Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 273

'

Tamar Gozansky
Workers, Peasants and Capital
The Political Economy of Mandatory Palestine

:
,2009-1983 .
1986- " " ,
-.
.
' '
.
' , 2012


3...........................................................................................................................
.1 9.......................................
.2 ' 47 ..........................
.3 - 102 ..................................
.4 : - 111 ...........................................
.5 124 ......................................................................
.6 153 ..........................................................................
.7 194 ............................................................................
:8 230 ..........................................................................................................
: 243 ........................................................................................
257 ...................................................................................................

:
'
) ( , 100- )(.
' ) ( , 20- )(.
) (.
, ' .


) (1917 1926 .
,1927 )( ) - "( ,
)"(.
: ; .

.

.
, ,
.
, .
. .
.
, ,
"
1
) '(

""
" " .
- . ,
, , , .,
, :
" . , .
: ,
. , , ,
- . , ,
, , .
".
," : ,
, , ,
, . ".
, , , ,
,
) ,
, ( . ,
, ,
. ,
,"" , ,"" , .
-
' ,
, ,
, " " -".
"" ""
.
,
, , "
" , ,
. , -
2

1 ' , , ,1987 ,' .218


7" 2" , " ".24.10.2008 ,

1926 , ,
" " .,
, 3 ,
.
, , ,
, ).(Bunton, 2000, p. 148
)( , " , 1931-
, )( ,
, "
" ) ,1951 ,' .(79
,1944 " :
: , ,
, ,
" ) ," .(185-184
, ,
" " ,
)( , ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,1948 " : , )
"( , , ,
,
) "... ,' .(59
-
)' ( , , 1938-
" : ".
87
) , ( ,
)" "( 8 " ).(1950 ,
" "
" " -
.
"" ) "( "" , ,
) ( , ,
. ""? , "" "
; , "" ;
, , ,
.
" " " :
,
" ) .(10" :
. " ) 25-
.(24
" " , , -
/ .
- ,
3' '

.
: "" ; ,
""
, .
" " .
,
"".
, "" " "
" " , " " , "
" - , " .
" ,
. " "
" " , , . " "
, "" , .
) ,(2004 , " "" :
) -
(".
" " .
"" ) ( ,
. ""
" " "" ,
""" , " " ".
- "" ,
/ ,
" ." )
( " " , "
".
) ( " " ,
, .
, ,- ,
, ,
)( .
" " ,
""
""" ," " " .
1911 " - " ,
, , 1906-
, ) (.
"
, , ,
, , - " ),
.(1997
, ' ,
, ,
. ,
) "" , ( . " "
, ) (.
, "
" , .
" " )"( ,

1985 ,
" " ." , ,
,
, , .
" ".
" " ,
, ,
"" . , " "
.
, " , " ",
"" ) ,(6.4.2007 " " .
- ,
" " . , ""
, ,
" .
" " " "
" , " ".
"" . ,
" , " "
" " . :
" 3 , : , .
.
. , .
".
, , - " "
, -
, -
: , ".
, ,
, ,
,
. : ) , ,
( , :
)( ;
) ,( , .

"" " "
: , ,
) (
19- ,1948-
, ) ( .
, , , ,,1917-
-
. , 1917.
,19- ,
, ,
, , . ,
70- ,19- ,
) ;(1872

) ;(1871 , -
) .(1878 , ,
, .
,
, -
, ,
- .
, , , ,
, - ,
, .
, ,
) ,( ,
,
.
' ,
, - ,
.
, '
, : ',
;
, . ,
';
) ( .
' .
. ' ,
, ;
,
-
' , .
19- .
, , 70-
30- .
, ,1922 ,
65% .
' , ,
. )(
, , ,
, , , , .
, 80- ,19- ,
, .
:
, , ,
. ,
- , )' ,(
,
.
, -
, , .
; -

19- ,
, .
- , ,
) (1967
19- :20-
' ,
;
'
, ;
' ,
;
' , ;
' , .
,-
, .

.
?
4
) (

.1
1.1 :
- ' ,
- - , ,
.
, .5
-
' .
,
. -
' ,
-,
. '
, .
, ,
' , ,
, / . ,
. ) ,(surplus ,
) (; ) (;
) ( ).(Sunar, 1987
' ,
, , ,
, ,
. ,
4 , , , ,1955 ,' .50
5
-
)]1957 [1892( . , ,
, .
, " " :1857/58
"We have an original unity between a specific form of community or tribal unit and the property in
nature connected with it, or the relation to the objective conditions of production as naturally existing,
as the objective being of the individual by means of the community. Now this unity, which in one sense
appears as the particular form of property, has its living reality in a specific mode of production itself,
and this mode appears equally as the relationship of the individuals to one another and as their specific
daily behavior towards inorganic nature, their specific mode of labor (which is always family labor and
often communal labor). The community itself appears as the first great force of production; special
kinds of conditions of production (e.g., animal husbandry, agriculture) lead to the evolution of a special
mode of production and special forces of production, both objective and subjective, the latter appearing
as qualities of the individuals" (Works of Karl Marx 1857-58, Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations,
Notebook V. January 22, 1858).

. ,
.
,
, ,
.
, ' ,
:
.1 ,
, ,- , ) (;
.2 , ,
;
.3 , ,
.
, ,
: . ,
, , ,
.
, , , ,
6
- : , -.
, '
, . ,
, ,
:
) (sipahi , ;
;
).(Islamoglu-Inan, 1987
, - ,
, ; ) ,
( , ;
.
.
)( , ,
.
,
" , .
. ,
, , ,
' ,
).(Doumani, 1995
, , ,
. ,
, ,- ,
.
, ,
, , ,
).(Sunar, 1987

10

' .Doumani, 1995

,
. .
.
) (Islamoglu, Keyder, 1987
' " '".

, .
, '
.
, ,
, . ,
, ' .
, ' ,
. ,
, , )(.
,
, ,
. ,
. ,
. , ,
.
' ,
, ,
. , ,
, .
, ,
, ,
, , .
,15- ,
, ,
, '
) ( .
'
) 18- - ( ,
, ;
) , , ( ,
, .
, -
)( , )(
).(Islamoglu, 2000
, ' ,19-
, ,
.
, , :
, )(;
; ; )(; ; .
19- )( ,
' , ,
.
, , .

11

, , ,
, , ,
. ,
' , ,
,
, .19- ' ,
,
. '
, .
,19- ' - ,
, - '
.
, , .
19-
)( , ,
" . ,
,
).(1976 ,
,- ,
19-
) .(1976 , ,
,
).(1976 ,
1.2 -
, ' ,
) ;1972 ,.(1989 ,
' )(
, ,- , ) .(subsistence )
( , , ,
. : , ,,
.
,
. , .
) , ( , ,
, .
, , .
, , ) ( ,
, . ,
, , .
.
:
, .
) ( ) ( ,
;
; ,
; .7
7

12

1886- ' .

,
) ,( ,
. ,
.
.

. ,
, , - , , ,
, .
. ,
, , ,
. ,
; ;
).(Issawi, 1966
19- :
.
,
.
, , ,
.
. , ,
1852 447- 8 4 - 1855,1859-
70- .(Issawi, 1982) 1860-
,
:
" ... ,
, ) ( .
, , .
,
" ).(Scholch, 2006, p. 91
,
.
,
, .
, , , ,19-
.
19- ) (Quataert, 2000" : ,
" )" .("labor scarce, land rich, and capital poor
.
, . ,
,
, ,
.
, 19- ,
, , ,19-
.
, ,1879 :

8 1.28".

13

" ...
) "... ].(1976 [1887

1.3
- , ,
' ,-
, - .
,
. - ,
, . ,
, , ,
, , .
, , .
-
. ' .
, ,
. , ,
, ,
.
- , ,
, , .
,
, .
, .
, , ,
, ,
.
, ,
.
-; -.
: ;
; , -
, -.
) ,( , ,
.
) ; ( ,
,
, ,
.
, - ,
- , , ,
. ,
, . ,
. , ,
)( , ;
, )( ,
) , ( .
.

14

) ( , - ,
- ,
) ( .
-
.
' , ,
,
. ,
, , .
' -.
" '
' , .
,
) ( , ,
-
" )- ,1979 ,' .(13
, - , -
, .
, , ,
, .
' , ,
. )
( , .9
- -,
, ' . ,
" " . - ,
, -
' . ,
)( )( -.
' , " "
, ,
, ) Owen,
.(2000
' )
( ,
. , ,
, , . ,
: '
, , , -
.
,
, , , -
. , ,- , ,
) ( ,
. , ,
- ,
9

, 19-
-.

15

)( ,- -
.
) ( , ,
,- .
, .
, , ,
, ).(Owen, 1981; Doumani, 1995
, ' ,
- ,
) ,( -
,
' , , -
.
)( ,19-
- ) 1858 Land
.(Registration Law
- , :
;
- ;
;
;
;
.
1858- ,
' .
, . ,
'
)( , , , ,
, , ).(Eisenman, 1978
,1858- ' ,
" " . :
, ;
, ;
, , , ,
, -.
, 1858 :
,
;
, ,
.
, , , ,
' .
1858 ,
, .
)( - )( ,
) ( )( .
, , ,.

16

, , ,
, )( .10
,
, .
. , '
. , "",
,
. ,
' , , ,,
. ,
,
.
, , . ,
) ( ,
, ,-
)-( .
. ;
.
, , .
- -,
. , '
, ,
) ( ,
)( . ,
' , )( ,
.
, ) ( ,
, . ,
,
.
,
.
.
) Doumani, 1995; Inalcik, Quataert, 1994, chapter 33; Sunar,
(1987 , , '
, -
- ) ( .
, ,19-
. ,
, ,
, ' . ,,
,
, .
.1858,
, '
) ( ,
10 8 ,1946
- ] ,[Survey of Palestine, vol. I, 1946 :.1949 ,

17

)" "( , , ,
- , ,
. ,
,
. ,
).(Islamoglu, 2000
, 1858 , , -
) , (;
, ) , ( .,
, ,
. ) ,( , ,
) .(Quataert, 1993 ,
, , ,
, , . )
( ,
).(Eisnman, 1978
, , .,
, , ,
. ,
.
.
, ).(Doumani, 1995, p. 180

1.4
'
- ) ( ,
. - '
)( , , .
, , .
, : .
- )(
, ) .(1981 , - ,
. , , )(
, , , )( ,
.
, ' , ,
. ,
. '
. ,
- , ,
.
:
.1 , ,
;
.2 , -
, -.
: , , ,
, , .

18

.
, .
, ,
" " . , ,
) (
).(1951 ,
,
' , )
,( . ,19-
, . ,
) , , , ,( ,
, , .
, , .
, ,
) (
.

. ,
,
.
,
, ,
, .
1.5
)( ,
'.
) ,1971 ,(5
, 11.
,
.
.
)( ,
,
. , ,
) ( )
(.
,
) ,( . ,
. , .
.
) ( ,
.

11 , , "" , ,
, ' . ,
, ) Inalcik,
.(Quataert, 1994

19

.
12
, ' ).(Himadeh, 1938
:
, .
' , ,
, ,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, , ,
, ).(Schaebler, 2000
. ." , "
) .(1892 , ' 1878
" " , )
(:
"( , .(
? ,
, , ,
...( " ,
. ? ) - ( ,
, ,
...( ,
, ,
" )" .(144-143
,19-
. , ,
, ,
,
" " , ,
" : ,
".
, ) ,(19-
- )' (
. , ,
) , ( ,
, , .
,
, .
.
, , .

12

, )( , , ""
, . , .
.
. ' ' : ' , '
, . , , ,
, . , , , ,'
) ( ).(Schaebler, 2000

20

, ,19-
'.
- , ,
, .
, 70 ,
, , ,
- .
,
.
. ,
, :
) , , , , ,( , ) ,,
( , ) , , (; )
, , (; ;
,' .-- ,
: - )
- ( .
, - ) ,( ,
) , , (.
1.6
, )
( , ,- . ,
, , )(.
)( , )""(
.
)( )( . ,
' , - ,
, ,
, .
,
)( - ,
: , )
( ; - ,
, .
) (,
,
)
( .
.
) (Hariman, Brenner, 2006 ,
: ,
,
, ,
; , ),
, ( ,
)
(.
, ' :
)' ( , , ,,

21

-- ) ( ,
.
, )
( , , )
( , ,
.
. ,
- '
, . ,
. '
,
, ,
. , , ,
. , ,
. - ' )
, (.
, , , ,
,
)( , ,
.
, - )( ,
. , ,
, ' .
. , ,
, , -
.

, ;
; ;
;
)(
.
, - ,
- ) ( , ""
, - -;
- ,
; - ) ,
( .
, -
, , -
. , .
" " , - ,
, , )

( . , " , -
, -
" )1955 , ,' .(463
, , ,
. ,
. ,

22

, )" "( , ,,
.
1.7 '
. ,
, , ,
.
, ' .
, , ,
, .
' , .
, , , :
; ) ,
(; , .

,
.
30- ,19- )(,
.
, ,
. ,
).(Pamuk, 1987
, ,
.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, ,
, , .
, , .
, .

.
, , , ,
.
) ( ,
. ,
50-12 . ,
) Quataert,
.(2000
, ,
, .
, , ,
. ) (
, ,
.

).(Gran, 1987
,
.

23

. , ,
.
, ,
, , .
1.7.1 , , ?
, '
) ,(1858 , ' ,
.
' : ,
, ,
. , ' ,
) ,(sipahis ,
, , . ,
,
).(Owen, 1981
,19- '
. ,
, ) , ,(.
,
) , , (.
, .

, , , ,
) (.
,
, :
. ,
, , ,
, ,
, , .
,
;
; - ;
.
,
. , , . ,
, ,
. .
, , ,
)( ,
: , .
)( , , .
, .
, , .
, ,
.
, .
,

24

, .
) ( .
, ,
, , ,
.
, , .
,
)' ,(2 ,
, .

. , '
. - ,
,
"" , , , .
, , ,
,
. , ,
, . ,
,
) , , , , ,( , ,
,
.
,19- ,
. ,
,
, ,
. ,
).(Inalcik, Quataert, 1994
, 80- ,19-
: , .
, 3 , " :
... .
- ,
- - . ,
" ) ] ,1976 [1887' .(36
.
, , ) :( "
- ,
. ,--
, " ) ] ,197 [1887' .(35
, ,
" :'
. .
' ' : .
, .
,
, ,
, '" ) ] ,1976 [1887'.(133 ,
,
'

25

, - .
)' ( ,
) ( ;
.
)
'( , , .
, ' ) ,(1838
,
, .

' ,
)' ( . , ,
, , , ,
, , - ,
,
.
18- 19-
:
" ,18-
.19- ,
,
,
) (hinterland . ,
,

' . ,19-
, :
, , -
. , ,

. , , ,
- ,
, -
" ).(Doumani, 1995, pp. 236-237
,
) (cash-crop :
,
.
' ,
).(Sunar, 1987
.
, ,
, , -
, , .
, , . ,
, , ,
, , .

26

1.8
'
,
. , , , ,
, , , .
, ) Doumani,
.(1995
400- , , ,
, ) ,( .

1820 . 19-

' , , ,
. ,
,
. 19- : ,
, , , ) .(Issawi, 1966
. ,
, ) (1863 , ,
) ,1975 ,' .(106
'
)( ,
.1319-
, , ,16-
. 18-
. 70-
,19- ) ( , ,
. 90- ,19-
.
, .
,
, .
, 20- , ,
, ,
) ;2000 , ;2002 ,-.(1989 ,
, ,.
,1881- ,
10% ).(Scholch, 2006, p. 92

.
) , ( , )
' "( ,
. , ,
, .
- . ,
, , ,

13 .1879

27

. , ,
, , , ..

, - .
, )(
. ,
' , - .
,
, -
. .
,19- ) ,( ,
, .
, ,
)( , , . ,
,
)
, ( . , -
,
.14
'
, ,
) .(1986 , , ,
. , , , , .

, . , ,
, .

, "
, .
: )
(; ) (; ) - ,
( .
. , ,
, .

) ( .

14


, ' " " ) .(1899
, :
) : , ( , ,
- . ,
.
) : , ( , ,
- . - , ,
. , ,
) - (.
,
'' '' . , ,
) ,( , , , .

28

.
, ,
) , , ( .
, ) ,( ,
, .
, , ,
:
. ,
,
.
*
- , , -
,
- .- -
, , , , ,
, , . , ,
, , , ,
. ,
, -.
, , ,
,- , , ',
,
- , ,
. ,
, - .
) ,
( . ' ,
,
.
*
- ' ,
- , ,
. , , " " ,
.1967- ,
, ' ,
) ( '
)( - . ,
. ,
, ,1858 , .
,
,
, .
, ,
- )
( , ' )( ,
)(; ,
)(; ,'.
2008 "
" , " " "",

29

.
, ' ) ( )
( .
" " , ,
. , " ""
.
,
, 78 ' ,1858
,
. " ,

.
, , ,
) ( ' ,
15
.
1.9
,1858 , -,
' ,-
. ,
.
:
" ,
,
. , ,
: 19-
)=( , .
.
, ,
, - .

- " ) ,1946 ,' .(67
) ( , ,
)( :
)( . ,
. ,
' ) (,
, , ' . ,
.
1858 ,
) ( , ,
. , ,
- ,
).(1977 ,
' , , ,
, ,1842- ,
)' ( ,-
).(1977 ,
15 " ," ;13.11.2008 , " , ".13.11.2008 ,

30

) ,(tax farmers , ,
. , ,
. ,
, ,
. , ,
).(Owen, 1981
- )' (
,
. ,
, .16
-
, -
.
' , .
' ,
, -
, ,-
.
-- - ,
, ' ,
- ,
.
, ) ( ,
' , , .
,
. ,
) ( ,
, ,
.17
, ,
.-- ,
, . ,
50-40 ,
.

) (1899- ,
. , , . ,
' .

" 16 , , ,
, , . ,
' ,
. , ' ,
. ' , 1840 ,
. ' , 19-
" ) ,1977 , .(83
" 17 , - - ,
... - "
) .(Palestine Royal Commission. Report. 1937, pp. 150, 151

31

. , ,
. :
" - , ,
. - .
? - , 30 50 , .
.
, " ),
,1983' .(71
, '
, , .
, )( , ,
, , ,
, . ,
, . -
, .
" :
. , .
.
. . ? ,
- '' ,
. ,
, ''" ) ,1983 ," .(72-71
'
: - ,
.
. ,
, )
- ( . ,
) ( , . ,
, ,
.
, ,1873-1867 ,
.
, ' ,
,
, .
, ,
) ( , )
( . , ,
) ( . ' -

. , ,
- .
" , ) (registers
.
, , ,
, .
) ,(Index of owners - . .
,
- . , .

32

,
. , ,
. , ,
, , , " )
.(.Survey of Palestine, Vol. I 1946, p. 238

, , - " .
)(
.
,
' " ) ,1977 ,' .(87

, .
, ' .
1913 , , ,
, - .
, ) 10( )
36( )
( )- .(1979 , 1913- , ,
) (
.
,
) ,(1971 ) (1949 ) ,(1964
, :
.1- , ,- ,
' - ,
;
.2 , ,
;
.3 - , , ,
,
;
.4 ,
,
, - , '.
.5 ,
, -
, ,
;
.6 , , ,
;
.7 , ,
)( ;
.8 - ,
. ,
,
.
) ( ,19-
, ,
'.

33

, , ,
, '
. , , ,-,
,
, , , .-
) ( ,
. - ,
. ,
, , - )
18
( .
, - ,
, ,
19- . ,
, , ,
, .-- , -
,
,- .
,/ '
) ( ,
. , , ,
) ( .
- ,
, , ) .(2000
- , ,
. , 50 , ,
. " ' ,1909
) , ( 46 )-,
;1981 .(1949 ,
,
.
, '.
, , 19-
, .
- ,
' .
; ).(Schloch, 2008, p. 179
" 18 ' - : )'( ,
. - ,
. - )
- (
. , ,
, , .
, . ,
, . ,
, .
) ,(19- , -
. , , .
. , , ,
, ) ,
(; ,
" )(1930 ,

34

,
, . ,

.


- ,
. ,
, - , -
)" .(S25/7433
,
, " : .
" )".("The table is imcomplete. It is believed to be accurate
1919 ,
, ," :
" )" .("Near Prospects of Land Acquisition 22
, 27 ) (domains - ' ." ' ) "2
( , , - 11-
100 9 :- 30-
100 ; 8- 5) 10-" (30
. 20 , 158 ,
62 , 175- .
, ,
) ( .
, ) ( -
) ( . , ,
5,000.
, , , 1920-
42 , ,

) 27 (.

. 5 ,
200- , ) ( ,
, . 7
, , 235 ) -
( . , ,
, - )
(.
30- ,
) - , " "( : ,,
, ,' , , , ,- . -
- )( , )( , )( )(
55-40 , 250 ,
.
,
, . ,
: , ,
.

35

,
,1945-1918 3 ) .(Stein, 1984
76 ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, .
.
,
.

1.10
- ,
)" "( ,
. , :
) -(
)( . ,
- . ,
)- ,- -
( , .

. , ,
-
, , , .
-.
, , ,
- , , -
- . ,
, ,
.
- - , - ,
, .
- , ,
) ( , 20% .

' :
.1 , - ;
.2- , ;
.3 , ,
. .
, .
.4 ,
) ( .
.5- , ) ,( ,
- ,
- , .
.6 )( , .
) (
, , ' ,

36

- ,
,
19
. , , - .

- )( -
- )( .
) ( ,
. .
, ,
) ( , , ,
, - , .
50- 60- 19-
' , .
, ,
.
1.11 ,

.
' ) ,(1914
. ,1880
) - , ( 450
, 12- 125 ,
).(1977 ,
, ,
, . ,
-
: ) , ( ,
, , ,
.
, , .
) 30- (19-
, .
, , , . ,
, , 1840 , 200 , 3,000
,1850- ).(Smilianskaya, 1966
.
: , , , , , , ,
, .
: ; ;
; , . ,
,
. ) ( .
19 ' ,20 -
: , ;
, , ;
, ; ;
/ . ,
).(Pamuk, 1987

37

)( , ,
, . ,
.
. ,
,
. ,
) , (
.
,
- ,
, . ,
,
, , ,
.
, , , ,
' , ,
.
19- ,20-
, - 300- .
, , 10- 1880- 40- ;1915-
30- 80-; ) ( 6- -
30; 10- 25- ).(1977 ,
.
,- , .
- , , ,
-.
, ,
, ' ,
. ,
) ( ) ( ,
,
. , ,
20
, , .
, , '
, , .
" ' , ,
. ,
, ... '
) ( , --!" ) ,1970 ,' .(355
,
, , " -
" ) ,1977 ,' .(39
' ,
. -
. - -
.
20 : ,1840-1820
10- , 8- . ,
' ) ,(alaja , 80,000- ).(MacGregor, 1996

38

) - ( , , ,
, ,
. , , , ,
.
-
. " " . , 3-2
, 5- " :
- , -
- " ).(1924 ,
, ,
) 6
( . ,
.

).(Quataert, 1993
21
- .
, - ,
, .
, - - .
,
- ,
. ,
, ,.
, ,19-
, .,
, ,
'' . ,
, ,
, . :
100 10 , 1,025
. 2,300 .
) 1,275( .(Doumani, 1995, p. 136) (!)150%
, ,
, .
, )( ,
.
, .

. , - 1,500
1,600- . )(
) ,' ,( ) , ,( );1938 ,
-.(1947 ,
21 , ,
- - .
, ,
. - ) ( ,
, , " : -
: -" ) ,1953 ," 277-
.(276

39

, -.
, , , ,
) " "( ,
. ,
, , ,
. ) ( , ,
)( .1848 ,-
,
.

1.12
'
, - .
"" , ' ,
, , , ) ( ,
, , , .
18- ,19- '
, . 1789/9
, ; 1840-
, , ; 1856-1853
' ,
20 .
: ,
' ; , ,
' : 1878-
, 1881 .
-
' , ,
. ,30- 70%-
. ,
, 240- " , -
1875 . ,
' ,
,
, .
,
' ,
, .
)( ,
, ,
' ).(Owen, 1981

.
. , , ,
-- ,
22
'.
22 , , . ',
, , " .

40

,19- : 1892
" '" ) (Credit Lyonnais ,
; 1897
- ) .(Deutsche Palastina Bank 1905
' , ) ( ,
'
) ( .
.
).(2002 ;2000 ,
, ,
. ,
,
- . -
- 1892- - ' )
'( . : ) ,(1913
) ,(1915/16 , , -.
, ,1869
. ,
, , .
,
.

, , , ;
; ;
.
, ,
. 19-
.
, ) (
. , ,
. ) (
,
.
1.13
' ,
, , ,
, ,
, -
) ( . ,
, ) (
- , - .
.
, ,
, -
."" '
: , - , )
, " , ,
, " ).(1976 ,

41

( - - ; ,
, , - , -
.
,
, , -
, .
:
) ( , -
)"" - (
: ) ( )- , (
. " , ,
" ) ] ,1953 ,[1867' .(591
,-
-
. , ,
, .
,
) ( ) ( .
, -
. ' ,
- ) (.
) (
. )
( , , ,
- , . ,
, ,
.
.
, -
' . ,
, , ,
) ( .
,
. , ,
) ( .
,
)( , , ,
.
,
1872 ' , 20 .
' )( ,
2.5 23.
18 , 20-
.
,
,
- .
23 .
, 100-.

42

, ,
. )
'( - ,-
,
)( . , ,
, -
.
- , ,
, .
, - , ,
)( .
. , ,-
, - ,.
, ,
, , , .
, , ) (,
, ,19- ,
, .
, , , , ,
. ,
: ,
. , , )
( , - .
, , ,
' , ,
, , .
:
60- ,19- ) (1885-1862
.5 1887/8 110- ,
90- . - ,
) ;1977 ,.(1924 ,
, , ,
.
,
, .
1897 .
,
. ,
, . , ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
. ,
19- , ,-
- , , .
,
-
. , ,
19- , , .

43

,
, . ,
, .
, , -
.
, ,
. , ,
, , -
,.
)' ,(8
, -
19 ,20- ,
. ,,
, .
,
, , .

1.14 ,
, , -
' . 19-
,
).(Kimmerling, 2000 ;1994 ,
,
, , . ,
,
.
) ( , ,
, .
, ,
.
, .
, , , ,
, . ,
, : ,
, .
, ,
, , ,
..
.
, , ,
.
,
. , )(
, .
,
. ) ,(,
, .
,
,

44

' , , , ,
.
19- ) ( .

) ( , )
( , .
- :
. , , . ) (, ,
.
, , ) ( ,
.
, .
, ,
.
, , , ,
.
, ,
)(.
, ,
, .
: ,
, ,
.
, ) (
24
.
, ,
. ,
,
, .

,
. , , ) (
.
,
. ,
, . ,
, .
24 ) ,(2 ' ,
, .

45

, ' ,
.19-
,
' ) ,(1805
, .
, , .
,1834 ,
.
,
. , .
, 15 ,
. ,
10 )..(Inalcik, Quataert, 1994
'
, ,
, .

1.15
,
19- ,20-
,
:
19- ,
- ;
, ;
, , ,
-
, . )(

. 19- 20-
: .,
,
- : ,
, - .
, ' ,
.
, ,
-.
, , , ' ,
, -
- .
, ) ,
; ( ,

46

, ) , ( ,
.
" ,
.
, ' '
" )- ,1999 ,' .(32
' , ,
25.
, , ,
, ,

.
-- , 19- 20-
. :
, -
, ,
, ,
,.

" 25 ' ,
...
.
, - , .

. ' , ,
-- '
" ) ,2002 ,' .(306

47

" , , , ,
, ,
, ; ,
, ,
, ".
26
) (

.2 '
,19-
- , '
, , , ,- .
40- ,19- ,
"" , ' .
, - , ,
- , , ,
.
,
- . , ,
. , ) (1861 ,
,
.1868
' -
, ,--
. -
- ,
.-
, ,
.
,-
,
60- .19-
-
, .

, ) 19--;1979 ,
;Burstein, 1934 ;1980 , ;1984 , ,.(1989 ,
" " - )-
,1999 ,' .(38 ,
, , , ,
, -
.
, , ,
,
:
26 , , ,2005 ,' .31

48

" , ,
,
.
' ' , :
- .
- ,
- ,
. ,
,
" ) ,2004 ,
(.
- ,
- , , -
)" "( .
, .
,
, ,
: ?
- ? - "" ,
.
, )
( , .
;
: - ,
, ,
)
-( . -
)( - ,

- , ,
.1967
2.1 ) (

- , - , -
- )
" : "( , - .
,
. , - , -
, - ' . ,
" " ,
. , ,
- , .
, ,
- :
)"( , )(Alliance Israelite Universelle
1860 - ,
' . -

49

, ,
. , ,
, - ) ,(1870
, " - ,
) , .(2000
- ) (The Anglo-Jewish Association 1871
- .1898-
- - .
) (Hilfsverrein der Deutshen Juden
1901 - )" ,
, "( .
, 1913 27 ,
, . .
,
.
' ) (Joint Distribution Committee -
- , .

)-( ,
, ,
)' .(1 ,19-
, , .
" ,
, , .
)' ( ,
- , .
) , ( ,
)- ,1999 ,' .(39
19- ,
) , , (1892-
, ) ,(1858
)' .(1
)(
.
, , ,
.
' ,
)(.
19- 9 , 10
, . ,
, ) ( ,
" , ,
. , .
, , ,
" ).(1989 ,
,
. ,
, , ,

50

.
, . ) ,
( , , ) ,(
.
,
) ( )( ,
, , ,
. .

- .
) () . ' ' (.
80- 19- , ,
, " .,
' ' , ' '
" )- ,1999 ,' .(8


, -
,19 ,
. -
- , , , , .
,
- , .
3.3-
1815 100- ) 1925.(1975 ,
- , ,
, ' . , -
50 ,19- " )( ,
- - . "
)( ,- - ,
)( .
80- ,19- .
, .
, , ,
,1882 ,
.
) - ,
, ,( ,
, , - ,
, '.
, , "
. ,
- ,
" ).(1990 ,
,
. , ,1884-
, . 1887-

51

.
, )
( , .
- , 5.6 " , 1.6
" .1899-1883 ,
6.1- " .
, , ,
, 80- 87 " 5
) ;1970 , ;1981 ,-.(1999 ,
, , ,,
- - . ,
, - , ,,
. - -
. , ,
, , -
) , (.
, , "
" ) ,1980 ,' .(105 )
( , : , .
" - , -
,
" ) ,1980 ,' .(105
. ,
, , ,
. ' , ,
, ) ,
( .

. 1890/1 ,
. ,
, ) - ,
19- ( .
, ),
,1980' .(103

, . ,
, ,
, ) ,1981 ,'
.(32-30 , , -
, . , . ,,
,
. , 1914- 5,000-
).(1976 ,
. ,
, ,
. ,
, , ,
. : 25- ,
1885- , 20

52

, , 20 .
).(1973 ,
, ,
, ,
) , (.
,
, , ,
, ,
?
,
, ,
. , , '
- ,
- . , ,
.
- , ,
,1914 ,
,
) ,1981 ,' .(183-182
, 1900 ,
1,600 , " ,
. "
,1913-1903 :
" , ) "( ,
,
" ).(APK, 1918
-- , "
. ,
)' .(6

)"(
" ) (Jewish Colonization Association 1891 "
)( . " 70- 19- -
' . 80-
. " ' , 1896-
) ( ,
.
,1900- " ,
) . 1924- ,
" , "(.
" , ,
- ."
, ,
, , , ,
) ,1981 ,' .(79
" .
, ,
, ,.

53

1905- " ) ( , " )' (


6,500 . "
)' ( ,
).(1990 ,
, , ,"
' . , ,
. ,
) ( . ,-
," ) ( .
,
) ,1980 ,' .(148
, " ,
" ."
, .
, ) ,1981 ,'
.(79

19-
, 19-
.20- , .
-
, . -
-.
- - -
, , -
, . ,-
).(1971 ,
-
- , ,- )
( . , -
." 1906 , -
, " .19-
1914 , ,
, -
. 1924 - ,
" - " ).(1976 ,

. , ',
, "
- . ,
- .
1914 - , , -)!(
" " , 250 , -
, " .
,
) ,1981 ,' .(115

, . ,

54

, - ,
' , - ,
.- ""
,
, .
.
, -
. 1925
" " ) (The Pact of Amity " . ,
' )
-( , " "
" . 1927 " " ,
, 1929
, - ) (.
, ) (
- ) ( .- -
, )( ,
- , .
, )
( , '
, ,
.
20- ) ,(1914
185- . " ) 100,000(
) 50,000( , 80%- ,
, , 35- , 20%-
) " ;1997 ,.(1997 ,
, , '
, , ':
) ,( , )" " , ( ,-
) (.

' , ,
. 1914 420 , 350
) (83% ) ,1988 ,' .(107
1904 ,
)( . , - ,
. ,
" , ,- , .
, ,
)- ,1979 ,' .(153-152
,
' )( .
" " 1911 , ,
1906- ,
) (" .
,
, , , ,
- " ).(1997 ,

55

, ' ,
, ,
. ,
.
" " ,
) (.
1912 ,
. , .
.
- , .
, .
) 20- .(1986 ,
" " " ,
. ,
, ,
" " , .
.(1908) 8-
.
,
. "
50- "
, . .
2.2

' ,- ,
,-
27
.
, ,
, -
, .19-
" " ) (1899 , "
" , .
)'( , -
" : , ,
, " ) ,1961 ,' .(346
, ,
. '
) ,(Jewish Company
, , .
, ,
).(1997 ,
27

, , . ,
: ) ,(1980 , ) ,(1995 , ) ;1977 ,;1980 ,
;(1992 , ) (1991 , , " .
' .

56

,
" " , ) 1904 ,1934 ,' 105( ,
1891- ,1903-
" : - , , , ",
.
- ,
" - , .
, - " . " "
"" " , ) :(
; )( .
' , ,
) ,
,(; , :
, ,
) (.
, , .
" , ",
.
- )"
"( - .

, . ,
- )" : " " "( ,
. " ,
, ... -
, , - , ,
- , - "...
, , ,
) ( , ;
, ' ,
.
, , ,
. , ,
, ,
, -
. ,
, - ,
)
,
(.
,
-- , ,
.
, " , " :1929-
) "(
...
, " ) ,1995 ,' .(220
,
) (,
.

57

;
, .
" " , )
( . -
)-( , ,,
.


- , ' .
'
, ' ,
, .

, ' . :
' ,
, . ) (
, .
) (
, ).(Quataert, 1993
' , ,
, ,
, . , '
)(
) (.
,- -,
, .

) '( ,
, .
) ( , - ,
' . , , ,
,
)( .
, .
- ,
19- .20-
, ,
- ,
,
.
- ,
, ,
, .-
, -
, -.
,
, , , ,
- )' (.

58

,
, ,
, , , ,
. ,
, ) (.
,
, , ,
28
.
.,
, ) ,(1879
. ,
, ) (1901 .
- .
, ,
' , : ,
; ,
;
) ( , ).(2000 ,

)"(
,
- , - .
,
- , ,
, , . ) (1898
) ( The Jewish
) ,(Colonial Trust [Judische colonistbank " ,
.
1899
,
, '" . ' ,
, -
.19 , ) ''' ,
( ,
,
. , ,
19- , ,
"
) ,1977 ,' .(10-9
, ) (
, .
- , ,
. ,
, .
28 " : ,
. ,
" ) ,1999 ,' .(70

59

" , )
-( , .
" , ) -
( , ) "
( , ,
, .
, " ,
, - . ,
) (1901 " .

- ) "(
1902- - ),(Anglo-Palestine Company
" . - )"(
."
, " " ,
29
, ) 2007(.
"
:19- '
;1892- - ;1897- '
) ( - ;1905- )
( .1911-
" , ,
,
. :
" , , ,
,
.
" ,
, . ,
;
.
, ,
" ).(1977 ,
" ,
) (
, - , .
, ,
. , , ,
, .
,
29" . -
) .(Anglo-Levantine Banking Company ,:
)(Palestine-Handelsgesellschaft
)(Deuthsch-Levantinisch Baumwollgesellschaft
),(Palestina-Industrie-Ssyndikat
)(Planzungsverein Palestina
) ,1970 ,' (10

60

.
, , ,
)(
).(1988 ,
," , )
, ( , ,
. ,1907 "
" , ),
,1977' .(84
" , , ,
" " " . ,
- ) ( . , ,1912
94 ) (
1,186 ) ,1977 ,' .(89


" ,
' , -
. "
" ),
,1990' .(425
1903- .
" , ,
.
, - .
- , ' .
, / ,
' :
' ,
, , -
;
, ,
;
' , ,
) 2% 4%- (;
) 49(
' ,
.
, , -,
'
.
1903 , :
" , ,
,
) "...- ,1979 ,' .(81
, ,
; , .
, ,
, , ):(1906

61

" , -
... ,
, ,
" )- ,1979 ,' .(85-84
, , )( .
,
)
(.
,
" , ," . , -
, , .
,20-
1907 " , ,
- .
,
) ,(Olbaumspende
, , ) . ,1
' ,
'(.
1910 - -
) ,(Eretz Israel siedlungsgesellschaft :
,
. .
, ),(1990 ,
, ,
, .
)" "( .
, ,
,
" .
, ,
, .
,
, , ,
.
,
- , ,
. ,
.
, ,
, ,
, ).(1990 ,
,
24 . , ,1914-1903
) ( , ,
) .(1990 , , ,
' ,
. ',
" . , ,
, , ,

62

,
.
-
- .

,1907
",
.
) - ,
, '( , .
:
" .
, , )
"( . ,
,
1.1/2% - .
, 10% .
- 2,000-
" 500" . 30
, 80 .
- , "
. ,
;
- " ) ,1937 ,' ;6
"(.
:
)( ,
)" -
"(; )(
, .
.
1908 -
) ,(Palastinaamt " . , ,
) (Palestine Land Development Company .
,
, : .
,
- ) ( .
, .
, ,1908- " :
- , - ,
, -"
) ,1970 ,' .(40
, ,
, .
"" , , 1914 ,
:

63

" ...
, -
, -
.
"
, . ,
. -
" )- ,1979 ,' .(117-116
' .
1908 :
" , ,
. - 11% :
) 120,000?( 6%-3% "
30
)- ,1979 ,' .(101
, , ,
.
, "
" ,
" " ).(1990 ,
) ,(1909 '
:
" ,
, ,
) "...- ,1979 ,' .(104
, ,1911- ,
, :
" -
, ,
-" )- ,1979 ,' .(113
' ' '
,
-.
1908 ' -' ,
: ,
. ,
.
1910- - -,
. )
( - , .
, -.
,1915 " , ,
) ,(Achooza Land and Development, Planting Companies
.
" , .
30 , , .
) ( ,
' ,
).(1988 ,

64

:- ,
. 76
, 47 ).(1997 ,
, ,
, .
' ,
) ,(20- .
" .
"" "" ,
, -
.

' , - ,
- .
, , : ,
; ;
; ;
. -
. .
,(1913) 11- , " ,
.
-?" ) ,1937 ,' .(40 ,
- , ,
. , :
" .

.
-
)''( -
,- 1909 '' ,
.
,
.
" .
:
208,000 - 1908
527,000 - 1909
1,138,000 - 1910
1,490,000 - 1911
5,552,000 - 1912
3,593,000 - 1913
"
" ) ,1937 ,' .(54
.
, "
-" .
- , , 1-
,1914 " : ,
,

65

" , - . " ) Ruppin, 1971,


31
.(p. 149
1914 " .
- , , "

- " . ,
, , ,
. ,
. ,
, .
,
, , " 1914
. , - ,
. . ,
,1914 . (Ruppin, 1971, p. 118)"...
, ,
' , . , - ,
)( .
, .
1919 " ",
,
. , -
)( , ,
. ,
, . ,
.
" "
, ,
, ""
, ,
: .
"" ) ( ,
, ,
) ' (.
"" , ,
, ,
.
)( ,
.
) , , ( , ,
.
"" , "" ,
, :
, , .
31 " " .
" , , , ' , " :1914-
'' ...
" ) ,1968 ,' .(130

66

, ,
, . ,
:
"...
) . (. . -
, , ,
;
. ,- ,
, - ,
" ) ,1979 ,' ) (29
"(.
, ,

, . ,
, ) (1948 )' ,(.
) -
( , ) ,(settler society
) .(2001 , ,
, :
, ,-;
/ ;
; , , ;
. , ,
, " :
) "... ,2001 ,' .(9
"" ;
;
)( , .
, , ,
,19- , ,
) ,
, (.

, , , .
, , ,
.
,
) ( , ) (
' ,19-
.
' , ;
.
' ) (; , .

67

' , ' ; -
49 , , .
' , ' .
' ; ) 2% - 4% ,(;
)( , , ;
)( , .
' , ;
, , ,
.
, ) ""(
' ,
.-- , '
'
.

2.3 '
,
.
) ''( , , .
- , - .
70-
,19- , ,
.
, ,
, ,
.

,
. , 19- .
- .
' , . ,,
)( ,
. , . ,
, , .
,
).(Quataert, 1993
- , ,
, - . ,
, " .
)" "(
.

68

-
,
, ,- , ' ,
:
; ,
- .

. :
, ,
" . ,
,
- .
" ) , . , ,"1979 ,
' .(40
,
, .
- ,
.
;
- - , ' , , ,
,
, .
,-- ,
- .
,
, , ,
, , , , , '.
, , )
, , ( ,
, .
- ; ;
,-- , ,
- , ,
.
, -
.
80- .19- ,
- ,
- , . , 1881
1914- 2.4 ) ,1975 , ,(13 -,
,- , .

- ,
. , -
, ,
. ,

69

, ,
.
, ,
. , , , -
600-500 .
, , ,
.
, , .
, - - , ,
.- 19- - ,
) , ,( - )
,( . )(
,
.
, .
, " " ,
. , , ) -
( , , )
- ( . ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
. 1846-
, 3,000 , -
. , (!)5- 3000- 350
- ).(1971 ,
19- 20-
. - ,
, " " , .
, ,
,
)' .(1
, - ,
- ,
' . ,
, , .
,
, - .
, 80- 90- 19-
, , ,
. , - ,
- , - .
, ,-
. , '
, , )

70

( ) ( )
(.
,
, ,
. , , .
,
: ,
, ; ,
, ,
, ,
. ,
,
, ,
.
- ,
)( . -
, " , .
, ,
, : ,
' ;
; - ; -
. ,

,- .
, ,
. ,
, , '
) , (.
,
. . .
- " :
,
, " ) ,1970 ,' .(14
, , ,
; - ).(1977 ,
" -
. ,
: ; ;
. ,
) ,1974 ,' .(18
,
" " ) (,
.
, - ).(1990 ,

71

-
-
- , - ,
.
, . , ,
, ,
, ) ,1974 ,' .(24
, ,
, ,- . ,
' ,
?
,
, ,
. " " ) ,(1903-1881
25,000 , 5,000
)- .(1994 , ,
, .
, "" , ,
" : ' ' -
,
" ,
" ) ,1990 ,(.
,20- ,
,19- -
) ( . ,
, - . .
, )
( , ,
. .
" , - , 1908
, ,
, . ,
" " )( : - , ;
" , " ),
,1997' .54' (.
, 1909-
") 1905 "( ,
) -
,(30 .

72

.1 ) 1909-1905 ,(

"

54
4
13
2
4
5
18
100

2
14.5
3
0.5
5
13
62
100



4
0.5
3
23.5
60
100

:.1970 ,

, -
, ),13%
14,5% 9%-( . .
"" : 54% ;
62% ; 60%
. , ?
, ,
- , .
, , - )
"" ?( ,
- .

""" , "" , " .
, . ,
, ,
.

73

"
"
32
) (

2.4

.20--
- ) ,(; -
, , ;
, ,
.
' 20-
, ,
) ( , , , .
.
, ,
) ( ,
, ,
, " ' ' -
,
, "
" ) ,1990 ,(.
- ,
, - - . ,
)"( , ,
, .
- , , " : ) "(
, , ,
. , ,
" )- ,? ,' "(.
, " )' ( , , ,
, ,
).(1988 ,
-- , ,
. 90-
19- , ,
- , .
.
, .
- - ,
. ,

.
, "
" , ,
32 " ") ,1957 [1892] ,(.

74

. , ,
. ,
" .
, , ; ,
" ).(1984 ,
, -
,
.
) (
- , ,
, .
,
- , . :
" , " ) ,1937 ,' .(47
,
, ,
. , , ,
) ( , " .
,
" ) .(1997 , , -
, .
,
, , 10
; 15
; 50
, ),
.(1997
) ,(1908
- , , ,
- . : ,
,
, .
,11-
" "" :
.

,
: - ,
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
" ) . .(. ,
, ,
:
" , ,
, , -
.
, .
,

75

,
,
" ) ,1937 ," .(51-50
-
- .
, " " , :
" " -
) , , ( , - ,
- - -
- - . - ,
,
, - .
.

, - .

, " ) -.) (. ,1937 ,' .(36
-
, ,
,
.
" " :- ,
.

- ,
"" , ,
, .
- ) ( ,
. ),(1923
,- , , "
" "- " ,
' . - :
" -
, . :
, -
.- )
"( - , .
,
. '-' - -
, -
. . ,
" .
''" )
"( )- ,1964 ,' .(336
, , ,
- :
- . , ,
;

76

. ,
.
,
1913 65 , ..
:
8,000 ,
3,000 .
: , ,
. , ,
, , , )
( .
, ,
) ( ,
- , . ,
, ,
, , ' ,
- .
, . ,
, -.
,
33. , ,
, - ,
) ( ,
. , , ,
,
.
)(
, ,
. ,
) ,(1903-1882 .
) 92% ,(1914-1904 . -
, .
" ,
, .

" ) ,1974 ,' .(43
) (1909 , "
" . ,
, - .
, ) 100 (
. , ,
33 " " , 19-
, , ,-
. , :
" , - , - ,
. ,
, , . )
( , ) 19-"( ,
" )1975 , ,' .(39
' .Zagoroff, Vech, Bilimovich, 1955

77

. 1910 ,
)( " ).(1981 ,
) :
( . 1922,
, , 34.
- - , , ,
) ( ,
, .
, ,
- , .

,
. , 1896
" . ,
,
, ' ,
, ' ,
'" ) ,1970 ,' .(57
,
) ( , ) (.
,
" " . ,
) ( , ,
, . ,
, - , , ,
, , ,
; , ,
; ,
. , ,
, ) ;1981 ,.(1990 ,
, ,
-; , ,
,
, - .
, )
( "" "" ,
. , , ,
, ,
. , ,
,
.
" " ) ,(1904
, :
34 : ) ,(Palestine Development Council-
; ' ,; ) ,(Economic Board for Palestine .
: 1926- P.E.C.-; 1951-
; 1961- , )
( . 1970- " , 1971 )
,1980 ,' .(71

78

" ) , ( ,
. )
( - ,
. .
, , , ,
, ,
:
; " -;
; ),
'( ) ,1934 ," (109-108
,
:
) "( , ;
) ( , , ,
- .
, - ,
, - ,
' . 112- , ) ,
, ( , " )( , :
"
, ) "(
, . "
2:1
) (" ) ,1980 ,' .(222
) ( -
, . - ,,
, , .
, , ,
) ( , .
, , ,
- , , .
' , ""
, ,
. ,
. "" ,
, , .
, :
" ,
.
) (.
,
, ,
.
, ,
. , .
)!( )!(
" ).(Ruppin, 1971, pp. 105-106

79

- , ,
" "" :
- " )- ,1964 ,'
.(337
,
) .(1911 -
, -
) - "( . ,
, , ,
3,500-' ) ,1981 ," .(135 ,134
, ,
, ,
"
" ) ,1980 ,' .(113 ,
: , ,
; , .
,
) ,(1909 :
"
] -
[ . ,
)
- ( " ) ,1980 ,' .(180
, ,
-
) ,( , ,
. ,
, .
, , ,
, - ,
, , . ,
- , - , ,
.
' , ,
, ,
.
,
- , :
.1898
, .
--
35
.
) (
) ( .
, :
35 - - , . ,
,1936- 20% ,
"" ).(1936 ,

80

"
. .
,
" ).(1927 ,
,

. ,
: ,
) ( ,
- ,
, -;
,
, .
, ,
,
. , ' ,
, ,
, ) (.
" "
) ( ,
, ,
- , ,
-.
,
)
( - ) ,( .
,
' . ,- , ,
- ,
, . ,
- , ,
, . ,
? , ,
,-
, . -
, ) ,
, 60- 19-
" " ,
( ).(1983 ,
, -
,
,- )( ,
. ,
" " - , "
36
" .
36 " " ,
, ,
. - , , .

81

" " , ) , (
, , ,
, ; ,
"" ,
- .
, ,
, . ,
. ,
, .

. ,
, -
. ,
, ,
) ( - ) ,,
( , .

.
:
. '
: , -
; . ,
, " . ,
, '
" . ...
- ,
" ) ,1977 ,' .(47
,
, - - ,
.
.
, , ,
" " .
, ""
, -.
,1804 "" ,
... . ,
80- ,
400 . ,1904 , -
13- , ,
, ) ,1968 ," .(120-119
19- 60-30- ,
) ,1980 ,' .(22

. " : ,- ,
- , - , -
- - , - , . ,
" ) ,1998 ,' .(56

82

"" , , ,
, , ,
- . - - ,
)""(,
.
"" , ,
. , ,
, )""( , .""
, . ,
.
" ,
, . ,
, , "
) ,.(1997 ,
,
, ,
. ,
, .
, ,
.
, , ,
' ).(2004 ,
,
,
" "" , " )( .
,
.
2.5
' -
. ,

, .
' ) '( ,
, , )
( , '
) (.
, " ,,
- ) "( . ,
... , ,
; ,
" ) ,1988 ," .(120 ,66
-
) (19-
- , .,
, , , ,
, ' .

83

, "" , ,
, , , .
) ( , , -
, - . .
. ,
'
. ,
. ,1878 1,300
) , ( . ,1880
7,000 . , ,
. , ,
, 40 - .
: 1887- 18 ,
- 100 300 ) ,1970 ,' ;19 ,1980 ," ,55
.(107
.
,19-
: , ,
, ; ,
)( . ,
, .
- . )(
. ,
) ,1981 ,' .(83
:
" ,
. ...
,
") "..." , .(1855 ,24
,
" : )( .
,
.
, " ) ,1970 ,' .(28
, ,
, ,
' . , -
)"( , 12,900 ) , ,
' ( . ,
' , . "
" ).(1997 ,
, ' , ,
,
. ,
):(1984 ,
, ;
- ;
, ,
.

84

""
, , ,
, , , .
, ,
19- .20-
,
, , .
, - ,
, . ,1890 5,500,
. ,1900 2,000 ,
) ,1981 ,' .(88
, )
.(1896-
,20- , ,
, . 1905
, - , ,
- " . ,
, , -
.
, 20-
,
)" "(.
,
, .
,
, , : )
( , , , ) (
, , -
.
-
, . ) ,(
, ,
, .
) ,( ,
, .
-
, . ) ,,
( ,
.
,
" .
; , . ,
, , .
19- 5000- , 500,000- ,
. , , ,
" ) ,1970 ,' .(28
-
, .
,1914 32 , 11 . 1914-1904 ,

85

, ,
).(1997 ,
'
:
" ,

, , " " ) ,1977 ,' .(47
, . ,
, - , ,
, , , ,
. ? ,19-
- , ,
.
, , , , -
)" "( , .
: - , ,
. , ,
:
" ' '
, " ),
.(1979
, , .
1882 16 - ,
. " :
, ,
, "
).(1977 ,
,
"" , 3,000-
, , ,
) ,1953 ,' .(632 ,
, ,
- )
( , , , .
, ,
19- ) ( ,
, .-- ,-
, ,
-.
,
. , ) (
,
.
,
, - .
- ,
- .
.
,20-

86

- 1921 ,
.
, ,
.
' , --
, ,
.
, ,- -
, 1890 100- ; - 1914 420- ;
- 634- ) ,1977 ,' ;47 ,1938 ,'
.(120 420 , ) ( 70 ,
, 17% , ),
,1988' .(107
, , ,
, .
- ,
.
, ,
, , , -.
. -
, , - ,
- , :-,
.
, .
) -( , ,
- .
-- , -
,
, - "" )
(.

, , ,
- . ) ( ,
,
.
- , ,
. ) , (
- . ,
, - . ,
,
).(1978 ,
, ,
) ( . ,
, .
37
, .

37 . ,
, , ,
.

87

- ,
' . ' , ,
, , .
- ,
, ,
. , ,
, 20 ,
) ,1985 , .(16
, , ,
, . .
" : '' ,
" ).(1977 ,
)""( -
, : ,
, . ,
, ,
.
,
.
, ,
1907 "" , ,
:
" ) (
, , " -
... , , ,
, , ,
. ,
, . - ,-
,- . ,
. ,
... ,
. , "...
).(1907 ,
, " , ) (1909
,
- .
" , -
' - ,
... '' ,
"...
) ,1980 ,' .(184
, .
, ' ,
- - ,
) ( . , ,
.
" ... ,
) , ( -
.

88

,
") . ,1980 ,' ,156 .(40
)( ,
,
. , , .
, , " :1910
, , , ,
. , -
" ) ,1988 ,' .(117
-
, , -
).(1978 ,
- , .
,- ) ( , ,
. , ' ) ,
( )
( . ,
. ?
- ,
,
?
,
' ,
.
,
.
, - ,
, .
: ,
;
, .

) , , '( ,
)( , - .
, , ,
, .
:
, ;
) ( , . ,
) ( ,
. ' ' , ,
,
, ,
'' .
, -
, ,- , - )
( , ,
.
,
. .

89

,
- . )
( , : , ,-
, . , ,
,

.
, ,
' , ,
, ,
- , . ,

, .
: ,
-
. , ,
. ,
, , ,
. ,
- ,
, .
, - -
, ,
: ;
.
" "
, , ,
, - . ,
. -,
,
.
, ,19-
, .
, ,
, . ,
, ,
, . ,1920-
4,000 , 200 ) ,1974 ,' .(20
,
- , , :
" - ,
, . ,
; ,
- , . ,
" ) ,1970 ,' (26
, ,
, .

90

, 1912
) .(Nawratzki, 1914, p.264 "",
- ,
, " -,
, , ) , .(1981 ,
- , .
-
, - . -
" " ) ( ,1913-
:
"
? ... ,
.-
" ) ,.(1981 ,
,
. ,
. ,
, ,
, ,
) ,1981 ,' .(150
, :1903
" , , ,
)!( ,
, . "...
) ,1934 ,' .(116
:
; - ; ;
; .
, ,

,
. -
" " .

?
, . ,
- ,
?

.
, ' .
" : ' '
.
, , ,
,
- . -

" ) "( ) ,1937 ,' .(50

91


.
' , ,1913-:
" , ,
. ,
, . ,
" ) .(1990 ,
, 60- ,
:
"... ,

, , 1882 1914
, : ,
. , .1914-1882
, .
' '" ) ,1970 ,' .(233
- :-

, .
' )
, , '(,
-,
, .
, ,
, .
,
- , -
.
, - ,
- , :
, - ;
; , ,
.
, " " ,
. :
" , ,
. , , - .
. ,
- , . ,
, , ,
, . , ,
, ...
" , ,
" ) "( ) ,1934 ," .(118-117
-

, , ,
)' , .( 1
" "
. ,

92

, ,
)( . , -
- , ,- ,-
.
, ,
, .
- ,
- , 38.
, - ,,
'.

- ,
20-

.
20- ,
.
1919- , '
19- , ),
.(1964 ,
, .
'
-
. - ,
' ,
, .
,
, , .
, , - -
- , .
,
,
, , ;
) ( , . ,

, .
,
. ,
;
, .
, ;
,
.
38 :1919

" " , .
...
... . ,
. . " )" ",
,23 .(1933

93

, - ,
,
. , .
, ,
" " , -
. , -
.
, ,
, .
, ,
- . ,
" " , , )
(
- . ,
'
- , .
2.6 :
) (1953-1874 )(.
,1891- , ,
. ,
. , .
' )(1907-1902
, ,
) -.(1939 ,
, 80- 90- 19-
?
. , , , ,
,
, , .
" -" ) "" ,(1902 ,
.
" " )( 1837 .
.
)( , .
, , , :,
, .
) ""(
60- .19- ,
5% , 40 25% .
, .
, '
,
, .
. ' ,
. , , ,1902- -
" : , -
" .
, , , '

94

)( , - '
. , ,
.
. ,
. , ,
' ,
.
. " " ,
. , ,
, , .
, , "
".
. ,
) (
, " )" "( .
. , '
, )( . " "
.
" " )"" ,(1903 ,
.
, .
)" "( ,
, , .
,
:
" - , ''
, , ;
, ,
, ''".
-" : ' '
...
, - . :
, ... !"
,
. ',
, .
,--
.
?
, .

. ,1902- ,
" " : , , ,
, - . ,
, " " , " ".
" -" )"" ,' " ,(1904 ,
" : ,
" ) "( . ,

95

" " ,
, .
,
.
,
, . " " )"" ,' "(1905 ,
, " .
. ,
,
, ,
. , .
. "
, , . ,
" " , , ,
.
,
,
)( . , ) ,
( ,
.

- . , 6,000-
, .
)( . ) ( 26%
. : -
"
" ".
" " , ,
, , . ,
, :
, . ,
17 , 4 33- .
, .
, -
,20 , ,
)"(.
, ,
. "
" , ,
. , ,
. ,
, ) ( . , ,1905-
, )
,' (.

" "" , "" , " ," " . -
, .

96

" -" ) ,(1902


. ,
. ,
, . ,
, . , ,
" ".
, " " )"" ,(1907 ,
: .:
" .
, " ,
, " . "
, .
" ,
".
, , ,
, .
, - , -
,1907 . ,
, 90 ,
1,500 "" " . ,
, , 200 ,
80 . , ,
36 ) .(1,500
,
: ,
." : , " ,
".
:
, ) ,
" , "( ,
.
, , )( " ",
" " , " .
-
, .
, , "
' ' , "
," ) (" . " ",
".
, ,
. ,
" , , , ,
, , , ,
, ,- : ,
'' ".
" :
, ,
"
" . ?
" : " , ".

97

) (Shafir. 1996 ,20-


.1989
, " "
) (pure settlement colony " -" ) ethnic-plantation
.(settlement , ,
" " , ,
. ,
,
.
, "
" . " ,
.
)(; ,
, " ) .(Shafir, 1996, p. 19
:
, ,
) , ( .
' . ,
, :
, ;
, ; ,
; ,
' .
,
, -
, . , ,
, , " " ,
,
. )' ( ',
, - )
( , , ,
, .
, " " ,
, ,
,
-
.
, ,
, ) (,
,
. )(
,
, ,
, -
.
, , '
- .
- , , ,
, , . ,

98

, , "
" , - . , -
.
,
, -
.
, ,
.
, . ,
, -
,
, .
' ,
1922-
' . , 1922- 84
, , - 54 , 64%
) .(2003
- , ,
. , ,
, ,
, . ,
, " " "
".
, , ,
. .
, '
. , ,
, -
.
- ,
:
" ...-
, ,
, , - , -,
.
- - ,
- - "
) 2003 ," .(60-61

2.7
- ,
, - ,
.
, ,
, )1957 ,(:
, " " , )(
, )( ,
, ) , -
'( . , ,

99


, . , , ,
. ,
, , .
, "" ,
, ,
.
, ).(1789
, , -
, ,
, , .
:

. )
( ,
) , ( . , , .
, ,
)(.
, ,

" " ) , ( .
, ,
, -
) , ( , . ,
" " )( , )
( , , -
, ,
, ).(Engerman, Sokoloff, 2006

.20-- ) (1900 75%-
, ) (1901 87%- . , )(1910
2.4%- ) .(Ibid, p. 56 ,"
" " , .
,
, ,
, .
, ) ,(,
20- " " , )
( , )( ,
) ( .
' , " "
, , " :
" . )
" ," , ( -
.
, , ,
.
, , ""
. )(
"" - " :

100

) ;(settler society - ; '' ' ',


, ,-
" ) ,.(2003 ,
,
, , .
, , , ,
. ,
,
, ) .(Shalev, 1992, p.163
, " " ,
.

101

"... , ,,
,
, , , ,
,
, "...
39
) .(

.3 -
1917
) - , (
- - , :
.
, 20-
. .1920
: , , , , . ) (
27 , ) ( 17
.
: , ) ( , , , .
,
)" "",
.(1921
- ) 1925-1923- (,
. , ,
1922 800
) " ,1947' .(217
3.1 '
- , , ,

, .
,
.
) .(1799
, .
) ,(1847
. , "
,
" ) ,1978 ,' .(46 , , ,
.
, .
, , , , -
' ) ,
, ( .
, . ,
, .
' , ,
: '' ) -(
39 . , ,- ,1992 ,' .21

102

.1916
.1917
' , , , )
( , ,
, . -
- , , -:
-
, - .

, , , , ,
, .
3.2
-
) ( . ,
, , ,

. '' , -
, 17- " :1913 ... ,
,
, " ).(Bonne, 1932
) (IPC
- . IPC
" " , .1908- 1912
" " , )
50 , ( , - ) 25 ( ,
) 25 , ( ).(Bonne, 1932
- , - ,
, , )(
,
) (.
- , "
" ,
. 1928"
" . , ,1929 :
- )"(; -;
- ) ( 23.75 .
5 ) ,
( . IPC )
" "( , ,
' . , ,
. , ,
, " " , ,
) ,.(Marcel, 2006 ;1933 ,
:
) - (.
, ,
, .

: -

103

. 1931 ) ,
( , 70- .
: -;
- , , , ,- , ;
; ; -
) (; ;
; . ,-,
40
, .
, ,
: ,
,
,
.
, , , -,
.
-,
.
1922 , -,
. ,
- . ,1939-
- , 5 4-
).(Shwadran, 1973
1936-
)-( , ,
50- .
3.3
,
,
. ,

41
.
,
' - -
.
) -( ) ,
'( . , ,
, -
.

- . 29- 1922300-
,1937 : 10 15 ) Statistical Abstract, 1939,
.(p. 45 .
,
: , , ,
, . ,
, ) ,( .
40

Convention Regulating the Transit of Mineral Oils of Iraq Petroleum Company limited through the
Territory of Palestine. Official Gazette, 1st February, 1931
41 425-" 1917- 4,225-" ) 1947-.(1974 ,

104

: ) ""( -
.
- ,
. ,1938-1920
2.4- ) .(Statistical Abstract. 1939, Table 132
,
, ,
, ,
.
" , ,
. - .
,
. , ,-
,
" ) ,1947 .' .(122

" .
,
... -
" ) ,2000 ,' .(174 ,173
-
) , (,
,
.
,
, ' .
)( )( .
,- , )(1933-1929
)..(1982 ,
,
, - ,
, ,
.
,
; ;
;
; "" ,
.
.
,
. ,1939-1920 60%
)( :
. 30%- ,
, . 10%
) ( . : ,
, , ) ,.(2000 ,
,1936/7
, 37% ,
).(Himadeh. 1938

105

- .
28%- 1939/40-62%-
.1944/5 .1948-
) ,(1945-1940
) ,(1941-
,
.
, )' ,(5
) ,(1940
,42 ).(1942
- ,-
,- ) , '( . ,
,1930-1920 35 ;
25; 10;
, 15-
).(Mirghani, 1920
, '
) .(Granovsky, 1935 , -
, - - ,
) ( , .1928-
) -( ,
10 ) 1931- 15-( .
,
) , .(4
. ,,
, .40- 1941/42
.
, , :
, , -
; , ,
. ,1937-1920 ) 54
"( )52
"( , 2 " ).(Himadeh, 1938
-
, .
,
, ) ( , ) ( )
, ( , ,
. 1944/45 39 ,
18- )
(.

42 1940- .
, .

106

:2
1939/40

84
27

4
)(
) 3

"(
104

297


75

382 ,
,,
,

976

1944/45

8.5
2.8
0.4

262
210
2

4.1
3.3
-

0.3

11

0.2

11.0
30.3
7.6
39.1

465
680
2,533
269
2,019

7.2
10.5
39.3
4.2
31.2

100.0

6,451

100.0

Statistical Abstract 1944/45 p. 81 :

3.4
, -
, - ,
.
,
, - .
,20- ,
" "
. ,
) ,
( , , , -
. ,
.
,
" " -
, -
-" ).(1983 ,
2- 1917 ,
" "
. , ,
, , .
, .1922-
,
.

107

- , --
,
. / .
" ) (
" ) ,2002 ,' .(122
-
"" , ,
)( .
,
' ,
.19- ''
) ,(Gawler - . "
" ) ,(1845 ,
,
) .(1990 , ),(Guedalla 1880-1876"
' , ) (1875-

) , ,2000 ,' .(25
,
, " "
' . ) 1917- ( ,
.,
) ,(Sidebotham, 1934 , ,
,
. " :
,
, " )' .(9 " ,
" )' ,(10
" ".
, ,
"
, ) "( " )' .(11
,
. - ,
,
. -
. -
)' ( ,
. 30- 1922
, - "
" . , - -
, - .
)-
( , - ) ( ,
- .

) ( ,
.

, .

108

,
- , , :
" .

. ,1917-
.
- - ...
, , ,20-
" )- ,1996 ," .(256-255
" : -
-' ,
" . ,
"
,
" ) ,2004" .(77-76
- "
" )-
,1999' .(60 , "
1920
. ,
" ) ,2001 ,' .(46
"" :
' ' - " ),
,2002' .(129
,
- : " " )
( - .
, ,

.
" -
, - .
, ,
, , ,
,
- .
- ,
, )( ,
)( , " ).(1986 ,
, ,
"-" "-" , ,
,- , . :
; ,
; ; ,
. , ,
, ,
- . , " "
),
.(1983

109

, ,
.
) (1936 , " ;
; , )
"( ; ,
" )(.
- ,
-" , ,
, ,
.
" " ) ,2000 ,' .(176

110

.4 : -
"" "" ,

; "" "" .
.
,
.
, ,
,
" ," ' "" .
,
) ( ,
, . ,
, .
,
, , . ,
, ,
, - ) .(1996 , , ,
.
4.1
, 24- ,1922
.
,
, , "
" , " " ) League of Nations.
Mandate for Palestine. L. December 1922
, - : 1924
-(.
, "" ,
, -
. ,
2- " 1917 " , 2
" : )( ,
, ,
-".
- "
, " ,
, . 4
:
" ) (Jewish Agency -
, ,
,
, " . ? 11
,
.

111

" " , ?
4:
" , - , .
) . (. ,
- , ".
, , ,
, -
.
,- , -
. ,
. : ,,
- , .
, ,
,
.

,
.
,
. ,
,
.
) 1920
- ( -
.- ,
, .
.
, , " "
"
" . , , ,
.
, (1929) 16-
, ,
- ) 40% -( .
" " .
.

: , , ,
. 1923-1921 ,
, 2.5 ),
,1981' .(281


, ,
.
, , -,
).(Stein, 1984, p, 215
"
;
; ,

112

,
.
,- ,
" ).(1996 ,
, - ,
, ? ,
, , )
( "
" . , , ,
)" "( , :
.
4.2
-
) ,(2
. ,
, ,
. ,

, - .
- ,
' , )' ,(4
, ,
.
,
,
. - ,

.
,
, , , ,
: , 20- ,
, . ,
, -
.
, ,
, . ,
,
,
,
'.
,
. ,
. , ,

, - .
-

113

,
) ( .
, ) ,(1944-1917
, ) , '( 36-
84% . - , 16%-
, '.
:3 )(1944-1917

21,363



:
2,845

14,302

1,817

, 2,390

14,390

35,753

60
8
40
5
7
40
100

Statistical Abstract 1944/45 p. 101 :


, ,4
: ) 40%(
) 40%( . ?
,
,
) , , ( . ,

,
.

,
- ,
.
,
,
) ( ,- .
- ,
.
)""(
, .
" ,
, ,-
- " )
.(2003 ,
" ,
." )' (3 20- .
, ,1920 "
, . "

114

, , ) .
, , (.
" :
- ) ( , ,
. -
- , ,"
) "
(.
1921 ,
. , ,
,
.
' ) (
) ,(1922" : " . ' ,
, .
, ' , ) (
, ) .(2006 ,
,
, - . ,
, ,20-
- , , ,
,
" " ,
.
- , ,
25 " 5
" , 15... .-- ,- -
, - ,
" ,
.
, 1909 '
) ,(3 - .
" , " ,
, .
,
"" . ,
1910 301- ,1938 .4330
, 12.5- 1934- 23- ?1938-
. ,1920
, )Public Utility
(Body -.
,1922 ,
. ,
. ,
; ,

Palestine Economic Information Bulletin. No. 1 April-May 1939.

115

43

) ( .
, ) .(2003 ,
,
, :
, , .
),
( , ,
, .
, - ,
.
, 50- , ,
: 1934- 192
.
" ) ,1980 ,' .(143
,- , ,
. ,
- , .
- ,
.7% " ...
, ".
, " 20- 30-
; ; ; ,
; , .

: ) , , ( .
. ,
.
20- ,
: ) ( ) ( .
)
( , .
) "(
- , ;1923
) ,(Rassco Rural and Suburban Settlement Company 1934
; -
PASA Palestine Agricultural Settlement

) ,(Association 1936-
; " , 1945- .
- . , ,
"
, - .
- .
, , 1937 ,
" .
1921 .
:
" " ) (1921 ,
40,000" , ,

116

.
'
,
'") . ,1939' .31
' : ,3 '; 5 '(.
, ,
, .
, ,-
, :-
; -
) (; - ) (;
- - .
" , ,
,
. - ,
, .
:
,
,
.
, -
.

" ) ,1939' .(250
- - ,
" , .
,
, - - ) (.
-
" 15
4% , 1934 .
" , ,
- .
100 ' , 1949- " ),
,1977' .(176
, " :
"
) ,1973' ,143 (.
.
,
.
" ,
) 1935-1934 "( .
282,200 - , 179,000
.
.
- , . " )(1935
,
2,300 " ) ,1980' .(28

117

, ,
) , ( . ,
, . ,
,
- ,
.


- , . :
?

, ,
, ,
. ,
. - , ,
, - ,
) ( .
, ,
- , - , ,
, .
,
, , -
) ,(1937-1918 - 200-
. 150- ) ( , 50-
" . , 75%-
- , ,
- .
, - ,
" , .
,
,
.
30- :
.4

.
.
1937-1932
1935-1932


19
7,600
17
4,933

4
1,000

52
20,468
49
14,262

22
8,727
15
4,300

7
2,717
15
4,352
100
39,512
100
28,847

) :( ,1944 ,' ) ;19( ,1939 ,' .247

118

)( )-( ,
. ,
.30-
, 20%- , - .

. , ,
, ,
, ,
,
- .
, , . ,,
, -
, .
" - -
. :
.
, " ) ,1944 ,' .(133
,
. . " "
. ,
.
, , ,
, , " "" .
.
" , .
, ,
. : ; ;
; ; ; ; ,
" ) ,1938 ,' .(186
- , .
) ,(P.C. -
, , )( , ,
)( , ; ,
-; - )"( ,
- ,- ,- ,
).(1937 ,
) (P.E.C. ,
- - .
- ,1921 , "
" ) .((Palestine Cooperative Co. 1926 "
" ) ) (Palestine Economic Co. ,1976" .(261-259
.
).(Palestine Housing Corporation
. -
, ) ( ,
, ,
. - ,
, , .

, 1933

119

,
, ,
. , ,
" , - .
" , "
) ( ) ,1977 ,' .(177
106- , 5.5-
.

- - -
.
, , ,
, . , ,
- ,
.
.
,
, , .
- ,
, .
, ,
. ,
.
"... , ,
" , :-
, ; ,
" ".
" : '' ,
... ''
" ) ,1980 ," .179 ,167 "(.
, ,
,
. ,
, . ,
.
- , ,
, . 1936-1920
12- ; 7-6 ;
) ,1946 ,' .(116 ,
- -
)' ( , :-
.
, ) , , ( ,
.
- ,
- ,
. -
, , ,
,

120

.
- , ,
-.
- -
. , - ,
,
,1929- -
, . ,
) , , , ( -
: ,
; ,
, -.
" -
.
) :(
, ; )( ,
) "... ,1980 ,' .15 (.
- , 70%-
,20- .30- 1937-1932
45- , ,87% -
13% ) ,1939 ,' .(249
.
: 75) 1936-1920 ( 270-
, , ,
277" . ,
" ) ,1938' .(186
, .
,1926 ) (P.E.C ,
, - .
, ,
, ,
) (1946
.
-" - -
, .
;1924 , , )( ,
, ) (1945- .
-" P.E.C. )
,1976" .(252-251
-
. ,
, .
) ( , ,
, 30- 40- .
4.3
" -
" .

121

- ,
, - .
, ," , ,
,
" " , .
: ) ' (1930-1868 ,
- Imperial Chemical Industries ,
. , , "
. 1921- "
"" , .
44
, 18- 1928 - .
- , , :
; ; - , " );(Free play
- ; , , ,
;
- , )( , ,
)( ;
, ;
- , , .
-;
, - , ," , ,
;
; , , - ,
, ) equitable
(return ;
) ,(conciliation machinery .
, .
,
, . - ,
, ,
- ,
.
- ,
, "
- . - ,

Report of Experts, Submitted to the Joint Palestine Survey Commission, Boston 44

122

, ,
, .
- " , -
" " :
, - ,
, "" .
- ,
, ,
) .(Sieff, 1935 , ,
, . ,,
, , "
, " .
, :
; " " , ;
; " " ) , ( .
,
, , ,
. , ,
, , ,
. , , ,
, . ,
" ,
-".
, ,
" . ,
) : "( " ,
"" :
"
;
, ,
,20- " ) ,1979 ," .(30, 39
*

.
:
" ) 20-
"( . ,
:- ,
. , , ) (
. ,

" )- ,1999 ,' .(8

123

.5
.
) (cash crops
; ;
, ;
. ,

.
.
,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ,
, . , ,
) ( ,
"" . ""
.
" 5.1-"
,
. 22 , ;
- -;
, .
, ,1928-
- :
"
) "(;
" ,1892- ,
".
, : ,-
- ).(First Census of Industries, 1929, p.5
, , " :
- ) ,(1918-1914 ,
- .
, , -
, - , .
, - , , -
, , .
, 50-60
- - , ,
15,000- ,
, , .- 1909
, .
- . , 1916
) " ,(1919
55 260 , 510 , 375- .
, "

124

, -
" ).(1946 ,
,
, :
; ,
) (; ,
; ; ,
. , -;
;
, ; .
) (18 ) ,(1922 ,
, ) ( . -
- , ),
(.
- - ,
. , -
- . ) ,(1917
, )( , , .
- ,
,
) ,( . , ,20-
,
) , ( .
:
.
, 20-
: ,
,
)( . 1923-1919 150 - , -,
) ,1976 ,' .(122
5.2 :1928
, , .1928
, ,1927-
- First ) 20-
;Census of Industries, 1929 .(1979 , ,
, , ,
, , , .
, ) Richards,
.(Waterbury, 1996
1928 3,505 - , ) (2,269
.1918 , ) 10-( .
:
- , .

125

.5 1927 ,




2,429
493
583
3,505

70
14
16
100

815 , - .
,- ) ( - 1923-
,1925- . 1922-
- -
) ' ( .
: , ,
-.
- ,
) 31%( , - , 5 ).(60%
6 9% .
- , 10 .
, 18%- 12- , , 100
, 170 . : )273
( ) 310(. 11,627 .
- :-
100 , 48- ) 1.5% ( ,
10,000 . 48- -
.
.
, 1927 , , ' 3.5-
, 3.9- .
: 50%-
, 40%- . ,
, ,
, 37%.
. -
, - . 2,400-
, 70 ; 202 ; 476
; 44 , 181 .
40%-
. ) ,( .
1910- - ),
(1970
,,
, , .
, ,
-.

126

- ,
- .
,
, , ,
- . , ,
: , 40%
16-) .
,16 6 (.
,1928 ,
, ,
, ,
)( , ) ,(1923-
.
, ,20-
,
. 1928 , -
: , 60%-
5.
, ,
, , ,
, , . ) 1927 ( 7,600
, 42% ; 3,800 , 37%
. , 20- , 310
, .
, 100-
, - : ,
) 75%(,
) ,(56% ) ,(83% ) .(64% ,
, ) ,(52% ) ,(65% ) ,(64%
) .(81% , )
( ) ( 20-
, - ,
, .
20- ,

) , ( ,
, , .
, , ,
) (.
, ,
,20- ,
, .
,
- ) ( ,
.
, ) 1918
( 1,236- , , ,,
. , :

127

" - ,
, , .
"
) ,1970 ,' .(175
,1920/1 600- , -
, 250- , )
( . ' , ,1914- .
20- ,
:
"- 1928 - -
, .- ,

" ).(1983 ,
,
' . .-
1923 11- , , 180
. 1925- - ) ,
( . 1927- - - .
, - , 75%
) ,1970 ,' .(176
20- . 1930-1925
1.2- .
, 1.8-
, 1.4- ).(Grunwald, 1934
,
.
.
, - -
, -
: ,
- , ,
.
,1928
: , ,
, . ,
: ) (
2.4- , 1.2-
.
,
. ,
. ,,
50 ,
4,500 . , 3-2
.
, -
20 , , .
)
, , , ,( , ,

128

,
) , ,(.
.6 ) () 1928 , (

1,801

1,051

75
644

355
3,663

Statistical Abstract of Palestine 1939, p.4 :
- -.
, , 80%-
, - ,8.6 (!)10
.
,
- , ,
, 20- .
, 1928- 5- ) 3.4
( ,
.
5.3 30-
30- ,
. :
" ) ( 2.5- "
1927- 65.5- " ,1938- ) 26 ,1938 ,' .(144
30- .
,20- , 30-
.
30- ,
,
. , " " ,
, , ,
.
" , , - -
, - . 1935-
1932 - ,,
' ,- ,-
- . , , - .
, - .
- .
28,890 1934- . 1935-
) "32,830 ,1980 ,' .16-15
(.
30- ,
, . 1938-
1934 10.5 , 5 .1928-

129


. 1938-1928 71%--
,83% : 24%- .13%-
54%-Statistical Abstract of Palestine 62%-
) .(1939. p. 4 ,
, .
, 1929 -
,30 )( ,
. , ,
, , , , ' , ,
. , 30-
5% ).(Horowitz, Hinnder, 1938. p. 100
, ,1930- ,
.
,1939 - )(IPC
. , ,
) , .(1
, , .

. ,
- , .
, ,- , ,- -,
.
,
) 1939-1936 ( ,
, .
: 1935-
1932 , ,
, . 1939-1936
, .
30-
, .
, ,
) , ( .
,
.

; , - ;
;
- ; -
).(1948 ,
)( ,
1936 4- )
( . , 15%
, . "
58 , 1.5% :
. ,
, . , : ) ,
, ,( - ,

130

) , ,- ,( , -
).(Grunbaum, 1941. p. 79
, ."
,1937 , :
; 20 ; 300 ;
) .(1938 ,
,
, .
- .
" " ),
, (1936- , ,
.
, ,
,
. .
, ,
2,475- 1929- 5,606- ,1937-
) ( . 11- 1929-30-
.1937-
.7 1937 ,1929 ,

) (
) (

1929
2,475
160
2,315
10,968
2,235
2,511

1937
5,606
540
5,066
30,040
11,637
9,109

Palinvest. Palestine Economic Information bulletin, No.1 1939 :


30-
- ,
. 1932 - 6 ,
7 (1939-1930) 30- ) ,1947 ,'
.(283
, , :
" ,1930 )( ,
, " ,
.
, " ) (Grunwald,
.1934
20- 30- ,
.
, , ,
. 200 ,
,1928 25 "-" ) ,",1930 ,
' .(191

131

, , " " :
,
, . ,
) ,( - ,
. ,
' .

, , ,
. ,- ,
, , ,
, , .
, ,
, .
,
, , .1927-
) ( ,
, ,
.
30-
" : ,
. -
. , .
-- , , ,
, , .
,
, , ) (returns .
, )(worn off
. 50%
) (ad valorem "
) .(Note by Treasurer, 6.8.1935
,30-
, , ) ,(1933

. - ,
.
1931
,1939 " :
, ,. .
, 1931 47.9%- -
16.6% ,
, 25%-
1931 1939 , ,
, -
, ,
- , , ,- ,
- , " ) ,,
, "( ).(1964 ,
, -
(1) : , ,
)( )(; ) (2 , -

132

, ';
) (3 , , .
,
.
5.4 -
,
, .
, .
, ,
.
1941 " " ) Middle East
(Supply Center " " ),(Palestine War Supply Board
.
,
.
,
: ,
- , .
)
( , .
1940 4- ,1941--
10-8 1942- 12- .1943-
, 1942-
.1939 . 1946-1940
12 2
) ,' .(283
,

. ,
, . ,
, - ,
, , .

, ,
. ,
, : , ,
. ,
, : , , , , , ,
, ,.
, .
, ,
) (1942- .3,400-

. , 10%
).(Statistical Abstract 1944/45 p. 69
,1945 -
.

133

, , ,
-.

. , ,
- , , , ,
, ; -
. , , ,
, ,
,
1942 700- .
' , , , "

, , ,
,
.
" - .
, " )' ,1945 ,' ,10-9
(.
)( )' ,(3
1946
- , .
- ,
, ,
; . .
,
- -.

.
,
, :
" . ,
) "( -
. -

- , .
.
, .

" )" -" , .(1946

, .
, ,
. ,
.
, ).(2003 ,
,
, .
, . ,
, ) (1942- ,
).(2000 ,

134

5.5

) 1940 (1939- ) 1943 -
(1942 ,
, , .
,1940 ) 1928
( , , ,
. 5-3 :
-.
1943 , .
3 , -
, , , ) , (,
.
1940 ,1928- 1943- ,
. 1928
, - ,
. , 1940 1943- 5-3
. , ,
, ,
.
.8 1943 ,1928 ,
1928


)(1
)) (2
(
)
(

) (

)(
(

)(

)(

1943

1943

1928

2,400
3,515

3,470
20,520

1.4
5.8

3,890

36,830

9.5

17,955
)(7,770

49,980
(5,310

2.8
) (0.7

1,450
196
1,600

5,900
411
10,600

4.1
2.1
6.6

217

737

3.4

14

2.0

1928 .1928 1943


.Statistical Abstract 1944/45. p. 51 .
1928- ; 3 1943- .
1928- 1943- 3 .

135


, ,
15 .
1927- 2,400 , 15
3,470 , 3 . .
- ,
. ,16 15 .45%-
,6 ,2.8 .10
, , ,
.
:
1942- 1927 ,4 ;2
,6.6 ;3.4
.2
1928- , 18 ,8-
) (40%- - . , 1942- 50
, 5- , .10% , ,
15- ,
, .
, . 40-
- ,
, , ,
,
.
, -
) , ( ,
45
) (
,
- ,
, , .

:
18- 1939- 45- ,1942- ;2.4-
433- 1939- 737- .1942-
, )
( , , 40-
, - , .
, ,
, ,
; -
.
46
, .
Statistical Abstract, 1944/45, p. 45.

45

" 46 ,
- . ,
, " ),
.(1946

136



,
.
-
. 1939- : ;
; ;
; ; ) ( 47. 1942
, .
, ,

, ,
) ;1958 ,.(1984 ,
. 1905- .1911-
.,1920-
, . ,
, ,
. ,,1921-
.1922-
. 1924-
" .
,
, .
1924- - ) '( ,
" -" ,
, ) (
' .
' ,
' .
. ,
,"
) ( , .
, ":
,
" , " ) '
"(.
1925 ,
.1926 1927
' , .

) ,(ICI
. ,
, " .
) ( , ,
/ .
, . ,
47

The Palestine Electric Corporation; The Jerusalem Electric and Public Service Corporation; The
Palestine Salt Company; Shukri Deeb and Sons; the Palestine Potash; The Sulphur Quarries

137

- .
.
, " , "
. )
-( .
, " ,
" . , ,
.
,
, , :
)" , - ( ,
" ) ( , .
- , -
. 1930- -
) .(Britannia Lead Company .
1930 75- . ,
4" . : - ,
. .1931
.
,
;

;
; .

, .

,
) .(1919
, )
( , ) ,' -
).(1982 ,
, ,
, .
1920-
. , , ) .(1982
, , ,
.

) .(1990 , ,1921
,
. ,
100 " , .
, .
, , , .
, )"(
30 " 100 " , .
, , ,
, .

138

'' " : ,
,
, " ) 1990 ,' .(180
,
.
: - ,
,
. , " .
.
-,

" ).(1982 ,
-- ) -
( , 1920
.
, ,
1923- - .
. ,
)' ' (
Palestine
- )' -'
Development Council ( ,
" .
, ,
) ,(Reading " General Electric ) GEC
.(Company ,48'
)" (.
, , .1932-
.1948-

: ) '( ;
; )" , (;
, ) ,( .
, ,
, -.

. , ,
,
,
, )
- .(1979 ,
, ,
.
-
- .
,
, . , ,

48 , ,ICI , , "
.

139

29- 1937- 64- 1939-


49

, ,
,
75% .
) 1939- 70%- .(1942-
.9 ) 1939 ,(

) (
22.9

71.6

68.4

63.4

40.3

65.0

6.5

27.9

17.5

8.1

21.2

2.2

0.5

14.1

28.5

13.8

74.9

43.2

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

100.0

Statistical Abstract 1944/45, p. 52:


1940 1943-
) .
( . , ,
,2.2 ,2.8
,2.8 .4.8
5,036- 1939- 6,342- ,1942-
) 26%- ( ,

.
9 , 1939- 72%
65% . ,
.
: 1942 38- , 76%
; 35,200 , 80%- .
,1943 ,
, , , , .
. 1943- 36
3,400 10%- .
100- 3,000-; 29-
50
1,550.
) ( ,
)( , ) 10
6 , ( . ,
" 49 "24.3.1948 ,
Statistical Abstract 1944/45, pp. 60-62

140

50

,
, .
, 150 - .
- ,
, , , , : 1943- 111 ,
16 99 : , 8;
105 , 16; 80 ,
18.
, ,,
, ,1943- ,94
,90 79.
) ,(1942 45,000 ,
40% ; 30% ,
20 99-; 27% 519-
; 3% - , 4 ).(Gurevich 1947, p. 290
, ,1945
, - ,
:
.10 , 1945 ,


45,000
12,000
9,000
66,000

68
18
14
100

Statistical Abstract 1944/45, p.217

10 ,
,
. ) (14% -
, , , ,
-.
, ,1943
78% ) 19% -(;
11% ; Ibid, ) 11%
.(p. 217
) (
,
.
) (
- ;
;
.
,1947
25 ,
. ,
:

141

" , ,
, .
,
, ,
, " ).(Ibid, 208
90% , 40- :
"
: , , " ,- ,
. 10%- ,
. ,10% ,2%-
, " ),
.(1946

1940 1943-
.
,1942- 1,558 1,907
, , , -

. ,
:
, 1942- 2.1 , 12.1
, ; ,
4- , - 57-
; 6 ,
35 -) .
(.
1943 , 40- , ,
. 5 :
840; 6 , 200; 26
, 460 .
, .
,
, - .
- .
, , ,
. "
. 1927 BAT
).(2003 ,

. ,
. , , - ,
) ;1970.(1947 ,
:
, . , , , .

142

, , , .
.
, , : )
( )-( .
, , , .
, ,
. 40-
, 100- .
*
,
- . ,
, )
- ( , ,
) ,(30-
, ) ( ,
, ,
- . ,
, .
, ,
, , .
, 40-
.
) (30-
) ,(40- .
, , ,
.

,
.
,
, . -
, , ,
, . ,
-
51
.

51 , , ,
)- :(1946
" , , ,
- ,
' ' , -
" ).(1946 ,

143

5.6
, . ,20-
, , , '
. 1928- ) -
( , .
, , .
1931 30%-
.
,2 19- 20-
, . ,
, .
, .
, ) (1921 ,
. .
,30- 89 , 5 "61 ,
5 , )( 17- .
, 1936 100 ),
.(Statistical Abstract 1939, p. 21 ;1937
) ,(89 ,
- ,
.
" " , ,
) , ( , ) ( ,
) ( )"( . 1926-"
" , - ) ;(1918- " ",
1919- ;1939- " " ,1934- ,1968-
; " ) ( ") 1932-
" , .(1980
, 30-
, .
, ,
, ),
.(2003
,-
, . ,
,
- )"( . 30- " ,
, " ) ( 130 .
, " 1935-
) ,1977 ,' .(183
30- . 1940-
1936 ) "( 27%- ;40%-
" 37%- ;39%-
36%-) 21%- ,' .(184

) ,(1933-1929 . ,
, :

144

" , , -.
,
" ).(Clark 1932
. 30-
, : ) "(,
) ' - (
-- . , - ,
)" ( )(.
" , )' , ( ,
, , ) -( ,
." ,
. ,
, "
50 ,
)' '( ) ,1977" .(189 ,188
" )
( ,
- , - .
,
:
" ) ,(1936 , -
- , .-
) (ojetty - ...
- Report of the League of ) "...
.(Nations, No.129, 1937, p. 57
- ,
, . )( -
, , ) 26- ,(1936,
, ,
. ,
. , - , (1) : ,
; ) (2 - ,
. - ,
" )
(.
" , ,
) , , (
- , .
,1932 " 20 .
" , , ,
, ,
" , .
, ,
.
30- ,
, - ,
, - . -
30 , , , ,
- .

145

, ,
, . , ,
.
.
) ,(" .
- ,
'-"' " ),
.(2003
, ) 1935
( , - (Horwill,
) .1936 , 1937 , ,
50- . ,
25 9 , 50 .
" , 70-
30- 35- Statistical Abstract 1939.p. ) 1938
.(21
, ,
. 1930
- - , .
, . 1933
) - ( , . 1935-
, ) 1938 .(1980 ,
1935
, .
, )(
)- ( . -,
.
- ,
.
.11 1946 ,1941 ,1936 ,

1936
1941
1946

)(
) (

"

"

35.5
27.4
37.1 100.0
6,023
4,653 6,310 16,986
20.4
42.2
37.4 100.0
4,418
9,163 8,127 21,708
35.5
17.5
47.0 100.0 34,511 17,063 45,779 97,353

: ,1976 ,' .184

20 " ,
.1946- , ) "(
30-
.

146

, )
( ,
.
.12 31.10.1945 ,

2,827
2,429
2,114
1,544
677
613
591
10,795

26.1
22.5
19.6
14.3
6.3
5.7
5.5
100.0

Survey of Palestine, April 1946, p. 558 :

11 ,
. 7- 12
) ( " , -
5- . ,
)"( ,
.
,
. ,
, , , ,
-.
, ) (
1946- ) ,(12
.
- .
,
. ,
,
.
.
, ) 1921- '
;2 -( . 1935- ,
) 60 ( )( . ,
- ,
) ,1976 ,' .(225
, ,
- , . ,
,
.
" ,
. 30- " 3-
, 1945- 25- . "

147


, .
, 30- 40-
, . " , ,
,
- , . , 30- ,

) ( , ,
.
5.7-
, ,1920

.
20- : 1921
) (1919
. 50
" 9 ) , ;
.(1986 ,
1920 , ,
.
. ,
, ,
. , ,
, - .
10% , . ,
15 25;
9- 20 ,
, , ),1974 ,
" ;30 ,26.(1986 ,
,

. ,
, ),
" .(47 ,43
, ,
, .
,
. , )
( ,
,
- .
) (1923
. ,1924
1927- .
, 1935-
.

148

, , ,
) , , , ,( .
, ).(2003 ,
: ,1996- ,
.
,
, , 15%-
. , .
,1933 " 25 , 175 , 400
) ,1974 ,' .(172
, :
) ,(1945-1939 , ,
4.5 " ,
1.5 " , ,
) ,1974 ,' .(238
,40- ,
, .
, .
, ,
.
, ,
) ,(1919
; ) ( , 1924-
,
),
.(1986
1923 - ,
,
. ,
, -:
" . ,
. ...

. . .
, , ,
. ,
" ) "(.
- , ) ( )(,
.
,
-
. - - "
" . ,
.
20- )( ,
,
. , :
" - " ),
,1970' .(273

149

" " : -
.
, - , -
) " "( , .1939-1936 ,
55 " -
" . -
- " "
, ) ,' .(370
55 , "
" ) ,' ,(371
. , -
, ,

- , " ".
"' ' ,
' ' ,
, .
,
' ' .
.
, ,
- ,
" ) ,2004 ,' .(104
) , , ( ,
,
, ,
. , ,1944
, 66 , - ,
3,740 25 , ,
, , , , , ),
,1945' .(186 ,
,
, ) :(.
,
, 1924- -
.
- , ,
," :
" . , - , "
, " )-,
,1949' .(341
,
. 1944
185 ) 9- ( , 4,580 )10
( )" ".(30.1.1946 ,
-
) 365- 1942- 3.5- ,(1948-
, .

150

- -
, .
.
- .
1942 " ) American Palestine
(Investment Corporation AMPAL .
" .
" -.
-

" ".
-
.
:
" -
-
.
.
" ) ,1949 ,' .(36
-
.
, , , ,
, .
) ( ,
, ,
.
-
, ,
.
,
,
,
, .
, .
- -
, ,
. , ,
) ( , -
, ,
- .
- ,
, ,
, ,
,
.
, .
, ,
.- -
.

151

-,
, "".
, ) ,(1921
, ,
1923- - :
, ) ,1973 ,' .(12
- ,
, .
, ,
, ,
- ) ( ,
. , ,-- .
,
) ( ,:
" , ,
, ,
.
, .
, .
, ".
, :
" ,
,
,
,
" ) ," .(52 ,51
, ,
. -
, ,

, .
,
, - .
,

.
-
, , .

.
,
, ,
. , ,
"
" , .

152

" 12.00 ,
"
52
) (
" ? ? ?
. . , , ".
53
) .(

.6
6.1 -
,
- - .
,
, ,
.
) ( ,
,
' . 1940- 55%- 1929 -
.124% : 1940-
12 1929 .
- : 1944- 40%
,1940- ,40%- ,
, ,
30-.(Statistical Abstract 1944/45 p. 219) 40-

,
-
.
,
. , 1944--
. , , ,
, , . ,
14
.
, 6% , -
40% ; 5% ,
) ( 11% ; 10%
, 30% ) Statistical
.(Abstract 1944/45 p. 220
.
,
. 1944-
, 70%- .
) (cash crops ,
52 , : , ),(1948-1878
," ,1980 ,' .176
53 . , ,- ,1992 ,' .60

153

. ,1944/45
240 ) 30 .(1922-
38 1944/45- 15%
. ,
.
,
. 1942/43- 1930 ,66%-
1942/43- 2- . 1942/43-
1930 18%- ).(Statistical Abstract 1944/45 p.235
, :
, ,
, ,
. , ,
, , ,
.
, 40- 9
400 ) ( 8.6
) ,1944 ,' (45
,1938/39- 996 )
( , - 7 )
, ( . 80%
) 5.6 '( , 20% .
80% , 20% ) Statistical Abstract 1939
.(p.161
,
,
; , ,
, , )
( , )(.
,
, ,-,
, .
, 200 ,
: 200- , 2,000
200- ,
. 2,000
, 200- .
.
, ,20- , :
19.500; 2.500; 1.750 ,;
1.500; 0.500 ) Johnson, Crosbie 1930, pp.
.(38-39
, ,
.
, , ) ,(
. ,
.
, , - ,
,

154

. - ,
.
1941/42 8,793 , 5,993-
- . 20 ,
.
25 , 40-
.
12% , 44% ,
) , ,( .37% ) (
,
, , .
1922 33 , ,
. 1939 )(
237 80-). ,1981' .(311 ,247
,
, .
) 41
( )" .(Statistical Handbook. 1947. p. 149
' ) 1939"( ,
, " ) ,2001 ,' .(1
34 , ,1939
: 208 , 46 ';
26 '; 19 '; 26
200- ) . :
,1977' (187-186
34- 1,515 , 1,113
) , (
" , ,
" . " ) ,1947 ,'
2,600 .(269 10 , 4- .
6,500 , 3,500 .
, , 4 :
.
,1941/42 , 5
. , 5- ,
1938 ,13,200- 7,700 5,500-
)) .(Statistical Handbook, p.185
(.
20- 30-
. 30-
80- .
. 30-
30 ,
.-- 70 ,
30 . 60
20 )(Horwill 1936, p. 107
40- . 1942
11,200 274 10
. 24.5 , -
20 . )

155

50-20( , 50
. .
4,472 ) ( ,
. 5% ,
) , 1947' .(269
, ,
:
, "" . ?
" , ,1935-1932
. -
, , .
.
.
" , .
, ,
,
, " ) ,1980' .(60
,
. 20- 50--
150 ) ,' (58 , 30-
20-15 , 80-60 5
, ' . 30- ,
25 ) ( 285,
7,5% ).()Horwill.1936, p. 107
,
- . ;
- '; ;
- .
30- -
, .
.12 ) (

1,519
1925/6
3,699
1931/2
15,265
1938/9
4
1942/3
1,474
1944/5
Statistical Abstract 1944/45 p. 72 :

,
. -
300 ' 1938/39- 266- ' (Statistical Abstract 1944/45 ).1944/45 -
p.219
, -
,
. , ,

156

,
.
6.2 - -

, ,
, .
,
. ,
, .
: ,
- , ,
) ( .
, .- ,
, . ,
,
) ,1931 ,' .(89
: ,
) , , -
( ,
)( . , ,
, , ',
.
, ,
- ,
.
" " ,
.
, .
) , ,( ,
;
, .
, ,/
, .
,
, .
) ,( ,
) ,
, ,(.

) , ,
( . ,
" " , ,
, . /
.
,40- , ,
,

157

" ." - , '',


'' , " ) 1980 ,' .(162
, ,
, , ,
.

: .
, -.
- ,1946-
:1945

.13 ) ( - 1945

650,000
1920
514,000
1929 - 1920
332,000
1939 - 1930
93,000
1945 - 1940
1,588,000
1945
Survey 1946, vol. I p. 244 :


-51,400
33,200
9,300
31,300

, -
1914 421- , 2,500 ,
650 .
,
) " , 919"( ,
)
(.
,1945-1920
. ,
: 5- 1925-1921 370-
, 40%- - 25-
.1945-1921 172 1935-1933 )
' (.
) 1947
1914- 421 ( 1.8- , 7%-
) 1946- 26.3- (.
1.8 1.55 , )-
( . 120 ,
180 ) ,1980 ,' .(193
,1914 , 16 ,
402 ) 96
. 30- ,
52 856- , )
( 2.4 946- .:
1947-
.

158

,1947 7%-
.
: 6- ) , ,' , , , (
. , , , -
40% .
)
( , . ,
) , ( ,
. -
) (.
, ,
) ( .
, , ,
, - ,
, ,
54
.
" , ",
' . 1913
" 256 , 57% .
) ,1929 ,' .(117 24 45
55
" ) ,1980 ,' .(272
" , .
- ,
, .
" 1930 400- ) ,1980 ,'
.(272
,1945 " 200- .
"
" ." ,
- . "
, .
,1932 " 10- , :
1.5 ; , 1.25
; -- 360 ;
- 150 ; ,
2.5 .Elazari-Volcani 1932) . 1957
" 150 , , ,
(..
, ,

54 "
) (Palestine Jewish Colonization Association ; ) (Jewish National Found
) (Hemnuta ; ) (Palestine Land Developmnet Co
- ) ;(Africa Palestine Investment Co ) ;(Bayside Land Corporation
).(Palestine Kupat Am Bank
55 1924 " 30
)"( . " , 15- ,1924
. 1925 " ) ,(OG, August 16, 1926
.

159

) , '( . 22- ,1920-


279- 1930- 516- ) 1940 - ,1949 ,' .(2731947-
856 ,
. 628 1945 ,
" - . 41
) . ,' .(269
,
.
. , ,1945 198 , 174
) ,' .(97 - ,
.
: 1945
) ( , 47%
; ;24% " )
"( ;21%" .5% ,
) ,( - :
;29% ) 3% : ,'
.(104
,
.
20- - - ,
. )( 1925 ,
-:
" " ) (1925 ,- -:
- . - , ,
, -
. - ,
.- , ,
. *
: -
750,000 . , ,
, ,
" ) ,1951 ,' .(60
, ,
)
( . ) ,(1992 , ,
, ) " (
44 : ,20-
2.5 ,
. 10,000
22 9 .
, .
, , . -
1926 , ,
" )"(.
,30- " 37-
. ,
, ,
" 99-.

160

) ( ,
100 .
, ,
, ,
, )
'( , .
,
:
. ,
, .
?
- -
,
.
, ,1938/39 13.6 996
1.3 , , 9.4% , (Statistical
) .Abstract 1939, p.161 , ,
- 10%-
) -( . , ,
, ?
:
) , , (
, ) , ( )
'( 11%; ) , ,
( 19% . ,
.
- . , -
,
.
"
... , -
-
' ' .
, ,
" ) .(2003 ,
, - -
, " .
,
- .1936 - , 53%
1936-
, , , ; 25%
; 13% , ,
'; 9% . 89% ,
1930 )" "(9% ,
, 2% ) ,1931 ,' .(69
,
, :
,- , ,

161

- . .20-
.
) 30- (1936 80-75
.
- , , ?
?
? , ,
, ,
,
) ,( .
, ,
. ,
. , , :
, ,
) (
.
.
) (
. ' ,
, , ,
, ' .
'

. -
, ,
) ( , ,
.
, , .
- ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
.
,
,
,
56
, .
-
' , )
, .(2 ) ,(1917

56 , ,2 ) ( -
, ,
. 1919 : 1919
) , ,"(
, - ,
' ) (.

162

" " ,
57
.
) ' (
,1891 120
. ' . 1910
- ) ,
( ,
. 1912
140 , ,
,1921 , : 5
77 , ,
- , , , , ,'' , .
) : ( :
1887-- , ,1929
30 . ,
, .
) 41
( ) 136 ( .
,
;Stein, 1984, p. 76) 1936 ;1986 , ,1980 ," .(123-113
'.
,
. , - ,
- ) 1929 3,469(.
, , ,
, ,
,
. -
, - ,
, ,
-
.
; ; ;
; ';

, , ,
' . ,
- . ) ( ,
.
' , ) (
. :
,
.
, , . ,
, ,
,
.
57 -.1952 ,

163

, -
) , , ( . - -
58
.

?
/ / ,
, . ,
,
).(lot viable
, ,
.
, 16 ) Metzer, 1998,
.(p.93
, ,
59
.
58 :1934-
" , )( .
,
.
. , , .
.
. ,
-" ).(1934 ,
" 59 .
' 1931 ,
... 3,271 , 1935
) ( 664 , 2,607- . ,
. .-
, ' ' , ' :
, ,
- , .1935-1932 "
, ,
, . , , , ,
,- , .
" .
, , ; ;
; ,
; ,
)'( . .
"- " ) ( , 400 ,
" ) ,-
, , ,- , ( . " ) - ( ,
, .
100-
,
.
" ) 262,000-(
23 700- , 141,000- ,
. ,
. , , ,
..
" ' ' 1920-
. , .
,

164

, ,
, . ' ,
/ , .
) ' (
, , ,
.
,
' , . ,
, . 18
, . .
, ,
, .
150 125
. 15 .
, . ,
,
,
. , , ,
, .
, ,
. " 46 ,1937 ,
, )Stein, 1984, p, ;1992 ,
.(62
' , ''
) (23.7.1921 " :
,
. 700 , ,
, ,
. ,
, . ,
"
.' " ,
.

) ( ,
. ..
" , ' ,
. " 13,000- , .
.
, .
' . ,
, .
" 68 - , - -
, ' - .---
. 25
, - , ,
.' 400" 15" "
. . ,1937-
,
. ,
" ) ,1978' .117-114 (.
" ' , , " 1939 Report on the Administration of
Palestine and Trans Jordan for the year 1935

165

, " ) .(CO 773/4/510 ,


, , -
.
, ' ) ,(1992 ,
, , ,
13,000 11 , 6
. ,
, , ,
8,000 , . , ,
1947- .
, ,
23 . ,

; ,
-
; ;
, , .
' , , ,
, " ',
" ) .(1992 , ,
,
' : ; , ,
'.
, ' , 45
. ,
, , . "
,
, , .1947
""
.
, ,
' ' ' ' .
, "
.1921 ,
, -
60
' - ).(Forman, Kedar, 2003
11 ,
, ' ,
, , , ,
. 8 ,
. ,
,
. ,' :
.'
) , (
134 ) ,1980 ,' .(171

60 : ,- , , , , .

166

, ,
, , ,
.
. ' ,
,
, ) .(1992 , ,
,
) ,1980 ,' .(174
, -
. , , 688 , 380
) , ( .
, 1,270
).(Hope Simpson 1930, p. 50
' , , 1932-- ,
,
, , .
. ,
.
" , ' , ,
).(Stein, 1984, p, 172
, 22-
,1940 , -
. , " , ,
) , : ,(1930 ,
, .

, .
, " : , 50 60
" , . : ? ) -( .' :
'" . .:
" , 40-30 .
, - , ,
- 60-50" . ) -( : - ,
. , ... ,
, , ?"

:
" , " ,
... -
,
) - ( , ,
?" )" , .(S25/2992
-
. , -
30 : 100,
20- 70- , 17
,1930- ) .(Johnson, Crosbie, 1930
.1936-
'' :

167

" , ,
,
.
... ...
,
, . ,

" ) ,1980 ,' .(163
- , ,
, .
"
' .19- ,
-- , ,
. , - , -
. ,
.1949-1947
1949-1948 , ,
" ).(Stein, 1984, p. 218
" "
- , , "
" , "
" , ). ,' .(120
,
, -.
""
' .
. ,
, , -
, - -
61
, .
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
. ,
,
. .
29- 1924
)"( .
. " :
, : .

" 61 , - ,
""Actually the result of the purchase of .
land in Palestine by the Jewish National Fund has been that the land has been extra-territorialised. It
"ceases to be land from which the Arab can gain any advantage either now or at any time in the future
)(Hope-Simpson, p. 54

168

.
" ) ,1958 ,' .(62


) , ,
;1973 ,'.(1985 ,
, ,
, " ",
.
,
" ".
, -
, ,
- -
. . ,
- , ,
.
,
, ,
. , , , ,
- .
) ( 11- 1940"
) (
. ,
,
) (:
" ) -( 5,000
36,000- . ,
. ) - ' ,(
, 5,000
- ,
".
5,000 ) 14% ( ,
, , - .
, , , ,
, .
" ,
, .
- , :
" : .
) -( . ,
, ".
, ?
," :
" :
. " ),1980 ,
' ..(44

,
, .

169

,
, , ,
:
" ) - (
. "...
? ""? -
:
" , .
, " )
"(
,
,
' , , .
" , ,
.
. ,
,
, .
, -
" ) "( ) ,1980 ,' .(44
,
. '
,
)' ( . " ,
) "(
)( " ) ,' .(45

- ' .
,
, , .
,
) , ,( . -
) ,
- , ( ,
,
." : ".
6.3

, , , ' .
'

. ,
, ""
. :
' ) (
) ,( , ;
, "" ).(Eisenman, 1978

170


. ,
' .
,
. , , '
.
' , ,
) ( ,
. , ,
' "" ) ,(squatter
, ) .(Bunton, 2000
)( ) ,(1920
'' ).(Eisenman, 1978

, , .
.
) (
' , . - ' , ,
,
. ) (Public domain
, , )
( . ' ,
) ,
, .(1949-1948

) ,( ,
.
, ,
, ' ) Survey 1946. Vol. I pp. 255- :
.(256
1933- , )(
, .
1926 . ,
, ' ) 302
( ) 57 (; ) 75 (;
) 52 (; , -
.- 958 ) Lands Claimed
.of as Domain. (CO 733/170
, ,1937
) - , ( 13.7 .
, 3 , ,
" " .
, 660 . vol. I p. 257).
(Survey 1946,
, , , 13 ,
,

) ( 17- , 60%
.

171

, ' ,
, ' , '
.1908 ' )
( , -
'.
-
.
.
.14 ) 1937 ,1943 ,(
1943
1937
175,088
95,000

2,432
3

1,222
25,000

62,522
3

177,520

63,744

Survey 1946, vol. I p. 264 :

,
, .
,1937 80%- , 1943
73% .- ,
1943- ,
3 .

, ,
. , )(
, , 2%
. ,
. ,
57% 20- 34% ,-,
31% 22%- ) ,1927 ,' .(41
1946- - ,
).(Survey 1946. pp. 246-251
, , ,
1925 12.5%- 10%- . 1938
) ,(Commutation of Thies ,
- .
- )
( . 1928-
)'( - , -,
' .
, , ,
, ,

172

) ( .
, ,
. - ,
,- . , ,
,
.
,1935 ) ( ,
) ,(Rural Property Tax ) - :
( . 825 :
; 560 ; 160 .
40 , 19 ) .Granovsky, 1935, p. 177
(.
, ,
.
, ,
, .
,
. ,
,
.

) (
,
, )( .
, 30- 5-4 ,
. - ,
, ) Stein, 1984, p.
62
.(14
,1927 ,
' . 1928 )
) .(Torrens )
( , , .
" , 1928 ) Land
,(Settlement of Title Ordinance 10
) ( , , .
(Survey 1946, vol. I p. 234) 1946-
:
;
, ,;
- ;
;
62 ,
. , , ) (1944
" " , : ;
; ; ,
) ,1951 ,' .(187

173

, ;
;
.

) ( .

)( . ,
, , . 1930 -
' . ,
" , )( ) .
,
(.
" ,1937 "
" :
" , ;

" ).(Report on the Administration, 1937. p. 53
" " " " , "
,
.- -;
; .

, - ,
, .
, 1929
, ,
; ,
. ,
, .
(1) :

(2) .
, (3) .
,
, - " " ,
.
,
, ' ,
' . ,1931 ,
, " " ,
.
. , ,
.
. ,
.
, , ,
)
( ).(Bunton, 2000
1928 ,
)( 5.25 , 1.2

174

.
, ) ( ,
.
,
:
" , ,
,
" ) ,1977' .(30
.
,
, - )
.(1940 .
, , '; '
; ' ) ( .
. , , ,
' ) .(Warriner 1948, p. 65
" " ,
) " "(.

.
:
" , ) "(

" )" ,2929/15 : ,1980 ,' .(23
-
:
"...
, - ,
. ,
" ),1977 ,
' .(21



, , ,
,
.
" ' ) ,(1930 2- ,
27 . , ,
) ( 1929-30-25-
) .(Hakim, El Hussayni, 1938 -
1931 : -
7,000- , 39- . ,
40 , 10- ) Yazbak,
.(2000
' ,
) 9-5 (
. ,

175

. , , ,
,30- .
?
" - ,
57% . 100 , .35-27
90-80-" , ,
" ) ,1947 ,' .(66
,
) Survey 1946. Vol. :
.(I pp. 289-293
" ,1920 " ) Land
(Transfer Ordinance ,
, ,
. 1921 ,
, ),
,1978' .(124
, , ,
)( , ,
- . , "
, ,
, ,
, .
- - ,
, .
- ,
- " ).( Survey 1946. Vol. I, p. 280
1929- " " Protection of
,(Cultivators Ordinance ,
, - .
, ,
.
' , -
, ) (1930-
):(1929
" .
, , , .
) "( 5
.-- , , ,
- -" ).(Hope Simpson, 1930, p. 36
1931- ,
. 1933 ) ]Cultivators [Protection
(Ordinance ) .(Statutory tenant
,
, . , -
, .
, 5,
7 .
. , ,
10-9 ,

176

,
.
1936- ,
,
.
1941 )(State Domain Committee
" )!( " ,
" " )) (Trespassers ( "
).(Victimise the landlords
, ).(Crosbie
,1943 1933- - ,
, " -
, - , -
- , -
".
,
,-- , -
"" , ,-
,
, .
- ) ,(1946 ,
47- ).(1980 ,
6.4

; - ;
. ,
,
. ,
, - ,
) ( .-- , -
.
, , -
, ,
- .
) ( , . ,
) -( ,
.

-
, ,
- . ,
, .
30- .
; ;
, - ;
; ;

177

-' ,
) ,.(1933 ,

;
, , ' - .

, . ) (1
. 20- 60%
. ,
, ' ) ,1980 ,' .(242
20- 30- .
22- 1922- 140- 1940- .
1913- 5- 1938/39-
) ,1970 ,' .(190-189
,
; ; .
: , ,
.
, ,
. - ,
. -
63
.
,
,
.
" '
' . ,
, , ,
, , "
" ) ,1978 ,' .(26
, ,
, , - ,
, , 40-
:
"
- , .
- ;
, - .
3,000 ,
, , , , , .
,
: ,- ,-
" ) ,1947 ,' .42- ;
(.

" 63 ,
, - . :
30 , 50 .
100 " , 5 "" ) ,1970 ,' .(190

178


.
) ,(1931 116 50 , ) (43%
; 29 ) (25% , 13- ) (11%
) .(Stein, 1984, p. 19 ,1945
20 , 15%
) ,1978 ,' 23(.

- ,
; - , .
, - . ,
; ,
, . ,
, ,
).(Stein, 1984

) ( .
.
,
) ' (.
, , ,
) ( .
,
, .
, )
,-( . -
" "
- .
) ( ,- - -
) ( , .
,- , 120-100 ,
. , 20
. ,
.
, 1929" ' ,
104- . , "
- ) , (
.

179

.15 1929 ,


, -

2-1
,-

2-1



-

5,477

23.3

3,873
1,604
11,156

16.4
6.8
47.4

1,657
8,396
1,103
6,940
25,573

7.1
35.6
4.7
29.4
100.0

Johnson, Crosbie, 1930, p. 21 :

- ' , ,
, .
, .
.
, , '- , 24 300- .
120-.
, ' ,15
240- . ,
240-120 , ) 1,604
1,657 (.
' 15 , 35 1929 104-
) ( )
( . ) 2( 43 ,
.
, - , ,1929

; ;
.
15,530 ) ,1
)( )( (2 800- )
( , 246 127-
.
, ,1936- 322
. , ,
, .

, , . 56 ,1923
) - ( ,
1929 44- ).(Johnson, Crosbie 1930, p. 45
, ,1944 80-
15.5 , ,
) 4.5( )( ).(Loftus. p. 44

180

)
( , , .
,
10 , ,
.
1936 ,1944-
,
5,000- . : 1936
, 322 71,789 .
242 , ) 6-5 ( 45-40 .
) 1929 ( , )
( . , 30-
26 . ,
2.5 72 .
1936 :
.16 322-1936 ,

19

199-20

200

45,151


5.92
267,563

62.9

8.2

24,687

1,460,933

59.18

34.4

44.9

2,346

1,524,239

649.72

2.9

46.9

72,184

3,252,735

45.31

100.0

100.0

Loftus, National Income. P. 44 :


,
20 .
,
100-20 . 200
- ) ,- ,
(.
, ,
,
. 322 13
5,000 , 137 1,000 5,000- . ,
.
.-
) 13 5,000
45 , 20(
,
, ,
.

181

1944 ,
. 49 ,
20 ) 63 .(1936 )
300 ( 1944- 16 )
40 .(1936
) 322 1936- .(1944-

1930
" '- ," -
, .
" '- 104-
, -' .
- ,
) , ,( , ) , ,
'( 20 , 30- . 20- 30-
50 .
,
" - , .
, ,
,
.
, ,
. - ,
11- 6-; 5-3-
; - 8- 4-.
- , 100 )76
18 , 6 , ( , , 1930-
)
( 3.600- ) 3 600-(.
' , 104 ,1929-
. - 100
) ( 34 . 51
. ) 34( 30%
) 15( .
64 ,
, ,
).(Johnson, Crosbie 1930, pp. 15-18
- " "
, 100-80 , , , ,
' . , ) ( 20-
.
24 . 4 . -
12 . 16
, ,
).(Elazari-Volcani, 1930. p. 49

, ,

182

,
.
, ,
.' , ,1929 104
150 , 6.600
. :
.17 104) 1929 , (

205

82

63

169

-------------------------------------------------------------------519

799

113
-
--------------------------------------------------------------------912

,
400-
) (
550-

------------------------------------------------------------------- ) ( 150
Johnson, Crosbie, 1930, p. 27 :


. ,1936-
' , ,9%-
60-40.
,
. 1935
5 , 8.500
9.800- ).(Horwill 1936, pp. 80-83
, 27 1930-,
.
314 , 170
) . :
159 ( ),1949 ,' .(64
- ,
- . , 1929 8,700
- ; 8,872 , 2,756
. 13,600 , 56
)(.Hope Simpson, 1930, p. 70
- :
" , -
").( Ibid, p. 69

183

,
, , ,
- .
,
- . ;
; . -
10% ),1947 ,'
.(39-38
,
,
.
.
, .
- ,
- . ,
,
64
.

,
, ,
, )( . ,
70% ,
. 1923 ,56%-
1930 ,46%- 1940 20%-
) .(Palestine Royal Commission, p. 219 ,
40-
).(Warriner, 1948, p. 67
, 80 '
) (
, - ,

. , )(
. , - ,
-- , ,
.-- , ,
.
1944 5- ) ( ,
2 4 , . ,
, ,
.
, .

64 , , , ,1937
300 , 200
. . " : ,
,- " ) ,1947 ,' .(63

184

403 , 27 30% .
, 20 ; 40% ,
21 80- ; 30% , 80 .
403 4,000- , : , 10
. ,
120 .-- ,
, : ,
121 , Survey of Social and ) .20
(Economic Conditions in Arab Villages, 1944 (Survey 1946, vol. I. P. 227
,
- - , .

, . ,
,
,
, .
, ,
, .
, ) .
, , ,
,
. , ,
, . ,
- ,
, .
)(
.
.
. 30- - , 150-120,
) ''( , .
3/4 ,
. ,
) , '( .
,- , . - ,
- , .
, , .
-
;
, - - .
,
, , .
: ,
)(; , .
) - , (
, , , ,
, . ,
, .
"

185

, -
.-
, , ,
,
.-- , -
) , , , (
.
- ,
,
) ( ,
) '( , . -
, ,
, -.
, )(
. , ,
-
. ,
, , ,
, .
, , :
;
, - ,
;
, ,
, ;
,
) ( ;
, ) ( ,
;
, .
) (
, ,
,
, -
, .

, - )
( , , ,
, . -
,
.
.
-
, .
, -
, .
, -
,
- -.

186

, -
, .
. , ,
. ; -
, . ,
,

. , , -
, . -
, ) (
, , ,
.
:
, ,
, .
, ,
) ,1949 ,' .(281

. -
,
- .
,
) ( . ,

,
,
.
,
,
. -
.
, -
. ,
,
.

,
. , , ,
, - ,
- .
, , ,
, ,
, , ,
1936 ,
.


.
,

187

, ,
.
""
, )( .
"" ,
, .
,
,
, .

. ,
, ,
- .
. ,1944-
) (
: 400-
, 70 ) ,1944 ,' .(74
)( , ,
, , ,
.
200-150- .
? -
, . ,
, , ,
.


. , ,
,
, - - ,
, .
, -
65
, .
6.5
14%- 191425%-
) 1944 ,1945 ,' .(11 , :
.
- ,
, .
) ( 35-
12 1914- 315- 108 .1948-

65 ) (1946
" : ; ;
; ; , , ';
, - , , -;
" ),1946 ,' .(29

188

1948- 34 : , 24 ; 104 , 30
; 177 , 54 ) ,' ' ,' .(690
,
' . ,
, , -
.
, " )( ,
.
. 20- ,
" , :
"
- 300 ,
. -
, ...
" ;
, ,
.
, " )
.") (. " ,' ,23 .(1933
, , 300 "
" , ,
.
.
,
,
. ,
, .
59% 1927
, ,40-
, 43% . ),(16%
) ,(5% ) ,(3% , ,
)) (33%,1945 ," .(26-24
,
: '
,
)( . )
( 12- 1929- 106- ) 1945- ,1954 ,' ,78
.(120 :
, 50-
20; 25-23 , 40-
20-10 ),1949 ,' .(251

,
. ,1927- 530
, 200 . 14 ,
1941/42- 434 , 200
),1945 ,' .(25 20- ,
" : -
, 6 , " ) ,1980 .'
.(226

189


. ,
. , 20 ,1945
, 9,000 : ) (45% ; 6,000
) (30% ; 5,000
) 25% ( ).(Statistical Handbook. p.144
,
60%- 40%- .

. ,
; " " " ,
, - . ,
,
- .
1945 7,000; 5,800 ; 7,500
400- ; 20,700
. ) 3,300 14%
( , 2,500 800-
)" "" ,' ,1 .(1946 ,12-7
,
. ,
- 7% :
36%- ; 41% 16%-
. , 57% 40-
, ) 43% 1945 ,' .(26
, )
( .

.
, 75% 1945 97%-
)" " ,' .(1946 ,1
,
, .66 ,
, ) ,( ,

. ,
. ,
;
, .
,
. , ,1941/42
8,800 , 6- -
2,800 , )Statistical Handbook. p.144
(.

66 ,
. -
; ; .

190

- ,
. 20- 30- -
, .
.
, ) (
, .
P.E.C. "; ;
- " , , ,
) ,1980 ,' .(122
1930-
" " , " ,
" ) ,' .(123
, ,
6-5 ) ,( . :
,
67
.
:
,
. ,
.
"" , ,
' 17 , :1929
" ,
,
, . ,
. , .
,
. , ,
:
, - ".
, " .
" . ,
, - .
,
, .

.
- ,
.
,
. ,
210 ) 8!( ) ,' .(125
" .
, .-
, :
- .
.
" 67 '' . '
' - , . ''
" ) ,2001 ,' .(49

191

, . 1935-1934
- . ,
- . ,
'' " )
"( ) ,(.
)
( . 20-
25-20 . ,
1,200-800 ,
) ,1980 ,' .(228 ,227

. : 23- ,
,1936-1935 60% - ,
31% - )( , 9% .
, .
1936 ) ( 2
; 1936- 84- 1937--
100 ) ,1944 ,' .(55
, ,
8- .
:
, - ,
, .
, .
" , .
,
, . -

.-
, .
, " )
"( ) ,1980 ,' .(136
,
68
, .

, . ,
1926- .1930-
, ,
. , ,
, , .

, .
,
.
, ,
,
. ,- ,
,
68 - ' .2

192

. ,
.
, .
,-
, -.
1939- , 75 ,
340- ) ,1980 ,' .(52
, , ,
:

.
" 1946 .

" ),1980 ,' .(331
, ) ( -
, - "
.
" -
, - " ) ,1954 ,'
.(76
- -
,
.
-
.
" ,
,
" ) ,1977 ,' .(29
,
,
- ) (
.

193

" ;
, , , ,
"
69
) (

.7
7.1
- .
1947-1919
, .
.18 ,

) 1919(
) 1922(
) 1931(
) 1936(
) 1947(

100.0
590,000
100.0
757,182
100.0 1,035,831
100.0 1,366,692
100.0 1,899,000

90.7
535,000
88.9
673,388
83.1
861,211
71.9
982,614
66.8 1,269,000

9.3
55,000
11.1
83,794
16.9
174,610
28.1
384,078
33.2
630,000

;Census of 1931; Census of 1922 : ,1961 ,' .35

, ;3.2
;2.4 ,11.5
9%- 1919- 33%- .1947- ,
30- ,
1947- - , , .

: 1922- 264
) ,(35% 742 1942- ) .(46% , , 1942-
)Statistical Abstract 1944/45 ) (54%
.(p. 5: Census of 1922, p. 5
20 ,1942-1922 , , , ,2.8
1.9 . ,
, ,
, . , ,
- 18%--
.(Statistical Abstract, 1944/45, p. 5) 24%
.

69

Stein, Kenneth W. (1984), The Land Question in Palestine 1917-1939, University of North
Carolina Press, p. 219.

194

7.2
,1948-1919 452 ,
,
. - ,
) ( , ) ,2 '( ,,
30- ,40- ,
. ,
,
, ,
. - ,
.
, ,
- ,
) ( -
, .
, , ,
, .

, .,
-
70
.
,
, . ,
" " , " ,
, .
"" 27- ) 1940
(:
" .
, ) -
(" )" .(S 25/2992
:
"' ' -
' ' ...
,
' '" ).(1976 ,
,-- ,
. 1933- ,
- ) ( , -
) ( . 30- ,
- , )
( .

" 70 , , , ,
. ,
,
" ).(1976 ,

195

.19 1938-1933 ,

.1 1,000
.2 500
.3 250
.4 4

.5
)(3-1
)(5

%-

%-

5-1
29.4
0.1
1.5
0.7

20,681
99
1,040
475

11.1
0.9

48,123
21,931
39,457
54,882

25.8
11.7
21.1
29.4

68.3
-

186,688

100.0

100.0

Statistical Abstract 1939 p. 32 :

,19 ) : -(
: , 68% , ,
29% . - 1.5% ,
) 500( 0.1% 0.7% .
30- ,
- , ,,
.
.
1939 ,
- ,
. , 1942-1930 -
) ( 26- , ) Statistical Abstract
.(1944/45, p. 14
,
1936 , )
(; 17% ; 15%
; 12% ) , , , , '(.
, , )( ) .(Report, 1936
- , , :
.

, , , , ,
.

) ( , - .
. 1945
460 )""( , 78%
; 132- )"
"( , 22% ).(Statistical Handbook, 1947, p. 60

196

, .
70- 1922- 440- -
1945 370 . ,
14- 1922- 150- 1945-
136 .-- , , 1945-
. ,
.
70%- 1926- 44%-) 1941/42- ,,1945 ,
' .(91
7.3 :
- -
. ,
; -; - ) (
. ,
- ,
.
20- 30-
.
- - ,
. -;
- , -
, ;
-
.
' -
, ' .
, - ,
. , ,
) , ,( .
,
.
. ,
) ( ,
71
'.
:
) , ( , ,
, ;
) , ( , ,
- ;
, ,
- ,
. , ';
71
" - ,- : , ,
, , , , . ,
; ,
, ; , "
) ,1947 ,' .(200

197

, ,30-
, .
,
72
, , .

. ,1943 350 ,
, .1920- ,
, ,
, 1927 ) BAT.(2003 ,
' ,
,
.
, , , . ,
,
.
, , ,
. ,
, ,
,
, -.
""
, " " .
.
" , , , .
, , ,
, " )"" ,
' ,12.6.1929 , (.
:
" ...
" ) , " ,3.7.1929 , (.
, , -
:
" :
. ...
" ) , " ,18.9.1929 , (.
, ,
20- ,30- -
. ,
.
,
.21- )
( , ) ( , ) ( , ) ( ,'
)( , )( , )( ,
30- .40- ,
72
" , , " : -
:'' - )( , )( .
. , " . ,
, , ) ,1931 ,"
.(121-120

198

. :
1944- .
.
-
- : ;1913
;1921- .1925
. ,
) ,(1923
- , ).(1982 ,
, ,,
.
, .
) ,(40-
) ( . ,
, , "
" : , ),
,1958' .(346
. -
, , ,
, .
- )-.(1999 ,
, .
) ,( ,
. ,
, ,
- , .
?
,
, - . ,
, , ,
,
) , (.
, ,
, , ,
. ,
, , - -
' , .
- - :
,1928 , -
. ;
,1928 .,
1928 2,500-- 11,600
. 30- 40-
- , .
, ,30-120-
. 120
: , '.
, -
, ,
)

199

( . ,
, . ,
,
.
- , ,
, , ,
, '.
-
. ,
) ( . -
.
,
) , '(
.
.
, .
- ,
)( , ,
- , .
.
,30- , ,
, , .
, ) Split Labor
(Market , ) .,
.(2003 - .

. ,20-
20 8 . ,
, , 10 . 1924-
25- .
, ,
. , ) (
.
,
73
).(Lockman, 1996, p. 86
, :
. ,

.
,
. ,
, ,
.
,
, 30- "
" , , .
, ,
73 , ,1945 " .
.1945 70 , .
, .

200

,
,
. , ,
.1946
7.4 :1931 -
, 1931 - -
,1933 , ,
74
, .
281 , 214
67- . ,
, ,
.

) (1931 ,
, .
1931 ,
65% 8,200- . ) (5,300
- .
- ,
. , ' . .

135 1931- , 48% .
,57% .19%-
)" "( 84%
.
, 1931
.
, 10% .
, :
67 : , 65%
; 30 , 29% " , 6%-
, , , ' .
, , ,
) ( ,
, .
, 1931- ) ( ,
, ,
, . 30 , )(
- , 2,000 ,
,
, 35 , , .
3,700- , 2,600- -
1,500 . , ,

Census of Palestine, 1931, Vol. II, Part II, table XVI.

201

74

.
- .
,
,1931 ) (,
' .
32 1931- , 12 .
,
, , .
,1931- - ,
. 18 14-
. , .
30%- , 12% .
,
1931 ,
. , , ,
,- -
: , .
,
85 : 85 ,
16- . ,,
. , ,
, .
,
,
, .
. 9% ; ) (
;3% ;5% .4%-- -
20% .
, 1931- ,
. ,
30- ,
, , ,
: , ,
43% .

,
, - - ,

, .

, - ,
,
.
)""( ,
, ) ( ,

202

, ,
75
.
1931
) ( .
34 1931 ) ( , 12%
.
.
, ,
. .
, ) (18% )
'(; ) (14% ;
) (9% .
)( : .
. 3,400 :
, .1931-
,
. , , ,
, .
,
) ( .
7.5
, ,
, ) .(1936 ,
:
- 150 ,:
90,
60 ,:
40 ,
20 , .
) (90%- , 10
) 8,000 : 2,000- ( .
.
) ( ?

" 75 "
)-.(2003 ,

203

.20

*
:

15,000

34,000
8,000
8,000
18,000
32,000
32,000
25,000

8,000
2,000
3,000
3,000
26,000
25,000
9,000

11,000
6,000
3,000
2,000
6,000
7,000
11,000

5,000

3,000
14,000
140,000

2,000
12,000
82,000

1,000
2,000
38,000

20,000

2,000
13,000

* 1931 , .

,
, , ,
. ,
, , .
,
) ( , 16- .
, ,1930- ,
, )
( : 50 15 : )
(; 15 ; 7 ; 3
; ; ; ; ;
)- ,' .(4
, 45% ,
.
- , ,
) ( 55%- .
, 30- .
.
, , ,
, .
) -( 40% ;
.
,
, , ) ( 15%-
.
.

-
. ,
1942- 1939 .2.4

204

:21 1942 ,1939


1942

1939

3,363


12,340


2,615

18,318

6,063

1942
1939

1.8
13.6

67.4

35,200

78.8

2.9

14.3

3,400

7.6

1.3

100.0

44,663

100.0

2.4

18.4

.Statistical Abstract 1944/45, p. 51 : 1942 .

40- -
, .
.22 )(



, ,

,
50,200
24,600


36,750
15,750


13,450
8,850

49,400
5,000
20,500
38,300
45,400
8,100
30,500

18,500
...
8,100
4,800
16,200
8,100
12,000

30,900
5,000
12,400
33,500
29,200
...
18,500

272,000

120,200

151,800

: ,1945 ,' ;171 ,' ;1946 ,4 ,1970 ." Schmorak, ;230-229


1946, p. 101
, ,
) ,1978' 40( :" 139 , : 20 , 13,
18 , 12 , 15 , 32 ,
20 , 9.

22 , ,
. , .
) (

, .
, .
:3 11- 1931- 31-
.40- ,

205

.
, , ,
.
,
) , ( )
( , ,
) .(1939
).(2003 ,
40-
) 18,500 ,(30,900
) (.
,40- 50- ,
38 . ,
, ,
2.5 .
1943 )' (5 ,
,
839; 456; 200.
280 -;
1,200; 850 ) Statistical Abstract
.(1944/45, p.59
, ) 1943-' ,(7 ,
, - , 3
. 80% ,
.30
907 , ,
28 ,
, ) 7,400( ,
) .(3,400 , 40%-
. , ,1943
, 7 , ),
,1943 ,' .(54
1943- , 18 ,
.200 18- 30% 65% .
20 - ,
) ," .(55 ,53
, ,

, - .
,
.
.
, 30- 40-
,
.

206

7.6- -
,
.
, ,1923-1922
,1928-1926 ,1940-1936- .
, . , 1931 1,400
, , 9%
. ) ( , 2030-
) ,.(1932 ,
20- 12
, .
) (1927 " : , .
8
3 . 48- " )"" , (1927
,
, , .

1925- )
( ).(1972 ,
,1928-1926 , ,
,
" ,!" . -
. ,
" :1926 ,
' ' !' .
, ) -( . ,
.
"
. " ).(1975 ,
- ) (1940-1936
, . ,
,
9%- 1935- 25%- ,1938- 28%--
) 1940 ,1945 ,' .(155
, 1940- 1936
21%- , Statistical ) 45%-
.(Abstract 1942, p. 67
- , , -
- .
-
" " . - ,
, - , ""
, .
1907 '
" " , "
, " .
, ," :
, ,
" . ?

207

'" : ) "(
. ,
: , , '" ),
,1973(.
, - ,
, .
- - ;
, ,
; ;
, - . ,
-
1913 .(Rupin, 1971, pp. 109-110) 1938-
. ,
, , -
:
"
, - : . -
, ; . ,
,- ) ( ,
; . , " , '' .
,--
".
,
: , )
( )""(
, , .
" ,
" " ,1934 " " " " ,
:
.23- '' '' ,1934 ,*
''

350 - 250

250 - 200
)(
550 - 450

600 - 350

440 - 330

750 - 600

400 - 300

550 - 400

200 - 175

''
120 - 80
200 - 120
300 - 200
500 - 300
250 - 150
400 - 300
150 - 100
450 300
90

* .
:
" 50 ".

,-
" 250 - 200- -

208

" ) ( ),
,1932 ,' .(51
'' ) ( ,
) ( . 1938

, - . , ,
; ;
) ,1947 ,"
.(160 ,158
, )-( ,
- .
, ,
)""( ,
' .
.
, / /.
- -
76
.

)( ,
. ,30-
, , .
1938 1934- 20%-
, .13%-
) ;(-23%
) ;(-35% ) (-22%
)) (-30% .(Statistical Abstract 1939, p. 98 :
1934 1938- 750-400- 250--
450 , 600-750- 750-450-
. , 1938-
.1934- , ,
-; ,
.
30- , 40-
, ,
, .
,1939- 1942- -
72 . 131-
, 35- ) .
(.

, ,1941 :

76 " : , " , ) 8.(1957 ,

209

.24 , 1941 ,

80
31
128

203

) ( 246


-
-
-

626
116
392
71

)(
52.9
47.7
45.6
40.7

377
461

18.0
44.3
44.0
38.9

26.4
23.7

86

69.0

39.3

43.2

33
25
183

49.7
34.3
17.8
46.3

28.7
4.8
32.0

44.0
39.2
45.2
40.5

Statistical Abstract 1942. p. 72 :

24 .
69% 1941- ,
38% . 69% ,
27%
, 15% .

- . 1945
):(Supplement, 1947
1,010 - 1,460 ) 1,235(;
640 - 850 ) 745(;
260 1,100 ) 680(.
1946/47 30% 60%- .
, ,100 ;39-32
;65-45 ;54-43
) 37-32 ,1970 ,' .(227
, )""(,
, - ,
, . ,
- , )
""( , . ,
, , ,
.
, 30-
- ,
- )( ) ,( .
, -
- . , -
, .

210

-
. , ,1942-
4 11-,
5 23- . ,
, .

).(Statistical Abstract 1944/45. p. 113
,
, 4 .
,1944 85% 60%- .
, , 63% 8% .
, ,
. 90%-
) ' '( . ,
.
, ,
. ) (1920
,
. 30- ,
, ) ,,
(.

, 1934-
) , 1996-
( . , ,
" , 49- )' ;2003 , ,-,
.(2003
, ,
, .
, 1921
, , ,
. .1926-
" " ,
. 1927-
, .
30- , 40-
, ,
, . 1945/47-
,
).(2003 ,
) (1941-
, ; ,
. , ,
.

,
1942- ,
. ,
.

211

7.7

, -
.
,
.1897-
, . , 1902-
.
, )
( 12- 10- -
.
. ).(Bulletin No. 5, 1943
,
.
) , ( 40- 1919- ) 1924-,
.(1927 1923
. 20-
, , , , ) ,1947 ,' .(165
20-
. 1928-
. ) .(1930 ,
, , ,
) 1924- ( , ,-
. 1924
- , - )' (.
-
,
.
) (
,1920- 4,500- )
, .(1911 ,
,
, , ,
. ,
, 1945
. 30-40-
.
-- , ,
.

. ,- ,
: ,
,
).(Shalev, 1992, chapter 4

.-
, , ,
' . ,
.

212

-
)" "( , )" "(
)" "( .
,
77
.
,
) "" ( , -
.60 , - ,
, ,
.
) - -
" "(
. ,
"
" . " " ,
" -
" . ,
"" , " "
. ,
.

, .
78
- ... .
,
, ,
. ,1936 , 35%
12%- , )-
,1999 ,' .(61

, .-
, ,
, .
)' (.
,
) " -"(
, ." ,
, ,
, .
77
" , ,
: ,
, ...
- , , ,
, " )- ,1999 ,"
.(124 ,62

78 ) ,(37 ,
, " ":
" , . . ,
, . , ,
,
") . " " , (.

213

,- " - ) "
( , ,
. " .
- , -
" ) ,2007 ,' .(23 , -
79
30 ,40- - .
) ( ,
" " . ,
, " "
1- , ,
. , ,1935
' ' , .
, , .
, , ,
,
.

.25 1945-1931

1931
1932
1933
1934
1935
1936
1937
1938
1939
1940
1941
1942
1943
1944
1945

55
33
116
51
234
45
88
41
329
57
26
15
361
44
85
74
144
103
107
85
108
80
279
109
249
147
171
119
277
119

1,946
1,409
2,049
2,051
3,648
956
6,305
1,876
2,964
2,221
3,803
8,540
17,846
9,791
6,063


9,704
10,689
19,354
17,273
28,415
11,625
21,167
14,149
19,435
22,108
36,342
137,640
*131,650
*184,014
101,570

Statistical Handbook, 1947. p. 306 ;Statistical Abstract 1939 p. 76 :


* ' ) ,1959' ,(42 1943-
,170,625.247,705 1944-

,
. , ,1935 57 , 16 10- .
1938 74 40 21 .
79 1- , -:
" , , , -
, , ' '
, , , " )""(4.5.1936 ,

214

,1942 109 , 97 . 1945 119


105 7-.
,1936-1933 186 ) (
) 94( , ; 14
) (20%- ) Report
.(1936, p. 139
1942- ) ,(51
. 1945-1942 494,
628 11- .1941-1931
1944 3,500 , 33- -
, . , ,
.
, .
,-
, ,
,
. ,
30-
.


20- ,40-
) (Lockman, 1996
80,
.
) ,(
' .
.
, . ,
, , .
, , 2,400 )-
1943 7,800 , 1,200 (.
12- ,1919
. ,
.
"-" )""( . 1920-
, .
20-
, . ,
,
- ,-.
, ,
: ,
. , .
80 ;1973 , ;1926 ,- ,?; ;1981 ,Lockman, ;Bernstein, 2000 ;1930 ,
.1993

215

,
. ,1922
.
,
.
,
)"( , , :1922
" ) -"( ,
. , ,
.
, ,
. . , .
, , ,
- .
.
. .
. . ,
, . -,
, ...
.
, , . - ,
-
.
- ,
) ,(1922 ) (.
, -
81
".
, , ) (1922
.
, 1923-
,
. 1923 ,
, . 1923
,
. , .
.
,1924
, . ,
, "
" . , ,
, - .
" )( " ",

. "-" ,
3 12.

, .
1924 , )(URPTW
81

216

'" , ".20.2.1980 ,

, 300 . 1926
884 464 , , 420- ) ,
938 , 498 440-( . ,
) ( , ,
)( , .
"".
, " : ,
,
, .
,
, .
- .
" . ,
, " "" ,
, )"" , "(
, ,
, , :1929-
" , 1923- .
)( . , , : ,,
, , , .
.
- ,
. ,
, .
. .
.
,
. 1926 "
)'.(1980 ,
,
, , ,
) ( .
,1925 ,
- , .
. ,
, ,
' '
) ,(PAWS ,
).(AURW
,
. ,
- .
. ) , (1928
,
. 1931-
'- , ' ).(IU
30- , ,
. , 5-
,- .

217

,40-
, , , ,
, . 1940
, .
1942
.
1944 ,
. , 1,400
.
, , ,
.
,
.
, ) "( ,
. .
.

,1946 23 . ,

.
,
- , .
, ) , ,
, ( ) , (,
, , ,
. ,
, , ,
.

,
, : .
,
.
, ) ;De Vries, 2004; Bernstein, 2000
,(Lockman, 1996 30-
,1946 :
, , , 1938 ,1945-
.3 - :
, ,
, ,
, "
" ) Palestine Civil Service Second
,(Division Association .SDA
-
) ( , -
.1942 ,
. 1945 SDA
.
, . ,

218

, 9- 1946 500
- . .
7,000 ,
. , 24- ,
.
, .
, .
1946
.
,
. 1947-1945 ,
, ,
, ,
.
,
, " " " " ,
-
.
-
, ' :1946
" ,
) - ( ,
.
, ,
, - ) - (
, - ,
.
.
,
,
".
) 1946 45 -
; - 30 ; 10
; 45 - ( '
:
") -( , ,
, ,
.
, -,
.
- . ,
, " ' '
, ; - '
) --(
.
"
-
' ...' ) - ( , ''
' ' ' ' , "
" )' ,1959 ," .(45-44

219


1925 ' ' ),(PAWS
.
.
.
,
1927-- -
.
.
30- .
, ,
. ,
; ,
.
- .-
1931 , ; 1933--
1932 , .1935-
, , )-
, .(2
,
. 40 ""
8 , "
. "
" ,
. ,
"" ).(1930 ,
,
"" ,
" " .
,
) .(1930 , , ,
, .
- ,
. ,

. ,
,
.
- , ).(Yazbak, 2000
,
. 1941-1937
43 , 386 ) Statistical Abstract
.(1942. p. 78 ,40-

)' (.

.
, ,
, .

220

1942
, .
- , , .
,
. , 1943
, 28
.
) -
( , " :
,
,
. ,1945-1944
" ).(2003 ,

,20-
, ,
. )
,( . ,
" . , ,
.

. ) (1920 .
, 1921- ,
, , .
, - ,
, )-.(2001 ,
,
: 14-10 .
,
.
1924- ,
.
- . 500- 7-
) .(1926
, :
, 8 , . , ,
.
, .
, " : ,
. - ,
. " . ,
," : - , ,
" .
).(1974 ,
) (1932
- . . ,
, : 8
, , - ,
, .

221

,
)'.(1980 ,
,
, " : .
. .
? , , ... 30- .
, , . 25
, .17 , , ...
, , , , ,-
, , . :
. ! , .
-- . 25 :! !
'' , : , , ...,
, ,
. "
).(1985 ,

" , .
-,
...
,- ,
,
, , "
82
) ,(

7.8
, ,
. , -,
,
).(Lockman, 1994
, ,
,
- .
,
) ,1936- ( ,
, ) -
( .
,
- , , ,-
. ,
, .
: -
. ,
, , ' , ,
.
82 ," , " ) ,1998 ,' .(44

222

, ,
, .
, , ,
- .
,
.
, .
150 40- 8,500-
70% . ,
,
) (
) , , ,(.
- , ,
.

, ,
, .
)
( )
83
(.
- ,
, .
- : , ,
, , ,
) ( ,
) , ,(; ,
,
; ,
, ,
.
,
) ,(Bernstein, 2000 ''
'' . , ,
, . , , " :
- ...
...
, , , , ,
84
" )' .(13
, ,
, ,
'' '' ) ( .
, )' ,(77
,
; ;
; ;
" 83 , ,
: ,
, " )- ,1999 ,' .(62
84 ' ) (Bonacich
).(Shakev, 1992, chapter 2

223

;
. ,
) (
;
)( )( ; ,
. -
. ,
, .
)(
, - .
'' ,
. , , ,
, ,
, , .
-
,
" " - .
, - ,
85
.
, ) ,
( ,- )( , ,
. ,
, )
( , :
,
. ,
,
) , , ,( ,
.
' ,' )
( ,
.
'' , )
( ,
. ''
, , ,

.

, , ,
:
85 ) ,(M. N. Roy ,
:1920-
" - .
, . , - ,
- .
, ,
, , ,
,
, " ).(Roy, 1920

224

" ,
, ...
,
" )' .(207


, ,
, ) , , ,(
.
)( ,
. ,
,
.
, ,
,
. ,
, ,
" " . " : )(

, ,
. ,
, ,
. " :
,
. , ,
" )' .(165
, , .
)(
) " "( ,
, ,
, , ) ( .
,
, .
, ,
" " .
, .
.
, 25 ,
12 . ,1935
15- 8 .
. ,
)
( ).(Lockman. 1996, p. 230
- ,
, , -
.
.

, , , .
- ,

225

, .

. ,
, "" 12 ,
86
, .
, , ,
, , , .
, .,
)
( , ,
. , ,
,
.
, '' .
,
. ,
" " . ,
,
//; , ,
) ( , ; ,
-
.
, ,
,
. )
, , ( , /
,
.
) (; ) , ,
(;
;
" " .
, ,,
" " . , ,
, ,
, , .

" " -
, .
" " - ,
, . ,

,
, . ,
, ,
" 86 ,
. ,
" )" " ,6.8.1932 , ,1981 ,' .(221

226

: ,
; .
, ,
, . .
, , , ,
, , -
.
-

, .
,
,
, .
, ,
" " : ,
.
-
, ,
- , - , ,
87
.
, 15-10 40-
) 10%- ( ,
. - ,
, . ,
) , .(1977 , 1945- 63 ,
.
, )( .
, ,
- ) , , (

. , ,
: , ;
,
.
,
. ,
,
, )
( ) ,,
(.
) ( -
, : ,
87 ' :
"
- . , -
. , .
, .
. .
, .
- - " ) ' ,1945 ," .(30-29

227

- , - ,
, - ; ,
- ,
. , ,
- ,
. , : , ,
.
,
. ,
- -
, . ,

.
, ,
.
,
30- .40- ,
- , .
, - ,
,
.
, , .
,
, -
. , ,
, , ,
, .
,
, , -
, .
, ,
, , -
, ,-

.
, ,

.
,
" :1928 - ,
"
) ,1980 ,' .(103

" " .
, ,
,
, .
-- , ,
,

228

. " " ,30-


, " 1939-1929
" ," :
, , ,
.
" ) ,1977 ," .(346 ,435
" "
, ,
. ,1935 -
" " ,
" " )" "( ,
"" . , " " ,
. , .

, ,
" ".
,40-
, ,
, .1941-
,
.
, ,
, -
, 40- ,
, ,
, , ,
- 10- ,
) '.(1959 ,
- , 40-

, 1947
- .
. 1947
" " )"( , , 150
. 50- .,
, 39 .
,
.
88
).(Bernstein, 2000, p. 203

88 , , ,
)( )-( . ,
, .1800 ,
) ( , ' .
, ,
, . ,
).(Quataert, 1983, p. 148

229

:8
" , ,
, ,
" "
89
)" (

) (1948-1917
-.
, , ,-,
. -
,
. , -
, -.
, ,
, .
, :
,
; ; )(
; ;
) , ,-(; ; -
.
, ) (
"" , , - .
,
, ,
.
)' ( , , ,
" " , , , ',
' . ,1921
" " , ,
, ,
. , "" ,
,
90
).(OG 1.3.1921
, ,
, , : ,
. ,
, ,
. , .
- ,
,
, .
- - - ;
89" .S25/2992
90 '' , . ,1967
, . , ,
, - '' , ,:
. : " , : ,
" )"".(17.3.2008 ,

230

,
;
;
,
.
.
8.1 -
,
, . 1944/45
2,300 ,1925 20-
860 ) ,' .(216
-
.
) ( . , ,
1942- 4- ,
174- ) ,' .(217

,1945- -
.
.27 ) 1945 , (
-

61.7
13.7
39.3 114.7
24.3
*
74.8
99.1

16.5
*
13.1
29.6
12.1
6.3
2.1
20.5

9.2
2.3
2.0
13.5

1.9
*
1.3
3.2

125.7
22.3
132.6 280.6

Survey Palestine, 1940. Vol. II p. 560 :
* .


) 47-45 ( .
: ) (56%
, ) (19% .-- ,
,
.
) (
.
, 1945
- )
( , , )( . ,
:

. , , )

231

( , )3-
(.
,

, -
.
, .
,
) -(
,
. , ,

, " ".
.
, ,

.
: ,
. ,
,
- , ,
. )
( ) ( .

,
,
).(Stein, 1984, p. 30
, ,
,
. , , ,
, ,
.
.
, , , -
, .
,
1936 .
8.2
- ,
) ,
( , ,21-
. ,
, " " , , ,
.
,
. - , )
( , :

232

" , ,
. "...
) 11 , ,1940"
(S25/2992
,1940- , 30-
, -
. - ,
, ,
,
, - , .
)( :
) ( )""(;
) , ,( , 91.
)-(;
) ( , ) ( ,
;
; , , - ;
" , ) ( ;
)" "(;
) ,(; , , )" "" , "(;
)-( , ;
- )""(. - ,
, - ,
. ,40-
- , - .
, ,
, , , , .
8.3 -

. ,
-
.
" 91 ' '
. ,
,
, " ).(1976 ,

233

,
, , ,
. ,
,
, 6 1936-
- , .
,
, ,
. , -
, . ,,
) , ,,
( ,
,
92
.

, -
.
,
, , , ),
( . :
,
.
,
, 93. ,
, .
,:
" . ,
, 20- )dual-
:(colonialism
, ,
,
" ).(Shamir, 2002
, "
" ) (1917 " " ) ,
( .
,
" " ,
)" "( , .
.
-
? ? -
- ?
" 92 , , ,
. ,
. 1936 , ,
. ,
, . ,
,1939 -) "... ,1970 ,' .(102
93' ,1986 ,' 237.

234

,
-
- ) ( -
, ,
- . -
" " , -
, )( ,
.

: ; ;
;
; , .
- ,
.
-
- .

,
,
, - .
.
1936- )( :
" - , ,
.
,
-".

)" "( , , ,
" :- , , ,
" ).(1951 ,
, , -
,
94
.
, ,
" .
-
" ," :

94 -
:
" ,30- ,
. ,
, ,1929 . ,
, ,
, ."
. ,
,- ,' ,- , ,
. ,
. , Stein, ) "1937-
.(1984, p.220

235

-"...
) ,2000 ,' .(174
, ) ,,
( , -
.-- ,
:
.
) ,(1940
:
" :
. ,
,
" )" ..(S25/2992
, , )( , )(
) (
) ( . , -
,
.
.30-
, 1935
, ),1970 .
' .(234 , ,
. ,
, , .
, , ,
, "" , "
. , , ,
" , " ).(1976 ,
- ,
, ) ,,
, ( ) -( . -
)(
. , ,40-
,
-
- .
, , .
, "
" , "
, ,
" ) , ,1977 ," .(20 ,19
-
. ,
- .
, " -
, , , " ,
." ,
, 1936- - ,

236

- ,
" ) ,1980 ,' .(100
, )(
; - -
) ,(;
. ,
, .
30 ,
, , .
) ,( )
, ( , ,
.
, ,
, ) ( ,
, , ,
, , , ,
. , -
, )
, , , ( ,
, ,
.
,40- ,
,
,
, .
,
.
, .
" 8.4 "
" " - ,1926
. -
:
"
, "
)"" 14 ,' "(.
, ,
, .
: -
" "" , "" , "" ,"" , ",
1- -
.

. ,
, - ,
.
" " , ;
" " - ;
,
,

237

. , -
,
95
-.
: ;

;
,
" -"
) , ,(1977
,
?
,
.
,30- ,
,- . 40-
,
.
, )
, , ""( ,
. ,
, .
,
.
, ,
, "-
" , .
,
)" "" , "( ,
, ,- )
( ) ,
,( , ,
,
.
- ,
) ( ,:
" ,
, , ...
.
.
,
" )- ,1999 ,' .(78
8.4
, 29- ,1947
,

95' ),
.(1995

238

- -
, - .
.
,
. -
, ,
. , -
- ,
. :

, , ,
. ,
, .
- - , , -
" . ,

96
.
" )11
,(1940 - , " ,
)'' ( " 8
: , , , , 8-.
, -
97
".
,
, " 29- ,1947
" " " , , ,".

, . ,
,
. ,
- ,
, , .,
-
-
. , 1949-
100
. ,
-- 1956
)" "(.
- ,
, ,
: .

) ' , ( ,
:
)( , )( ,
.
96' ,1980 ," .78-45
97" .S25/2992

239

,- ,
.
,
. ,
-
- .

)
( , .
, -
, .
,
, .
,
- .
, , ,
, .

, .
) ( ,

. ,

.
:
, - -
. )- ,
- ( -
, ) , ,,
(
) ,-( .
- ,
, ,
)( , -
, .

. ,
) ( , ,
. ) (,
, ,
, .-
-
,
) (.

:
,A ,
. ,

.

240

,B
- , )( ,
, ,
.
, ,
-
. , )
( , .
,
.- ,
,
, .
B A
, B
.A ,
, ,
- ,
. , - ,
, ,
, -
.
- ,
. B
, ,
. B
, ),
( .
, - .
- .
-
. ,

.

,
, ,
.
,
, ) (
. " "
" . " , ;
- .
, ,

.
.
) (1936 ,
-
) - (.

241


-
.-- , ,
.
,
- .

,1919
.

242

:

) (1948
, , ,
' ,
, ,
.
" " - ,
. -
, , ,
. ,
)( , ,
, , .
" ' '" , "
" :
" , ,-
, , -
. - ,
, -
. - ,
. , ,
" ) ]1955 [1859(.
,
. ,
. , -
).(Wood, 1995

,
. ,
.
, , ,"
" ) ,(1859 -
, :
" - , , -,
-" )1955 , , .(254
, ,
. , ,
, ,
. , ,
, , ; , ,
- - ,
, .
, , ) ' , ,(25
, " " .

243

" " , ,
) ] ,1953 [1867' .98(631
,
, ,
; , , ,
) ( ,
.
, ,
,
) ( .

)( ) ,(.
) ,( )
""( - ,
. :
" . ,
. , ,
, " )1955 , ,'
.(354
, ,
: ,
,
. " :: ,
) "... ,1964 ,
.(377

, , - ,
, , ,
.
. , ,
, .
,
, ,
. ,
98

, ,
) ( , ,
.
, .
, , , .
, . ,
.
, , , ;
, ) ( ,
; , ;
, ,
)( , .
" , , ,
, ,
. ,
) "( , , , ,
" )1957 [1884] ,(.

244

,
.
, .
) (Schneider, Rapp, 1995 , ,-
, , ,
) ( .
, ) ,
( , .
, , .
, ,
.

.
) ,(Islamoglu-Inan, 1987 - ,
' 18-
,
- . , ,
, - , .
" " ,
, '
. , -
, . ,
- ,

.
- . ' ,
-
'.

, ',
, . -
, - , )
( , .
, ,
- : , , ,
.
, ,
, , .
, -
. , , )(
)1957 [1892] ,(.
, - :
, .
, , ,
. -
) ,1963 [1899] ,' .(57
, , -
, )( , ) (tribute

245

. , , - ,
, ).(Tributary mode of production
500- , ,
, ,
; )(; - .
.
,99 , ,
- , , :
, .
, ,
, ).(Amin, 1992
, , ,
, - .
, , ,
) ,( .
, . ,
,
- ' . ,
, ,
. ,
).(Amin, 1984
. , , ,
) ,(
, .
, ,
, , .
, , ,
. , - ,
, , , ) ( ,
, ).(Blaut, 1999
, - ,
. ,
, ) Schneider, Rapp,
.(1995
,
, ) , ( .
, -
, .
) ,(4- ) ,(7-
) ,(13- ' ) .(14-
- .
, )(
.
, ) ,(Tributary
, ,
,
, .

99' .1

246

, , ,
) '( , ,
, ,
; )( )(
100
-
, : ,,
) , ( , ' ,
.
, ,
, . ,
. ,
. ,
, ,
.
, - : ) -
( , , ,
, - . ,
, - .
' , )( ,
, . ,
, , ,
, .
, , . , -
, ,
.101
, ) ,( :,
,
, ) ,
( . ' , ,
.-- ,
' ,
, -
.
, :
, , .
, , ,- ,
. , ' ,
- .
, , ,- , .
.
, :
, . ) -
(11 ,
100 ) .,(1960 ) '(,
.
101
" - - ,
,
- " ) .(1974 , , -,
.

247

," . ,
' , , ,
) ( , .
, ,
, - ' ,
; .

:
. , ,
, ,
.
, ,
)' ,(1.9.1
'.
, , ,
,?
'
60- 70- ,19- ,
20 ,
, , ) ( .
, ,
,
, , , ' ,
102
.
' ,
- ) , ( , ,
' -
- .- ,
, ,
.
*
- , -
"" "" , ""
.
) ( , ,
.18- ,
. , 17- , ,
- : , , , ,' ,,
)( ) .(Drucker, 2001 ,18-
, .
,19-
, ,
.
, ,
, .
" 102 : ) (Landlords
, , , ;
; ,
- " ).(Warriner, 1948, p.23

248


, , , ,
, , . ,
,
.

)( )( .
) ( , , , , ,
.
) ,1955 [1845/6] , , .(3
, , ,
' : '.
) ,
( )( ,
, .
, .
" " ,
"" , : )
( , ) ,
(" . ,
, ,,, , ,
.
" ) ,1953 [1867] ,.(107 ,106 ,105 ,
, .
, , ,
, , .103
) ,
, ( , , , , .
,
- ,
. '' ;
'' ;
'' , , .
19- ,
, -
: , ) ( , ,
)( ,
" )1957 [1892] ,(.
, , ,
- , ' ' ,
. 11 "" , ,
) , ,
, , ( -
, , :
,
103

"" "" . ,
) , " , "-"(.

249

) , ( , ,
.
, , .
, , ,
, , , , .
, .
24"" ) '( , ,
14- 15- .
, ,1349

, . , ,
15- 16- ,
. )
( , ,
, .
.
, , ,,
) ,( .,
,
, .
.
) ( ,
.

, ) (,
15- , ,,
, . ,
, ?
" : ;
, ;
;
.
. ,
" ) ,1953 [1867] , ,620 (.
, , ,,
, ,
.

, " : ,
. ' ' , ,
- - . :
" ) ,1953 , .(622

, ) (
, )( ,
.
, , ,
)
( . , ,

250

, , ) ,
( , .
" " , ,
: ,
; , ,
, , " . ,
,
-
" ) ,1963 [1899] ,' .(595
, ,
, .
, .

.
,
, ) .(1492
,
. , ,
.
, ,
) ( , ,
) , ( ,
).(Amin, 1992
, -
16 .
,
).(Blaut, 1999
, ,
. 23"" ) '( ,
, .
,
; ,
; ,
).(1953 ,
: ) ,1580-
90 ( , ,
. , ,
- , ,
.
,
. , , ,
,
: ,
. ,
, ,
, ).(Wood, 2003
) (
; ,
, , ,
.

251


"" ,
. ,
) ( , "
" , .
, , ?
) ,
( , )
( , :
" , ,
" .:
" - ,
- , .
" , ...,
, !
" )1955 , , ,1" .(367 ,364 ,359
, , ,
, . , , ,
, .
, ,
.
, ) , (
,
, , -
. , ,
, ,
,
.
, , 40
, : ,
, , .
19- .
, - , ,
. ,
, : ,
, .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
, , )' ,(,
, ,
. : , ,
, ,
) ,1963 , .(2
' :
,
- - .

252

,
.
?
, , ,
- . ,
, - .
, , ,
)( ,
).(Wood, 1999
, ) ""(
, ,
. ,
.
, "" ,
) ( . ,
, -
.
, - ,
, :
.
.
,
, )
(.
)( , ,
, , ,
) ( , .
, ) ,(
. .
, ,
, .
,
, .
, .
,
.

) ( ) (.

.
"" , " , ,
) (appropriators . ,
,
, - . -
, , , -
, , ,
. ,
, , ,

253

; ,
, " ).(Wood, 2003, p.9

, :
,
. ,
" " , .
, ,
. ,
, , , ) (
.
, , :
.
- :
- , )( ,
. ,
) , , (.
, ) ( ) , ,
( , ,.
, , )( ,
) , (
) , ( . )
( . :
, ,
.
- ,
)( , ,
.- ,
'' , . ,
, ,
,
. ,
,
.
- .
- , -
, )
( ,
) ,( .
- , , ) (
) ,(.
.
, ,
, , , .
.
,- ,
, ) , ( ,
) ( .
) ( , , ,

254

, , , ' .
- , , .
, , , ,
. ,
, ,
,
. ,- ,
. , ,
, ,
.

, ,
. , ,
, ,
?
, -
- ,
, , -
. , ,
, ''
.
, ,
- .
, ,
. ,
?
, ,
, , ,
, , ,
, , ) ,
( . ,
)( , ,
, . ?
, )-
(16- ,
, ,
) ( .
, - )
( , ) ,(
, .
, , ,
, , .
, .
,
. ,
, , )
(.
) ,(Wood, 1999 16- 17- :
,

255

, , , ,
. , ) ,
- (
.
, ,
,
- , ,
. ,
, , ,
. :
- .
: .
-
) ,( , '
' ) ( , .
- ,industry
'' . , industry ,
.industrious
)
, ( ,
, , .
: ,
; ,
) (
,
, .
, ,
, ,
. ,
, - ,
'' . " " ,
, , , , ) (
, .
, ,
, ) ( , .
- , -
. , ,
, , . ,
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
. , "" ,
, .

256


:
. ,"
. CO
. - ,Official Gazette OG


League of Nations. Mandate for Palestine. L. December 1922 (CO 733/31). Official
Gazett, 1st February, 1931
Survey of Palestine, Vol. I, 1946
Palestine Royal Commission Report. L., July 1937.
Palestine Economic Information Bulletin. No. 1 Aprol-May 1939
Official Gazette, 1st February, 1931
Report of Experts, Submitted to the Joint Palestine Survey Commission.
Boston, 1928.
First Census of Industries. (1929), Department of Custom. Exciese and Trade.
Note by Treasurer of Government's Policy in the Protection of Local Industry,
6.8.1935
Statistical Abstract 1939.
Statistical Abstract 1944/45.
Report of the Council of the League of Nations on the Administration of
Palestine and Trans-Jordan for the Year 1936, No. 129, 1937.
Johnson, William, Robert Crosbie (1930), Report of a Committee on the Economic
Condition of Agriculturists in Palestine.
Report on the Administration of Palestine and Trans Jordan for the year 1935.
Report on the Administration of Palestine and Trans Jordan for the year 1936.
Hope Simpson, (1930), Palestine. Report on Immigration, Land, Settlement and
Development.
Loftus, National Income of Palestine, 1944-1946.
Supplment to the Survey of Palestine, for the Information of the UN Special
Committee of Palestine, June 1947.
Department of Labour, Bulletin No. 5, 1943.

257


,1979-1903 .1980 ,

,
" "" , ' , .1921
" "" , '-'.1924 ,
, ".1937 ,1936 ,
" -" , .1946
" ".24.3.1948 ,30.1.1946 ,
" " , .1946 ,4
" .1947
," ) ,(1929 ,.
," ) ,(1930 ,.
" ,(1958) 1920-48 , , ,
,".


)(
)(
,
Palestine Economic Information Bulletin. No. 1 April-May 1939.
Statistical Handbook. 1947.

258


, ) ,(1989 ,
,".
, ) ,(1934 ,.
- , ,(1947) , )( ,.
- ) ,(1981 ) 1970-1900 ,(,
,.
, )] ,(1957 [1857 ? .. , , , ' ,
,.
, )] 1957 [1875(" , " , , , ,
' , ,.
, )]1957 [1884(" , , " , , ,
, ' , ,.
, )]1957 [1892(" , " , ,,
, ' , ,.
, )]1957 [1892( " ' '" , : ,,
, ' , .1957 ,
, ) ,(1970 " ,1948-1860 ,".
, )" ,(1993 : " , :
)( , : , ,".
, ) ,(1980 , ,".
, )" ,(1990 " , :
)( , - , , - ,.
, )" ,(1907 "" ," , " , '.
, )" (1990 " , : )( ,
- , , - ,.
,' ) ,(1939 , .
, ) ,(1976 ,' ,".
, )" ,(1996
-" , : , )( , : -,
, - .
' )" ,(1979 -" ,"1928 , "
' .26
, )" ,(1982- -"" ," ,' .26

259

, )" ,(1984 -"" ," -


,' .31
, )" ,(1976 : -",
"" ' .2
, )" ,(1982 -
""" ," ' .26
, )" ,(1986 - )1914-
" ,"(1879" ' .41
, ,(1980) . ) ,(1948-1878 ,
".
, ) ,(1976 , - ,1885-1882 ,.
, )" ,(1986 ' ',
,"1933-1929 , ".
- , )( , )(.
) ,(1936 ? ""1936 ,

, ) ,(1985 - , .
, ) ,(1938" , , ,".
, ) (1944 , .
, ) ,(1970 , ,".
, )" ,(1989 " , :
)( , , ',
, ,.
- , ) ,(1964 , ,".
- ," ," ,' ,' .26.8.1887 ,23
- , )" ,(1994 : , " , :
, .4
- , ) ,(1999 ? ,,
,.
," ,(1927) . "" , : , .
, ) .(1971 ,1970-1800 ,
, .
) ,(1974 , .

260

, )" ,(1990 ''


" -" , : )( , - ,
, - ,.
, )" ,(1996 " , : ,
)( , : - , ,
- .
, )" ,(1983 - "
"" ,' .29
, )" ,(1976 "" ," ,' .2
, ) ,(1974 ,1974-1924 , ,".
, ) ,(1981 , ,1981-1921 , ,".
)" ,(1984 " , : ,
)( , ,1914-1903 , , ,
,.
)" ,(2003 ' ' " , : ,
, ,1948-1918 , - .
- ) ,(1964 , ,".

, ) .(1981 , ' , .
' , ) ,(1986 , ,".
, )" ,(1970 ' ' ,1940-1904
: ,'.
, )" ,(1973 )( " ,:
, ' , ,".
," ,(1984) , " , : , )( ,
,1914-1903 , , , ,.
, )" ,(1989 ,"90- : )(,
- , ' , ,
,.
, ) ,(1979 ?" , " ,' .100
, )" ,(1976 - '"" ," ,'
.2
, ) ,(1977 : ) ( ,,
".
, )" ,(1981 1923 " ,:
,'.

261

, )" ,(1982 "" ,",


' .25
, ) ,(2000 ,
, ,.
, , )" ,(2000 " , :,
, , ,
,.
, )" ,(2002 " , : )(,
, ' , ,
,.
, )" ,(2003 " , : ,
, ,1948-1918 , - .
, ) ,(1927 .
, ) ,(1931 - , ,.
, ) .(1949 , ,".
, ) ,(1951 . ,".
, ) ,(1951 , ,.
, ) " ,(1975
" , : , ' , .
' ) ,(1945 , ,
".
) ,(1945 ,.
, )" ,(1922 ' - ) ( ",
: - , " , "
, ,.
, )" ,(1992 " ,:
- , " , "
, ,.
, ) ,(2002 , , , , .
, , ) ,(1945 , -
, .
, )" ,(1986 :
" , : ,
, .

- , ) .(1979 , 1914-1879 ,
- ,.

262

, ) ,(1977 ?" ," ' ,2".


,' ) (1980 - , .
)" ,(1982 "" ," '
.25
, )" ,(1990 ' ,
,"20- : )( , - , ,
- ,.
, )" ,(1984 " , : , )( ,
,1914-1903 , , , ,.
, )" ,(2003 : " ,:
, , ,1948-1918 , - .

) ,(1944 , ,-.
, ) ,(1981 - ,:
,'.
) ,(1968 ) , ,( , .
, ) ,(1961 , ' , ,.
" , " , ,
.
, , ) ,(2000 , ,
,.
- )" ,(1979 "" ," ' .12
, ) ,(1973 , .
, ) ,(1977 , ," ," .20 ,19

, ) ,(1964 ][ ,.
, )" ,(1936 -" , : , ".
, ) ,(1947 , .
, )" ,(2003 :
" , : , , ,1948-1918 ,
- .
, ) ,(1949 , " ,".
, ) ,(1946 , ,".

263

)" ,(1980 - " , 60 : ,


,".

' ) ,(1937 - ,-.

, ) .(1974 ) 1939-1929 ,( ,
,.
," ) 1937( ,11.3.1938 ,
,.
, )" ,(1985 ?"" , ".30.4.1985 ,

, ) ,(1975 - , ,1864-1863
,.
) ,(1971 , : ,'.

, , )" ,(1997 " , : )(,


, , - ,.
, )" ,(1992 ' ",
: - , " , "
, ,.
, )( )" ,(2003 : ",
: )( , , , , ,.
, )" ,(2003 ,
" , : , ,
,1948-1918 , - .

, ) (1978 - , .
) .(1960 , ,.
) ,(1964 , ,.
)( ) ,(1998 , ,".
, )" ,(1986 - - :
' ."'1914-1912 , : ,
- , .".

264

, )" ,(1990 - ,
" , : )( , - , ,
- ,.
, )" ,(1997 " , : )( ,
, , - ,.
)" ,(2003 ,
" , : , , ,
,1948-1918 - .

' )" ,(1980 "" , ".6.2.1980 ,


' , )1980(" , "" , ".12.3.1980 ,
' , ) ,(1985 , ,".
," ,(1934) . "" , " )( ,' .1
, ) ,(1970 , ' ,.
, )(" , - "" .
" )( ,' .37-36
, ' )] ,(1963 [1899 . )(,
, .3
, ' )] ,(1952 [1917 .
, ' , ,.
, )" ,(1996 '' '' :
?" , : , )( ,:
- , , - .
)( )" ,(1930 - " , :
" " )( ,' .37-36

, )" ,(1978 "" ,


" ' .98
, ) ,(1979 ,1921-1919 , - ,.
, )] ,(1953 [1867 , ' , ,.
, )]1955 [1859(" , " , , , ,
,.
, )" ,(1983 " , : ,
, .
, , )]1955 [1845/6( , , )( ,' .3

265

, )1955( , , ' , , , ][ ,' ,25 ,2' .354


, )]1955 [1875-1859( , .- . ,
)( ,' .I 45
, , )" ,(1989 - ,"1899-1882
: )( , - ,
' , , ,.
, ) ,(1991 ,1949-1947 , ,".
- ,- )" ,(2003 , ?" , : ,
, ,1948-1918 , - .

,. . ) ,(1932 - ,1932 ,".


,. . ) ,(1933 " " , ,".
, ) ,(1946 ? , " ,' ,-.
, ,(1958) . , ,".
, )) (1984( , ,1914-1903 , ,
, ,.
, )" ,(1990 ' ' ,"1928 , :
)( , - , , - ,.

, ,(1964) , ] 20-[ ,.
) ,(1930 .
, ) ,(1936 , ,11 - ,".
. ) ,(1952 " ".
, ) (1973 ? ' , .
, )" ,(2003 " , : ,
, ,1948-1918 , - .

) ,(1980 , , -,
.
, ) ( , , .

) .(1977 .:
)( , . ,.

266

, ) ,(1978 . ,1939-1929
, ,".
, )" ,(1973 " ,"20-" ' .2
, )1973(" , "" ," ' .3
)" ,(1974 "" ," ' .2
, ) ,(1939 ," ," , '.
, ) ,(1945 , .

, ) ,(1975 , ,.
' , ) ,(1943
.
," ,(1926) . "" , "
)( ,' .12
, ) ,(2007 , .

, )" ,(1976 -" ,


" ,' .2
," ,(1976) . " , :
, ,.
, )" ,(1976 - ",
" , " ,' .9
, ) ,(1999 , : , , ,
,.
, ) ,(2004 , , , ,".
, ) ,(2001 , ,1939-1890 , ,.
, )" ,(2003 : " , :,
, ,1948-1918 , - .
, )" ,(1977 1887 -
" ,"1882" ' .6
, )" ,(1984 .1892-1890 : , '.
) ,(1973 ," ,".
,' ) ,(1980 - , .

267

, - )" ,(2003 :
" , : )( , , , , , ,.

, ) ,(1937 , ,".
, ) ,(1968 , , ,".
, ) ,(1979 , - ,
,.
, ) ,(1997 ,
, ,.
' )" ,(2003 : " , : )(,
, , , , ,.

, ) ,(1990 , " " - , ,


".
, ) ,(1980 , ' ,
, ,.
, )" ,(1971 - -" ,:
, ' , ,".
, ) ,(1988 , ,1914-1908 -,
.
, )" ,(1990 " )1914-
,"(1905 : )( , - , , -,
.
, )" ,(1997 - ",
: )( , , , - ,.
, ) ,(1990 ,1914-1903 -,
.
, ' )" ,(1986 - )(1930-1917
"" ," ' .41
, )" ,(1997 " ",
: )( , , , - ,.
,- )'" ,(2001 ' : -
'' ''" , : , , - ,
, , ,.
, ) ,(1995 ? , ,".
, ) ,(1983 , - ,1899-1883 ,
- ,.

268

, )" ,(2003 - ?
- " , : , ,
,1948-1918 , - .
, ) ,(1947 - , ,".
, )" ,(2004 , - ,"1914-1882 :
)( , , , ,.
, )" ,(1983 ,
- "" ," ,' .29
, ) ,(2003- , , , ,".
," ) ,(1931 .
)" ,(1927 "" , " )( ,'
.8
, ) ,(1977 , .
, ) ,(1980 , ,".
, ) ,(1992 , ,1948 1881 ,".

, ) ,(1994 )( ,
,.

Warriner, Doreen (1948), Land and Poverty in the Middle East. L.


Kimmerling, Baruch (2000), Process of Formation of Palestinian Collective Identities,
Middle East Studies, April 2000.
Himadeh, Sa-id B. (1938), Economic Organization of Palestine, American Press,
Beirut.
Hakim George, M.Y. El-Hussayni (1938), in: Himadeh, Sa-id B., Economic
Organization of Palestine, American Press, Beirut.
Wood, Ellen Meiksins (1999), The Origin of Capitalism, Monthly Review Press,
N.Y.
Wood, Ellen Meiksins (2003), Empire of Capital, Verso, L., N.Y.
Coquery Vidrovich, Catherine, Recherces sur un Mode de Production Africain.
Burstein, (1934), Self Government of the Jews in Palestine since 1900, Tel Aviv.
APK (1918), The Anglo-Palestine Company, An Account of the work of the Bank
and its Branches during the years 1913-1903, L., Jaffa.
Elszari-Volcani (1932), Jewish Colonization in Palestine, The Annals, vol. 164.

269

Horwill F.G. (1936), Report of Banking Situation in Palestine, Jerusalem.


Amin, Samir, Norman Finkelstein (1984), The Class Struggle in the Ancient World,
Monthly Review, October, N.Y.
Amin, Samir (1992), 15th Century AD, Monthly Review, July-August.
Blaut, J.M. (1999), Marxism and Eurocentric Diffusionism, in: Chilcote, Ronald (ed.),
The Political Economy of Imperialism: Critical Appraisals, Kluwer Academic
Publishers, Boston.
Schneider, Jane and Rayna Rapp (1995), Articulating Hidden Histories, Exploring
the Influence of Eric R. Wolf, Berkeley.
Ruppin, A., (1971), Memoirs, Diaries, Letters, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, L.,
Jerusalem.
Nawratzki (1914), Die Judische Kolonisation Palastinas, Reinhardt, Munich.
Engerman, Stanly, Keneth Sokoloff (2006), Colonialism, Inequality, and Long-Run
Paths of Development, in: Banerjee, A.V., Benabou, R., Mookherjee, D. (ed.),
Understanding Poverty, Oxford.
Shafir, Gershon (1996), Land, Labor and the Origin of the Israeli-Palestinian
Conflict, 1882-1914, University of California, San Diego.
Bonne, Alfred (1932), The Concession for the Mosul-Haifa Pipline. The Annals of
the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 164.
Shwadran, B. (1973), The Middle East, Oil and the Great Powers, Halsted Press
Book. Jerusalem.
Mirghani, M. (1920), A Study of the Sources of Revenue of the Government of
.( , , ) Palestine 1920-1930,
Granovsky, A. (1935), The Fiscal System of Palestine.
Sidebotham, Herbert (1934), British Interests in Palestine, L.
Marcel, Valerie (2006), Oil Titans, National Oil Companies in the Middle East,
Chantham House, L.
Sieff. I. M. (1935), Proposals for a Financial Policy of the Jewish Agency, L..
Caledonian Press.
Grunwald K. (1934), The Industrialization of the Near East, Bulletin of Palestine
Economic Society, vol. VI No. 3.
Horowitz D., Hinnder R. (1938), Economic Survey of Palestine.
Grunbaum A.A. (1941), National Income and Outlay in Palestine, 1936, Jewish
Agency for Palestine.
Gurevich D., (1947), Statistical Handbook of Jewish Palestine.
Clark A.P.S. (1932), Commerce, Industry and Banking/ Annals. Vol. 164.

270

Doumani, Beshara (1995), Rediscovering Palestine, Merchants and Peasants in


Jabal Nablus, 1700-1900, University of California Press, Berkeley.
Owen Roger (1981), The Middle East in the World Economy 1800-1914, Methuen,
L. NY
Owen, Roger (ed.) (2000), New Perspectives on Property and Land in the Middle
East, Harvard University Press, L.
Schulze, Reinhard (2002), A Modern History of the Islamic World, NY University
Press.
Scholch, Alexander (2006), Palestine in Transformation 1856-1882, Studies in
Social, Economic and Political Development, Institute for Palestine Studies,
Washington D.C.
Pappe Ilan (2006), A History of Modern Palestine, Cambridge University Press.
N.Y.
Amin Samir, Ali El Kenz (2005), Europe and the Arab World, Zed Books, L., N.Y.
Issawi, Charles (1982), An Economic History of the Middle East and North
Africa, Columbia University Press, NY.
Issawi, Charles (ed. And writer of introductions) (1966), The Economic History of
the Middle East 1800-1914, University of Chicago Press.
MacGregor, John (1966), Handicrafts and Trade in the 1830's, in: Issawi, Charles,
The Economic History of the Middle East 1800-1914, University of Chicago Press.
Richards, Alan, John Waterbury (1996), A Political Economy of the Middle East,
Westview Press, Boulder.
Quataert, Donald (1983), Social Disintegration and Popular Resistance in the
Ottoman Empire, 1881-1908, NY University Press, NY.
Quataert, Donald (1993), Workers, Peasants and Economic Change in the
Ottoman Empire 1730-1914, Issis Press, Istanbul.
Quataert, Donald (2000), The Ottoman Empire, 1700-1922, Cambridge University
Press.

Lockman, Zachary (1993), "Railway Workers and Relational History: Arabs


and Jews in British-Ruled Palestine", Comparative Studies in Society and
History, Vol. 35, No. 3, Cambridge University Press.
Lockman Zachary (ed.) (1994), Workers and Working Classes in the Middle East,
Struggles, Histories, Historiographies, State University of NY Press.
Lockman Zachary (1996), Comrades and Enemies, Arab and Jewish Workers in
Palestine, 1906-1948, University of California Press, Berkely.
Islamoglu-Inan Huri (Ed.) (1987), The Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy,
Cambridge University Press.

271

Islamoglu Huri, Caglar Keyder (1987), Agenda for Ottoman history, in: IslamogluInan Huri (Ed.), The Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy, Cambridge
University Press.
Islamoglu Huri (2000), Property as a Contested Domain: A Reevaluation of the
Ottoman Land Code of 1858, in: Owen, Roger (Ed), New Perspectives on
Property and Land in the Middle East, Harvard University Press, L.
Bunton Martin (2000), Demarcating the British Colonial State: Land Settlement in the
Palestine Jiftlik Villages of Sajad and Qazaza, in: Owen, Roger (Ed), New
Perspectives on Property and Land in the Middle East, Harvard University Press,
L.
Schaebler Birgit (2000), Practicing Musha: Common Lands and the Common
Goods in Southern Syria under the Ottomans and the French, in: Owen, Roger (Ed),
New Perspectives on Property and Land in the Middle East, Harvard University
Press, L.
Inalcik, Halil, Donald Quataert (Ed.) (1994), An Economic and Social History of
the Ottoman Empire, 1300-1914, Cambridge University Press.
Gran, Peter (1987), Late-eighteenth-early-nineteenth-century Egypt: merchant
capitalism or modern capitalism?, in: Islamoglu-Inan Huri (Ed.), The Ottoman
Empire and the World-Economy, Cambridge University Press.
Sunar Ilkay (1987), State and Economy in the Ottoman Empire, in: Islmoglu-Inan
Huri (Ed.), The Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy, Cambridge University
Press.
Pamuk Sevket (1987), Commodity production for world-market and relations of
production in Ottoman agriculture, 1840-1913, in: Islmoglu-Inan Huri (Ed.), The
Ottoman Empire and the World-Economy, Cambridge University Press.
Wallerstein Immanuel (2004), World-Systems Analysis, An Introduction, Duke
University Press, L.
Elazari-Volcani (1930), The Fellah's Farm, Jewish Agency.
Bernstein, Deborah. S. (2000), Constructing Boundaries, Jewish and Arab
Workers in Mandatory Palestine, State University of NY Press.
Eisenman Robert H. (1978), Islamic Law in Palestine and Israel, Leiden, E. J. Brill.
De Vries David (2004), British Rule and Arab-Jewish Coalescence of Interest: the
1946 Civil Servants' Strike in Palestine, International Journal Middle East Studies,
No. 36.
MacGregor John (1966), Handicrafts and Trade in the 1830's, 1847, in: Issawi,
Charles (ed. And writer of introductions) (1966), The Economic History of the
Middle East 1800-1914, University of Chicago Press.
Smilianskaya I.M. (1966), From Subsistence to Market Economy, 1850's, in:
Hariman Chris, Robert Brenner (2006), The Origins of Capitalism, Quarterly Journal
of Revolutionary Socialism, Issue 111.

272

Nadan, Amos (2006), The Palestinian Peasant Economy Under the Mandate, A
Story of Colonial bungling, Harvard Center for Middle Eastern Studies.
Stein, Kenneth W. (1984), The Land Question in Palestine 1917-1939, University
of North Carolina Press.
Yazbak, Mahmoud (2000), "From Poverty to Revolt: Economic Factors in the
Outbreak of the 1936 Rebellion in Palestine", Middle East Studies, Vol. 36, No 3,
London.
Forman. Geremy, Alexander Kedar (2003), "Colonialism, Colonization and Land Law
in Mandate Palestine: The Zor al-Zarqa and Barrat Qisarya Land Disputes in Historical
Perspective", Theoretical Inquiries in Law, Vol. 4, No 2, TAU.
Schmorak, E. (1946), Palestine's Industrial Future, Rubin Mass.
Rupin, Arthur (1971), Memoires, Diaries, Letters, Weidenfeld and Nicholson, L.,
Jerusalem.
Metzer, J. (1998), The Divided Economy of Mandatory Palestine, Cambridge.
Roy, Manabendra Nath (1920), 2nd Comintern Congress, 25 July 1920,
www.marxists.org.
Shamir, Ronen (2002), "The Comrades Law of Hebrew Workers in Palestine: A
Study in Socialist Justice", "Law and History", Vol. 20, No. 2, University of Illinois
Press.
Shalev, Michael (1992), Labour and the Political Economy in Israel, Oxford University
Press.
Firestone, Ya'akov (1990), "The Land-equalizing musha village: a reassessment", in:
Gilbar Gad G. (ed.), Ottoman Palestine 1800-1914, Brill, Leiden.
Zagoroff, S.D., Vech, J., Bilimovich, A. (1955), The Agricultural Economy of the
Danubian Countries 1935-45, Stanford University.

Atran, Scott (1989), "The Surrogate Colonization of Palestine, 1917-1939",


American Ethnologist, Vol. 16, No. 4.

273