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Chapter 10

Combustion Solid Fuel

Ariziel Ruth D. Marquez

SOLID FUEL
Coal originated from the arrested decay of the remains of trees, bushes, ferns, mosses, etc. Contents of solid fuel
Free moisture Combined moisture Carbon, C Net hydrogen, H Nitrogen, N and sulfur, S Ash

SOLID FUEL
Free moisture amount of water the solid fuel adsorbed in its surface. It is obtained experimentally by heating the sample for one hour at 104oC to 110oC. The loss in weight is called moisture content.
Combined moisture water that maybe formed theoretically from the oxygen and hydrogen present in the fuel.

Total moisture equivalent to oxygen in the ultimate analysis.

SOLID FUEL
Net hydrogen hydrogen other than that in the moisture and combined moisture. It is the burnable hydrogen.
N and S usually present in small amount. Often neglected though present in amounts ranging from 1-3%. Ash the mineral contents of coal. The inorganic constituents which are not burned.

Two types of analysis


1. Proximate Analysis laboratory method of analysis based on the volatilization characteristics of solid fuel
Moisture the loss in weight after heating at 104oC for one hour
Volatile Combustible Matter (VCM) the loss in weight of the sample upon ignition in a covered crucible for 7 minutes at 250oC. Mostly combined water, C and H. Fixed carbon (FC) combustible matter left after ignition. It is pure carbon. Ash residue left from complete combustion of the sample in open air at 725oC.

Two types of analysis


2.
Elemental composition of the solid fuel expressed as %C, %H, %S, %N, %Ash and the balance %O. Example: Proximate and Ultimate Analysis of Pennsylvania Coal

Ultimate Analysis (Air-dried/as fired basis) reports the percentage by weight of ash and each element in coal

PROXIMATE Moisture 3.2% VCM 21.0% FC 69.3% Ash 6.5%

ULTIMATE Carbon 79.9% Hydrogen 4.85% Sulfur 0.69% Nitrogen 1.30% Ash 6.50% (Oxygen 6.76%)

Relation of Proximate and Ultimate Analysis


C in VCM
Total C = C in VCM + Fixed C

Net H
Total H = Net H + H equiv to O (H2O)

Combined H20
Total H2O = Combined H2O + Free H2O

Estimation of Coal
Dulong Formula
HHV = 14,544 C + 62,028 (H O/8) + 4050 S where : HHV - higher heating value of the coal [btu/lb] C & S - weight fractions of carbon & sulfur, respectively (H O/8) - weight fraction of the net hydrogen Calderwood Equation C = 5.88 + 0.00512 (B 40.5 S) +/- 0.0053 [80 100(VCM/FC)] 1.55

where : C, S, VCM & FC in weight percent B - higher heating value (HHV) in BTU/lb

Combustion of Coal
Complete combustion
AIR

COAL

FLUE GAS CO2, H2O SO2,O2, N2 REFUSE Ash

Combustion of Coal
Incomplete combustion
AIR

COAL

FLUE GAS CO2/CO, H2O SO2,O2, N2 REFUSE

Unburned combustibles Ash

Unburned combustibles
1. Same composition as the original coal
Refuse unburned coal Ash
AIR

COAL

FLUE GAS

FC VCM

coal

FC VCM

refuse

REFUSE % FC % VCM % Ash

Unburned combustibles
2.

Essentially carbon
Refuse Coked coal Unburned coal Ash
AIR

Refuse Coked coal Ash

COAL

FLUE GAS

FC VCM

coal

FC VCM

refuse

REFUSE % FC % VCM % Ash

% FC % Ash

Combustion of Coal
Ex. Fuel: 37.0 % FC Refuse: 7.40%FC 40.5 % VCM 8.25% VCM 8.9 % Ash 84.35% Ash HV = 14350 BTU/lb Calculate for the percent of carbon lost in the refuse and the percent of HV lost in the refuse.
4.0% H2O Refuse:62.00% H2O 23.0 % FC 11.00%FC 64.0 % VCM 3.00% VCM 9.0 % Ash 24.00% Ash HV = 14000 BTU/lb Calculate for the percent of carbon lost in the refuse and the percent of HV lost in the refuse. Fuel:

Ex.

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