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BIOCHEMICAL ENGG AND BIOPROCESSES

COMPILED Notes 2012

Biochemical engineering is the process engineering component of biotechnology and is an emerging area of importance. It contributes significantly to many economic activities of our country such as agricultural productivity, production of biologicals, antibiotics, bioenergy

and environmental protection through


biological waste water treatment and bioremediation of contaminated solids or land.

Over the years India has developed strengths in

biotechnology in public sector institutions. The graduation


from Biotechnology Development Board to Department of Biotechnology in late eighties was a decisive step to

address a wider canvas in biotechnology. In these years


DBT has emerged as a major force to direct biotechnology developments in India. Further, the involvement of various

agencies dealing with this technology has further helped


in developing technology capability at various levels. The size of the industry is estimated to have grown to $1.5 to $2.5billion between 1999 and 2002.

The task of biochemical engineering R & D is to integrate and develop the new tools for the industrial applications. Traditionally, bioprocessing activities were called upstream, reaction and downstream processing, respectively, are expected to become more integrated.

PERIODS OF BIOPROCESSES
Pre-1800: Early applications & speculation

1800-1900: Significant advances in basic

understanding of biosciences
1900-1953: Genetics 1953-1976: DNA research, science knowledge

explodes
1977 present modern technology

Knowledge of Life sciences is needed for a chemical engineer who has to manage bioprocesses as a team may be better off to solve process problems. Microbiology is a science that deals with the study of living organisms that cannot be seen by the naked eye. These can be seen with the aid of microscopes, which magnify objects. Microbiology: Study of structures and activities of microorganisms. Form, Structure, Reproduction, Physiology, Metabolism and Identification. Distribution in Nature Relationship to each other and to other living things. Beneficial and detrimental effects on humans, animals, plants. Physical and chemical changes they make in the environment Microorganisms are unicellular or consist of same kind of cells held together. Higher Organisms have a hierarchy of organization: Cells > Tissues > Organs > Organ systems > Organism.

BIOCHEMICAL REACTION ENGINEERING

Penicillin Sorona High Fructose corn syrup

Bioprocessing includes the bioreactor and a subsequent

section for product recovery. The particular separation


techniques useful for any given bioprocess depend not only on the size, charge and solubility of the product, but

also on the size of the process and product value.


For example, various forms of gel filtration, gel chromatography and ion exchanger are used to purify highly valuable pharmaceutical biological compounds such as hormones, antibiotics and enzymes.

The ultimate challenge is to select the best combination of substrate, enzyme or organism, bioreactor and separation of the specific product. Each separation needed depends on initial broth characteristics such as viscosity, product concentration, impurities and undesired particulates, and final product concentration needed for crystallization, concentrated liquid product or dried powder. If the product stays inside the cells, the cells must be ruptured, so freeing intracellular enzyme, after which extraction or purification is performed to recover the valuable product. The fermentation broth has to be processed, and pass through several stages for separation and purification. The product requires a sequence of operations for high purification.

TEXT BOOKS. 1. M.L. Shuler and F. Kargi," Bio-process Engineering", 2nd Ed., Prentice Hall of India, N. Delhi, 2005 2 J.E. Bailey and D.F. Ollis," Biochemical Engineering Fundamentals",

2nd Edn., McGraw Hill, Publishing Co. New York., 1985.


3. P. Stanbury, A. Whitaker and S. J. Hall "Principles of Fermentation Technology" 2nd Edn., Aditya Books (P) Ltd, N. Delhi.1997. 4. Biochemical Reaction Engineering, R. Lovitt and M. Jones, Chapter 5 in Chemical Engineering Vol 3, (third Edition), Richardson and Peacock, 1994, Asian Books (pvt) Ltd, N. Delhi. 5. Bioprocess Engineering: Systems Equipment and Facilities, Edited by B.K.Lederson, N.A.Delia and K.L.Nelson (1994), John Wiley and Sons, N.Y.

Additional useful Reference books: Biosciences: 1. Fundamentals of biochemistry by J. L. Jain, S. Jain and N. Jain [6th Ed.] S. Chand & Co, N. Delhi 2. Textbook of Biochemistry [Fourth Ed.], by StauntonTodd Mason Bruggen, Oxford & IBH Publishing Co

(Pvt) Ltd. N. Delhi.


3. Molecular Biology (Second Ed.) by David Freifelder, Narosa Publishing House, N. Delhi.

Fundamentals of Biochemical Engineering, Rajiv Dutta,


2008, Springer, Ane Books India

Additional useful Reference books: Biochemical Engineering:

1. Chemical Reaction Engineering, O. Levenspiel, Third Ed. Part V, Biochemical Reaction Systems, pages 609 654, chapters 27 to 30. Enzyme fermentation, Microbial Fermentation, Substrate limiting fermentation, Product

limiting microbial limitation.


2. Biochemical Engineering, by Gummadi, Sathyanarayana N. and Doble, Mukesh, Published by P H I, N. Delhi.

3. Biochemical Engineering: Principles and Concepts by


Inamdar and Syed Tanveer Ahamed. Published by P H I, 2007 New Delhi.

Bioprocess Engineering Principles, by Pauline M. Doran, 1995, Elsevier Science & Technology Books

The primary aim of this book is to present the principles of bioprocess


engineering in a way that is accessible to biological scientists. It does not seek to make biologists into bioprocess engineers, but to expose them to engineering concepts and ways of thinking. The chapters are organized around broad engineering sub-disciplines such as mass and energy balances, fluid dynamics, transport phenomena and reaction theory, rather than around particular applications of bioprocessing. That the same fundamental engineering principle can be readily applied to a variety of bioprocess industries is illustrated in the worked examples and problems.

Govt. Depts. Supporting research in biotechnology in India