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Cat Muscular System (Origin, Insertion, and Action) Abdominal wall Muscle Internal oblique Transverse (transversus abdominis)

Rectus abdominis External oblique Origin second sheet of lumbodorsal fascia second sheet of lumbodorsal fascia anterior end of pubic symphysis lumbodorsal fascia Insertion linea alba by extensive aponeurosis linea alba by extensive aponeurosis sternum and costal cartilages extensive neurosis passing to linea alba Chest Muscle Pectoantibrachialis Pectoralis major Pectoralis minor Xiphihumeralis Origin manubrium sternum sternum sternum Insertion flat tendon on fascia of forearm humerus humerus humerus Action draws arm toward chest draws arm toward chest draws arm toward chest draws arm toward chest Action compresses abdomen compresses abdomen compresses abdomen constricts abdomen

Muscle Digastric Geniohyoid Mylohyoid Sternohyoid Sternothyroid Temporal (temporalis) Masseter Clavobrachialis 1 (clavodeltoid) Thyrohyoid Cleidomastoid Sternomastoid

Neck and throat Origin Insertion jugular process of skull mandible mandible near symphysis mandible sternum sternum part of zygomatic arch zygomatic arch clavicle thyroid cartilage mastoid process of temporal* median raphe body of hyoid median raphe basihyoid thyroid cartilage of larynx coronoid process of mandible posterior half of lateral surface of mandible ulna posterior horn of hyoid clavicle* lamboidal ridge onto mastoid process

Action depresses lower jaw draws hyoid forward draws hyoid forward draws hyoid posteriorly draws larynx posteriorly elevates lower jaw elevates lower jaw flexes forearm raises larynx turns head turns head

Clavobrachialis + Clavotrapezius = Cephalobrachial *Interchangeable Back and shoulder Muscle Origin Insertion Acromiodeltoid acromion of scapula surface of other deltoids neural spines of cervical Acromiotrapezius metacromion process vertebrae Clavodeltoid1 (clavobrachialis) Clavotrapezius External intercostals Infraspinatus Internal intercostals Latissimus dorsi Levator scapulae ventralis Multifidus spinae Rhomboideus Rhomboideus capitis Sacrospinalis* Scalenes clavicle superior nuchal line posterior margin of rib whole surface of infaspinous fossa anterior margin of rib lumbodorsal fascia occipital bone lumbar pleurapophyses neural spines of vertebrae superior nuchal line various parts of more posterior vertebrae ribs ulna clavicle anterior margin of adjacent posterior rib greater tuberosity of humerus posterior margin of adjacent posterior rib tendon on medial surface of humerus metacromion process neural spines of vertebrae

Action rotates humerus draws scapula dorsad rotates humerus draws clavicle dorsad draws ribs forward rotates humerus draws ribs backward pulls forelimb dorsally draws scapula craniad extends vertebral column

vertebral border of scapula draws scapula dorsad scapula neural processes of more anterior vertebrae transverse processes of cervical vertebrae draws scapula craniad extends and flexes vertebral column draws ribs forward

Serratus dorsalis Serratus ventralis Spinodeltoid Spinotrapezius Splenius Subscapularis Supraspinatus Teres major Teres minor

aponeurosis from middorsal last ribs line slips from first 9 or 10 ribs spine of scapula scapula near vertebral border deltoid ridge of humerus

draws ribs forward draws scapula craniad rotates humerus draws scapula dorsad raises head pulls humerus medially extends humerus rotates humerus assists infraspinatus

spines of thoracic vertebrae fascia of scapula middorsal line subscapular fossa whole surface of supraspinous fossa axillary border of scapula axillary border of scapula superior nuchal line lesser tuberosity of humerus greater tuberosity of humerus tendon on medial surface of humerus greater tuberosity of humerus

Clavodeltoid + Clavotrapezius = Cephalobrachial *Constitutes the semispinalis dorsi, longissimus cervicis, and iliocostalis Upper arm Muscle Origin Insertion Triceps brachii* distal end of humerus lateral surface of ulna Epitrochlearis (extensor latissimus dorsi olecranon antibrachii) Biceps brachii (anconeus) glenoid fossa radius Brachialis lateral surface of humerus ulna Forearm Muscle Extensor digitorum lateralis Extensor digitorum communis Extensor carpi radialis Extensor carpi ulnaris Palmaris longus Flexor carpi radialis Flexor carpi ulnaris

Action strengthens elbow joint rotates ulna flexes forearm flexes forearm

Origin lateral surface of humerus above lateral epicondyle lateral surface of humerus above lateral epicondyle humerus lateral epicondyle of humerus medial epicondyle of humerus medial epicondyle of humerus medial epicondyle of humerus

Insertion tendons internal to wrist ligaments tendons internal to wrist ligaments second and third metacarpals proximal end of fifth metacarpal tendon passing through wrist ligaments second and third metacarpals pisiform bone of wrist basal phalanges lower end of radius radius Shank

Action extends 3 or 4 digits

extends 3 or 4 digits extends hand extends ulnar side of wrist flexes digits flexes second and third metacarpals flexes ulnar side of wrist general flexor of fingers rotates hand to supine position rotates radius to prone position

Flexor profundus digitorum ulna and humerus Brachioradialis (supinator longus) Pronator teres middle of humerus medial epicondyle of humerus

Muscle Peroneus Extensor digitorum longus Gastrocnemius Soleus Tibialis posterior Plantaris Flexor digitorum longus Tibialis anterior

Insertion metatarsals and digits tendon inserted on each lateral epicondyle of femur digit surface fascia calcaneus fibula calcaneus tibia, fibula scaphoid patella and femur calcaneus tibia, fibula phalanges proximal parts of tibia and first metatarsal fibula fibula


Action extends and flexes foot extends digits extends foot extends foot extends foot flexes digits flexes digits flexes foot

Has two parts: extensor carpi radialis longus (long part) and extensor carpi radialis brevis (shorter part) *Has three heads: long, lateral, and medial Thigh Muscle Origin Insertion Action Gluteus medius Gluteus maximus adjacent fascia fascia greater trochanter of femur abducts thigh fascia lata abducts thigh

Caudofemoralis Biceps femoris1 Sartorius Gracilis Adductor longus Adductor femoris Vastus lateralis* Rectus femoris* Vastus medialis* Vastus intermedius* Semimembranosus Tenuissimus Semitendinosus Tensor fasciae latae

transverse processes of second and third caudal vertebrae tuberosity of ischium crest of ilium ischial and pubic symphysis pubis pubis greater trochanter ilium near acetabulum femur surface of femur ischium transverse process of second caudal vertebra ischial tuberosity ilium

patella fascia of shank proximal end of tibia aponeurosis which passes to tibia femur femur patella patella patella patella

abducts thigh, extends shank abducts thigh, flexes shank adducts and rotates thigh, extends shank adducts leg adducts thigh adducts thigh extends shank extends shank extends shank extends shank

medial epicondyle of femur extends thigh fascia of shank tibia fascia lata extends thigh flexes shank tightens fascia lata

Has only one head *Constitute the great quadriceps femoris muscle

Reference: (1942). The Comparative Anatomy of the Muscular System. In L. H. Hyman, Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy (pp. 199-251). Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.