, modifications to cap the fee at a maximum amount can be added. The fee does not vary with actual costs, but may be adjusted as a result of changes to the scope of work performed under the contract. This method is sometimes preferred when a project has to start immediately, but the scope has not yet been completely determined. Guaranteed Minimum Price contracts are a variation to allow the contractor a minimum profit. Advantages: Scope changes are easily handled as the job progresses. Provides a contractor a small incentive to control costs.

Disadvantages: No incentives to improve project schedule and costs.

Performance- Based Contracts - Performance-based payment and incentives support fixed-price contracts by focusing on results rather than level of effort. Project goals and methods to measure attainment of the goals are clearly defined in the contract. Payments of incentives for meeting and exceeding the goals are strictly defined by a formula based on the relationship of total allowable costs to total target costs. Typical goals include cost, schedule and performance. While schedule and performance can be clearly defined, target cost is somewhat nebulous since all costs are not known at the start of the job. The Open Book target price is used to totally define the baseline project cost. This method allows development, input and review of all costs by all contract entities during the first months of a project. At the end of that time period, all parties agree on the target price, the book is closed and the contractor(s) is (are) free to undercut the baseline cost so long as all other contract requirements are maintained. The incentive is a percentage payment based on the cost savings. Advantages: The principals goals will be addressed by all entities. A win-win partnership between contractor and principal is established with shared risks and rewards. There is more potential for cost savings than with a fixed price contract. Expectations and accountability are clearly defined.

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Efficient contract management and innovation by the contractor is encouraged. Industry standards and government regulations are easily applied since they can be used as performance standards.

Disadvantages: Much up front work is required to define specific milestones, tasks, target price and performance standards. Detailed risk analysis is required up front. The greater the unknowns at the start of a project, the more care has to be taken to allocate the risks between principal and contractor.

Summary of Contracting Structures - Time and Material (T&M) contract is beneficial to ensure the contractor does not make excessive fees and since there is no benefit to the contractor to cut corners, it may best meet all of the Owner/Developers needs. The problem with a T&M contract is that there is no incentive for the contractor to finish the job as long as they are making acceptable fees. Also, they do not have an incentive to control costs, as the costs are passed on to the Owner/Developer. Fixed price contracts are best if the Owner/Developer needs to know the cost upfront. It is important to have a well-defined scope, since there is a reasonable chance for claims if there is a misunderstanding. The contractor is motivated to keep costs low and finish as early as possible. It is important to define the project needs/requirements as thoroughly as possible, since any change will result in additional cost. Performance-based contracts will provide the Owner/Developer with a good chance of meeting their needs, since they are used for measurement of performance. Since the contractor is motivated to meet or exceed the performance requirements, the contractor will focus on meeting these requirements. However, they may miss other factors that are also important to the Owner/Developer, but are not specifically called out as part of the performance metrics.

Communications
Key to any successful project is to match client expectations regarding operational requirements. The only way to accomplish this task is through good communication, fully understanding what the client needs. Each member of the E&C team must understand the client expectations for their part of the work. A Project Execution Plan must be written in detail on how the project is to be executed (who will do what and when), and checked against the contract. Any conflicts must be resolved either within the project team or during discussions with the client. A project Procedure Manual must be written, explaining the exact procedures that will be used to execute the project. Immediately after the contract is signed, a kick-off meeting should be held, with the client explaining their goals, including schedule, cost, and other key objectives that may not be apparent from the Request for Proposal. Throughout the project, team-building programs may be held to further promote communications and trust, activities that are typically valuable to improving the teamwork. 2-13

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Significant problem areas that may affect the project (and consequently the client) should be brought to the attention of the client as soon as possible to avoid surprises. Open dialogue should take place with the client to define the problem, potential resolutions, and impact to the project. It should be noted that the clients financing entities will be focused on the overall initial capital investment for the project, but operability and maintainability are equally important to reduce the total cost of the plant over its operating life. Experience/feedback from operating plants may help to influence the client decisions regarding added capital expense to improve future plant operation. The project development group again will typically focus on reducing the initial capital investment. Other client staff, such as their construction and operations staff, may request upgrades in the plant design during startup that are not part of the scope of work, and this can result in delays in the startup process while these issues are resolved. Therefore, the best way to resolve this potential problem is to have all parties from the client side communicate their needs during the initial phase of system design. Internal Communications - Feedback from Previous Field Construction and Startup Projects Any E&C proposal should state if the company has an active Lessons Learned program and how effective it is in improving future project performance. A sample page may be requested to determine the ease of use. It is possible for the E&C Company to have a large Lessons Learned database that is not used to its full potential. The E&C Company should have Lessons Learned input on a continual basis rather than at the end of each project, since memories fade and many personnel are more interested in moving to the next project than writing down lessons learned. It should be noted that many lessons learned might not be written down since the Lesson Learned may reflect on a persons ability or judgment. It may also be beneficial for quarterly or bi-annual meetings to be held among project and construction managers in the company to openly discuss lessons learned and best practices in an open forum. Vendor and OEM Requirements/Communications A vital part of any successful plant construction and start-up project is a good working relationship between the engineer/constructor and the suppliers. Good relationships can greatly assist in receiving spare parts quickly, advice on equipment problems, and rapid response to getting a representative to the jobsite if required. All communication between the contractor and supplier should be in writing and filed in accordance with the project filing system, typically by equipment type and purchase order. The need for supplier support during startup should be discussed during the bidding phase, when the OEM has more motivation to supply this field staff support for a reduced cost or at no cost prior to contract award. If this support is requested after the contract is in place, then the supplier will typically supply this field support as an add-on to the original scope and hourly billing rates would apply. 2-14

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For planning of the construction and startup of major equipment, a coordination meeting should be held at the site in order for the jobsite to understand any special requirements of the equipment, determine the level of on-site support required from the supplier, schedule requirements, and to determine the suppliers experience (best practices) in the installation and start-up. Communications with the Local Residents Public relations are extremely important to overcome complaints that can lead to major delays in the startup process. The natural tendency is for people to find any new activity in their area to be unacceptable. However, if the client can engage the local residents in discussions of the impacts of the new plant facilities early on in the project, telling them what to expect during construction, startup and commercial operation, then they may be able to get their buy-in to temporary inconveniences that may occur during the startup process. These could include the hours of work, construction traffic, labor force parking, noise during construction and startup, etc. Dealing with these issues upfront can reduce or eliminate the level of complaints that sometimes have lead to reduced work hours for the startup team and thereby extended startup schedules.

Redundancy and Spare Parts


The operating availability of the new plant will typically help to define the need for spare parts on the plant site. In some cases, spares might be common to multiple sites in the area, especially for high cost, long lead-time items. During the startup period, this can be especially valuable so that the startup sequence is not delayed due to the lack of a single part that failed during first use. The exchange of spare parts between plants can sometimes be restricted between facilities that are operated by regulated or non-regulated generating plants.

Design Input for Construction and Startup


The following section provides a summary of the design modifications that will provide for a plant that optimized for startup and operating efficiency/flexibility. Accessibility and Maintainability Criteria Space constraints and trade-offs between operating costs and capital improvements often limit the number of the permanent design features that are provided to facilitate component accessibility. In addition, subjective or lack of criteria for the selection of design features for accessibility have caused confusion between the client and engineer. Reconciliation of these conditions has often resulted in design modifications that were costly and affected system turnover because of their lateness in the project completion. To minimize these problems, it is recommended that the engineer have guidelines for maintainability and accessibility and that the owner agree to these guidelines. These guidelines should be requested to be included in the project proposal and should also be included in the execution plan. The following criteria are examples of issues to be considered for accessibility and maintainability: 2-15

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Plants Designed for Startup

Accessibility Considerations Category A: Permanent Access Required Components used in everyday operation or critical components as defined below under Clarifications to the Accessibility Categories. These should be accessible from a floor or fixed platform. Gauges and local indicators should be located where they can be read (eyeunaided by an individual with normal, including corrected, vision) from a floor, walkway (including bump-outs) or from a permanent platform. When feasible, instruments, valves etc. should be located and clustered to minimize the number of platforms required. Platforms should typically be provided with ladder access meeting the OSHA criteria. Platforms should be provided with stair access if (1) the components accessed with the platform must be reached a minimum of once per shift and (2) the platform is located at, or is part of, a main access route. Examples: Trip devices, Control Valves and Instruments critical to the process.

Category B: Permanent Access Not Required Components Used Infrequently or Non-Critical Components (refer to the second bullet under Clarifications to the Accessibility Categories below): o Unless the contract requires otherwise, these should be accessible from facilities such as fixed ladders, portable ladders or scissor-lifts. Fixed platforms are not required. Components used very infrequently, as in shutdown periods, seasonal periods or plant overhaul. o Unless the contract requires otherwise, these should be accessible by a portable ladder, forklift with platform, a cherry-picker, JLG (man-lift) or temporary scaffolding. Examples: Drain/Vent Valves, RTDs, Isolation Valves and Transmitters etc. Note: chain wheels and reach rods can be used for isolation valves where they are otherwise inaccessible if accepted by the Client.

Clarifications to the Accessibility Categories A and B Failure of Components Critical to the Process - Permanent access equivalent to Category A should be provided if failure of a component will prevent the process from operating safely or require plant shut down, unless the component is readily accessible with portable devices. Failure of Components Not Critical to the Process - Permanent access is not required if a component is not critical to the process or other available components can compensate for the failed component on a temporary basis either directly or through inference. Example: Loss of a temperature indicator at a heat exchanger where temperature indicators on the remaining process flow streams are available. These components should be considered Category B. 2-16

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Relief Valves - Relief valves with test levers are considered Category A. Remaining relief valves are considered Category B. Where feasible, relief valves should be grouped in close proximity to minimize required access facilities. Instrument Root Valves - Care should be given to locate the root valves where they are readily available. While the requirement for permanent access is a function of the Category, attention should be given to locating the root valves. They should not be buried in pipe racks, bundles of instrument tubing etc. Vent/Drain Valves - Vents and drain lines associated with skids and piping routed in pipe racks/bridges etc, while considered Category B, should be extended such that the valves are placed in a central location to the greatest extent possible and are accessible from the skid, bridge or rack boundary. This is especially important for steam lines as it will facilitate plant start-up and subsequent re-starts. Documentation of Accessibility Category - It is strongly recommended that all valves, including relief valves and control valves as well as instruments shown on P&IDs, be assigned the pertinent Category A, or B before piping layout starts. This will assure that the chosen routing provides for the appropriate level of access. An acceptable approach would be to identify the accessibility level next to the component on the P&IDs referenced in the project proposal package. Note: since all P&IDs are not normally provided with the proposal package, any system not included should be so denoted during design development.

Maintainability Considerations There are five considerations regarding equipment layout and access that need to be addressed when identifying criteria for equipment maintenance. Clearance around the equipment for maintenance Removal path Piping and Electrical tie-ins Isolation Points Permanent Cranes/Monorails

Clearance around Equipment for Maintenance

Clearance should be provided around active components to allow for maintenance access and disassembly, should removal be required. Typically, two to three feet provides sufficient clearance at mechanical/process components unless the equipment supplier identifies a requirement for more. An obvious exception is shell and tube heat exchangers that should be located to ensure that tube removal space is available. Clearance requirements are presented below for various components in the system: The required clearance is only necessary on each side (or above) of an active component where access is required for maintenance or removal.

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Removal space should be indicated on the general arrangement drawings (for motor operated valves on the piping drawings). Clearance for electrical components should be per NEC Article 110. Clearance in Substations should be per NESC Section 12 and 23.

Removal Path

When developing the equipment arrangement and the layout of the site and structures, the removal of equipment should be considered. Any removal path should consider the removal method that will be used. This includes the availability of permanent lifting equipment (cranes or monorails) or the use of mobile or portable lifting equipment such as cherry pickers or gantries. Before any layout is accepted, the responsible design group should be able to identify how each piece of equipment would be removed from the area: Removal paths for major equipment should be demonstrated using the general arrangement drawings. Special attention should be given to relief valves that require yearly or periodic removal for testing.

Piping and Electrical Tie-ins

The piping and electrical tie-ins should be routed to active equipment/components in a manner that will not require major disassembly when normal maintenance is performed on the equipment/components or the equipment is removed. If piping is routed in a manner that requires disassembly of the piping to perform maintenance or removal, break flanges or unions should be provided where required to minimize the quantity of piping that should be disassembled. Conduit runs should be installed in a manner that considers the established maintenance access or removal path.

Mechanical and Electrical Isolation of Equipment

Mechanical (e.g. valves) and electrical (e.g. breakers) isolation that meets the requirements of OSHA 1910 should be provided.

Permanent Cranes and Monorails

Addition of permanent cranes and monorails should be evaluated when the component or equipment or associated parts that should be handled or removed are too large or heavy to allow being addressed by a typical maintenance worker and the equipment/component is located such that portable means such as a chain-fall, A-frame, cherry-picker or gantry can not be used.

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Constructability Review Based on the lessons learned from hundreds of previous construction projects, it is highly recommended that several key members of the construction team who will be constructing the plant participate in the design process. If possible, these members should have prior experience on similar plants. Start-up personnel should also be involved to provide their input. It is important that they work on a daily basis with the design groups (e.g. piping, electrical) to comment on and improve the design based on their hands-on experience. This helps to ensure that accessibility and maintenance issues are addressed, and also adds their insight into construction sequences and best practices for construction, commissioning and start-up. A Constructability Review should be held at the appropriate time during the design. The construction team should meet with the key design groups and project management. While the construction team has been working with the design groups on an on-going basis as noted above, this review shall look at the overall construction philosophy, ensuring that equipment is placed in the correct order (and that the equipment arrives at the site on time to meet this requirement), and the team should work together to improve the design for the optimization of constructability. At the end of particular milestones of the design, design reviews should be held between the owner/client and engineer. One suggested point would be prior to issuing drawings Approved for Construction (AFC). The design milestones for the reviews should be agreed to between the owner and the engineer and should be specified in the contract. As most designs are now completed electronically, it is common for the owners team and the engineering team to meet and review the design on a large monitor. Care must be taken to ensure all systems and areas are completely reviewed. Any issues that are questioned should be tagged (e.g. electronically) with any comments attached to the tag. At the completion of the review, the list of issues is tabulated and distributed to the owner and engineer as appropriate. The owner and engineer should periodically monitor the resolutions to ensure all issues are addressed.

Temporary Piping and Valves


The installation of any CT generating facility will include extensive piping systems to handle fuel, steam, water and other components. All types of piping materials are needed, and in many cases, the use of temporary piping and valves will help to reduce the testing periods and thereby the startup schedule. During the design phase of a project, the philosophy for use of temporary valves, piping and strainers should be established prior to completion of the mechanical design. The various types of piping and valves are discussed in the following material. Alloy Pipe Connections If temporary piping or valving is identified as part of the initial design, the connections can be installed by the pipe fabricator in a shop environment at a lower cost than installing the connections in the field. This is particularly important in the case of alloy piping systems due to the increased cost of stress relieving activities performed in the field.

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Steam Blow Piping Steam blow piping is an area where some cost savings can be achieved. Piping should be shop fabricated in the longest possible lengths that can be handled in the field. Connections should be included for target insertion and extraction devices with isolation valves installed to preclude shutting down the steam generators to allow for target change-out. A bypass/warm-up line should be installed around the blow valve to allow for proper warm-up and drying of the temporary steam blow piping. This valve should be opened during initial warm up of the line and in the case of using puff blows, the valve should opened to assure no water accumulates in the line prior between blows. Drain valves should be located at all low points and should be left open until no water is evident to prevent the possibility of water hammers due to trapped water pockets. Water System Flush Piping When preparing for water system flushes, consideration should be given to using flexible prefabricated spools with flanged ends. This provides for an economical, efficient and clean method of installing flush jumpers and, because of a reduction of time expended in fitting and welding, yields a schedule benefit. Consideration should also be given to the type of strainers used for flushing these types of systems. Strainers for water flushes should be sized with a margin of 100% to reduce the number of trips on motors and the subsequent starts associated with those unanticipated trips. Duplex strainers can be very beneficial when flushing cold and warm water systems, but should be avoided when circumstances dictate operating temperatures over 200F. Most duplex strainers are designed with internal clearances too close for the higher temperatures and these types of strainers have proven to bind up and will not function under these high temperature conditions. Lubricating Oil Piping Bearing lubrication oil flush piping is an area that is often overlooked. Future projects should consider using stainless steel braid reinforced jumpers in lieu of carbon steel piping or even stainless steel flush piping for this type of service. Every attempt should be made to avoid using welded piping for flushing lubricating oil systems as there is always a possibility that some contaminates may remain in the system that may lead to failure of the equipment upon start-up. Many OEMs offer flush kits that provide the necessary piping components (valves, strainers, fittings and hoses) for a price that is usually 20 to 25 percent lower than the cost of field fabricated systems and are designed specifically for their machines. Although an economic analysis should be performed as to the use of such an option, it is usually prudent to take advantage of this offering. Temporary Isolation Valves With the increased pressure to install and commission systems in less time, it has become necessary to turn portions of startup systems over for testing and operation prior to total system completion. Therefore, it has proven prudent to install isolation valves at convenient locations in some time-critical and multi-area systems such as closed cooling water, instrument air, service 2-20

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air and auxiliary cooling water. This practice allows for the commissioning and subsequent operation of partial systems while construction is still in the installation phase providing for schedule enhancement and related cost savings. These valves may be left in place for maintenance use or abandoned in place with the valve handles removed to prevent inadvertent operation. Chemical Cleaning Piping An area that is usually a source of concern during any plant startup is the piping associated with chemical cleaning of the Heat Recovery Steam Generators (HRSG). A responsible engineer should design this system during the initial design engineering of the facility. As this piping contains liquids with some altered pH, and at elevated temperatures, there cannot be enough emphasis placed on the integrity of the system and its related components. Routing of the piping should be of primary concern as workers are generally working around the system while it is being operated, which expose them to the potential of chemical and thermal burns. Since this piping is usually installed as an afterthought, it winds up being installed in and over walkways and other travel routes, further complicating other work activities and presenting a potentially hazardous situation should a spill occur. This system should be properly insulated with adequate isolation valves installed to not only direct the compounds to their desired locations, but also to be able to isolate parts of the system in case of a spill or leak in the system. It has proven prudent to conduct a hydrostatic test of the system prior to introducing chemicals into the system at a pressure equal to 150% of the working pressure to assure system integrity. Hydrostatic Test Valves An evaluation should be made as to the applicability of the use hydrostatic test valves. Depending on the schedule it may be advisable to design and install valves to allow for hydrostatic test during construction to provide for the ability to test contiguous but separate portions of systems such as the transition from a high pressure steam system to a low-pressure steam system at the pressure-reducing valve. Since these valves are usually disassembled to allow for cleaning of the system, it becomes difficult to hydrostatically test the related systems due to the open valves.

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3
STARTUP PLANNING AND PREPARATION
Startup Team Organization
The startup of a CT facility is typically managed and directed by personnel from the Startup Department of the engineering contractor or the OEM. The Startup Group will typically have a proven track record of successful power plant commissioning experience. Startup personnel are assigned to the Project Team from the beginning of the Project to review specifications and drawings to ensure the design incorporates features necessary for an efficient testing and start-up program. The startup services should include support from both home office and field personnel. The startup project management plan, as well as software preparation in the form of schedules and procedures, are usually developed in the home office and supplemented as necessary by equipment supplier technical representatives. While in the field the Startup Manager and his team, manage and direct all testing activities at the site. Startup Program A startup team (typical organization provided in Figure 3-1) will typically develop and implement a startup program containing the following elements: Establishment of startup program administrative procedures Guideline procedures identifying jurisdictional responsibility of facility equipment and systems during various phases of the project will be prepared to ensure test control and system design configuration is maintained. Lock Out and Tag Out tagging coordination and control are established and administrative requirements governing procedure change control, the tracking of punch list items, etc., are prepared. Startup Schedule Development - The startup schedule is integrated into the Project Schedule and identifies the startup activities, precedence and successor relationships, and activity duration. It also provides the construction turnover sequence needed to support the start-up testing requirements and identify the startup critical path. Turnover Package Development - Detailed turnover packages, identifying equipment which must be construction complete, and which is required to support test activities, are prepared. These turnover package requirements enable a systematic transfer of systems and equipment from construction to startup jurisdiction and facilitate control of equipment during the startup phase.

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Preparation of Master Test Index - The scope of required component testing is identified in a Test Matrix, which is prepared by the startup group. The Index identifies test requirements for each system. After the test requirements are identified, test packages are assembled to enable documentation of required testing. These packages consist of data sheets from general test procedures that specify test methodology. Test Procedure Preparation and Implementation - Procedures for component and system testing are also developed. Component test procedures identify testing requirements for mechanical, electrical, and controls equipment. Typically, these procedures define test objectives, provide drawing references, list special precautions, initial test conditions, test instructions, final conditions, acceptance criteria. Data forms are used to collect test data during component tests. Special Tests, such as chemical cleaning, lube oil flushing, steam/air blow cleaning, are developed. Systems and Integrated Tests are performed to demonstrate that systems function in accordance with the design intent. Performance and Capacity Tests are conducted to ensure that all equipment satisfies their performance requirements. Upon completion of testing, System Turnover Packages, containing appropriate construction records and test documentation are assembled and transferred to Owner to facilitate transfer of care, custody, and control of the Facility. Personnel from the Owners Operations & Maintenance (O&M) staff are assumed to be available for training to support the test program. Operations from the control room and all control switch manipulations are to be made by O&M personnel under the technical direction of the startup team. Routine monitoring of equipment required to be in service to support facility testing is assumed to be an O&M service provided by the Owner.

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Project Manager

Startup Specialist

Site Startup Manager

Soft Products Manager

Director, Field Operations

Training Coordinator/Instructor

Technical Writers

Mechanical Test Engineers

Electrical Test Engineers

DCS/I&C Test Engineers

Vendor Representatives

Operators/Maintentance Technicians Turnover Coordinator

Figure 3-1 Typical Startup Organization

Team Responsibilities Specific activities that are typically required to insure a successful startup would include the following: Have a clear idea of the features you are willing to pay for and items that are not to be considered. Talk with your operations and construction personnel during the specification phase. Review the proposal and offer critical suggestions or possible alternatives and get their understanding of what the development side wants separate from what owner construction / operations personnel believe the is being purchased Formalized program of communication from one project to another via Lessons Learned database from start of proposal thru commercial operations How to Interface with Major Subcontractors / Partners What does the owner want in terms of component sparing and do they have similar equipment already at the site supporting existing units. This could reduce the cost of additional spares or partnering with other facilities with similar equipment.

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Work diligently at the start of the contract to firm up the definition of the scope of work for all parties (Owner, Engineer, Vendors and Subcontractors) Conduct a constructability review for the entire plant, including interdisciplinary reviews Identify the need for engineering personnel at the jobsite during the construction phase and during startup Complete a thorough review by the owners construction and development team. This should include feed back to the owners operations personnel prior to releasing drawings for construction Accessibility and Maintainability Criteria should be established prior to starting the plant design. Temporary Piping and valving could include chemical cleaning, lube oil flushes, steam/air blows, and natural gas line cleaning to reduce fouling due to line contamination. Operator Recruitment and Training existing plant personnel may fill some positions for installations at an existing site. New personnel should have Operator Qualifications, taking into account state laws for operators, if any. Operator training programs will require qualified teachers (familiarity with equipment, design and operation. Vendors provide specific training on CT and GT and constructor provide training on BOP equipment) Classroom Training (Vendor and constructor) Walk-down of Subsystems during construction and startup have operations personnel interface with E&C construction and startup personnel Simulator Training (if new operators have no experience, also work with startup personnel) Cross-Training to provide better general knowledge of the overall plant operation and how the systems interact with another, i.e. optimization of one system may not enhance the overall plant performance Environmental Health, Safety and Security during initial planning, design, construction and startup Governmental Rules and Regulations - Review of local, state and federal regulations

The startup team will initially rely on a Startup Ability Checklist that has been developed over the years. This checklist is typically a 15-20 pages document that serves as a tool to ensure that all typical activities have been addressed in the startup process. Examples of the checklist are provided in Figure 3-2 on the following page. The listing is broken into a series of subsystem activities that must be completed prior to completion of the construction activity, and is initially reviewed with the design engineering team at the beginning of the project. The activities on the list include items that should be included in the equipment specifications, such as making sure that the rotating equipment suppliers complete the alignment of the couplings on the equipment. The OEM could also be required to allow shop inspections/verification that these alignment activities have been completed properly. The need 3-4

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for OEM technical advisors is also addressed on the checklist, suggesting that any field assistance requirements be included in the equipment purchase orders. Planning Example On a 500+ MW construction project, the normal project planning procedures were followed, identifying the Scope of Work, Schedule, Budget, Design Basis, and Project Execution Manual. A team building session was held for a full day to review all project procedure documents early in the project. Then the planning process broke down in two main areas: The project schedule did not reflect the real flow of information from one participant to the next. It became an outline of meaningless activities. The engineering schedule was only loosely tied to construction since the Client wanted all deliverables to be construction driven by other contractors. These contractors were essentially given responsibility for maintaining a Master Schedule that was not a strong skill set for either company.

The recommendations to resolve these problems in project planning include the following: Have the Engineer/Constructor contractor maintain responsibility for the Master Schedule, not sub-tier contractors. This method was followed on subsequent projects for the same Client, and these ran much more smoothly. The schedule should be directly tied into a proactive change management program all of the way through startup. Each project of this size should include a minimum of 2-4 weeks at the start of the project doing nothing but planning the work. All work products should be defined in detail, including I.D. number and title. Then all the work should be tied to a meaningful schedule showing detailed activities, as well as internal and external interface points

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Figure 3-2 Startup-ability Checklist

Based on lessons learned from previous projects, the startup plan should include all of the following tasks related to the electrical system installation: Instrument / relay calibrations Instrument / controls loop testing Electrical component testing Breaker testing Transformer testing DCS input / output checks Motor breaker / starter functional tests Initial motor run-ins Initial rotating equipment run-ins

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Individual subsystem power supplies Integrated systems and their interaction Project reliability / performance testing And many others

It should always be remembered that mechanical completion is not the project objective; successful commercial operations is the ultimate objective of any CT plant installation. Successful commercial operation requires a successful startup. If you want a successful project, you must plan for a successful startup.

Key Startup Personnel Descriptions


Startup Specialist - A Senior or Seasoned Startup Manager with overall responsibility for coordination of all project startup activities. This person reports directly to the Vice President of Startup and indirectly to the Project Manager. Site Startup Manager - The Site Startup Manager has overall responsibility for all on-site project startup activities and reports directly to the Project Manager, as well as, to the Senior Startup Manager. Soft Products Manager - The Soft Product Manager works under the direction of the Senior Startup Manager and oversees the production of training materials, coordinates with vendors for training responsibilities and ensures that training materials are available and training is conducted in accordance with contract specification and schedule requirements. Director Field Operations (DFO) - The DFO is a proven Site Startup Manager responsible for the day to day Startup Technical Requirements. The Discipline test engineers, equipment vendor representatives, construction craft and project personnel assisting in the startup effort will work under the direction of the DFO.

Operator Recruitment and Training


Qualifications Operator qualifications need to include a basic understanding of electricity, instrumentation and controls, mechanical equipment, plant chemistry and computers usage. A basic knowledge of electricity includes the measurement of voltage, current, resistance, power, inductance, reactance and capacitance. The basic understanding of those concepts allows the operator to understand electrical components such as switchgear, relays, transformers, uninterruptible power systems (UPS), DC batteries and chargers. The understanding of electrical components, coupled with the NEMA device numbers, allows them to read and understand Single and Three Line Diagrams. For example, the subject of electrical switching and tagging came up during an electrical system-training program. One of the operators potentially 3-7

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responsible for the switching and tagging program asked the question why they needed the single lines to tag out a piece of equipment. The instructor politely answered the question, explaining to the operator the need and then proceeded to have a refresher course on reading single line diagrams. Basic instrumentation and controls (I&C) knowledge is the foundation an operator needs to allow an understanding of how and why components and systems operate and respond to certain plant parameters. That basic knowledge covers primary sensing instrumentation such as pressure transmitters, switches, ultrasonic flow and level devices, thermocouples and RTDs. The I&C background allows the plant operator to understand how the plant Digital Control System (DCS) uses the various digital and analog inputs and outputs to control system operation. The I&C basics coupled with a good process training program gives the operator the tools necessary to think through an operational problem encountered during the day-to-day operation of the plant. A mechanical background with a basic understanding of isolation valves, flow and pressure control valves, relief valves, heat exchangers, pressure vessels, compressors and pumps provides an operator with the background necessary to operate the plant and minimize equipment or system damage. With that basic understanding an operator has the foundation to read and understand Piping and Instrumentation Diagrams (P&IDs) and mechanically isolate and tag out a piece of equipment for maintenance. Basic plant chemistry concepts are also important for an operator to know. That knowledge can minimize operational mistakes such as environmental non-compliance, excessive plant waste processing and long term plant component failures. In an era of the computer revolution, computer skills have become essential. Those skills are necessary to interface with the DCS, generate operational reports, conduct and evaluate a preventive maintenance program, stock spares and generate operational and maintenance reports for senior management. Training Options Teacher Qualifications - The qualifications for an operations instructor vary. Obvious skills include: public speaking, the ability to develop lesson plans and training aids as well as being able to clearly and concisely organize their thoughts. The individual needs to be either a degreed engineer or have a technical background with power plant maintenance and operations experience. That experience allows them to understand and translate complex engineering documentation into an operator-oriented language. Additionally, it permits the instructor to effectively interface with staff engineers as needed to elaborate on responses to student questions regarding the plant design. Depending on system and or component complexity subject matter experts may be necessary to cover nuances that require an in-depth discussion to understand. The instructor needs to understand the interfaces and division of responsibilities for the project. Typically, each simple cycle or combined cycle project division of responsibility includes several equipment suppliers. For some of the major equipment, the vendors supply their own control systems and have proprietary operational information. Those systems typically include the Combustion Turbine Generator, Steam Turbine Generator, Demineralized Water, Waste 3-8

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Water Treatment and Continuous Emission Monitoring System (CEMS). In order for the students to grasp a complete understanding of system operations, it may be necessary to learn from each of the respective vendors and then have the Engineering, Procurement and Construction (EPC) instructor cover the interfaces. Classroom Training - The EPC contractor needs to offer formal classroom training for the operating staff of the simple cycle and combined cycle power plant systems. Balance of Plant (BOP) system training can be accomplished by using the contractors in-house resources or by subcontracting all or part of the training. The contractor may extend their training services to systems furnished by specialty vendors when formal training is not available or contractually suitable from these vendors. Typically, the EPC contractor also administers the training provided by the combustion turbine OEM, the steam turbine OEM, and by vendors of specialty systems as applicable to the contract requirements. BOP classroom training is a two-fold mission. The first objective involves familiarizing the operators and plant staff with the system process flow path and the purpose and application of the various components within the process. Presentation of the system flow path provides an overview of the system function and its interrelationship with other plant processes. Presenting a detailed description of the major equipment, its control devices, and system capabilities provides the operating staff with an understanding of the system operation. The second objective requires the plant operating staff to learn the control functions, the systematic procedures for starting, operating, and shutting down the plant processes, and how to respond to system alarms. Achieving the two-fold objectives of the classroom-training program enables the operators to participate in the functional testing of components and systems during the startup process, and in the final commissioning of the power plant under the direction of the Startup Group. The effectiveness of classroom training depends upon a variety of conditions, many of which are generic to any training program. The primary conditions influencing the effectiveness of classroom training are listed below. Instructor proficiency Education, experience, and operating proficiency of trainees Diversity of staff responsibilities within the classroom Number of trainees per class Physical environment of training facility Suitability of training materials Presentation of training materials.

The Teacher Qualifications topic presented previously outlines the attributes relating to instructor proficiency. The education, experience and operating proficiency of trainees depends on the staffing philosophy of the utility. The industry today is moving toward reliance on cross training of their 3-9

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staff so they are proficient as mechanics, electricians, I&C technicians, and operators. These expectations require the plant operating staff to have a diverse technical background and the ability to read a variety of different design documents. Our basic expectations for trainees before entering the classroom include the following: Education: Basic understanding of electrical, mechanical, and I&C fundaments, as well as the ability to read Single line drawings, P&ID drawings, and Logic Diagrams. Experience: An experienced understanding of powerhouse safety enables the trainee to work as an integral participant in the checkout of operational equipment with the necessary confidence to perform the prescribed task. A trainee should have an understanding of standard operating practices, such as starting a centrifugal pump with its discharge valve throttled or closed to reduce motor inrush, or the number of cold and hot starts a motor is capable of performing in a prescribed time. Operations: A fundamental knowledge of the overall process enables the operator to evaluate the effect of system or component alarms or failures on the overall process. This understanding enables the trainee to implement the necessary corrective action to maintain the process or perform a safe shutdown.

Classroom diversity typically includes the plant operators, the engineering staff, and plant management. Plant management staff in the classroom can have beneficial or detrimental effects on the learning experience. Plant management participation reinforces the value of the training opportunity and promotes student attentiveness. The primary disadvantages associated with plant management participation are a tendency to use training as a forum for discussing or challenging open engineering design issues or a tendency to manage the training presentation. Although the intent of management to discuss open engineering issues or to direct the training effort may be intended to enhance the training effort, the results are usually to disconnect the instructor from the training, leaving the balance of the class disoriented as to the course direction. Engineering participation is generally advantageous. Engineering staff members usually have a better understanding of the knowledge base of the class and can help direct discussion in areas where it is needed. Occasionally, engineers may use training as an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge to plant management and must be managed to insure the discussion does not diverge from the core lesson to the extent that it disconnects the rest of the trainees. The number of trainees in a classroom seriously affects the ability of the instructor to involve all trainees. Most operators are reluctant to participate in class discussion fearing their question may indicate a lack of knowledge or their discussion is not as worthy as that initiated by management or the engineering staff. In presentations to audiences larger than fifteen participants, the discussion increasingly shifts to that initiated by plant management or the engineers. Class sizes of fifteen or less favor each individual being empowered as an integral member of the class and allow ample opportunity to share their questions and experiences. The physical layout of the facility used for training projects an image to the trainees and the instructor as to the level of importance of the training. It is imperative that the trainees have ample room to layout the course documents. This requires no more than two trainees for each six-foot long table. The room should allow an unobstructed view of the instructor and the displays used to present the training. These requirements can present a real challenge on a 3-10

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construction site with minimal space to house a large training class. An open space measuring 60 x 60 will accommodate 22 to 25 trainees. Additional considerations include adequate lighting, ventilation, and a quiet area. Suitable training materials form the basis of a successful training experience. Without the appropriate training materials the presentation does not reach the audience. Engineering companies typically have developed training documents for use at power generating facilities. This experience should result in a product that will satisfy the operational needs of the operators as well as providing equipment and process descriptions supporting the system operation and alarm responses. The development of training aids to support the training presentation has grown concurrently with the availability of vendor bulletins, manuals, pictures, and animation developed as marketing tools and readily available from the Internet. New tools available for the presentation of the training program enhance the effectiveness of the program. Smart Boards enable the Instructor to map out the flow path of a process on a projected P&ID using different colored highlighters. It allows the instructor to add process variables, equipment operation permissives, and control logic commands to the appropriate areas of the projected P&ID as needed to elaborate on the system operation and control. They also provide an unobtrusive means for guiding the presentation without breaking contact with the audience. They project and allow highlighting of a variety of engineering documents or can be used for displaying vendor literature, pictures, or animations. Presentations delivered by the instructor using a laptop computer are effective, but have the disadvantage of directing the attention of the instructor to the laptop during transition periods. Overhead projectors provide a quicker transition period and are less distracting than a laptop when properly organized and presented. DCS simulators provide the best learning experience. They allow the student to customize their learning experience and provide an unbiased feedback to the input. They also add the touch sense to the training experience that helps reinforce learning. The educational and experience level of the trainees described above is seldom realized. Experience indicates that most operators receive their training through on the job training and by exercising controls based on specially produced documents or verbal instruction. When displaying a P&ID diagram for the first time in class, it is usually immediately apparent that at least a portion of the operators are unable to read the drawing. Single line diagrams and logic diagrams are met with the same response. Invariably, inquiries concerning an operators experience level indicate that they meet the expectation that they are able to read these documents. Incorporating a training session on reading these design documents interrupts the presentation for those familiar with these documents and tends to disrupt the class. However, since these documents are so fundamental to a classroom presentation of the plant operation, time must be allocated to their understanding. It is well advised to conduct a remedial course on reading design drawings for those requiring such training prior to the beginning of system and plant process training. This allows these trainees to interact with equal confidence as the rest of the class. OEM and Plant Operations Training - Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEM) training requires at least the same level of instructor qualification as does the training provided by the EPC contractor. Being the OEM does not pre-qualify them as the most suitable source for providing training on the supplied equipment. Some OEMs subcontract their training program to others. They may use a generic canned training presentation, or may send a field service 3-11

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representative without a formal training program or specific knowledge of the installed equipment at a specific site. A thorough understanding of the program content, the tools needed to deliver the presentation, and the qualification of the instructor are essential to ensure the presentation meets the expectations. When the proper attention the OEM training program is neglected, it can result in some undesirable results. On one previous project, the engineer contracted for one week of training from a reputable water treatment supplier. When the first instructor arrived he suggested that we all go on a system walk down so he could see the type and layout of the equipment supplied. After about three hours of training, he indicated that was all he knew and did not know who contracted for a week of training. On another occasion, a turbine supply vendor hired a training firm to deliver a canned training presentation that was probably more suitable to training their own employees than for a plant operating staff. The instructor had no experience with turbines installed at the site, and did not have the technical background needed to explain the concepts presented. After two days listening to a prerecorded presentation by a monotone turbine specialist about turbine and generator theory, well beyond the education level of the class, the class was ready to leave. Plant Operations training is a two-fold program. One phase consists of familiarizing the trainees with the network layout and the operation of the DCS from the operator workstation. This phase of the training is conducted with simulators or with the plant DCS system energized and the output commands disabled. This allows the operators to become familiar with the various control device commands, learn how to interrogate points of the DCS logic, and find out how to prepare and display plant-operating trends. The other phase consists of presenting the system controls and a sequential procedure for starting, operating, and shutting down the unit. BOP instruction of plant operations includes explaining the prerequisites necessary for starting pumps, for opening and closing valves, or for manually operating any other control device. Pictures of the actual DCS graphics for a particular process enable the trainee to visualize the operation of the control devices. Operator commands present only a small fraction of control functions required to operate the plant. Operations training includes discussing the automatic control logic residing in the DCS controllers for each of the systems. Walk-down of Subsystems - System and subsystem walk-downs present the trainees with a perception of size and layout of the plant. They allow the trainee an opportunity to inspect the various types of equipment and their local control stations as applicable. It is a valuable training tool for reinforcing the classroom presentation with a visual overview. Using a P&ID to walk down the system enables the trainee to link the diagrammatical presentation of the system with a visual representation and a plant location for future reference. The ideal group size for a walkdown is two to four trainees. Larger groups are usually disruptive to the work area, present difficulty in communication, and tend to not include all participants. Splitting the class into groups and establishing objectives for each group produces effective results. The instructor located at a prime piece of system equipment can provide clues for achieving the planned objective or assisting in the interpretation of training materials; however, the primary responsibility for achieving the planned activity needs to remain with the group. Simulator Training - Simulator training can be further defined as Digital Control System (DCS) training. This training can have specific courses designed for Engineers, Operators, Technicians and System Administrators and is typically offered by the DCS vendor. The training should be 3-12

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specified and included with the DCS equipment during purchase. Decisions need to be made regarding which personnel are going to attend, and whether the training will be held on-site versus off-site. On-site training has the advantage of allowing the instructor to use the plant equipment and structure to emphasize details relevant to the specific operation. Unfortunately, the on-site training requires that the DCS be operating and available, which typically is not the case during the plant startup phase. The second on-site option would be to rent DCS simulators that could be shipped to the site to support training. The disadvantages to this option are the simulator rentals are expensive and not plant specific. The third option is to conduct the training off-site at the vendors training facility. Although this training is relatively inexpensive, the disadvantages are the living expenses incurred during the off-site training sessions and the training not being plant specific. Cross-Training - Cross training of the operators begins with the classroom training and is set into practice during the startup functional testing and commissioning of the unit. The Startup Manager assigns one or more operators to assist each of the Startup Engineers. Their responsibilities working with the Startup Engineer begin at the elementary level and gradually increase based on actual performance. An operator assigned to work with a mechanical Startup Engineer would typically begin on the job training by walking down a process system with the Startup Engineer and positioning the valves according to the P&ID. As the confidence between the Startup Engineer and the operator increase, the Startup Engineer assigns the operator to perform operations on live systems. These activities may include such action as opening a closed discharge valve after starting a centrifugal pump or bleeding in steam to a cold system. Electrical and I&C training evolve in the same manner as explained for the mechanical systems. Electrical training may begin with tagging out MCC breakers and evolve to performing bus transfers on the Medium Voltage Switchgear. I&C training may start with calibrating level switches and culminate with checking out loops or operating the unit from the DCS. As an operator becomes proficient in a particular area, such as electrical, the Startup Manager reassigns the operator to a different type of learning experience, such as mechanical systems. By rotating the operators through the different Startup Specialty groups, Electrical, Mechanical, and I&C, they become cross-trained. The process described above can be accomplished through first class room training and then through on the job training to receive ownership for their plant. The actual process is complicated by contractual and labor agreements. Contractually the EPC contractor is responsible for care and custody of the plant until turnover after commissioning. The client may be reluctant to involve its personnel in the early phases of plant commissioning. On union jobs, labor agreements may restrict the usage of plant personnel to support startup and commissioning activities. These conflicts in interest usually restrict most of the electrical operations and certain mechanical and I&C operations to a lesser degree. Timing The timing of various training activities is an important consideration. Obviously, training must occur prior to assuming certain job responsibilities. But just as importantly, training must not 3-13

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occur to early if no opportunities exist to convert that the new knowledge into hands-on experience. Over the course of many weeks, much of the training that occurs in a classroom setting can easily be forgotten.

Environmental Health, Safety and Security


Jobsite Safety and Enforcement Philosophies on safety in recent years have evolved dramatically. Previously the standard approach was to assume that safety is the responsibility of the Safety Department; now, the philosophy is that safety starts with the people who have their hands on the tools. When workers commit unsafe acts, no training, appliance, policy or Safety Professional can prevent an incident. Projects that illustrate excellent safety statistics reflect this shift in approach to project safety. The question is; How do we institute this sweeping change in thought process? The basis for a change in the safety performance starts with the top management of all the stakeholders on a project including the owner, contractor and labor. If the entire management team does not buy in to the safety program, then the workers on the project will reflect this same attitude. Empowerment - A part of convincing the employees of their responsibility is to truly empower them to take an active role in the development of the safety program. The basis for a safety plan is a well thought out Site Specific Safety Plan (SSSP). This plan should be available to all workers and be dynamic in the sense that any changes brought forth by anyone at any level on the project that pertain to the plan should be evaluated by a joint committee for inclusion in or change to the original plan if necessary. Employees should be given the responsibility and the authority to take action to stop the train should they witness anyone committing an unsafe act without fear of reprisal or retribution. Often peer pressure can be a much greater influence on a workforce to execute in a proper fashion in regard to safety than anything management can do alone. When an employee brings a safety problem to the attention of management, they must take immediate action. Anything less will result in the erosion of the confidence of the workforce toward the entire process. Talk is cheap!! We must execute what we espouse. Incentive Programs - Although the theory of incentive programs may seem foreign to some, (after all who would need more of an incentive than going home to your personal life in good condition) this has proven to be an effective method to improve safety statistics. In reality, it is unclear as to the ability of these programs to decrease the number of injuries or induce employees to work more safely as workers are more likely to hide or cover-up injuries rather than risk losing their incentives. Nonetheless, incentive programs can be used on projects and based on previous statistical analyses of past projects, are considered an effective method to influence workers to act in a safe manner. Some types of incentive programs are the following: Cash Bonuses: Employees are paid cash for achievement of predetermined goals for not incurring a lost time, recordable or first aid injury.

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Prize Give-Away: Prizes are awarded to employees in a drawing that employees qualify for not incurring injuries. Safety Bucks: Employees accumulate credits over time to purchase safety awards from the Safety Department.

Safety Performance Monitoring - In order to accurately determine the effectiveness of a safety program, a performance monitoring system is needed. Most Contractors, Owners, Insurance Companies and Governmental agencies focus on the Lost Time Incident Rate (LTIR), Recordable Incident Rate (RIR) and Days Away, Restricted or Transferred (DART) statistics. Although these are accurate reflections of the past performance of the workforce in regard to injuries, they do little to proactively improve safety performance. One method that has become a valuable tool for gauging the actual safety performance on a project is through the use of a Safe Acts Index. This tool uses observation of workers in the process of actually performing work activities and calculating the number of safe and or unsafe acts versus the number of observations and stating the results as a percentage. These statistics can be graphed over time to accurately reflect the performance of individuals, crews and crafts from either an area, shift, discipline or other perspective. This information can then be used to analyze safety performance for the purposes of educating, training and improving worker safety. Safety Training - One of the most valuable methods of improving safety performance is by the use of properly applied training programs. Every worker should be trained to perform the tasks assigned to them in a safe manner, but such practice is not always the case. Each worker should be educated in the various aspects of safe work practices from basic work safety to more advanced safety applications. Projects must be prepared to provide both classroom and hands on training for the use of tools, safety appliances, confined space entry, fall prevention, proper lifting techniques and a host of other possible applications depending on the type of project being executed and the experience level of the worker. Never should a workers skill or safety training level be assumed. Always take steps to assure the workers safety competence and attitude are aligned with that of the project. When designing a safety-training program an often-overlooked item is the level of literacy and ability to communicate on the part of the person being trained. Steps should be taken to establish whether an individual has the necessary reading skills to comprehend the information being provided. The training program must provide for individuals whose reading skill level is depressed. Care should also be taken to establish the level and ability to verbally communicate as many of todays workers originate in countries other than where the project is being executed and may not be conversant in the local language. Job Planning - In order to assure proper execution of the work related to installation and start-up of a project tasks must be properly planned. A very effective tool for planning work is a Job Planning and Safety Assessment (JPSA). The JPSA should address the steps involved in the execution of a task, an assessment of the hazards associated with each step and the mitigation measures for each task. The JPSA should be reviewed by the crew performing the task and should remain in the work area while the work is being performed. Should anything change that might affect safety of the workers, the work should stop, a review of the hazards be performed and reviewed by the crew, the JPSA should be revised accordingly. Then work would be 3-15

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allowed to resume. Supervision and management staff should perform random audits of the JPSAs to assure that the process is being properly utilized. Disciplinary Measures and Enforcement - The requirement to discipline workers is one of the most difficult and unenviable yet required tasks a manager has to perform. To reduce the amount of time spent doing this task, we should first focus on properly and completely informing our employees of what is expected of them during all parts of their job performance. A Job Rule and Disciplinary Procedure must be developed for each specific project. Upon hire-in, all employees should be given a copy of the Project Rules and Disciplinary Procedure and be required to acknowledge in written form that they have received and will adhere to the procedure. The procedure should be reviewed with the new employees in detail and they should be given the opportunity to ask questions to preclude the possibility of misunderstanding. Most workers will follow the rules if they are laid out for them during their new hire orientation and informed of the consequences of their unwillingness to adhere to the project rules. Should the need arise for disciplinary action, the action must be according to the procedure and no deviation may be allowed. Any deviation from the prescribed action as per the applicable procedure will result in a loss of confidence in the procedure and possible litigation or other legal action. Environmental Concerns - Depending on the location of the project various requirements may need to be fulfilled. A properly designed Environmental Action Plan should take into consideration any applicable State and Federal laws, codes and standards. As a project evolves, the requirements of the Environmental Action Plan may need to be reevaluated as to the applicability of any part of the plan and whether change is warranted. A case in point might be when the project is moving into the stage of the project when chemicals for the startup phase of the project are being introduced on the site. An evaluation should be made as to the type of compounds and their ability to be disposed of in a safe, economical and environmentally conscientious manner. If the proper compounds are chosen, an option for disposal may be to neutralize the pH on site and merely discharge the chemicals to the local sewage disposal authority. This action must be coordinated with the local authorities and a fee for the disposal may be applied due to the increased demand on the affected treatment system. The alternative to this method might be to have the waste transported by a certified waste hauler to a licensed disposal site. This can be a very costly option as the price can be affected by local conditions such as local wage rates, fuel costs and distance to a licensed disposal site. As a part of the Environmental Action Plan, handling of hazardous or contaminated materials should be addressed. Should there be a chance of exposure of workers to such contaminants such as heavy metals (lead, mercury, arsenic etc.) or airborne contaminants (silica, asbestos etc.) hazardous liquids (gasoline, solvents, paint products) a plan to mitigate these circumstances and protect the workforce must be in place.

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Crane Inspection and Maintenance Another important part of the Site Specific Safety Plan is the Crane/Equipment safety plan. This plan should delineate the parameters for safe operation of the material handling and hoisting equipment used on the project. These parameters should include: The requirements for inspection of equipment on a regularly scheduled basis (daily, monthly, quarterly and annually) Items to be inspected on the equipment Requirements prior to making critical lifts Limits for operation of the equipment such as wind conditions, line of site issues and other circumstances that may affect the safe operation of the equipment.

Critical lifts must be designed by a qualified individual and supervised by qualified and experienced supervision. A Critical Lift Plan should reference the set-up of the equipment, weight of the piece to be moved, boom angles, lengths and radii and other pertinent information. The plan should be reviewed with the crews performing the work to assure that all workers including riggers, flaggers, equipment operators and nearby workers are aware of the complete task and the hazards of each facet of the task and to assure that all are in agreement with the plan.

Government Rules and Regulations


Regulatory Compliance Lesson Learned on Two Case Studies: There are three main areas of Regulatory Compliance that have direct impacts on any CT Plant Startup Program: Plant Emissions Compliance Noise Limits Waste Handling and Disposal

The following material provides an example of how the restrictions posed by emissions regulations caused delays in the startup schedule in Case A. In Case B, an alternate approach was taken to resolve the issues by requesting an environmental permit modification: In Case Study A Plant Emissions had a restriction of 20 fired-hours on the unit without the SCR catalyst being installed. This restriction was imposed on the project by the State Regulatory Agency. This presented an issue for getting the HRSG and associated ductwork clean and Combustion Turbine tested and restored for load testing within that time frame allotted in the schedule. In order to satisfy the Clients concerns, the catalyst manufacturer was requested to inspect the HRSG and ductwork to verify its cleanliness so installation of the catalyst could be accomplished after only twenty hours of steam blows per unit. This caused considerable delays in the schedule and additional project cost.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Startup Planning and Preparation

In Case Study B as part of the permitting process additional time was requested and allowed for operation of the unit at Full Speed on Load without having to have the catalyst installed and without synchronization, which allowed all the cleaning program and combustion turbine testing at Full Speed on Load to be completed before the SCR catalyst was installed. An important thing to remember for all projects is that as part of the permit negotiations, the initial startup program (from back-feed to commercial operation) should be completed up to and including performance tests and reliability tests before emission compliance is required. Noise Limits and Testing In Case Study A the first review of the noise limits for the project occurred when the steam blow program was about to begin. The silencer noise level control capabilities were not taken into consideration. It was assumed they would control the noise and that there were no procedures for noise testing or data collection. A procedure was developed based on previous plant startups and input from the Acoustic Department staff. As it turned out the noise levels at the receptors were at the limits and due to conflicts between the client and local residents, the steam blow process was interrupted several times during the operation and often postponed for several hours. Finally a blowing schedule was agreed to, resulting in a program that allowed blows between 7 am and 7 pm and no weekend operations. This had a major impact on the project schedule. In Case Study B the Noise Permit Levels were addressed almost a year before the test began. With support from our acoustic experts we established a noise model for the silencers based on information provided by the silencer manufacturer. This was compared to permit noise levels at the five receptors identified in the contract. This data was submitted to the silencer manufacturer for evaluation along with information on the steam flow calculations and the proposed steam blow program. Location of the silencers and physical modifications were made to ensure their compliance with noise limits in the permit at each receptor. The procedure for the noise testing and data collection was developed, reviewed, and approved by the client and engineering for content and format nine months before testing began. The Client also provided community relations personnel to go out into the residential areas and talk to the people about what was going to be taking place at site. As a result of the pre-planning this project was able to perform the steam blow program without noise related issues 24 hours a day 7 days a week and met compliance requirements. These process and modeling programs will be used to evaluate all further projects noise level compliance programs to ensure continued success. Waste Handling and Disposal As with all permits the owner is the holder of the waste discharge permit (NPDES). Any waste generated during the startup phase of the project is still the responsibility of the Owner even if by contract the EPC contractor is listed as responsible for storage and disposal. This includes, but is not limited to, oil, grease, chemicals, and solvents.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Startup Planning and Preparation

The areas of most concern during the startup phase are the system flushing and cleaning, and the chemical cleaning process. These activities have the most potential for impact on both the budget and schedule. When construction is complete, the plant is then turned over to startup for testing. This requires in most cases disassembly of installed equipment and piping to accommodate cleaning. As in the Case Study A, there was no pre-planning for chemical cleaning. A subcontractor was selected to perform the cleaning process on the HRSG and feed water and condensate piping. As the subcontractor mobilized on the site, meetings were held to determine the course of action. Storage of waste became an immediate issue as no allowance was made for storage tanks and/or storage drums. It was also discovered that space was very limited, and this made it necessary to increase the amount of hauling off site and delayed shipment of oil and grease. Temporary connections for hoses and flush connections did not exist, and additional flanges and couplings had to be fabricated and installed onto existing systems. In some cases spool pieces had to be fabricated to replace permanent plant equipment. Some systems had to be disassembled to allow for flushing equipment and connections. In some cases hydro-test boundaries had to be violated so effective flushing could be accomplished and then retested. In Case Study B, the Senior Startup Manager was involved in the project from Notice to Proceed to Commercial Operation and into the Warranty Period. His review included engineering documents and purchase orders to ensure that startup requirements were included. All P&IDs were reviewed and placement of flushing connections was engineered into the systems. Spool pieces were engineered into the piping system to allow hose jumper connections around all major pieces of equipment. Manufacturer drawings were reviewed and flanged connections were added during fabrication. And where possible flushing kits were bought and installed (such as the turbine lube oil system) during construction to eliminate the disassembly process in preparation by startup staff for cleaning. The use of hoses, manufactured supplied flush kits and manufactured installed connections reduced the risks of spills and leaks, and minimized field fabrication cost and installation time. On-site areas were reserved for staging of oils and greases, as well as waste containment vessels and equipment required for support of startup and chemical cleaning without interference with ongoing construction activities. Another consideration was the type of cleaning process that was utilized. In the past cleaning solutions such as sulfuric acid and caustic soda were used in the chemical cleaning programs. These compounds produce a highly toxic waste. Alternate processes are available that are more environmentally compatible; these solutions are biodegradable and pH neutral and can be disposed of through sanitary treatment plants. This alternate cleaning process was used in Case Study B. The project team approached the city waste treatment operator and provided information on the process for consideration. At the point when we collected the first flush cycle we provided test results of waste to the city and from that point on, the plant was allowed to 3-19

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Startup Planning and Preparation

discharge the waste into the sanitary sewer on the plant site. This resulted in major time and cost savings to the project. Other issues that have occurred due to site-specific operating conditions include plugging of the condenser with algae that entered the plant through the water intake from the lake. Algae entered the system as small drops of algae that easily passed through the intake screens. Once in the system, the drops would tend to coalesce, forming fibrous clumps that could not be easily removed without shutting down the condenser. Investigation of the problem that was identified during startup is continuing at that site. With regard to environmental issues and endangered species, the presence of these species near the plant site may restrict the work hours during startup. This has occurred in the past when nesting periods for an endangered bird restricted that hours that high levels of noise could be generated at the site. The presence of these species and restrictions necessary to avoid negative plant impacts should be identified early on and incorporated into the plant startup schedule if necessary.

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4
TURNOVER, CHECKOUT, TESTING AND COMMERCIAL OPERATION

Construction and Subsystem Turnover


Each CT plant installation has a number of phases that have specific criteria for turnover to the next phase. Engineering turns over the project to procurement and construction after completing the final design (and sometimes before the final details are completed in order to meet schedule requirements). Construction turns over the plant to the startup team once the plant is complete. In many cases, the turnover process is completed in a series of steps, completing various subsystem installations as required by the milestone schedule. Once the installation criteria have been met, then the startup team begins their effort to perform equipment checkouts, cleaning, and initial operations according to the startup plan. After all subsystems have been turned over by the construction group, and the testing of these subsystems is completed, then the startup group begins testing the integrated system. Once proper operation has been established for all components and the control system has been fully integrated, then the startup team will move forward with performance testing of the system. Once the plant has met the performance criteria specified in the contract, the plant is then ready for turnover to the client for commercial operation. The following planning and tasks are required to complete the successful turnover between contractors and ultimately to the client: Subsystem Identification Engineering identifies/designs systems, startup and construction develop turnover packages for integration into the schedule Owner/Developer should be involved throughout the process of scheduling the project, including turnover criteria development Review of the plan by the owners construction and development team is necessary early on in the process Feed back should also be solicited from the owners operations personnel prior to releasing drawings for construction Startup Team Constituents this can consist of constructor and vendor startup personnel only, or it can be an integrated team consisting of constructor, vendor and owner operations personnel

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Turnover, Checkout, Testing and COmmercial Operation

Interface points with CT, ST, HRSG, and BOP vendors must be established early in the design process Cleanliness will be one of the major factors used to determine turnover from the startup team to the client A turnover checklist is typically used to ensure that all the criteria for turnover, at each point in the process, have been met

System Turnover Criteria All project team members, including the owner, constructor, subcontractors and vendors, must all be fully aware of their ultimate criteria for meeting the project requirements before turnover. These turnover criteria should be itemized in each individual contract to avoid misunderstandings, change orders or claims against the project. The turnover criteria for any specific project will vary widely depending on the specified system performance, the types of equipment being installed, existing site conditions, ambient conditions, and the contract specifications. These will include system performance as well as documentation to support plant operation. Some of these items are discussed in the following material. Operation & Maintenance Manuals - O&M manuals are some of the required documentation that equipment suppliers must submit to fulfill the requirements of their contract. These O&M documents must be reviewed by all engineering disciplines just like any other vendor submittal. In many cases, they include the final submittal of drawings showing the latest/final changes. The information contained in these documents is used by both the startup team and ultimately the client operating staff. The engineering design staff will also use this data to support their detailed design efforts. OEM Warranties and Costs - The contract/purchase order with the OEM/Supplier must clearly state the warranty provisions. The contract/purchase order should state if only the part is replaced if equipment fails or if the supplier provides labor and/or supervisory support. Consequential damages are normally not covered. Decisions need to be made by the owner/engineer as to the extent of warranty expected prior to placing the purchase order. A separate line item may be provided in the suppliers quotations, since warranties and their costs vary among suppliers and should be included in the bid tabulations. The owner/engineer may consider requesting costs for various levels of warranty coverage to determine a cost/benefit value. For major equipment packages, it is common to have a supplier representative at the jobsite to supervise the installation, commissioning and start-up. It is important to have this representative that is familiar with the equipment package installed at the site, which is not always the case. Often special tools are required for installation and start-up, and this should be addressed in the contract/purchase order. For large equipment packages (e.g. water treatment plants, cooling towers) it is not uncommon to subcontract the erection and start-up to the supplier. In this case, careful planning must be coordinated between the general contractor and the supplier, including lay down areas, schedule, temporary power requirements, etc. 4-2

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Turnover, Checkout, Testing and COmmercial Operation

The turnover of subsystems from Construction to the Startup Group will require coordination of the release of systems. The costs for Startup need t be specifically addressed in the contract as well. Turnover activities and startup costs are itemized below, including but not limited to the following: Assist construction in the identification and correction of deficiencies that require resolution prior to turnover. Assure the following typical Construction Tests are completed according to the Startup Execution Plan Delineation of Work: o Piping hydrostatic testing/cleaning o Vessel internal inspection and cleaning o Cable continuity o Electrical insulation resistance and hi-potential tests, etc. o Equipment alignment Estimating Startup Costs and Schedule o Startup Training o Indirect Manpower Costs o Field Startup Engineer Costs o Startup Craft Support Costs o Startup Spare Parts & Consumables o Test Equipment System Descriptions, Ops Instructions, Training Costs OEM Technical Advisor (TA) Costs Warranty Program Costs Lab Fees, Consultants, Certification Costs Cleaning, Flushing, Air/Steam Blowing Costs Performance Testing Costs Operations Supervision

Checkout and Initial Operations


CT startups typically require the assistance of specialized subcontractors. Some of these subcontracted services that are needed during a CT plant startup are listed below: Special testing services high voltage, stack emissions, etc. Test equipment rentals or purchases for use by the startup staff Cleaning services 4-3

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Turnover, Checkout, Testing and COmmercial Operation

Security services Startup spare components or supplies Consultants to assist with startup activities OEM staff, etc. Consumables used during startup.

Subsystem checkouts can be impacted by a variety of factors. Some of these are listed below: Equipment Readiness has the construction team completed installation of all tie-ins that are needed to enable the startup group to begin initial operations? Is their punch list complete? Have all utility tie-ins been completed and is power/water available at the location of the subsystem? Formalized Startup Procedures these are typically supplied by the equipment supplier and must be followed to maintain equipment warranties. Any changes to the startup procedures for a specific component must by approved in writing prior to proceeding with the modified plan. Instrumentation and Controls Experience gained from early plant installations will tend to provide a bias in I&C component and software selection for future projects. Successes and problems with one DCS system vs. another on multiple previous contracts would lead to preferences and recommendations of one system over another. It is not the intent of this report to provide specific recommendations of equipment and vendors based on lessons learned on earlier contracts. Design input from owner operations personnel prior to developing controls philosophy and selecting the control system for a specific plant is critical to the success of each project. This will also help to minimize changes from owner operations personnel during startup and prior to turnover for commercial operation. Affect of Site Conditions - provisions for inclement weather must be incorporated into the plant design and startup plans. Rain/drip shields over electrical boxes and instrumentation cabinets are a necessity in most locations that are subject to rain/snow. Dealing with these issues in the initial plant design will greatly improve the efficiency of the startup process and its duration. Fuel Cleanliness -Natural gas cleanliness can have a major impact on the startup and longterm operation of the plant. Debris or the presence of heavy hydrocarbons in the fuel can cause fouling of the fuel nozzles. Gas compressor lubricants can also lead to gas nozzle fouling. This in turn can result in excess emissions during startup, and can increase the heat rate of the unit, not allowing the system to achieve its performance guarantees. Therefore, the fuel filtration system must be designed to consider all potential contaminants so that maximum startup efficiency can be maintained throughout the process.

Acceptance Testing
Criteria for plant acceptance are typically identified in the contract. Performance requirements are specified in each contract and are typically accompanied by Liquidated Damages costs associated with non-performance or schedule delays. Contract requirements will typically include maximum output, heat rate, water usage all with seasonal variations, and a turnover date will be defined in the contract with schedule penalties. 4-4

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Turnover, Checkout, Testing and COmmercial Operation

Contractors are required to give the Owner at least seven days notice prior to commencement of Acceptance Testing of the plant. The Contractor should also notify the agent acting for the Construction Lender and/or other parties identified in the original contract. The notification should include a schedule for all of the required tests. This schedule can typically be changed by issuing a subsequent Notice of Acceptance Testing. The Contractor should only issue these notices when they feel that the plant will be able to achieve the performance and emissions limits as specified in the contract. The Request for Proposal issued by the client will typically require the following: Test Plans and formalized startup procedures reviewed and accepted by the owner prior to startup phase commencing Capacity and Heat Rate Performance - Formalized procedures reviewed and accepted by the owner, constructor and vendors in accordance with contract Availability/Reliability - Formalized procedures reviewed and accepted by the owner, constructor and vendors in accordance with contract Emissions - Formalized procedures reviewed and accepted by the owner, constructor and vendors in accordance with contract

Acceptance Test Criteria will typically cover the following issues: Unit Performance Test For a multi-unit plant, the Client may chose to accept each unit on a standalone basis. For a combined cycle plant this would include one CT, one ST and one HRSG. The criteria would be tested against the net electrical output in kW and the net heat rate in Btu/kWh at lower hating value of the fuel. Reliability Test The reliability test for the plant will include the requirement to maintain emissions levels below stipulated levels for the duration (typically 3 days) of the test. Both part load and full load capability will be demonstrated. The start of the test is usually after the plant has operated at full load for at least one hour. Plant reliability will be calculated using an equation provided in the contract. A reliability factor of at least 95% will typically be used to set criteria for passage of the test. Extended reliability (availability test) may also be required (typically 7 days). Environmental Compliance Test Stack emissions will typically be established in the contract for NOX, CO, VOC and NH3 depending upon the emissions control equipment required for the facility. Recognized methods will be established in the acceptance test protocol that should be a part of the contract. Some Air Permits also require emissions limitations on particulate matter (PM10) and SO2, especially for dual fuel fired units. The Air Permit will also provide startup and shutdown limits and normal operation limits. In some cases the permit will also address annual emissions limits for hazardous air pollutants. Performance testing requirements, test methods and continuous emissions monitoring requirements are also specified in the Air Permit. Noise emissions testing also in included under environmental testing. Testing is typically done both within the plant and at various points around the perimeter. Levels less that 85dBA are required within one meter of all equipment. Perimeter readings will vary with local ordinance requirements. Test methods typically require ANSI standard methods. A test tolerance of 2 dBA is generally found to be acceptable. 4-5

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Turnover, Checkout, Testing and COmmercial Operation

Utility Acceptance Test The Electric Interconnection Utility representative will be given access to the plant by the contractor to observe functional testing of communications, metering and control. Plant Performance Test Again, this performance test will focus on Net Electrical Output and Net Heat Rate. A specific set of conditions will be established for the test, including elevation, ambient temperature, relative humidity, fuel lower heating value, generation power factor, fuel type and electrical frequency in Hz. For testing conducted outside of the specified test conditions, correction curves can be applied. An approved test plan procedure is typically included in the contract documents. This procedure will establish the set of representative test data that is required to demonstrate guaranteed operating conditions for net output and heat rate. Emissions levels will have to be met under all test conditions specified in the contract. Demonstration Test This series of tests demonstrates the ability of the plant to function properly under a variety of potential conditions: Cold startup Hot startup Steam turbine bypass Combustion turbine trip Normal shutdown DCS during normal operations DCS under reduce plant operation Equipment Lead-Lag Control Air cooled condenser heat rejection requirements.

Commercial Operations Acceptance


After the plant has completed Acceptance Testing requirements, the Client will issue a Certificate of Substantial Completion. A punch list of outstanding items will typically accompany this certificate, and an estimated dollar limit is usually established in the contract that applies to all the items remaining on the punch list. A variety of other open items will still be functional at the time that Certificate of Substantial Completion is issued: Punch List Management - Formalized procedures reviewed and accepted by the owner, constructor and vendors in accordance with contract Warranty Administration Program As-Built Documentation - Formalized procedures reviewed and accepted by the owner, constructor and vendors in accordance with contract and all required documentation transmitted to Owner Establish Requirements for Project Reliability/Performance Testing which include: 4-6 Satisfy contract requirements

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Turnover, Checkout, Testing and COmmercial Operation

Confirm Owner consensus Confirm schedule Assign a Reliability/Performance Test Coordinator Assign key Startup personnel Develop appropriate written test documents.

Preparation for Final Checkout and Initial Operations requires attention to three specific areas: Equipment Readiness (How to Prepare for the Worst While Expecting the Best) Instrumentation and Controls (Software and Logic Can Cost More Time than Hardware) Affect of Site Conditions (Provisions for Inclement Weather)

As-Built Documentation Vendor Drawing Submittal Vendor drawings for major equipment are submitted to support the rest of the project activities. However, in the original plan for the project, it was assumed that these vendor reviews would only require one review cycle. This is never the case. The original plan should assume multiple vendor drawing review cycles, and these reviews should be reflected in the project schedule. These submittals should be included on the critical path, drawing more attention from management and the assistance of expediting staff. The following actions will help to shorten the vendor drawing review cycle: A formal submittal process should be included in the contract and support specifications. This document should identify the information that is needed and should be relatively simple and self-explanatory. A submittal matrix can include submittal dates and can ultimately be converted into a checklist to ensure that the contractor or supplier meets all their obligations. Ensure that the vendors understand all of the information that they will need to supply to support engineering, construction and startup staff. Document reviewers must be trained to make only relevant critical comments to vendor documents. Quality checks/screening of comments should be included in all document returns to vendors.

It should be noted that some of the major OEM of gas turbines have their own internal procedures and are not willing to change them for each project. In one case, the OEM des not cloud drawing revisions, but provides a text description of the change only on the Memo of Shipment (MS) accompanying the new drawing. In many cases, it is necessary to change the project filing system to accommodate the OEM drawing numbering system. Final drawing numbers are then assigned immediately prior to final issue. The MS list must accompany the drawing package since this is the only summary of revision information. Some OEMs also have their own electronic drawing submittal system. In some cases these systems are only set up to support the OEM in their contractual obligations regarding submittals, and the end user

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(Engineer and Client) have difficulty in finding them. Use of these OEM specific tools must be considered in planning for a project. Architectural drawings should be completed as late in the process as possible. This should fall in the period when other discipline designs have progressed beyond the preliminary stage. In this way, the building drawings will be coordinated with the discipline designs. HVAC and plumbing drawings must show dimensional information for all equipment, wall and roof penetrations. The project must avoid having one discipline reference another drawing for dimensions, and that drawing referencing the previous for dimensions. Piping discipline staff must also maintain location drawings for miscellaneous pipe supports that require concrete foundations and steel framing. Warranties Warranties for a CT plant project will include the following: Engineering and Design of the plant including the preparation of the drawings shall meet the requirements of the contract documents, be in compliance with applicable laws and good utility practice, and conform to requirements set forth in contract attachments. Subcontractor warranties for equipment should be requested for 18-24 months or longer at no additional cost to the Owner or contractor and be assigned to the Owner following the date of substantial completion. Details in the warranties with equipment suppliers should address who will bear the cost of scaffolding so that the vendor can make repairs to equipment that is under warranty. Performance of the equipment shall meet or exceed the levels established in the contract. Equipment warranties typically include the following: all equipment shall be new or in accordance with the specifications, free of defects in material and workmanship and suitable for use in the climatic and range of operating conditions established in the contract The systems shall be designed and constructed so as not to interfere with or limit performance of the equipment Construction warranties will include performance of the work in good and workmanlike manner, in accordance with applicable laws, applicable permits and applicable insurance policies. The construction contractor should be experienced in the construction of similar electric power generating facilities under similar circumstances. All work should be done using Good Utility Practice to enable the Owner to meet the technical requirements of the contract without modifications. The performance of the Plant and Equipment shall meet or exceed the Commercial Operation Output and Commercial Operation Net Heat Rate as set forth in the contract. These performance guarantees are usually accompanied by a series of correction curves that would apply to test conditions different than those specified in the contract. Corrections curves for both net power and net heat rate are typically provided by the OEM for the following criteria associated with CT performance:

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Turnover, Checkout, Testing and COmmercial Operation

Ambient temperature Site elevation Inlet pressure loss for the natural gas fuel Exhaust pressure loss for the natural gas fuel Partial loading of the CT Effects of Steam Injection Cooling tower design approach temperatures for steam turbine performance Air cooled condenser performance vs. dry bulb temperature Steam turbine back pressure impact on lost ST power vs. total exhaust flow

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5
CASE HISTORIES
This section describes a series of case histories where project activities resulted in a series of lessons learned for future contracts. This section addresses instances where optimum performance was not achieved, resulting in specific areas of improvement that can then be transferred to future project teams as a series of Lessons Learned. The problems encountered at each site during construction and startup are addressed as What Happened and then How To Avoid This from Occurring on the Next Project. The project experience of Washington Group International served as the basis for these case history descriptions. CT machines that are included in the case histories include the following: F-Class Simple Cycle and Combined Cycle Plants (General Electric, Siemens, ALSTOM, Mitsubishi) G-Class Combined Cycle Plants (Siemens, Mitsubishi) Other Simple-Cycle and Combined-Cycle Plants Based on Aero-Derivative and Heavy Duty Engines

Multiple case histories are provided in this section, identifying the problems encountered, followed by methods to keep these from happening again in some cases. It should be noted that the Lessons Learned process differs from one project to the next primarily because the participants in each differ from project to project. The materials provided in this section reflect the different formats and content of the lessons learned from various projects. Examples of lessons learned in each case study could include both construction and startup activities like those listed below: Equipment damage in transit Improper installation of components Environmental hazards Construction problems Site cleanliness and impacts on construction efficiency Operating outside of vendor specified guidelines Software version control/issues Manufacturing defects Late delivery

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

Operator errors during startup Unanticipated noise issues and restrictions Temporary piping installation for steam blows during equipment shakedowns Lack of proper support equipment such as strainers Combustion tuning and unit efficiency adjustments Oil line flushing Grid demand reductions leading to delays in commercial start delays Communication breakdowns Plant utilities and waste disposal tie-ins Shutdowns and subsequent project restart impacts, etc.

Issues that may differ from one CT suppliers designs and models to another OEM are addressed when specific information was available for specific models. This includes the CT, Steam Turbine (ST), heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), etc. Recent projects that served as the basis for the Case Histories are listed below: Wisconsin Plant - Combined cycle 2 over 1 arrangement 7FA's gas turbines and steam turbines with HRSGs Multiple Plant Application of Lessons Learned Northeast Locations -Two blocks 2 501G (nominal 250MW) Combustion Turbines, 1 300 MW Steam Turbine LM6000 installation and startup Lessons Learned listing Good practice bulletins taken from multiple plant startups and installations

Case for History for 1000 MW Wisconsin CTCC Plant


This project resulted in the installation, startup and turnover of an 1100 MW combined cycle power plant consisting of four 7FA gas turbines, four heat recovery steam generators (HRSG) and two steam turbine generators (STG). The project started in 2001 and was completed in 2004. This project was very successful, and the Lessons Learned program that followed project completion focused on both the positive and negative aspects of the plant startup process. These lessons learned were broken out by functional activity: civil/foundations/structural steel, piping, electrical and overall project philosophy. The following materials address each of these sets of lessons learned. Civil/Foundations/Structural Steel Lessons Learned: 1. To improve efficiency and shorten construction period, work on all foundations simultaneously

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

2. Start building foundations earlier in the schedule to support early start of steel erection 3. Complete concrete form design earlier in process to allow constructability review input 4. Order steel and rebar earlier to allow review of detailing prior to construction instead of concurrent activity 5. Deliver misc. steel earlier to allow installation concurrent with main structure reduces scaffolding required and increases efficiency of mechanical and electrical trades. 6. Make HRSG foundation monolithic instead of individual foundations 7. Steel requiring fireproofing needs to be prime coated using correct primer at fabrication 8. Include pipe rack, stair tower and boiler feed pump foundations in HRSG foundation Photographs of the plant site during the construction of foundations are provided in Figure 5-1 and 5-2. The following listing provides a series of specific civil/foundation/structural steel design lessons that were derived from the experience during the first block construction and then applied to the second block installation during the Wisconsin CTCC installation and startup. Specific Civil/Foundation/Structural Steel Design Modifications from Block One to Block Two: 1. Work all CTG, STG and HRSG foundations simultaneously. 2. Incorporate cofferdam sheet pile into STG Base Mat 3. Use steel gang forms for major foundations and handset forms for smaller foundations such as building foundations. 4. Modify STG/CTG foundations to incorporate self-supporting formwork to do away with need for shoring in CW channel. 5. Start building foundations earlier in the schedule to support structural steel erection early start.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

Figure 5-1 Foundation Installations around the Plant Site

Figure 5-2 Foundation Installation Near Existing Plant Structure

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

6. Work civil crafts overtime on concrete and structural steel erection to support earlier start on electrical and piping activities. 7. Have concrete form design done earlier to allow for constructability review to make forming more efficient. 8. Order rebar and structural steel earlier to allow review of detailing prior to construction instead of being concurrent with construction. 9. Have misc. steel (platforms, stairways and handrail) delivered earlier to allow installation concurrently with main structure to reduce the need for so many scaffolds and increase efficiency of mechanical and electrical trades. 10. Place floor at 13 elevation earlier to preclude need to evaluate loads on CW channel. 11. Utilize pre-cast sumps for basement sumps instead of cast in place concrete. 12. Buy 2 stack bolt templates for each stack to reduce time spent plumbing bolts. 13. Use Squirter type torque-indicating washers for easier QC of connections. structural steel bolted

14. Install roof drain leaders and headers concurrently with structural steel to minimize need for scaffold for later installation. 15. Install large bore piping vents that penetrate roof concurrent with structural steel. 16. Delete requirement for 100% bolt up and buy-off of structural steel prior to loading commodities on structure with concurrence of Responsible Design Engineer. 17. Have demolition contractor cut holes in K line and other existing walls for Iso-Phase, Pipe and cable tray to preclude necessity to call in a new contractor to do abatement and demolition. 18. Design sheet piles on south and north side of CW to accept wall work and construction surcharge. 19. Incorporate heavy steel supports for pipe supports into building steel instead of having them provided by hanger vendor. 20. Make HRSG foundation monolithic instead of individual foundations. 21. Delete Roof Heating System. 22. Change baffle wall design to a pre-cast wall and embed stop log type channels in north, south and center walls to allow baffle wall to be inserted from the top. 23. Install 2 HPDE (4) pipes from Block 1 to south sedimentation pond during installation of Block 2 east side underground work to allow moving water from Block 1 to the sedimentation pond for dewatering of Block without disruption. 24. Route all drains (now entering discharge tunnel penetrations) into existing stop-log bulkheads instead of coring new holes in tunnel roof. 25. Delete What-if cross-over pipes and conduits in HRSG foundations. 26. Re-design CW turning vanes to a pre-fabricated design that can be slid into place from the side prior to casting the roof. 5-5

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

27. Steel that will need to be fireproofed needs to be prime coated at fabrication with the correct primer to receive fire proofing to preclude need for second prime coat prior to fireproofing application. 28. Include east/west pipe rack, stair tower and Boiler Feed Pump foundations in HRSG foundation. Design Philosophy Lessons Learned Civil/Foundation/Structural Steel from Wisconsin Project 1. Use of engineered steel gang forms to reduce Carpenter time for forming. Coordination with engineering to allow standardization of steel gang form sizes in the following areas; building footers, STG base mat, CTG base mat, HRSF base mat, STG pedestal legs ands STG table top to reduce Carpenter time for forming. Need to use these on heavy foundations ONLY. Too costly for smaller placements such as building foundations. 2. Design HRSG Foundation without slope on top to reduce Cement Finisher time for slope finishing. 3. Conversion of threaded embeds for jacking beams in CTG foundation to sleeves to allow through bolting to attach jacking beams. This didnt work. Need to go to threaded embeds on side of foundation to bolt jacking beams to foundation. 4. Conversion of jacking beams on STG table top to bolted jacking fixtures rather than welded to alleviate need to chip concrete below table top to allow jacking beams to be cut off then re-grout the finished floor. 5. Maximization of Duct Banks for pulling cable to BOP equipment. Worked great. 6. Coordination of structural steel deliveries to allow utility rack to be installed immediately after the major HRSG components are placed. 7. Coordination of electrical and civil engineering to allow installation of conduit and lighting fixtures for high bay lighting on trusses while on the ground, to alleviate the need to build scaffold on the overhead crane to install high bay lighting. 8. Use of grating at main pipe level on utility rack. This will drastically reduce the amount of time expended erecting and dismantling scaffold as well as less money spent on scaffold rental. 9. Use of grating along main cable tray runs along utility rack precluding use of temporary platforms and/or scaffold for installation of cable tray and cable pulling. 10. Incorporation of cable tray supports into outside of utility rack columns. These supports will be fabricated from structural shapes and erected as part of structural steel by the Ironworkers instead of being fabricated from unistrut and installed by Electricians. 11. Incorporation of cable tray supports into building steel for same reason as above. 12. Incorporation of overhead crane buss supports into crane girders. This will allow supports and buss to be installed on the ground prior to lifting the girders into final location. Buss end connections will be made from a 60 ft. manlift.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

13. After HRSG major components are lifted into place and the adjacent rack installed, a tugger or other means is to be installed for lifting other components to the top of the HRSG. This is necessary to limit the blockage of the aisle way between the HRSGs, and permit a more free movement of material between the HRSGs and into the turbine area. 14. Change nomenclature of straight monorails to rigging beams. These structural steel fabricator and erected by the Ironworker during building steel erection instead of being supplied by a crane vendor and installed by the Millwright. This will help reduce the amount of scaffold to be erected and disassembled and will allow the steel to be installed by a more efficient craft. 15. Allow the use of expansion anchors for all anchor bolts up to inch diameter. 16. Centerline alignment of STG internals i.e. diaphragms, oil deflectors, packing castings etc. to be aligned using laser equipment, not piano wire. Worked to a point. Due to the methods required by the OEM, we were not allowed to use the laser to its greatest potential. 17. Installation of High Bay lighting on roof trusses on the ground before lifting trusses into position. The chord pieces of the trusses were delivered from the steel fabricator pre-drilled to accept unistrut brackets purchased with end plates already attached to bolt to the truss steel. This allows complete assembly of the fixtures, conduit and related wiring to the end of the truss where connections can be made to conduit continuing on to cable tray. This upper connection can be made from an extending boom manlift. This would avoid the usual practice of using a scaffold mounted on the overhead bridge crane for installation of the lighting system resulting in more safe and productive method for installing this system and better availability of the crane for other tasks. Worked great. 18. Construction review and input to structural design to accommodate expected loading prior to completion of structure and still avoid temporary bracing. 19. Relocate DCS I/O cabinets that are located under the stairways to the HRSGs to the south immediately south of the stairway. This would put the I/O cabs in a cleaner location and allow a better routing of cable tray up the stair tower. 20. Use UV resistant neoprene for roof closure instead of rain hoods. Piping Lessons Learned: 1. Leaks in FRP piping during startup might be avoided by having the vendor representative on site during field installation 2. Make sure that the final line, valve and instrument lists are available during startup 3. Allowed shop fabrication of spool pieces results in significant time-savings in the startup schedule 4. Air blows of steam piping can save significant time and water balance vs. quality of results 5. Include provisions and components for cleaning and pressure testing in the design of the piping system

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

Design Philosophy Lessons Learned Piping from Wisconsin Project 6. Show and number field welds in model for more accurate quantity tracking. 7. Have the Model incorporate piping spools not just isometric drawings (isos) of pipe for more accurate quantity tracking. 8. Make sure bolting for piping is right size as far as length and diameter. Supplier did not send the right material, forcing field to purchase the right material. Vendor supplied material per the isos furnished by Engineering. 9. Need instrumentation location on drawings with dimensions from nearest column line. At this site utilized a third party consultant to extract the instrument location information from our PDS model. 10. Delete small bore supports on west side of main north/south pipe rack at 58 elev. and move those pipes to the east side. 11. Modeling of all small bore piping to allow pre-fabrication of small bore piping in off site fabrication shop. Need to access whether this was successful or if we need to do fabrication by field sketches. Need to go back to field designed and procured supports for all cold small bore supports. Many hours were spent welding specialized small structural supports that could and have been replaced by standard supports with all-thread rods and clevis hangers. By having specially designated hangers, we were forced to allocate craft to sort through hangers to find a particular supports for an individual point on a line. Need to stress to craft that they are allowed to make changes to routing of cold small-bore without waiting for engineering approval, but to be sure to red-line isos so we have a record of changes. Need to give craft some tolerance as to location of pipe to allow some flexibility to install cold pipe. 12. Installation of welded attachments (particularly alloy material) by pipe fabricator reducing the amount of field welding, preheat and post-weld heat-treating in the field. 13. Have all valves that are to be included in pre-fabrication delivered directly to pipe fabricator for installation during fabrication reducing costs by avoiding handling, welding, preheat and post-weld heat-treating in field. 14. Have all valves requiring disassembly prior to welding delivered with safe-ends attached to avoid disassembly and reassembly time in the field and to avoid the possibility of damage to components during disassembly and reassembly. 15. Have all control valves sent to site by supplier with hydrostatic and or blow/flush trim installed by vendor. Operational trim is stored by supplier on will call basis to avoid loss or damage of parts in field. Need to discuss this with vendors. Issues arose pertaining to valves coming with hydro trim being installed. 16. Delivery of all Victaulic (including valves) fittings delivered to site bagged and tagged by pipe iso number to reduce amount of time spent by craft locating and marshalling parts for installation on applicable systems. 17. Maximize assembly of cold large bore pipe hangers by suppliers to reduce field labor cost for field assembly. Need to have hangers sorted by system instead of having them delivered in bulk. Need to go to more generic pipe hangers for these systems and have HO engineering do a total take-off and let the field buy the hangers. 5-8

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

18. Shop fabrication of miscellaneous pipe supports to take advantage of lower shop labor costs. This did not work for cold small bore. 19. Maximize fabrication of all Small Bore piping by an off site fabrication shop in longest shippable/installable lengths to take advantage of lower shop fabrication labor rates. Need to check on the type of drafting tools our fabricators use. Auto Cad would not talk to Microstation. This raised the cost of shop fabrication due to having to convert to supplier drafting tool. This resulted in an increased cost to shop fabricate pipe. Need to do a better job of expediting valves/specialty items from vendors. Missing valves/specialty items from vendors caused added cost and schedule delays by not having commodities on site to send to fabricators to include in fabrication process. Also need to investigate fabricators tracking tools. 20. Incorporation of miscellaneous pipe hanger steel into building steel. These supports would be purchased from a steel fabricator and erected using bolted joints as part of structural steel by the ironworker instead of being purchased from a pipe hanger manufacturer and installed using welded joints by the pipe fitters during hanger installation. This will reduce the cost of the steel fabrication for these members, need for scaffolding for installation of these members and decrease the installation time by having bolted connections installed by ironworkers instead of welded connections installed by pipe fitters. Need to include welding of pipe support connections to structural steel in steel fabricators scope instead of being field installed. 21. Incorporation of BOP pipe supports into the inside of the upright columns of the utility rack. This will allow piping to be supported from the bottom rather than hung from steel above. 22. Convert to use of Teflon or Graphite type slide supports with large slide area to prevent supports from falling off of the support steel. 23. Do not allow the use of insulated supports. Although this forces the vendor to be more diligent and prompt in their design it reduces the amount of pipe fitter time to disassemble insulated supports then install/re-assemble the components. This may also reduce the amount of rework to insulated supports when the insulation gets damaged during assembly. 24. Steel erection on utility rack coordinated with pipe installation. Would have worked well if steel would have been erected per original plan. 25. Coordination of piping deliveries to allow major piping runs to be installed into rack without impact to structural steel erection, which will allow earlier completion of piping. This will allow earlier start and completion of insulation. 26. Use primarily bottom supports on all piping in racks. Mechanical Systems Lessons Learned: 1. All recording devices should be mounted so that the bottom of the device is located at least 24 from the ground or the bottom of the panel to make reading the device by the startup or operating staff easier. 2. Sample panels, when located in an outdoor environment, semi-protected or unprotected, should have a large drip shield, or be located in a walk-in enclosure.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

3. Access and operability of drain valves for the HRSG must be reviewed during Vendor Drawing Review cycle to ensure accessibility during startup and operation. 4. Shop pre-wiring by vendor will help to reduce I&C wiring problems during startup. 5. Include the Performance Test Protocol in the vendor contracts to ensure that correct procedures are used during startup and testing. 6. The constructability review should identify major component erection and access ways so that BOP equipment and foundations are clear of these access paths. A photograph of the gas turbine installation is provided in Figure 5-3.

Figure 5-3 Gas Turbine Installation at the Wisconsin Site

Electrical System Lessons Learned: 1. Incorporation of cable tray supports into building steel worked out great place outside of utility rack columns to increase access for electricians during startup 2. Delete requirement for corners on Duct Banks to be 90 - allows for fewer manholes and easier cable replacements if needed during startup

5-10

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

3. Consider the use of oversized conduit to facilitate cable pulls, as well as oversized connection boxes on switchgear to improve termination connection efficiency. 4. Miniature relays, modules and connectors must be compatible with wiring stiffness and size. 5. Utilize permanent lighting where possible to avoid need for temporary lighting installation during startup and checkout 6. Use hydraulic crimped couplings for all underground ground grid in lieu of exothermic process 7. Cooling tower should be located away from switchyards to reduce potential for flashover if not possible, include increased insulation, insulator wash system and use silicone grease in design specifications to reduce problems during startup and long term operation. Photographs of the electrical yard and a transformer during startup testing are provided in Figures 5-4 and 5-5.

Figure 5-4 Electrical Yard at Wisconsin Site

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

Figure 5-5 Transformer During Startup Testing

Design Philosophy Lessons Learned Electrical from Wisconsin Project 1. Delete requirement for corners on duct banks to be 90 degrees allowing longer pulls with fewer manholes. 2. Coordination of electrical and civil engineering to allow installation of conduit and lighting fixtures for high bay lighting on trusses while on the ground, to alleviate the need to build scaffold on the overhead crane to install high bay lighting. 3. Incorporation of cable tray supports into outside of utility rack columns. These supports will be fabricated from structural shapes and erected as part of structural steel by the Ironworkers instead of being fabricated from unistrut and installed by Electricians. Worked great. Need to add a handrail to the walkway along the cable tray. This would allow the electrician better mobility while working on activities such as cable pulling and cable tie-down. 4. Incorporation of cable tray supports into building steel for same reason as above. 5. Incorporation of overhead crane buss supports into crane girders. This will allow supports and buss to be installed on the ground prior to lifting the girders into final location. Buss end connections will be made from a 125 ft. manlift. 6. Cable spooling and bundling by cable supplier to avoid cost of performing these tasks in the field. This should result in lower overall costs in cable pulling costs. Need to do a better job of storing cable and documenting location for better material handling time. 7. Have all cable tray delivered to site in a prefabricated kit to avoid cost of tray having to be fabricated on site. Tray is delivered cut length with appropriate match-marks at connection points with tray node markers affixed by the fabricator. 5-12

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

8. Have all cable tray supports fabricated from structural shapes by a steel fabrication shop and delivered to site painted and ready to install avoiding field cost of electricians fabricating supports from unistrut. 9. Use of mechanical clamps to attach cable tray to structural supports instead of welding unistrut to structure and attaching tray to unistrut. 10. Installation of High Bay lighting on roof trusses on the ground before lifting trusses into position. The chord pieces of the trusses were delivered from the steel fabricator pre-drilled to accept unistrut brackets purchased with end plates already attached to bolt to the truss steel. This allows complete assembly of the fixtures, conduit and related wiring to the end of the truss where connections can be made to conduit continuing on to cable tray. This upper connection can be made from an extending boom manlift. This would avoid the usual practice of using a scaffold mounted on the overhead bridge crane for installation of the lighting system resulting in more safe and productive method for installing this system and better availability of the crane for other tasks. Need to show details of attachment holes and attachments on electrical drawings. 11. Utilization of permanent lighting where possible to avoid need for temporary lighting installation and subsequent removal. 12. Modeling of conduit to eliminate need for electricians to field route conduit (FCR). This also allows better forecasting of cable quantities, reducing waste and allows cable cutting and bundling by cable supplier. Need to have a review of the level of completion of engineering. Some conduits were missed that need to be added to the design. Need to do a thorough review of FCRs to determine number and location of added conduits to fully achieve better design completion. 13. Use of hydraulic crimped couplings for all underground ground grid in lieu of exothermic process for connections. 14. Use of mechanical connectors for attaching ground grid cables to structures instead of exothermic process for connection. 15. Relocate DCS I/O cabinets that are located under the stairways to the HRSGs to the east immediately east of the stairway. This would put the I/O cabs in a cleaner location and allow a better routing of cable tray up the stair tower. 16. Need to have I/O cabinet vendor supply a Top Hat type closure for top of cabinets to keep cabinets clean. Were forced to fabricate closure pieces in the field for these cabinets. 17. Set GE supplied transformers and ancillary modules prior to setting structural steel. 18. Set Iso-phase Bus Duct during steel erection. This would require some additional steel to support certain parts of the bus duct prior to final assembly. 19. Consolidate two runs of cable tray that are north of the STG Pedestal into one bank of tray and add a walkway for construction to do away with major scaffolding effort to support cable tray installation and cable pulling. 20. Need to evaluate the cable tray design with an eye to reduce tray by elimination of unused tray.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

21. Need to review cable routing to reduce lengths of cable in some areas such as around the STG Pedestal. Cable was routed all the way around the pedestal because there were gaps in the tray design. 22. Need to re-route the cable tray from demineralization area MCCs to the water treatment area. It could be routed straight instead of the existing route reducing tray quantity and associated commodities and labor. 23. Need to do review of cable tray design for top of HRSGS and update the existing drawings to reflect as-built installation. 24. Need to have a clerk for the Electrical Department to do menial tasks such as printing cable pull cards, termination cards and cable markers. 25. Need to have electrical design more complete before starting work in the field. 26. Need to label conduit in manholes. 27. Need to have better coordination of cable and instrument databases to allow more expeditious electrical installation. 28. Need to refine cable database to resolve some minor difficulties to fully utilize the database and allow Project Controls to extract quantity information. General Design Philosophy and Startup Lessons Learned at Wisconsin Site: 1. All supervisory staff must be assigned required reading, including safety Manual, Job Descriptions Document, Installation Specifications, Project Schedule, Cost Report, et al. 2. Need full time expediter on site to handle all Purchase Orders during construction and startup 3. Specialty Field Service Representatives should be included in the startup schedule, budget and equipment supplier contracts. The startup staff should get their guidance on specialty equipment and commissioning durations. 4. Prior to the start of construction, institute safety recognition programs to make it a personal responsibility Safety Person for the Day assigned to Safety Department to shadow Safety Inspector. This program should be continued through the startup period. 5. Ensure that vendors consider accessibility to power plant components by including Accessibility Criteria in contracts. This will reduce the startup period by ensuring high productivity rates for equipment startups due to ease of access to critical components. 6. Institution of the philosophy of You are your Brothers and Sisters Keepers. This philosophy stresses the fact that everyone has the right, responsibility and the authority of the Construction Manager to stop anyone performing an unsafe act and counsel him or her on proper safety work practices without fear of reprisal or retribution. 7. Use ultra-modularization philosophy for HRSGs including maximum fabrication of small and large bore piping. 8. Stack sections should be dressed-out with lighting, personal protection, cable tray and platforms on the ground prior to lifting into position. 9. Need to paint stacks prior to putting on personnel protection screens.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

Successful projects will integrate the learning experience from earlier plant installations and produce a plant that is ready for startup following the completion of the construction activity on the site.

Figure 5-6 General Overview of Site

Case for History for Another Wisconsin LM 6000 CTCC Plant The lessons learned from this project were simply summarized in the attached listing: 1. Scope growth was not tracked effectively, leading to client dissatisfaction. As a result, it was noted that lead engineering and field staff should not be able to commit the company to scope revisions. The change process must by adhered to by all project participants. 2. Client impacts on the schedule were not tracked diligently, especially in the areas where the client purchased equipment was delivered late or was different than stated in the preliminary design packages. In the future, if the client has responsibility for procurement of critical components, then the client will also have to take responsibility for vendor expediting and scheduling of deliverables. The client will have to understand that every time a change is made to their purchase order, it results in a delay that can not be made up by engineering, construction and startup activities. 3. Using a brownfield site requires significant upfront engineering evaluation effort

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

o No good site-definition data was supplied by the client and only limited data was collected at the site by the in-house engineering staff o Due to the as-built drawings for the site not showing the presence of an underground electrical duct bank, a significant part of the plant had to be relocated after completion of the plant design. The duct bank was not identified early in the design effort and site assessment because the permit required that construction not begin until the authorized date, and the drilling of test borings would have been perceived as starting construction. o Communication between disciplines broke down especially when evaluating the impacts of change on the system design and scope of work. 4. Project Controls staff were not assigned to this project full time. Therefore, planning and scheduling activities suffered. As a result, it was concluded that for any contract exceeding $10 million, it will need a full time project controls person. The use of a three-week lookahead schedule in future projects helps to keep all disciplines focused on how their project deliverables impact that other members of the project team. And it should be noted that all planning is ineffective when feel that a cost-plus contract does not require detailed tracking. 5. Due to trouble with completion of final tasks, it was determined that the use of a punch list is necessary to ensure that all final deliverables have been completed. Case for Histories/Lessons Learned for a Series of G-Class Projects Again the lessons learned from these projects were summarized as a series of comments provided in the material that follows: 1. Strainers Inadequate strainer design on the condensate and feed water system lead to 20+ unplanned unit trips during the startup process. This could be resolved by installing larger or duplex strainers components. 2. When oil firing, the first stage strainer that came with this system was undersized. All attempts to clean the oil system resulted in strainer pluggage within 5 minutes. Again, this was resolved by installing Kaydon filters upstream of the strainer in the oil fuel feed system. 3. Fuel oil is corrosive due to the addition of chloride by the fuel suppliers to meet their water content specification. After cleaning the oil feed system either by water flushing, steam cleaning and chemical cleaning; in each case after one week that interior surface of the process pipe was corroded. This could be resolved by including a tight oil requirements for corrosive properties in the oil procurement specification or go to stainless steel pipe, which is a very expensive option. 4. Carbon steel piping led to significant delays when performing the oil flushing activities. Future designs should use all stainless steel for these systems. The problems would also be reduced by closely reviewing the vendor cleanliness requirements. If the limits are very strict and cannot be relaxed, then the startup or design team should install Kaydon filters upstream of the strainers to meet the requirements for the turning gear lube oil. 5. The grounding system for the DCS was properly designed. More attention to this system will result in reductions in the number of damaged control cards.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

6. Vendor standard practice on shipment of components can lead to site inefficiency. If miscellaneous materials are shipped in large crates accompanied only by confusing bills of lading, then locating components for installation can be a difficult task. Crates should be organized by process system and commodity, resulting in a reduction in craft work-hours. 7. Handrails, access stairs and platforms must meet U.S. OSHA standards. Otherwise rework in the field will consume many craft hours. The OEM needs to address client and Federal requirements as well as local and state ordinances. 8. Using sole plates and shims for turbine alignment can require additional machining in the field to complete installation and alignment. An alternative is to us fixators. 9. Installation of insulation on the turbine in the shop may not be the best method. The insulation receives abuse during transport to the site and during installation. When using overseas parts, the metric dimensions can result in delays in refabrication of insulation components. Would recommend leaving the insulation uninstalled and allow time in the schedule for field installation. 10. Using low alloy chrome moly and carbon steel tubing for the turbine cooling air piping results in the need for hydro-lazing to ensure cleanliness and safe reliable operation. Alternatives would be to use stainless steel for this piping. 11. Startup issues were apparent due in part to continuing R&D on this design by the OEM. Changing out internal parts of the turbine just prior to startup will obviously result in significant delays in the startup schedule. The client should be aware of the OEM latest design development activities, and recognize that implementation will result in schedule impacts. The client should also verify that the combustor components shipped to the site with the machines have had enough operating time in combination to eliminate any concerns with reliable combustion operation. Replacement spares should also be considered to increase system reliability. 12. During startup instrument air consumption rates were found to be higher than expected. New requirements were identified that were not in the original design, such as bearing tunnel cooling, combustor shell cooling, and fuel gas manifold purge. Air requirements should be better defined during the design phase. 13. Level control valves were found to be oversized by 30-50% in some cases. Operation almost closed during low load operation resulted in destruction of the valves. Valve sizing has to be closer to actual operating range. The steam quality requirement for G-Class machines is very rigorous for the transition cooling system. After CAT conductivity must be less than 0.2. Many chemicals will interfere with test results at this level, such as amine. Expensive analyzers may be needed. Total organic carbon and chloride levels must also be maintained at low levels. Water treatment and sampling systems can be very complicated, and this should be taken into account when planning the startup of this class of machines.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

Lessons Learned at Plant A Applied at Plant B


Table 5-1 provides a series of lessons that were learned from one site and applied to the next plant installation.

Good Practice Bulletins


Table 5-2 includes several lessons learned, incorporated into Good Practice Bulletins that summarize the subject, describe the issue(s), provide background and/or root cause of the issue, and recommendations for future prevention or mitigation.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories Table 5-1 Case Histories for Plant A vs. Plant B

Startup/Project Phase Initial Project Feasibility Period

Case 1 Earlier Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant

Case 2 Recently Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant Site location needs to be evaluated with regards to a Greenfield site versus an existing location. The evaluation needs to consider the interrelationships with the new facility and the existing facility. Consideration needs to be given to Neighboring communities with regard to construction and startup activities (Hours of operation, construction lay down areas, steam blow, preoperational testing) Consideration needs to be given to remediation of environmental issues that can arise when building on an existing site. Utilize owners groups to obtain objective feedback regarding equipment startup ability, reliability and maintainability. Source natural gas for the Combustion Turbine and Duct Burners from a high-pressure supply to eliminate operating gas compressors to boost pressures. CT and ST lube and control oil piping should be stainless steel with jumper kits. This minimized lube oil flush setup, completion and restoration.

Benefits Situations required existing facility to be operational to support commissioning of new facility can be addressed prior to plant startup and commissioning. Hours of operation can be scheduled prior to project implementation for all construction and startup activities.

Unanticipated costs due environmental remediation could be minimized or eliminated. Non-bias input for station design considerations. Eliminate station parasitic loads from Gas Compressors.

Can reduce flush times from as high as 100 days to 4 days. The time and costs saved in the schedule can far exceed the additional costs associated with the flush kits and stainless steel piping.

5-19

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories Startup/Project Phase Case 1 Earlier Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant Case 2 Recently Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant Startup discharge limits need to be considered with regards to licensed quantities. Typically startup discharge quantities exceed commercial operation quantities. In combined cycle plant consideration needs to be given to either an Air Cooled Condenser versus a Water Cooled condenser. Benefits If this is considered in the design the purchase of offsite disposal services can be minimized if not eliminated. Water Cooled Condensers have by design a relatively small surface area versus an Air Cooled Condensers thus minimizing the possibility of condenser vacuum leaks. Minimizes the size of the Air Compressors thus minimizing costs as well as station parasitic loads.

In the compressed air system design and Air Compressor sizing, consideration needs to be given to the number of control valves with a continuous air bleed and the installation of air volume storage tanks near high volume users. Including a variable speed Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) in the design.

Variable speed BFP operation results in minimal pressure drop across the level control valves and good drum level control while minimizing station parasitic loads. Using an Auxiliary Boiler for Gland Steam and Condenser hogging can shorten the Plant Startup when coming back on line for a cold and warm startup. Ensures all SU related costs are addressed during the proposal phase resulting in a more realistic SU estimate. Allows the training staff to adjust the training program to cater to owners needs and experience levels.

Including an Auxiliary Boiler in the plant design

Proposal Prep

Startup Estimate was not standardized to include all SU related costs

Standardized SU Estimate captured all related costs.

Did not review Operator training requirements

Reviewed operator training requirements and provided a detailed cost estimate.

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EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories Startup/Project Phase Startup Planning Case 1 Earlier Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant No Cradle to Grave Startup participation in project. No Project Team Building Kick off Meetings with Client Minimal participation in Project meetings Case 2 Recently Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant Senior Startup Manager assigned shortly after project kickoff and was involved in the project through the warranty period. Kick Off Meeting with owner with key project personnel in attendance. Did attend and participate in project meetings. Benefits Ensures startup input into the design early to ensure the plants can be commissioned efficiently. This ensures the owners and project personnel are aligned with a clear understanding and expectations. Startup involvement in design decisions that can effect commissioning. This ensures the project team has a clear understanding of the startup approach, methodology and organization. Identified Engineering/Construction/Startup conflicts allowing early resolution. Allowed identification of emerging scheduling conflicts and timely resolution. Allowed for reduced costs for Vendor testing and training support. Ensured Commissioning considerations in Engineering Design. Had a realistic startup plan to follow, measure progress against and clearly identify problems and workarounds.

No Startup Execution Plan

Startup Execution Plan

Did not incorporate the SU schedule into the project schedule, Did not periodically review SU portion of the project schedule for impacts or changes Did not review equipment specifications and incorporate Vendor test and training support requirements. Minimal review and approval of key engineering document deliverables (P&IDs, Single Lines, Logics) Did not develop Level 3 and 4 SU Schedules

Married the Startup schedule with the project schedule. Periodically reviewed project schedule.

Reviewed equipment specifications and identified all vendor testing and training support in the respective Purchase Orders. Had review and approval authority for key engineering documents. Developed Level 3 and 4 schedules.

5-21

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories Startup/Project Phase Startup Execution (HO) Case 1 Earlier Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant No participation in DCS FAT resulting in scheduling impacts and excessive onsite DCS vendor support. Case 2 Recently Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant Did participate in DCS FAT test and required full completion prior to DCS shipment. Benefits Minimized DCS commissioning impacts on project schedule and decreased DCS vendor field support from 80 days to 7 days of on-site support with a significant cost savings. Transfer of the Startup Scoping and Turnover program from hard copy to electronic and allows real time scoping as drawings are revised. Fostered a clear understanding by Construction of Startup needs thud resulting in a smoother transition from Construction to Startup and a more efficient testing program. Allows the appropriate project team members adequate review and approval of these critical startup activities. Allowed shop fabrication of spool pieces and significant time savings in the startup schedule. Allowed for vendor technical support cost negotiations. Established content, format and level of detail to support training prior to consuming man-hours for full SDOI development program.

Manually scoped the Startup Packages and did not take advantage of the Plant Design System (PDS) Developed Turnover (TO) packages without considering Construction work package breakdown and boundaries.

Electronically scoped the P&IDs and Single Lines using PDS

Reviewed construction work packages and developed Turnover packages based on Construction work package breakdown and boundaries. As part of the Startup Home Office activities completed the development of Steam Blow P&IDs, Chemical Cleaning P&IDs and a Steam Blow Noise Study. Spool pieces designed during the engineering phase. All vendor testing support was included in the equipment purchase orders Issued a PILOT SDOI

Startup was not involved in the engineering phase for the development of Steam Blow P&IDs, Chemical Cleaning P&IDs and Steam Blowing Noise Studies Test spool pieces were not designed to support chemical cleaning. Vendor testing support costs not included in the equipment purchase orders and project estimate Did not do PILOT System Description and Operating Instruction (SDOI) to establish content and format with the client.

5-22

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories Startup/Project Phase Case 1 Earlier Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant Did not issue training schedule. Case 2 Recently Commissioned Combined Cycle Plant Issued training schedule for client review. Benefits Opened up dialog with client to schedule the operators participation in the training program.

5-23

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

Table 5-2 Case Histories Derived from Multiple Plants Good Practice Bulletins

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Warranty Clause Proper alignment between Vendor's warranty period and contractual warranty obligations with the Client Standard Vendor warranties often expire even before equipment is put in service. Background, or Cause of Problem Engineer/Constructor warranty period normally extends well beyond Vendor's warranty period. When warranty issue(s) surface, Vendor has been paid, leverage lost. Structure POs such that Vendor's warranty and E/C's warranty clauses are in alignment. Experience has shown that if such alignment done up front, as part of original PO, the cost for the extended warranty period is negligible

Recommendation(s)

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem Supplier Field Service Representatives Insufficient Budget Often, sometimes consciously, the project will under budget or underestimate the time and associated cost of Field Services Representatives for startup and commissioning of specialty equipment. We often leave these costs off the budget and get trapped at the end of the project and suffer the costs regardless. Include in our inquiry packages the need For Field Service Reps. Solicit rates to a specified timeframe in the inquiry and rates for additional time as well as travel costs. Evaluate response as part of overall bid evaluation. Include a lineitem in the budget for a realistic budget for these costs. Commissioning personnel can give guidance as to needs for specific equipment and appropriate durations of the Supplier's personnel. Test and Startup

Recommendation(s)

Reference Information

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem Recommendation(s) During preparation of proposals, consider a reasonable allowance for warranty administration and associated costs as a line item in the estimate. Unbudgeted Warranty Costs The costs associated with responding to warranty issues have not always been budgeted, yet average about 1% total of project costs. These are above any pass-through costs to Suppliers or Subcontractors. The one percent then comes off the E/C bottom line.

5-24

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem) Equipment Delivery Scheduling to Support Construction All elements of an equipment PO need to be scheduled to support construction, not necessarily a single date for the entire order. On a recent project, several thousand pounds of condenser embed plates were successfully expedited, only at the 11th hour, to meet concrete foundation schedule. The embeds were not scheduled separately in the PO to support construction need date. Carefully consider all the critical components of a PO that are necessary to support construction. List them separately, each with associated schedule, in the PO. Consider development of a PO requirements checklist to be incorporated into appropriate SCM procedure.

Recommendation(s) Actions

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem) Jobsite Material Storage Turnover to a Subcontractor the responsibility for job-site storage and control of components purchased for the Subcontractor to install or erect. On one recent project, lack of a proper site storage program by the Subcontractor resulted in enormous costs to contractor to replace/repair equipment/components lost, stolen or damaged due to improper storage and control. Turnover such jobsite storage responsibilities only after careful consideration, and after assurance and evidence that the Subcontractor will provide adequate storage facilities and procedures. Revoke Subcontractors responsibility (back-charge) upon first evidence of improper storage or control. As part of the Constructability Process, Construction to provide site storage requirements to SCM for inclusion in Subcontract, Bid Package and Contract. Actions Include storage plan in Project Execution Plan. CM to enforce requirements.

Recommendation(s)

5-25

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem Recommendation(s) Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem When an axial flow turbine is part of the plant configuration, the Chief Mechanical, Chief Civil/Structural & Chief Electrical Engineers should probe the design, during early development, with Startup personnel, to ensure that space requirements for valves/piping/conduit and access for installation, startup, maintenance and operation are considered. Some factors that must be considered in overall final design are: Reduction in piping costs Installation productivity Facilitation of start-up and access Maintenance efficiency during startup Field Routing - Conduit, Small Bore Piping Field design/routing of conduit and SB pipe must consider required construction access of both electrical and pipe fitter trades and be coordinated in best interest of the project. This coordination does not always happen. If electrical "gets there first" with a free reign, it can be very bad (costly, change orders, etc.) for the piping erection. Field Engineers to coordinate this effort. Get sign-offs of electrical, mechanical of proposed installation plans, pathways, and schedules. Plant General Arrangements Adequate space requirements for axial flow steam turbines

Recommendation(s)

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem Piping Design Chemical cleaning and pressure testing On many projects, the connections and components necessary to clean and pressure test the piping systems have to be configured, fabricated and installed into the piping after they are erected to conduct cleaning and pressure testing. This back fitting has proven not to be cost effective. During the design of the piping systems, with the participation of Startup personnel, include provisions (and possibly all components) to conduct cleaning and pressure testing.

Recommendation(s)

5-26

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Pipe Rack CC Units Constructability On a recent project, the main pipe rack running exterior to and alongside the turbine building, was designed as an independent, free-standing structure. It was not connected to, or reliant upon, the building steel for support. This allowed for the following benefits: Background, or Cause of Problem Early fabrication, delivery and erection of the pipe rack steel a less tonnage than the main steel A schedule jump in the erection of the critical piping on the rack, rather than waiting for the building steel erection Consideration of modularization concepts both in the steel pipe rack or pipe rack with pre-installed piping This concept may cost more, not using the exterior building columns for support, but the benefits may outweigh those costs. Recommendation(s) Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem Consider this during plant design DCS Termination Cabinets I/O termination completion for the DCS cabinets often becomes a critical activity at the site. The related schedule compression introduces field congestion at a critical point in the plant completion. Engineering restraints and associated DCS software development usually results in a turnover date well beyond that needed by Construction to complete field terminations and delays on certain commissioning activities. Consider separation of termination and computer related functions presently in the same I/O cabinets. Investigate cost of I/O termination only cabinets to be delivered at the site earlier (and therefore allow for termination work to be done in parallel). If the vendor quotes a cost-effective option, pursue it.

Recommendation(s)

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem Piping - Accessibility Personnel access to high-point vents On a recent project access to high-point vents had to be back-fitted at E/C contractor cost 1. Early-on design needs to consider accessibility/maintainability. 2. Cluster vents, and other components requiring (raised) accessibility, where practical and in the interest of design economy. Recommendation(s) 3. Accessibility/maintainability criteria are now being developed and will soon be issued. Also, each component on the P&IDs may be noted with an accessibility and maintainability code - platform, ladder, monorail, mobile hoist etc. - so accessibility is designed into the project and our clients buy into that accessibility during their review of the P&IDs. Issue Piping Design Manual that contains accessibility/ maintainability criteria.

Actions

5-27

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem Cooling Tower Location Cooling tower location in relation to an open switchyard Deposits from cooling tower effluent on electrical insulators can lead to potential tracking and flashover. Where possible, cooling tower should be located away from switchyards consider windrows. On restricted sites where CT location is not optimum, notify Client (in writing) of potential problems and offer any related recommendations such as: o o o Providing increased gradient on insulation system Providing insulator washing system Employing silicone grease

Recommendation(s)

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem) Natural Gas Pressure Reducing Valves (PRV) Postulated failure of single PRC and consequent over pressurization of downstream piping and components If piping and components are not designed for the pressure upstream of the PRV there are two options discussed below. Option 1: Relieve the pressure through a relief valve if there is a safe place to direct the flow - normally not possible for large pressure pipes. Option 2: Install a second PRV in series with the first; both valves can be throttled simultaneously. The first PRV may be called a monitor valve with a set point slightly higher than the other, or normal PRV so that it stays fully open unless the other PRV passes more gas than it should. Locating the monitor valve upstream of the normal would prevent it from becoming inoperable due to the formation of ice within the valve. A small relief valve may be necessary to accommodate small leaks through the normal PRV.

Recommendation(s)

5-28

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Project Training Contract Terms All project personnel need to know and understand the terms of our contract with the Owner as well as our contract with any consortium partner(s) or major suppliers and subcontractors. Everyone is aware of their responsibilities. Conduct periodic training for all project personnel. Include on the agenda: o o o Recommendation(s) o o o o o Contractor scope of work Definition of change, and reporting/notification procedures I LD exposure Client responsibilities, limits of review prerogatives Major schedule milestones Force majeure definitions and reporting timeframe responsibilities Construction sequencing, special requirements Engineering change control procedure GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject Issue Description Background, or Cause of Problem) Accessibility and Maintainability Criteria Lack of clear criteria has resulted in unbudgeted redesigns and associated costs and schedule impacts due to customer insistence on accessibility provisions beyond those budgeted. Customer claims that access to piping arrangements fail to provide for safe plant operations or plant availability goals, and insists that stairs and platforms be provided, not ladders. Develop contractors position (criteria) relative to accessibility to typical power plant components and "standard" locations for major components. Recommendation(s) o o o Include criteria with proposals Include (reference) in contracts Include in desktop or project procedure manual for use in design process

Actions

Develop Accessibility Criteria (Standards Team Action) Follow through per recommendations

5-29

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Case Histories

GOOD PRACTICE BULLETIN Subject I/C Development and Control of Data Base On a recent project: o o o Issue Description o o o Instrument list was not kept up-to-date DCS Vendor was obliged to perform premature Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) based on incomplete/wrong data Startup group had to modify DCS I/O (reportedly 40%) to commission the facility, including 600 man-hours correcting polarity of devices Most process set points were incorrect in DCS logic Information given to DCS vendor did not always match final Control Wiring Diagrams Software interfaces between ten PLCs and the DCS were not engineered prior to plant startup

Failure of Vendor to provide many of the inputs when required Background, or Cause of Problem Lack of contractual leverage with vendor Lack of engineering attention to detail Develop methodology or contractual terms that better assure timely receipt of Vendor information, such as incentives and penalties and consideration for future work, etc. Make sure to include status and control of I/C Data Base as agenda item in regular project meetings Develop a format that will: o o o o Identify database components Show need dates of I/C data to and from vendors to support delivery of those components Summarize status of instrument set points Show status of Instrument List

Recommendation(s)

Conduct training structured to bring awareness of potential problems Establish realistic need dates for critical equipment (DCS, Simulator, etc.) consistent with startup and construction schedule requirements, but still allowing sufficient time for engineering and vendors to deliver a products as complete as possible Include sufficient detail in project schedule to sound the alarm to Project and Discipline Management if required inputs are not forthcoming Consider a common database which includes I&C, Electrical and Mechanical Early and continuous test and startup involvement in the project Develop contractual terms that promote timely receipt of Vendor information Actions Develop format for Item 3 above Conduct cross-project training, include test and startup input Consider common database

5-30

6
KEY FINDINGS AND CONCLUSIONS
The Lessons Learned process identified a series of items that when combined can lead to a successful project: Communication - Solicitation of input from all working groups throughout a contract leads to successful projects this should include staff from construction, startup, client and engineering prior to starting on the plant design. During construction and startup, it is critical that open lines of communication are maintained between the Home Office and Field Engineering Teams. Good communication must be established early and maintained between key team members and with lower tier supervisory staff for all contractors involved in construction and startup of the plant. The bottom line is that communication is critical to a successful project. Startup-ability The capability to startup and test the system once construction is complete should be integrated into the plant design at the beginning of the design phase. Easy startups will typically lead to plants that are easy to operate and ultimately customer satisfaction. Site Staffing The construction and startup teams should include design engineers in the field to help resolve engineering issues as they arise. This will allow changes to be made more efficiently and in reduce periods of time. Project Team An integrated project team should be set up at the start of the project and maintained throughout the duration of the project. This would include limited discipline staffing through the startup of the plant. Primary Lessons 1. Stop making decisions without the facts 2. Stop relying on unrealistic assumptions 3. Work to the plan and plan the work. Do not work without a plan for all functions 4. Do not divert from the plan without management and client approval and buy-in to the new plan and scope. Adapt the plan when project conditions have changed. 5. Do not deny the existence of potential problems resolve issues as they arise. Project activities that typically need improvement are listed below: Schedule management Cradle to Grave Design basis information from Vendors (timely and accurate) Cost control and level of startup craft support required for startup Formalized lack of team concept on EPC projects 6-1

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Key Findings and Conclusions

Lack of proper input from all parties Project planning and execution with clear Change Management procedures Sequencing of engineering and startup activities/attention to risks Vendor data management Review and commenting on vendor drawings Installation quantity tracking, especially small bore piping and conduit Job site material control.

Primary causes of startup and project completion problems can be summarized in the following: Limited availability of proper resources for project team members Lack of intra-team scope split definition - who does what? Budget limitations due to changes in scope of poor planning Wrong priorities for various participants in the project Management philosophy that does not recognize the importance of startup Lack of construction input into design resulting in installation inefficiency Too little startup input into design causing delays in startup activities Detailed plan prepared without framework/major milestones Lack of meaningful input by all project participants Lack of pre-planning and constructability reviews during the design of the plant.

The problems that occur are exacerbated by the following: No priority/urgency of need to resolve problems when they are identified Resource limited including correct experience level for staff needed to resolve a design issue Ineffective/unorganized construction and startup review of design during the initial phases of the project The constructability review inadequate prior to starting on the plant design Early & continued input from client/construction/scheduling/engineering/startup staff is missing Lack of a detailed execution plan for construction and startup startup involvement cam too late Undefined scope for all project participants Poor understanding of the sequence of construction

6-2

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Key Findings and Conclusions

Some basic methods to resolve the causes of project problems can be summarized in the following: Pre-Planning - Define All Work Products in Detail for All Participants Incorporate Multiple Vendor Drawing Review Cycles into the Schedule Have All Engineering Disciplines Design in a 3-D Model Formally Schedule Drawing Checking and Drawing Review Activities Maintain Staffing Levels Throughout Completion of Project Tasks Be Pro-Active with Change Management If Scope Changes Occur, Address Them Now Not Later Schedule Interference Checks with Timely Disposition Engineering Package Deliverables Require ALL Disciplines in a Physical Area Complete Design Concurrently Implement the Use of a Front-End Error Tracking Input Form.

Plants that are designed for startup will also result in a facility that is easy to run and will ultimately result in a high level of client satisfaction. The following lessons should be taken away from any Lessons Learned program: Client interface is critical for a successful job Operability and maintainability for client staff will be a major criteria for judging the success of a job Communication between the construction and startup group will improve efficiency of the startup program Client scope modifications should be addressed prior to the beginning of startup can result in significant delays and increased costs Areas requiring attention include chemical cleaning, strainer sizing, natural gas line cleanliness, steam blows, etc. that can lead to startup delays. Define early how will startup impact existing plant operations water and fuel supplies, etc. Noise limits should be defined prior to startup to reduce impact on neighbors and potentially extend work day Installation of larger or duplex strainers improves the startup schedule and reduces the number of gas turbine trips during steam blows. Longer pump run times are also achieved, reducing potential for low water levels in the HRSG drums. Train plant operators during startup and get them involved in startup activities they will gain troubleshooting skills for the future Add filtration to fuel line to reduce potential for fuel nozzle fouling during startup and subsequent operation

6-3

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Key Findings and Conclusions

Arrange for chemical cleaning waste disposal with local sewage treatment plant to reduce disposal costs The use of stainless steel can reduce the startup period required for oil flushes of mill scale from up to 100 days to 4 days Adequately size the air compressors and air storage tanks, especially near valves with high air demand

There are trends in the power industry that will directly impact the startup of CT plants in the future: Greater skill sets for the startup team will be required in the future to manage cost and schedule effectively. More owner-approved procedural requirements should be expected on future projects as they and their engineering contractors feel are requirements for a successful job. The newest plants have higher degrees of automation in an effort to minimize operating staff needs in the future. This requires that the startup staff be familiar with the latest test methods and they are expected to complete a higher degree of testing to ensure the integrated system is functioning correctly. Shorter project schedules that are driven by the desire to reduce the project capital cost necessitate more testing be completed in less time. This can result in higher staffing levels and the need for more close attention to milestone schedules. In some cases, the experience level of the vendor field representatives has declined. Some components and system designs have small margins in performance, allowing for less commissioning flexibility. New and unproven technologies sometimes require field research and development to support the needs of the startup of this new equipment.

In conclusion, this report identifies the characteristics required for successful plant startup and operation based on the experience and Lessons Learned from many plant startups over time. When carefully applied, power generation owners/operators can reap benefits in more effective design, construction and commissioning of their plants, with savings in costs and in time required to reach commercial operation.

6-4

EPRI Proprietary Licensed Material Key Findings and Conclusions Table 6-1 English to SI Conversion Factors To Convert British Ac acfm Btu Btu F Ft Ft Ft
2 3

Multiply By 0.405 0.02832 0.252 1055.1 0.5556 0.3048 0.0929 0.02832 0.00508 0.000472 3.785 0.06308 133.65 0.0648 2.2881 0.746 0.0254 249.089 0.4536 16.02 0.126 *Depends on Fuel Type 1609 1,055 28.3495 6895 0.1047 1.6077 0.9072 0.252 1.1023 ha

To Obtain Metric (SI=Systems Intern) hectare Actual cubic meters/min. kilocalories Joule Degree Centigrade meters square meters cubic meters meters per second cubic meters/second liters Liters per second liters per actual cubic meter grams
3

Acre Actual Cubic feet per minute British Thermal Unit British Thermal Unit Deg. Fahrenheit 32 Feet square feet cubic feet feet per minute cubic feet per minute gallons (U.S.) gallons per minute gallons per minute thousand actual cubic feet/min Grains
3

Am3/min kcal J C m m
2 3

Ft/m Ft /m Gal Gpm gpm/Kacf m Gr Gr/ft Hp In. in. w.g. Lb Lb/ft


3 3

m/s m /s L L/s liters/Am3 g g/m kW m Pa kg kg/m g/s mg/Nm3 m Mjoule/hr g Pa rad/s nm3/hr tonne kg/s $/tonne
3 3

grains per cubic foot Horsepower Inches inches water pressure (gage) Pounds pounds per cubic foot pounds per hour Pounds per million BTU Miles million Btu per hour Ounces pounds per square inch revolutions per minute Std. (60F) cubic feet/ minute short tons short tons per hour dollars per short ton

grams per cubic meter kilowatts meters pascals (newton/m2) kilograms kilograms/cubic meter grams per second milligrams per normal cubic meter meters million joules per hour grams Pascals (newton/m2) radians per second normal cubic meters/hr metric tons kilograms per second dollars per metric ton

Lb/hr lb/MMBtu Mi MMBtu/hr Oz Psi Rpm scfm ton t/hr $/ton

6-5

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