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Sulfur Products

Ariziel Ruth D. Marquez

SULFURIC ACID
Once called Oil of Vitriol Uses: Manufacture of fertilizers

Manufacturing Process:
Contact process by Philips Lead Chamber Process only 78% H2SO4

FLOW CHART

FLOW DIAGRAM
1o Air 2o Air Burner Gas
Charge Absorber Gas A B S O R B E R
Absorbing medium

Converter Gas

Burner

Converter

Cinder

Product

Equipment
I. BURNER Charge: 1. Pure Sulfur 2. Pyrites (Sulfur Ore FeS2) 3. Mixed Pure Sulfur and Ore

*Pure Sulfur Reaction : S + O2 SO2 H = -70920 cal/mol S + 3/2O2 SO3 H = -93900 cal/mol Theoretical O2 is based on conversion to SO2 unless specified.

Equipment
*Pyrites

- composed of FeS2 and gangue (nonvolatile, noncombustible oxides)


Reactions: 4FeS2 + 11O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2 4FeS2 + 15O2 2Fe2O3 + 8SO3 H = -205590 cal/mol H = -251500 cal/mol

Cinder: Fe2O3, gangue, unburned FeS2, adsorbed SO2 or SO3 Primary Air as source of oxygen Burner Gas: SO2, SO3, O2, N2

Equipment
II. CONVERTER

Burner Gas: SO2, SO3, O2, N2


Secondary air if necessary. Reaction: SO2 + 1/2O2 SO3 H = -22980 cal/mol *Factors to favor forward reaction 1. Maintain temperature at 425oC 2. Increase the concentration of SO2 and O2 3. Remove some SO3 by scrubbing *Contact process uses catalyst to provide surface area to make the reaction effective. (V form V2O5 and Pt) Converter Gas: SO2, SO3, O2, N2

Equipment
III. ABSORBER

Converter Gas:

SO2, SO3, O2, N2

Absorbing medium: Mixture of H2SO4 and water Pure water cannot be effective because it will boil with SO2 and only fumes of the acid will be formed due to greater pressure water that SO3. Reaction: SO3 + H2O H2SO4 H = -31143 cal/mol

Negligible side reactions: SO2 + O2 SO3 SO2 + H2O H2SO3 Absorber Gas: SO2, O2, N2

Product: 1. 100% H2SO4 (equivalent amount of SO3 & H2O) 2. <100% H2SO4 (greater H2O than SO3) 3. >100% H2SO4 (less H2O than SO3) Oleum (H2SO4SO3)

Combustion of Sulfur
1. Five hundred pounds per hour of pure sulphur is burned with 20% excess air (based on conversion to SO2). Five percent of the sulfur is oxidized to SO3 and 95% to SO2. The air is dry. Calculate the composition (in % mole) of the gas leaving the burner. If the burner gas has an Orsat analysis of 16.85% SO2, 3.11% O2 and 80.04% N2, calculate the complete composition of the burner gas. Pure sulphur is burned with 20% excess air based on conversion of SO3. Thirty percent of the sulfur forms SO3; the remainder forms SO2. a. What is the analysis of the burner gas? b. The burner gas is passed through a converter. If the gases leaving the converter have a mole fraction of oxygen of 0.043, what is the ratio of mole SO3 to mole SO2.

2.

3.

Combustion of Sulfur
4. 700 pounds per hour of iron pyrites containing 85% wt FeS2 and 15% gangue are charged to a burner. The cinder contains 1% S as SO3. The burner gas analysis shows a composition of 10% SO2 and 5% O2. Air used for combustion is dry. How many cubic feet of the total burner gases at 1 atm and 60oF are produced per hour? 5. A mixture of pure sulfur and of pyrites analyzing 85% FeS2 and 15% gangue is burned in a standard pyrites burner. The burner gas contains 10% SO2, 7% O2, and 83% N2 on an SO3-free basis and contains 1 mole SO3/100 mole SO3-free burner gas. The cinder contains 2% S as SO3. Calculate the percentage of FeS2 in the charge.

Material Balance @ Absorber


1. A converter gas contains 10 pound-mole SO3. If this converter gas is allowed to pass through an absorber utilizing 80% H2SO4 as absorbing solution, calculate the weight of the product if the desired product is a. 98% H2SO4 b. 100% H2SO4 c. 105% H2SO4
2. 250 pounds per hour of 98% H2SO4 enters an absorption tower of a contact sulfuric acid plant. If 20% oleum is produced in this tower, how many pounds of SO3 are absorbed per hour.

Material Balance @ Absorber


3. One hundred pounds per hour of pyrites containing 90% FeS2 and 10% gangue are burned with 20% excess air based on conversion to SO3. The cinder discharged from the burner contains no sulfur. No conversion to SO3 occurs in the burner. The burner gas is passed through a converter which effects a 98% conversion of SO2 to SO3. The converter gas is passed to an absorber where all the SO3 is absorbed by 80% H2SO4 solution, which becomes 100% H2SO4 solution in the process. Calculate the following: a. The burner gas analysis b. The converter gas analysis c. The absorber gas analysis d. The pounds of 100% H2SO4 produced per 24-h day.