Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 55

Quick Notes - LAN What is carrier sense multiple access collision detect (CSMA/CD)?

CSMA/CD describes the Ethernet access method. In CSMA/CD, many stations can transmit on the same cable, and no station has priority over any other. Before a station transmits, it listens on the wire to make sure no other station is transmitting. If no other station is transmitting, the station transmits across the wire. CSMA/CD is all about devices taking turns using the wire. What are MAC addresses? For computers to identify each other on the data link layer, they need a MAC address (hardware address). All devices on a LAN must have a unique MAC address. A MAC address is a 48-bit (six octet) address burned into a network interface card. The first three octets (24 bits) of the MAC address indicate the vendor that manufactured the card. This is called the Organization Unique Identifier (OUI). The last three octets of the MAC address are the unique host address. An example of a MAC address is 00-80-C6-E7-9C-EF. What are the three types of LAN traffic? The three types of LAN traffic are: Unicasts Broadcasts Multicasts What are unicast frames? Unicast frames are the most common type of LAN traffic. A unicast frame is a frame intended for only one host. In unicast frames, the only station that processes the frame is the station that has its own MAC address in the destination portion of the packet. What are broadcast frames? Broadcast frames are frames intended for everyone. Stations view broadcast frames as public service announcements. All stations receive and process broadcast frames. In large networks, broadcasts can bring the network to a crawl, because every computer must process them. What is the destination address of broadcast frames? The destination address of broadcast frames (Layer 2 broadcast addresses) is FF-FF-FF-FF-FF-FF, or all 1s in binary. What are multicast frames? Multicast frames address a group of devices that have a common interest. These frames allow the source to send only one copy of the frame on the network even though it is intended for several stations. Only stations that have a card that is configured to receive multicast frames process them. All other stations discard multicast frames. What devices can you use to segment a LAN at Layer 1, Layer 2, and Layer 3?

Three devices you can use to segment a LAN are: Hubs/repeaters (Layer 1) Bridges/switches (Layer 2) - physical addresses Routers (Layer 3) - logical addresses What happens when you segment the network with hubs/repeaters? Because hubs and repeaters operate at the physical layer of the OSI model, segmenting a network with these devices appears as an extension to the physical cable. Hubs and repeaters are transparent to devices. They are unintelligent devices. All devices that connect to a hub/repeater share the same bandwidth. Hubs/repeaters create a single broadcast and collision domain. What is the advantage of segmenting a network with bridges/switches? Bridges/switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model and filter by MAC address. Each port on a bridge/switch provides full-dedicated bandwidth and creates a single collision domain. Because bridges/switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model, they cannot filter broadcasts, and they create a single broadcast domain. For the CCNA test, remember that switches create more collision domains and fewer collisions. What is the difference between bridges and switches? Bridges and switches function the same way; the only difference is in how they are implemented. Bridges are implemented by software and usually have a couple of network ports. Switches are implemented in hardware by ASIC chips and have many ports. What are the advantages and disadvantages of segmenting the LAN with routers? An advantage of segmenting the LAN with routers is that each interface on a router creates a single broadcast and collision domain. Routers operate at Layer 3 of the OSI model and do not propagate broadcasts. Some disadvantages are that routers are not transparent and are implemented in software, thus introducing latency in the network. What is the Maximum Transmission Unit (MTU) for an Ethernet frame? 1500 bytes is the MTU for an Ethernet frame. You will notice that some publications state that the MTU for Ethernet is 1518 bytes. This is correct also. But what is the true answer? The MTU for Ethernet, including the header, source and destination address, data, and CRC is 1518 bytes. The MTU for the data portion of the frame is 1500 bytes. What three major functions do Layer 2 switches provide? The three major functions that Layer 2 switches provide are Address learning Packet forwarding/filtering Loop avoidance by spanning tree What are some advantages of switches?

Some advantages of switches are as follows: They increase available network bandwidth. They reduce the number of users per segment. They provide dedicated bandwidth to each segment. What is the Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP)? STP is a loop-prevention bridge-to-bridge protocol. Its main purpose is to dynamically maintain a loopfree network. It does this by sending out Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs), discovering any loops in the topology, and blocking one or more redundant links. How does STP maintain a loop-free network? STP maintains a loop-free network by Electing a root bridge Electing a root port on each nonroot bridge Electing designated ports Putting in the blocking state any port that is not a root port or designated port In spanning tree, what is a Bridge ID (BID)? A BID is an 8-byte field that is composed of the bridge's 6-byte MAC address and a 2-byte bridge priority. What is the default bridge priority in a Bridge ID for all Cisco switches? 32,768 In spanning tree, what is path cost? Path cost is a calculation to determine the link's bandwidth. It is a value assigned to each port that is based on the port's speed. What is the spanning tree path cost for each of the following? 10 Mbps 100 Mbps 1 Gbps The path costs are as follows: 10 Mbps - 100 100 Mbps - 19 1 Gbps - 4

When calculating a loop-free environment, what four-step decision sequence does spanning tree use to determine what will be the root bridge and which ports will forward or block? The four-step decision sequence that spanning tree uses to determine the root bridge and which port will forward is as follows: Step 1. The lowest root BID Step 2. The lowest path cost to the root bridge Step 3. The lowest sender BID Step 4. The lowest port ID How do bridges pass spanning tree information between themselves? Bridges pass STP information using special frame called Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs). How often do bridges send BPDUs out active ports? The default time that bridges send BPDUs out active ports is 2 seconds. Note: All ports on a switch listen for BPDUs in case there is a topology change. In STP, how is a root bridge elected? In STP, the bridge with the lowest BID is elected the root bridge. All ports on the root bridge are placed in the forwarding state and are called designated ports. Note: The BID is a 6-byte field that is composed of a default priority (32,768) and a MAC address. Because all Cisco switches use the default priority, the switch with the lowest MAC address is elected the root bridge. As a rule of thumb, lower will always win in spanning tree. After bridges elect the root bridge, what do they do next? After electing the root bridge, switches elect root ports. A root port is the port on nonroot bridges that is closest to the root bridge. Every nonroot bridge must select one root port. How do nonroot bridges decide which port they will elect as a root port? Nonroot bridges use root path cost to determine which port will be the root port. Root path cost is the cumulative cost of all links to the root bridge. The port with the lowest root path cost is elected the bridge's root port and is placed in the forwarding state. What is the difference between path cost and root path cost? Path cost is the value assigned to each port. It is added to BPDUs received on that port to calculate the root path cost. Root path cost is defined as the cumulative cost to the root bridge. In a BPDU, this is the value transmitted in the cost field. In a bridge, this value is calculated by adding the receiving port's path cost to the value contained in the BPDU. If a nonroot bridge has two redundant ports with the same root path cost, how does the bridge choose which port will be the root port?

If a nonroot bridge has redundant ports with the same root path cost, the deciding factor is the port with the lowest port ID (port number). After the root bridge and root ports are selected, the last step in spanning tree is to elect designated ports. How do bridges elect designated ports? In spanning tree, each segment in a bridged network has one designated port. This port is a single port that both sends and receives traffic to and from that segment and the root bridge. All other ports are placed in a blocking state. This ensures that only one port on any segment can send and receive traffic to and from the root bridge, ensuring a loop-free topology. The bridge containing the designated port for a segment is called the designated bridge for that segment. Designated ports are chosen based on cumulative root path cost to the root bridge. Note: Every active port on the root bridge becomes a designated port. If a bridge is faced with a tie in electing designated ports, how does it decide which port will be the designated port? In the event of a tie, STP uses the four-step decision process discussed in Question 30. It first looks for the BPDU with the lowest BID; this is always the root bridge. If the switch is not the root bridge, it moves to the next step: the BPDU with the lowest path cost to the root bridge. If both paths are equal, STP looks for the BPDU with the lowest sender BID. If these are equal, STP uses the link with the lowest port ID as the final tiebreaker. What are the four spanning tree port states? The four spanning tree port states are Blocking Listening Learning Forwarding Remember that root and designated ports forward traffic and that nondesignated ports block traffic but still listen for BPDUs. Important note: There is another port state - Disabled - (No frames forwarded, no BPDUs heard). If it shows up in the answer options - select it along with the others. What is the STP blocking state? When a switch starts, all ports are in the blocking state. This is to prevent any loops in the network. If there is a better path to the root bridge, the port remains in the blocked state. Ports in the blocked state cannot send or receive traffic, but they can receive BPDUs. What is the STP listening state? Ports transition from a blocked state to a listening state. In this state, no user data is passed. The port only listens for BPDUs. After listening for 15 seconds (if the bridge does not find a better path), the port moves to the next state, the learning state.

What is the STP learning state? In the STP learning state, no user data is being passed. The port quietly builds its bridging table. The default time in the learning state is 15 seconds. What is the STP forwarding state? After the default time in the learning state is up, the port moves to the forwarding state. In the forwarding state, the port sends and receives data. What is STP forward delay? The forward delay is the time it takes for a port to move from the listening state to the learning state or from the learning state to the forwarding state. The default time is 30 seconds. What is the hello time in STP timers? The hello time is the time interval between the sending of BPDUs. The default time is 2 seconds. What is the Max Age timer? The Max Age timer is how long a bridge stores a BPDU before discarding it. The default time is 20 seconds (ten missed hello intervals). What is the default time a port takes to transition from the blocking state to the forwarding state? The default time a port takes to transition from the blocking state to the forwarding state is 50 seconds: 20 seconds for Max Age, 15 seconds for listening, and 15 seconds for learning. What does STP do when it detects a topology change in the network due to a bridge or link failure? If spanning tree detects a change in the network due to a bridge or link failure, at least one bridge interface changes from the blocking state to the forwarding state, or vice versa. WAN

The three WAN connection types available are leased lines, circuit-switched, and packet-switched. Define the differences between each connection type.

Leased lines are dedicated point-to-point lines that provide a single preestablished WAN communication path from the customer's network to the remote network. Leased lines are usually employed over synchronous connections. They are generally expensive and are always up. Circuit-switched connections are dedicated for only the duration of the call. The telephone system and ISDN are examples of circuit-switched networks. Packet-switched connections use virtual circuits (VCs) to provide end-to-end connectivity. Packet-switched connections are similar to leased lines, except that the line is shared by other customers. A packet knows how to reach its destination by programming of switches. Frame Relay is an example of a packet-switched connection.

Define customer premises equipment (CPE), and give an example. CPE is equipment that is located on the customer's (or subscriber's) premises. It is equipment owned by the customer or equipment leased by the service provider to the customer. An example is your router. What is the demarcation point (demarc)? The demarc is the point where the CPE ends and the local loop begins. It is the last responsibility of the service provider and is usually an RJ-45 jack located close to the CPE. Think of the demarc as the boundary between the customer's wiring and the service provider's wiring. What is the local loop? The local loop is the physical cable that extends from the demarc to the central office. Describe the central office (CO). The CO is the telco switching facility that connects the customer to the provider's switching network. The CO is sometimes referred to as a point of presence. It is the point where the local loop gains access to the service provider's access lines. What are synchronous links? Synchronous links have identical frequencies and contain individual characters encapsulated in control bits, called start/stop bits, that designate the beginning and end of each character. Synchronous links try to use the same speed as the other end of a serial link. What are Asynchronous links? Asynchronous links send digital signals without timing. Asynchronous links agree on the same speed, but there is no check or adjustment of the rates if they are slightly different. Only 1 byte per transfer is sent. List some typical Layer 2 encapsulation methods for WAN links. . High-Level Data Link Control (HDLC) Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) Serial Line Internet Protocol (SLIP) X.25/Link Access Procedure, Balanced (LAPB) Frame Relay Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) Describe HDLC. HDLC was derived from Synchronous Data Link Control (SDLC). It is the default encapsulation type on point-to-point dedicated links and circuit-switched connections between Cisco routers. It is an ISOstandard bit-oriented data-link protocol that encapsulates data on synchronous links. HDLC is a connection-oriented protocol that has very little overhead. HDLC lacks a protocol field and therefore cannot encapsulate multiple network layer protocols across the same link. Because of this, each vendor has its own method of identifying the network-layer protocol. Cisco offers a propriety version of HDLC that uses a type field that acts as a protocol field, making it possible for multiple network-layer protocols to share the same link.

By default, Cisco uses HDLC as its default encapsulation method across synchronous lines (point-topoint links). If a serial line uses a different encapsulation protocol, how do you change it back to HDLC? To change a serial line back to HDLC, use the following interface command on the serial interface you want to change: Router(config-if)#encapsulation hdlc What is the Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)? PPP is an industry-standard protocol that provides router-to-router or router-to-host connections over synchronous and asynchronous links. It can be used to connect to other vendors' equipment. It works with several network-layer protocols, such as IP and IPX. PPP provides authentication through PAP or CHAP. What is Frame Relay? An industry standard, Frame Relay is a switched data link layer protocol that uses virtual circuits to identify the traffic that belongs to certain routers. It provides dynamic bandwidth allocation and congestion control. The ISO's OSI Reference Model contains seven layers. What are they? Include the layer number and name of each layer in your answer. The seven layers of the OSI model are as follows: Layer 7 - Application layer Layer 6 - Presentation layer Layer 5 - Session layer Layer 4 - Transport layer Layer 3 - Network layer Layer 2 - Data link layer Layer 1 - Physical layer What are some reasons that the industry uses a layered model? Here are some reasons why the industry uses a layered model: It encourages industry standardization by defining what functions occur at each level. It allows vendors to modify or improve components at only one layer versus rewriting the whole protocol stack. It helps interoperability by defining standards for the operations at each level. It helps with troubleshooting. What does the application layer (Layer 7) of the OSI model do, and what are some examples of this layer?

The application layer is the layer that is closest to the user. This means that this layer interacts directly with the software application. The application layer's main function is to identify and establish communication partners, determine resource availability, and synchronize communication. Some examples include the following: TCP/IP applications such as Telnet, File Transfer Protocol (FTP), Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), WWW, and HTTP. OSI applications such as Virtual Terminal Protocol, File Transfer, Access, and Management (FTAM), and Common Management Information Protocol (CMIP). In the OSI model, what are the responsibilities of the presentation layer (Layer 6)? Give some examples of this layer. Also known as the translator, the presentation layer provides coding and conversion functions to application layer data. This guarantees that the application layer on another system can read data transferred from the application layer of a different system. Some examples of the presentation layer are: Compression, decompression, and encryption JPEG, TIFF, GIFF, PICT, QuickTime, MPEG, and ASCII What are the functions of the session layer (Layer 5)? Give some examples. The session layer is responsible for creating, managing, and ending communication sessions between presentation layer entities. These sessions consist of service requests and responses that develop between applications located on different network devices. Some examples include SQL, RPC, NFS, X Window System, ZIP, NetBIOS names, and AppleTalk ASP. What is the transport layer (Layer 4) responsible for? Give some examples of transport layer implementations. The transport layer segments and reassembles data from upper-layer applications into data streams. It provides reliable data transmission to upper layers. End-to-end communications, flow control, multiplexing, error detection and correction, and virtual circuit management are typical transport layer functions. Some examples include TCP, UDP*, and SPX. Note: watch out for end-to-end on communications on the exam! Transport layer. * Error correction does not apply to UDP - connection-less - unreliable..... What is flow control, and what are the three methods of implementing it? Flow control is the method of controlling the rate at which a computer sends data, thus preventing network congestion. The three methods of implementing flow control are Buffering Congestion avoidance Windowing

Almost certain to be on the exam. Describe the function of the network layer (Layer 3), and give some examples of network layer implementations. The network layer provides internetwork routing and logical network addresses. It defines how to transport traffic between devices that are not locally attached. The network layer also supports connection-oriented and connectionless service from higher-layer protocols. Routers operate at the network layer. IP, IPX, AppleTalk, and DDP are examples of network layer implementations. Are network layer addresses physical or logical? Network layer addresses are logical addresses specific to the network layer protocol being run on the network. Each network layer protocol has a different addressing scheme. They are usually hierarchical and define networks first and then host or devices on that network. An example of a network address is an IP address, which is a 32-bit address often expressed in decimal format. 192.168.0.1 is an example of an IP address in decimal format. How do routers function at the network layer of the OSI model? Routers learn, record, and maintain awareness of different networks. They decide the best path to these networks and maintain this information in a routing table. The routing table includes the following: Network addresses, which are protocol-specific. If you are running more than one protocol, you have a network address for each protocol. The interface the router uses to route a packet to a different network. A metric, which is the distance to a remote network or the weight of the bandwidth, load, delay, and reliability of the path to the remote network. Routers create broadcast domains. One interface on a router creates a single broadcast domain and collision domain. However, an interface on a switch creates only a single collision domain. In addition to learning the remote network and providing a path to the network, what other functions do routers carry out? Routers perform these tasks: Routers, by default, do not forward broadcasts or multicasts. Routers can perform bridging and routing functions. If a router has multiple paths to a destination, it can determine the best path to the destination. Routers forward traffic based on Layer 3 destination addresses. Routers can connect Virtual LANs (VLANs). Routers can provide quality of service for specified types of network traffic. What is the responsibility of the data link layer (Layer 2)?

The data link layer provides functional and procedural means for connectionless mode among network entities, and for connection mode entities it provides the establishment, maintenance, and release of data link connections among network entities and for the transfer of data link service data units. The data link layer translates messages from the network layer into bits for the physical layer, and it enables the network layer to control the interconnection of data circuits within the physical layer. Its specifications define different network and protocol characteristics, including physical addressing, error notification, network topology, and sequencing of frames. Data link protocols provide the delivery across individual links and are concerned with the different media types, such as 802.2 and 802.3. The data link layer is responsible for putting 1s and 0s into a logical group. These 1s and 0s are then put on the physical wire. Some examples of data link layer implementations are IEEE 802.2/802.3, IEEE 802.5/802.2, packet trailer (for Ethernet, the FCS or CRC), FFDI, HDLC, and Frame Relay. The IEEE defines what two sublayers of the data link layer? The two sublayers of the data link layer are The Logical Link Control (LLC) sublayer The Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer These two sublayers provide physical media independence. For what is the LLC sublayer responsible? The Logical Link Control (802.2) sublayer is responsible for identifying different network layer protocols and then encapsulating them to be transferred across the network. An LLC header tells the data link layer what to do with a packet after it is received. What functions does the Media Access Control (MAC) sublayer provide? The MAC sublayer specifies how data is placed and transported over the physical wire. The LLC layer communicates with the network layer, but the MAC layer communicates downward directly to the physical layer. Physical addressing (MAC addresses), network topologies, error notification, and delivery of frames are defined at this sublayer. What are some network devices that operate at the data link layer? Bridges and switches are network devices that operate at the data link layer. Both devices filter traffic by MAC addresses. What is the function of the OSI model's physical layer (Layer 1)? Give some examples of physical layer implementations. The physical layer defines the physical medium. It defines the media type, the connector type, and the signaling type (baseband versus broadband). This includes voltage levels, physical data rates, and maximum cable lengths. The physical layer is responsible for converting frames into electronic bits of data, which are then sent or received across the physical medium. Twisted pair, coaxial cable, and fiberoptic cable operate at this level. Other implementations at this layer are repeaters/hubs, RJ-45. The Ethernet and IEEE 802.3 standards define what three physical wiring standards that operate at 10 Mbps?

These physical wiring standards operate at 10 Mbps: 10Base2 10Base5 10BaseT What are collision domains? In Ethernet segments, devices connect to the same physical medium. Because of this, all devices receive all signals sent across the wire. If two devices send a packet at the same time, a collision occurs. In the event of a collision, the two devices run a backoff algorithm and resend the packet. The devices retransmit up to 15 times. The first station to detect a collision issues a jam signal. When a jam signal is sent from a workstation, it affects all of the machines on the segment, not just the two that collided; when the jam signal is on the wire, no workstations can transmit data. The more collisions that occur in a network, the slower it will be, because the devices will have to resend the packet. A collision domain defines a group of devices connected to the same physical medium. What are broadcast domains? A broadcast domain defines a group of devices that receive each others' broadcast messages. As with collisions, the more broadcasts that occur on the network, the slower your network will be. This is because every device that receives a broadcast must process it to see if the broadcast is intended for it.

What devices are used to break up collision and broadcast domains? Switches and bridges are used to break up collision domains. They create more collision domains and fewer collisions. Routers are used to break up broadcast domains. They create more broadcast domains and smaller broadcast areas. How do the different layers of the OSI model communicate with each other? Each layer of the OSI model can communicate only with the layer above it, below it, and parallel to it (a peer layer). For example, the presentation layer can communicate with only the application layer, session layer, and presentation layer on the machine it is communicating with. These layers communicate with each other using protocol data units (PDUs). These PDUs control information that is added to the user data at each layer of the model. This information resides in fields called headers (the front of the data field) and trailers (the end of the data field). What is data encapsulation? A PDU can include different information as it goes up or down the OSI model. It is given a different name according to the information it is carrying (the layer it is at). When the transport layer receives upper layer data, it adds a TCP header to the data; this is called a segment. The segment is then passed to the network layer, and an IP header is added; thus, the data becomes a packet. The packet is passed to the data link layer, thus becoming a frame. This frame is then converted into bits and is passed across the network medium. This is data encapsulationApplication layer -- Data Transport layer -- Segment

Network layer -- Packet Data link layer -- Frame There is also the Physical Layer -- Bits What is the difference between a routing protocol and a routed protocol? Routing protocols determine how to route traffic to the best location of a routed protocol. Examples of routing protocols are RIP, EIGRP, OSFP, and BGP. Examples of routed protocols are IP and IPX. What 3 devices are used to segment a LAN? Router Switch Bridge Quick Notes - CABLING TECHNOLOGY What is a straight-through cable, and when would you use it? A straight-through cable is the same at both ends. A straight-through cable uses pins 1, 2, 3, and 6. The send and receive wires are not crossed. You should use a straight-through cable when connecting dissimilar devices. Examples include connecting PCs to switches or hubs or a router to a switch or a hub. What is a crossover cable, and when would you use it? A crossover cable is a cable that has the send and receive wires crossed at one of the ends. On a Category 5 cable, the 1 and 3 wires and the 2 and 6 wires are switched on one of the cable's ends. You should use a crossover cable when connecting similar devices, such as connecting a router to a router, a switch to a switch or hub, a hub to a hub, or a PC to a PC. Important tip -- Router (think of it as a PC) to PC via 10BaseT (NIC) uses a "crossover cable". (contradicts the rule) How do you set up a console session to a Cisco device? To set up a console session to a Cisco device, you connect a rollover cable to the console port on the Cisco device. You then connect the other end to your PC and configure a terminal emulation application to the following com settings: 9600 bps, 8 data bits, no parity, 1 stop bit, and no flow control. What is the maximum cable length for each of the following? The maximum cable lengths are as follows: 10Base2 (thinnet) 185 meters 10Base5 (thicknet) 500 meters 10BaseT 100 meters 10BaseFL 2000 meters (400 meters in a shared environment and 2000 meters in a point-to-point environment)

100BaseT 100 meters What does Base stand for in 10BaseT and 100BaseT? Base in 10BaseT and 100BaseT stands for baseband. Baseband is a network technology in which only one carrier frequency (signal) is used. Quick Notes - ACCESS LISTS Besides named access lists, what are the two types of IP access lists? The two types of IP access lists are standard and extended.

What criteria do standard IP access lists use to filter packets? Standard IP access lists filter packets by the source address. This results in the packet's being permitted or denied for the entire protocol suite based on the source network IP address.

What criteria do extended IP access lists use to filter packets? Extended IP access lists filter packets by source address, destination address, protocols, and port numbers. In what two ways can IP access lists be applied to an interface? Access lists can be applied as inbound or outbound access lists. Inbound access lists process packets as they enter a router's interface and before they are routed. Outbound access lists process packets as they exit a router's interface and after they are routed. How many access lists can be applied to an interface on a Cisco router? Only one access list per protocol, per direction, per interface can be applied on a Cisco router. Multiple access lists are permitted per interface, but they must be for a different protocol. How are access lists processed? Access lists are processed in sequential, logical order, evaluating packets from the top down, one statement at a time. As soon as a match is made, the permit or deny option is applied, and the packet is not applied to any more access list statements. Because of this, the order of the statements within any access list is significant. What is at the end of each access list? At the end of each access list, an implicit deny statement denies any packet not filtered in the access list. What are the number ranges used to define standard and extended IP access lists? The number ranges used to define standard and extended IP access lists are as follows: Standard IP access lists 1 to 99 and 1300 to 1999 Extended IP access lists 100 to 199 and 2000 to 2699

When implementing access lists, what are wildcard masks? Wildcard masks define the subset of the 32 bits in the IP address that must be matched. Wildcards are used with access lists to specify a host, network, or part of a network. Wildcard masks work exactly the opposite of subnet masks. In subnet masks, 1 bits are matched to the network portion of the address, and 0s are wildcards that specify the host range. In wildcard masks, when 0s are present, the octet address must match. What is the IOS command syntax used to create a standard IP access list? Here is the command syntax to create a standard IP access list: access-list access-list-number {permit deny} source-address [wildcard mask]access-list-number is a number from 1 to 99. For example: RouterA(config)#access-list 10 deny 192.168.0.0 0.0.0.255 How can you display all access lists on a Cisco router? To display all access lists on a Cisco router, use the show access-list command: RouterA#show access-list Standard IP access list 10 deny 192.168.0.0, wildcard bits 0.0.0.255Extended IP access list 101 permit tcp any any eq www permit udp any any eq domain permit udp any eq domain any permit icmp any any deny tcp 192.168.10.0 0.0.0.255 any eq wwwRouterA# Quick Notes - FRAME RELAY What protocol does Frame Relay rely on for error checking? Frame Relay does not rely on any certain protocol for error checking. Instead, it relies on upper-layer protocols to provide error checking. For example, Frame Relay relies on TCP to provide error checking in an IP network. At what layers of the OSI model does Frame Relay operate? Frame Relay operates at the two lower layers of the OSI model (data link and physical). What is the difference between switched virtual circuits (SVCs) and permanent virtual circuits (PVCs)? SVCs are virtual circuits that are dynamically established when data needs to be transferred and that are terminated when data transmission is complete. SVCs consist of four states: call setup, data transfer, idle, and call termination. PVCs are permanently established virtual circuits that operate in one of two states: idle or data transfer. When the PVC is idle, the connection between the DTE devices is still active. What is a Data Link Connection Identifier (DLCI)? A DLCI is a number that identifies the logical circuit between the router and the Frame Relay switch. It is the Frame Relay Layer 2 address. The Frame Relay switch maps DLCIs between each pair of routers to create a PVC. For IP devices at the end of each virtual circuit to communicate, their IP addresses need to be mapped to DLCIs. If you are running Cisco IOS 11.2 or later, mapping is done automatically using Inverse ARP. DLCIs have local significance. Think of DLCIs as the MAC address of the Frame Relay network.

What is the committed information rate (CIR)? The CIR is the committed information rate, by the service provider, in bits per second, at which data will be transferred. The service provider sends any data in excess of this rate if its network has capacity at that time. How does Frame Relay use Inverse ARP? Frame Relay uses Inverse ARP as a way to dynamically map a network layer address to a DLCI. With Inverse ARP, the router can discover the network address of a device associated with a VC.

What is the Local Management Interface (LMI)? The LMI is a signaling standard between a CPE device (a router) and the Frame Relay switch that is responsible for managing and maintaining status between the devices. It is autosensed with Cisco IOS Release 11.2 and later. What is the default LMI type for Cisco routers that are configured for Frame Relay? The default LMI for Cisco routers configured for Frame Relay is Cisco. If you are running Cisco IOS Release 11.2 or later, the Cisco router tries to autosense which LMI type the Frame Relay switch is using. If it cannot autosense the LMI type, the router uses Cisco as its LMI type. The three types of LMIs supported by Cisco routers are: Cisco ANSI Q933a When a router receives LMI information, it updates its VC status to one of three states. What are these three states? The three states that a VC uses to update its status are as follows: Active state The connection is active, and routers can exchange data. Inactive state The local connection to the Frame Relay switch is working, but the remote router's connection to the Frame Relay switch is not working. Deleted state Indicates that no LMIs are being received from the Frame Relay switch or that there is no service between the router and the Frame Relay switch. How do you enable Frame Relay on a Cisco router? To enable Frame Relay on a Cisco router, you must first enable the serial interface for Frame Relay encapsulation with the encapsulation frame-relay interface command: RouterB(config)#int s 0 RouterB(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 RouterB(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay

The default encapsulation for a serial interface configured for Frame Relay is cisco. If you are connecting to a non-Cisco router, how do you change the encapsulation type? If you are connecting to a non-Cisco router in a Frame Relay network, you need to specify ietf as the encapsulation type: RouterB(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 RouterB(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay ietf If you are using Cisco IOS Release 11.1 or earlier, or if you do not want to autosense the LMI type, how do you define the LMI type on a Cisco router? To define the LMI type on a Cisco router, use the frame-relay lmi-type {ansi cisco q933a} interface command:

RouterB(config-if)#ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 RouterB(config-if)#encapsulation frame-relay RouterB(config-if)#frame-relay lmi-type ansi

If Inverse ARP is disabled on your router, how do you reenable it? Inverse ARP is enabled by default on a Cisco router. If it is disabled, reenable it by using the following command: RouterB(config-if)#frame-relay inverse-arp [protocol] [dlci] Supported protocols indicated by the protocol option include ip, ipx, decnet, appletalk, vines, and xns. If a remote router does not support Inverse ARP, you must define the address-to-DLCI table statically. How do you create these static maps? To define static maps on a Cisco router, use the following command: RouterA(config-if)#frame-relay map protocol protocol-address dlci [broadcast] [ietf cisco] [payloadcompress packet-by-packet] where: protocol defines the supported protocol bridging or LLC. protocol-address is the remote router's network layer address. dlci defines the remote router's local DLCI. broadcast specifies whether you want to forward broadcasts over the VC, permitting dynamic routing protocols over the VC. ietf cisco is the encapsulation type. What Cisco IOS command displays the LMI traffic statistics and LMI type?

The show frame-relay lmi command displays the LMI traffic statistics and LMI type: RouterA#show frame-relay lmi LMI Statistics for interface Serial0 (Frame Relay DTE) LMI TYPE = CISCO Invalid Unnumbered info 0 Invalid Prot Disc 0 Invalid dummy Call Ref 0 Invalid Msg Type 0 Invalid Status Message 0 Invalid Lock Shift 0 Invalid Information ID 0 Invalid Report IE Len 0 Invalid Report Request 0 Invalid Keep IE Len 0 Num Status Enq. Rcvd 1748 Num Status msgs Sent 1748 Num Update Status Sent 0 Num St Enq. Timeouts 0 routera# How do you display the current Frame Relay map entries and information about these connections on a Cisco router? To view the current map entries and information about the connections, use the show frame-relay map command: RouterA#show frame-relay map Quick Notes - ROUTING How do OSPF-enabled routers build adjacencies and exchange their routing tables? OSPF-enabled routers build adjacencies by sending Hello packets out through all OSPF-enabled interfaces.

If these routers share a command link and agree on parameters set within their Hello packets then they become neighbors. If these parameters differ then the routers do not become neighbors and communication stops. OSPF routers form adjacencies with certain routers. These routers are determined by the layer 2 (data link) media type and as soon as the adjacencies are formed each router sends LSAs (Link State Advertisements) to all adjacent routers. The LSAs describe the state of each router's links. There are multiple LSA types and a route that receives an LSA from a neighbor records the LSA in a link-state database and floods a copy of the LSA to all its other neighbors. When all databases are complete - then each router uses the SPF (Shortest-Path First) algorithm to calculate a loop-free topology and builds its routing table based on this topology.

It is important to note that the Hello protocol is bidrectional and is the means by which neighbors are discovered and acts as keepalives between neighboring routers. Note: Hello protocols are sent periodically sent out each OSPF-enabled interface using IP multicast address 224.0.0.5. The default interval on NBMA (nonbroadcast multiaccess) networks is 30 seconds. The default interval on Broadcast, Point-to-point, and point-to-multipoint networks is 10 seconds. What are LSAs (link-state advertisements)? LSAs are sent out all OSPF-enabled router interfaces describing the state of the router's links. They are also packets that OSPF uses to advertise changes in the condition of a link or other OSPF routers. What is the routing metric OSPF is based on? Bandwith. Formula: Cost = 100,000,000 / bandwidth in bits per seconds The cost of a 100 MBbps connection would be: 1000,000,000 / 100,000,000 =1 On an OSPF-enabled router -- what is the router ID and where does an OSPF-enabled router receive its router ID? To initialize - OSPF must be able to define a router ID. The most common and stable source for a router ID is the IP address set on the logical loopback interface that is always available. If no logical interface is defined -- then the router receives its ID from the highest IP address on the physical interfaces. Note: If two loopback addresses are defined -- it will use the highest loopback address. Think highest logical or highest physical interface address. What is routing? Routing is the process in which items are forwarded from one location to another. Routing is a hop-byhop paradigm. A Cisco router performs routing and switching functions. Describe what each function does. Routing is a way to learn and maintain awareness of the network topology. Each router maintains a routing table in which it looks up the destination Layer 3 address to get the packet one step closer to its destination. The switching function is the actual movement of temporary traffic through the router, from an inbound interface to an outbound interface.

What are the three types of routes you can use in a Cisco router? The three types of routes are static routes, dynamic routes, and default routes. What is the difference between static and dynamic routes?

Static routes are routes that an administrator manually enters into a router. Dynamic routes are routes that a router learns automatically through a routing protocol.

What is a default route? Also known as the gateway of last resort, a default route is a special type of static route with an all-zeros network and network mask. The default route is used to route any packets to a network that a router does not directly know about to a next-hop router. By default, if a router receives a packet to a destination network that is not in its routing table, it drops the packet. When a default route is specified, the router does not drop the packet. Instead, it forwards the packet to the IP address specified in the default route. What is a routing protocol? A routing protocol defines the set of rules used by a router when it communicates with neighboring routers. Routing protocols listens for packets from other participants in order to learn and maintain a routing table. What is administrative distance? Administrative distance (AD) is an integer from 0 to 255 that rates the trustworthiness of routing information received on a router from a neighboring router. The AD is used as the tiebreaker when a router has multiple paths from different routing protocols to the same destination. The path with the lower AD is the one given priority. What are the three classes of routing protocols? 1) Distance vector 2) Link-state 3) Balanced hybrid What is the AD for each of the following? Directly connected interface 0 Static route 1 EIGRP 90 IGRP 100 OSPF 110 RIP 120 External EIGRP 170 Unknown 255 How do distance vector routing protocols function? Also known as Bellman-Ford-Fulkerson algorithms, distance vector routing protocols pass complete routing tables to neighboring routers. Neighboring routers then combine the received routing table with their own routing table. Each router receives a routing table from its directly connected neighbor.

Distance vector routing tables include information about the total cost and the logical address of the first router on the path to each network they know about. How do distance vector routing protocols keep track of any changes to the internetwork? Distance vector routing protocols keep track of an internetwork by periodically broadcasting updates out all active interfaces. This broadcast contains the entire routing table. This method is often called routing by rumor. Slow convergence of distance vector routing protocols can cause inconsistent routing tables and routing loops.

What are some mechanisms that distance vector protocols implement to prevent routing loops and inconsistent routing tables? Here are some of the ways distance vector routing protocols prevent routing loops and inconsistent routing tables: Maximum hop count Split horizon Route poisoning Holddowns What is split horizon? The rule of split horizon is that it is never useful to send information about a route back in the direction from which the original update came. What is convergence? Convergence is when all routers have consistent knowledge and correct routing tables. What is route poisoning? With route poisoning, when a distance vector routing protocol notices that a route is no longer valid, the route is advertised with an infinite metric, signifying that the route is bad. In RIP, a metric of 16 is used to signify infinity. Route poisoning is used with holddowns. What are hold-down timers? Hold-down timers prevent regular update messages from reinstating a route that might have gone bad. Hold-down timers also tell routers to hold for a period of time any changes that might affect routes. What are triggered updates? When a router notices that a directly connected subnet has changed state, it immediately sends another routing update out its other interfaces rather than waiting for the routing update timer to expire. Triggered updates are also known as Flash updates. What is IP RIP? IP RIP is a true distance vector routing protocol that sends its complete routing table out all active interfaces every 30 seconds. IP RIP uses a hop count as its metric to determine the best path to a remote

network. The maximum allowable hop count is 15, meaning that 16 is unreachable. There are two versions of RIP. Version 1 is classful, and version 2 is classless. IP RIP can load-balance over as many as six equal-cost paths. What four timers does IP RIP use to regulate its performance? Here are the four timers that IP RIP uses to regulate its performance: Route update timer Time between router updates. The default is 30 seconds. Route invalid timer Time that must expire before a route becomes invalid. The default is 180 seconds. Route hold-down timer If IP RIP receives an update with a hop count higher than the metric recorded in the routing table, the router goes into holddown for 180 seconds. Route flush timer Time from when a route becomes invalid to when it is removed from the routing table. The default is 240 seconds. How do you stop RIP updates from propagating out an interface on a router? Sometimes you do not want RIP updates to propagate across the WAN, wasting valuable bandwidth or giving out valuable information about your internetwork. The easiest way to stop RIP updates from propagating out an interface is to use the passive-interface global configuration command. How do you display the contents of a Cisco IP routing table? The show ip route command displays the Cisco routing table's contents.

Quick Notes - SWITCHING What are three types of LAN traffic? Unicasts - intended for one host. Broadcasts - intended for everyone. Multicasts - intended for a only a subset or group within an entire network. What are unicast frames? Unicast frames are the most common type of network traffic. A unicast frame is a frame intended for only one host. The only station that processes this frame is one station that has its own MAC address in the destination portion of packet. What are broadcast frames? Broadcast frames are frames intended for everyone. Stations view broadcast frames as public service announcements. All stations receive and process broadcast frames. In large networks, broadcasts can cause serious performance degradation in network hosts - (broadcast storm). The destination address of broadcast frames (Data Link / Layer 2 broadcast addresses is FF-FF-FF-FF-FFFF or alternatively all 1s in binary (11111111). What are multicast frames? Multicast frames address a group of devices that have a common interest. These frames allow the source to send only one copy of the frame on the network even though it is intended for several

stations. Only stations that have a card that is configured by software to receive multicast frames for a particular multicast group can process a frame to that multicast address - all other stations discard multicast frames What three major functions do Data Link Layer / Layer 2 Switches perform? Address learning Packet forwarding/filtering Loop avoidance by spanning tree What will occur when you attempt to segment a network with hubs and repeaters? Basically, hubs and repeaters become extensions of the physical cable plant. All devices that connect to either a hub or a repeater share the same bandwidth and by definition hubs and repeaters create a single broadcast and collision domain. Think of both devices are pass-through devices much like a electrical power-strip. Hubs and repeaters reside on the Physical Layer / Layer 1 of the OSI model where they pass 0s and 1s along the wire or up to the Data Link Layer. CSUs / Channel Service Units fall into the same category. All are regarded as unintelligent devices. No addressing takes place on the Physical layer. What three devices are used to segment a LAN? Router - logical addressing - IP address Switch - physical addressing - MAC address Bridge - physical addressing - MAC addres What is microsegmentation? Each workstation or network device on the network has its own dedicated segment - also known as a Collision Domain - to a switch. Each device gets the segments full bandwidth and does not have to share the dedicated segment with other devices. Collisions are reduced because each segment is its own Collision Domain. Important: Full-duplex transmission is achieved by microsegmentation. Each device can send and receive at the same time which doubles the amount of bandwidth between nodes. What are the three switching methods in Cisco Catalyst switches? The three frame operating modes to handle frame switching are Store-and-forward Cut-through Fragment-free

What is the Cisco Catalyst store-and-forward switching method?

In the store-and-forward switching method, the switch receives the entire frame before it forwards it. The switch reads the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) to make sure the frame is not bad. If the frame is good, the switch forwards it. Because the switch stores the frame before forwarding it, latency is introduced in the switch. Latency through the switch varies with the size of the frame. What is the Cisco Catalyst cut-through switching method? In cut-through switching mode, the switch only checks the frame's destination address and immediately begins forwarding the frame out the appropriate port. Because the switch checks the destination address in only the header and not the entire frame, the switch forwards a collision frame or a frame that has a bad CRC. What is the Cisco Catalyst fragment-free switching method? Also known as modified cut-through, fragment-free switching checks the first 64 bytes before forwarding the frame. Ethernet specifications state that collisions should be detected during the first 64 bytes of the frame. By reading the first 64 bytes of the frame, the switch can filter most collisions, although late collisions are still possible. What is the default switching mode in Cisco Catalyst 1900 switches? The default switching mode for the Catalyst 1900 is fragment-free. What is half-duplex transmission mode? Half-duplex transmission is the default mode that Ethernet functions in. In half-duplex transmission, a device can only send or receive--not do both at once. In half-duplex mode, stations are susceptible to collisions, and efficiency is rated at 50 to 60 percent. What is full-duplex transmission mode? In full-duplex mode, a station can send and receive at the same time. In full-duplex mode, collision detection is disabled. This mode offers 100 percent efficiency in both directions. On a Cisco Catalyst 1900 switch, what are the default duplex settings for 10BaseT/100BaseT ports, default switching mode, and default protocols? What are dynamic addresses on a Catalyst switch? Dynamic addresses are addresses that the switch learns about dynamically through the learning process. If the switch does not see a MAC address for a certain amount of time, it drops the MAC address. What are permanent MAC addresses on a Catalyst switch? Permanent MAC addresses are entered manually by the administrator and are not aged out.

Question: What is (Wireless / Computer) Networking? Answer: In the world of computers, networking is the practice of linking two or more computing devices together for the purpose of sharing data. Networks are built with a mix of computer hardware and

computer software. Networks can be categorized in several different ways. One approach defines the type of network according to the geographic area it spans. Local area networks (LANs), for example, typically reach across a single home, whereas wide area networks (WANs), reach across cities, states, or even across the world. The Internet is the world's largest public WAN. Question: What Is the Difference Between Bits and Bytes? The terms bit and byte are common in computer networking. Both terms refer to digital data transmitted over a network connection. For example, bits and bytes both may represent network addresses or port numbers. Answer: A bit is a single numeric value, either '1' or '0', that encodes a single unit of digital information. A byte is a sequence of bits; usually eight bits equal one byte. For example, in Internet Protocol (IP) networking, IP addresses contain 32 bits or 4 bytes. The bits encode the network address so that it can be shared on the network. The bytes divide the bits into groups. The IP address 192.168.0.1, for instance, is encoded with the following bits and bytes: 11000000 10101000 00000000 00000001 Bits are grouped into bytes to, generally speaking, increase the efficiency of computer hardware, including network equipment, disks and memory Client Server :The term client-server refers to a popular model for computer networking that utilizes client and server devices each designed for specific purposes. The client-server model can be used on the Internet as well as local area networks (LANs). Examples of client-server systems on the Internet include Web browsers and Web servers, FTP clients and servers, and the DNS. Client and Server Devices Client/server networking grew in popularity many years ago as personal computers (PCs) became the common alternative to older mainframe computers. Client devices are typically PCs with network software applications installed that request and receive information over the network. Mobile devices as well as desktop computers can both function as clients. A server device typically stores files and databases including more complex applications like Web sites. Server devices often feature higher-powered central processors, more memory, and larger disk drives than clients. Client-Server Applications The client-server model distinguishes between applications as well as devices. Network clients make requests to a server by sending messages, and servers respond to their clients by acting on each request and returning results. One server generally supports numerous clients, and multiple servers can be networked together in a pool to handle the increased processing load as the number of clients grows. A client computer and a server computer are usually two separate devices, each customized for their designed purpose. For example, a Web client works best with a large screen display, while a Web server

does not need any display at all and can be located anywhere in the world. However, in some cases a given device can function both as a client and a server for the same application. Likewise, a device that is a server for one application can simultaneously act as a client to other servers, for different applications. [Some of the most popular applications on the Internet follow the client-server model including email, FTP and Web services. Each of these clients features a user interface (either graphic- or text-based) and a client application that allows the user to connect to servers. In the case of email and FTP, users enter a computer name (or sometimes an IP address) into the interface to set up connections to the server. Local Client-Server Networks Many home networks utilize client-server systems without even realizing it. Broadband routers, for example, contain DHCP servers that provide IP addresses to the home computers (DHCP clients). Other types of network servers found in home include print servers and backup servers. Client-Server vs Peer-to-Peer and Other Models The client-server model was originally developed to allow more users to share access to database applications. Compared to the mainframe approach, client-server offers improved scalability because connections can be made as needed rather than being fixed. The client-server model also supports modular applications that can make the job of creating software easier. In so-called "two-tier" and "three-tier" types of client-server systems, software applications are separated into modular pieces, and each piece is installed on clients or servers specialized for that subsystem. Client-server is just one approach to managing network applications The primary alternative, peer-topeer networking, models all devices as having equivalent capability rather than specialized client or server roles. Compared to client-server, peer to peer networks offer some advantages such as more flexibility in growing the system to handle large number of clients. Client-server networks generally offer advantages in keeping data secure.

Peer to peer is an approach to computer networking where all computers share equivalent responsibility for processing data. Peer-to-peer networking (also known simply as peer networking) differs from client-server networking, where certain devices have responsibility for providing or "serving" data and other devices consume or otherwise act as "clients" of those servers. Characteristics of a Peer Network Peer to peer networking is common on small local area networks (LANs), particularly home networks. Both wired and wireless home networks can be configured as peer to peer environments. Computers in a peer to peer network run the same networking protocols and software. Peer networks are also often situated physically near to each other, typically in homes, small businesses or schools. Some peer networks, however, utilize the Internet and are geographically dispersed worldwide. Home networks that utilize broadband routers are hybrid peer to peer and client-server environments. The router provides centralized Internet connection sharing, but file, printer and other resource sharing is managed directly between the local computers involved. Peer to Peer and P2P Networks

Internet-based peer to peer networks emerged in the 1990s due to the development of P2P file sharing networks like Napster. Technically, many P2P networks (including the original Napster) are not pure peer networks but rather hybrid designs as they utilize central servers for some functions such as search. Peer to Peer and Ad Hoc Wi-Fi Networks Wi-Fi wireless networks support so-called ad hoc connections between devices. Ad hoc Wi-Fi networks are pure peer to peer compared to those utilizing wireless routers as an intermediate device. Benefits of a Peer to Peer Network You can configure computers in peer to peer workgroups to allow sharing of files, printers and other resources across all of the devices. Peer networks allow data to be shared easily in both directions, whether for downloads to your computer or uploads from your computer. On the Internet, peer to peer networks handle a very high volume of file sharing traffic by distributing the load across many computers. Because they do not rely exclusively on central servers, P2P networks both scale better and are more resilient than client-server networks in case of failures or traffic bottlenecks. Question: How is Network Performance Measured? Answer: Measures of computer network performance are commonly stated in units of bits per second (bps). This quantity can represent either an actual data rate or a theoretical limit to available network bandwidth. Modern networks support very large numbers of bits per second. Instead of quoting 10,000 bps or 100,000 bps, networks normally express these quantities in terms of larger quantities like kilobits, megabits and gigabits. The following equations define the mathematics behind these terms: 1 Kbps = 1 kbps = 1 kilobit per second = 1,000 bits per second 1 Mbps = 1,000 Kbps 1 Gbps = 1,000 Mbps In networking, both "kbps" with a lowercase 'k' and "Kbps" with an uppercase 'K' can be used interchangeably. Technically, network speed can also be expressed in units of bytes per second, abbreviated as "Bps" with a capital 'B'. Use of these quantities is strongly discouraged in networking to avoid confusion with the bits per second standard: 1 KBps = 1 kBps = 1 kilobyte per second = 8,000 bits per second Definition: Intranet is the generic term for a collection of private computer networks within an organization. An intranet uses network technologies as a tool to facilitate communication between people or work groups to improve the data sharing capability and overall knowledge base of an organization's employees.

Intranets utilize standard network hardware and software technologies like Ethernet, WiFi, TCP/IP, Web browsers and Web servers. An organization's intranet typically includes Internet access but is firewalled so that its computers cannot be reached directly from the outside. A common extension to intranets, called extranets, opens this firewall to provide controlled access to outsiders. Many schools and non-profit groups have deployed them, but an intranet is still seen primarily as a corporate productivity tool. A simple intranet consists of an internal email system and perhaps a message board service. More sophisticated intranets include Web sites and databases containing company news, forms, and personnel information. Besides email and groupware applications, an intranet generally incorporates internal Web sites, documents, and/or databases. The business value of intranet solutions is generally accepted in larger corporations, but their worth has proven very difficult to quantify in terms of time saved or return on investment.

Definition: A null modem cable connects to two standard serial ports for networking two computers together. Null modem cables enable direct data transfer with a minimum of setup required. A null modem cable differs from ordinary serial cables the same way as Ethernet crossover cables differ from ordinary Ethernet cables. Null modem cables reverse the transmit and receive lines on end to enable direct two-way communication. A null modem cable for PCs ordinarily follows the RS-232 standard and uses the same serial ports as RS-232 cables. An RS-232 null modem cable transfers data at the rate of 115 Kbps. The fastest null modem cable, based on RS-422, supports up to 450 Kbps. Today, null modem cables are used primarily by engineers. USB keys, Ethernet crossover cables, and general purpose network routers have effectively made the null modem cable obsolete. Question: Who Created the Internet Network? Development of the technologies that became the Internet began decades ago. The development of the World Wide Web (WWW) portion of the Internet happened much later, although many people consider this synonymous with creating the Internet itself. Answer: No single person or organization created the modern Internet, including Al Gore, Lyndon Johnson, or any other individual. Instead, multiple people developed the key technologies that later grew to become the Internet: Email - Long before the World Wide Web, email was the dominant communication method on the Internet. Ray Tomlinson developed in 1971 the first email system that worked over the early Internet. Ethernet - The physical communication technology underlying the Internet, Ethernet was created by Robert Metcalfe and David Boggs in 1973. TCP/IP - In May, 1974, the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers (IEEE) published a paper titled "A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection." The paper's authors - Vinton Cerf and Robert Kahn described a protocol called TCP that incorporated both connection-oriented and datagram services. This protocol later became known as TCP/IP.

Q. "What is the difference between a hub and a switch? Which one is better for my network?" A. A switch is effectively a higher-performance alternative to a hub. This article describes hubs in more detail. People tend to benefit from a switch over a hub if their home network has four or more computers, or if they want to use their home network for applications that generate significant amounts of network traffic, like multiplayer games or heavy music file sharing. In most other cases, home networkers will not notice an appreciable difference between a hub and switch (hubs do cost slightly less)... (see below) Technically speaking, hubs operate using a broadcast model and switches operate using a virtual circuit model. When four computers are connected to a hub, for example, and two of those computers communicate with each other, hubs simply pass through all network traffic to each of the four computers. Switches, on the other hand, are capable of determining the destination of each individual traffic element (such as an Ethernet frame) and selectively forwarding data to the one computer that actually needs it. By generating less network traffic in delivering messages, a switch performs better than a hub on busy networks.

Question: What Is a Port Number? Answer: In computer networking, a port number is part of the addressing information used to identify the senders and receivers of messages. Port numbers are most commonly used with TCP/IP connections. Home network routers and computer software work with ports and sometimes allow you to configure port number settings. These port numbers allow different applications on the same computer to share network resources simultaneously. How Port Numbers Work Port numbers are associated with network addresses. For example, in TCP/IP networking, both TCP and UDP utilize their own set of ports that work together with IP addresses. Port numbers work like telephone extensions. Just as a business telephone switchboard can use a main phone number and assign each employee an extension number (like x100, x101, etc.), so a computer has a main address and a set of port numbers to handle incoming and outgoing connections. In both TCP and UDP, port numbers start at 0 and go up to 65535. Numbers in the lower ranges are dedicated to common Internet protocols (like 21 for FTP and 80 for HTTP). More - TCP / UDP Port Number Glossary When You May Need to Take Action with Port Numbers Port numbers are typically processed by network hardware and software automatically. Normally you will not see them while casually using a network nor need to take any action involving them. However, in these special cases you can work with network port numbers: network administrators may need to set up port forwarding to allow the port numbers of specific applications to pass through a firewall. On home networks, broadband routers support port forwarding on their configuration screens.

network programmers sometimes need to specify port numbers in their code, such as in socket programming. sometimes, a Web site URL will require a specific TCP port number be included. For example, http://localhost:8080/ uses TCP port 8080. Again, this is more usually seen in software development environments than on the Internet. Q. "What is the 5-4-3-2-1 rule of network design?" A. The 5-4-3-2-1 rule embodies a simple recipe for network design. It may not be easy to find examples in practice, but this rule neatly ties together several important elements of design theory... (See below) To understand this rule, it's first necessary to understand the concepts of collision domains and propagation delay. Collision domains are portions of a network. When a network packet is transmitted over Ethernet, for example, it is possible for another packet from a different source to be transmitted close enough in time to the first packet to cause a collision on the wire. The total range over which a packet can travel and potentially collide with another is its collision domain. Propagation delays are a property of the physical medium (e.g., Ethernet). Propagation delays help determine how much of a time difference between the sending of two packets on a collision domain is "close enough" to actually cause a collision. The greater the propagation delay, the increased likelihood of collisons. The 5-4-3-2-1 rule limits the range of a collision domain by limiting the propagation delay to a "reasonable" amount of time. The rule breaks down as follows: 5 - the number of network segments 4 - the number of repeaters needed to join the segments into one collision domain 3 - the number of network segments that have active (transmitting) devices attached 2 - the number of segments that do not have active devices attached 1 - the number of collision domains Because the last two elements of the recipe follow naturally from the others, this rule is sometimes also known as the "5-4-3" rule for short.

Q. "Is there any difference between bps (small 'b') and Bps (capital 'b')?" A. The term "bps" specifies network bandwidth in bits per second. The term "Bps" specifies network bandwidth in bytes per second. Q1. What are 10Base2, 10Base5 and 10BaseT Ethernet LANs? Ans. 10Base2An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with a contiguous cable segment length of 100 meters and a maximum of 2 segments. 10Base5An Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling, with 5 continuous segments not exceeding 100 meters per segment. 10BaseTAn Ethernet term meaning a maximum transfer rate of 10 Megabits per second that uses baseband signaling and twisted pair cabling. Q2. What is the difference between an unspecified passive open and a fully specified passive open?

Ans. An unspecified passive open has the server waiting for a connection request from a client. A fully specified passive open has the server waiting for a connection from a specific client. Q3. Explain the function of Transmission Control Block. Ans. A TCB is a complex data structure that contains a considerable amount of information about each connection. Q4. What is a Management Information Base (MIB)? Ans. A Management Information Base is part of every SNMP-managed device. Each SNMP agent has the MIB database that contains information about the devices status, its performance, connections, and configuration. The MIB is queried by SNMP. Q5. What is anonymous FTP and why would you use it? Ans. Anonymous FTP enables users to connect to a host without using a valid login and password. Usually, anonymous FTP uses a login called anonymous or guest, with the password usually requesting the users ID for tracking purposes only. Anonymous FTP is used to enable a large number of users to access files on the host without having to go to the trouble of setting up logins for them all. Anonymous FTP systems usually have strict controls over the areas an anonymous user can access. Q6. What is a pseudo tty? Ans. A pseudo tty or false terminal enables external machines to connect through Telnet or rlogin. Without a pseudo tty, no connection can take place. Q7. Which layer of the 7 layer model provides services to the Application layer over the Session layer connection? Ans. Presentation. Q8. What does the Mount protocol do ? Ans. The Mount protocol returns a file handle and the name of the file system in which a requested file resides. The message is sent to the client from the server after reception of a clients request. Q9. What is External Data Representation? Ans. External Data Representation is a method of encoding data within an RPC message, used to ensure that the data is not system-dependent. Q10. Which OSI Reference Layer controls application to application communication? Ans. Session Q11. BOOTP helps a diskless workstation boot. How does it get a message to the network looking for its IP address and the location of its operating system boot files ? Ans. BOOTP sends a UDP message with a subnetwork broadcast address and waits for a reply from a server that gives it the IP address. The same message might contain the name of the machine that has the boot files on it. If the boot image location is not specified, the workstation sends another UDP message to query the server. Q12. What is a DNS resource record? Ans. A resource record is an entry in a name servers database. There are several types of resource records used, including name-to-address resolution information. Resource records are maintained as ASCII files. Q13. What protocol is used by DNS name servers? Ans. DNS uses UDP for communication between servers. It is a better choice than TCP because of the improved speed a connectionless protocol offers. Of course, transmission reliability suffers with UDP.

Q14. What is the difference between interior and exterior neighbor gateways? Ans. Interior gateways connect LANs of one organization, whereas exterior gateways connect the organization to the outside world. Q15. What is the HELLO protocol used for? Ans. The HELLO protocol uses time instead of distance to determine optimal routing. It is an alternative to the Routing Information Protocol. Q16. What are the advantages and disadvantages of the three types of routing tables? Ans. The three types of routing tables are fixed, dynamic, and fixed central. The fixed table must be manually modified every time there is a change. A dynamic table changes its information based on network traffic, reducing the amount of manual maintenance. A fixed central table lets a manager modify only one table, which is then read by other devices. The fixed central table reduces the need to update each machines table, as with the fixed table. Usually a dynamic table causes the fewest problems for a network administrator, although the tables contents can change without the administrator being aware of the change. Q17. What is a characteristic of Store and Forward switches? Ans. They read the entire frame and check CRC before forwarding. Q18. What is source route? Ans. It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header. Q19. What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)? Ans. It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers. Q20. What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)? Ans. It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line. Q21. What is Proxy ARP? Ans. It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router. Q22. What is OSPF? Ans. It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internets topology to make accurate routing decisions. Q23. What is Kerberos? Ans. It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files. Q24. What is a Multi-homed Host? Ans. It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a Multi-homed Host. Q25. What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)? Ans. It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session. Q26. What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol? Ans. It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers.

Q27. What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)? Ans. It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol). Q28. What is autonomous system? Ans. It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol. Q29. What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)? Ans. It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system. Q30. What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)? Ans. It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system. Q31. What is Mail Gateway? Ans. It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols. Q32. What is wide-mouth frog? Ans. Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol. Q33. What are Digrams and Trigrams? Ans. The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing, and, and ion. Q34. What is silly window syndrome? Ans. It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time. Q35. What is region? Ans. When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions. Q36. What is multicast routing? Ans. Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing. Q37. What is traffic shaping? Ans. One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate,congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping. Q38. What is packet filter? Ans. Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped.

Q39. What is virtual path? Ans. Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be grouped together into what is called path. Q40. What is virtual channel? Ans. Virtual channel is normally a connection from one source to one destination, although multicast connections are also permitted. The other name for virtual channel is virtual circuit. Q41. What is logical link control? Ans. One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sublayer is responsible for maintaining the link between computers when they are sending data across the physical network connection. Q42. Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model? Ans. It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design. Q43. What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols? Ans. Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. Non-Routable protocols are designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be used with a router. Q44. What is MAU? Ans. In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU). Q45. Explain 5-4-3 rule? Ans. In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network, there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated. Q46. What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols? Ans. The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows a local host to obtain files from a remote host but does not provide reliability or security. It uses the fundamental packet delivery services offered by UDP. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard mechanism provided by TCP / IP for copying a file from one host to another. It uses the services offered by TCP and so is reliable and secure. It establishes two connections (virtual circuits) between the hosts, one for data transfer and another for control information. Q47. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses? Ans. Class A 0.0.0.0 127.255.255.255 Class B 128.0.0.0 191.255.255.255 Class C 192.0.0.0 223.255.255.255 Class D 224.0.0.0 239.255.255.255 Class E 240.0.0.0 247.255.255.255 Q48. What is the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP segment and IP datagram? Ans. The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes. Q49. What is difference between ARP and RARP? Ans. The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver. The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address.

Q50. What is ICMP? Ans. ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages. Q51. What are the data units at different layers of the TCP / IP protocol suite? Ans. The data unit created at the application layer is called a message, at the transport layer the data unit created is called either a segment or an user datagram, at the network layer the data unit created is called the datagram, at the data link layer the datagram is encapsulated in to a frame and finally transmitted as signals along the transmission media. Q52. What is Project 802? Ans. It is a project started by IEEE to set standards that enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer, the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN protocols. It consists of the following:

802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols. 802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is nonarchitecture-specific, that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs. Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules are Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5). 802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs.

Q53. What is Bandwidth? Ans. Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the bandwidth. Q54. Difference between bit rate and baud rate. Ans. Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits. baud rate = bit rate / N where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift. Q55. What is MAC address? Ans. The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique. Q56. What is attenuation? Ans. The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation. Q57. What is cladding? Ans. A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable. Q58. What is RAID? Ans. A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives. Q59. What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI? Ans. NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications. NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets.

Q60. What is redirector? Ans. Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This comes under presentation layer. Q61. What is Beaconing? Ans. The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks. Q62. What is terminal emulation, in which layer it comes? Ans. Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer. Q63. What is frame relay, in which layer it comes? Ans. Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer. Q64. What do you meant by triple X in Networks? Ans. The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations are often called triple X Q65. What is SAP? Ans. Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack. Q66. What is subnet? Ans. A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router. Q67. What is Brouter? Ans. Hybrid devices that combine the features of both bridges and routers. Q68. How Gateway is different from Routers? Ans. A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures or data formats. Q69. What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices? Ans. Repeater: Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer. It receives the signal in the network before it becomes weak, regenerates the original bit pattern and puts the refreshed copy back in to the link. Bridges: These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type. They divide a larger network in to smaller segments. They contain logic that allow them to keep the traffic for each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment containing the intended recipent and control congestion. Routers: They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of different type). They operate in the physical, data link and network layers. They contain software that enable them to determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission. Gateways: They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a WAN). They

accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model. Q70. What is mesh network? Ans. A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths for data to travel. Q71. What is passive topology? Ans. When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they dont amplify the signal in any way. Example for passive topology linear bus. Q72. What are the important topologies for networks? Ans. BUS topology: In this each computer is directly connected to primary network cable in a single line. Advantages: Inexpensive, easy to install, simple to understand, easy to extend. STAR topology: In this all computers are connected using a central hub. Adva ntages: Can be inexpensive, easy to install and reconfigure and easy to trouble shoot physical problems. RING topology: In this all computers are connected in loop. Advantages: All computers have equal access to network media, installation can be simple, and signal does not degrade as much as in other topologies because each computer regenerates it. Q73. What are major types of networks and explain Server-based network Peer-to-peer network. Ans. Peer-to-peer network, computers can act as both servers sharing resources and as clients using the resources. Server-based networks provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server computers to provide security and network administration Q74. What is Protocol Data Unit? Ans. The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four fields a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field and an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I -frame) or a supervisory frame (S frame) or a unnumbered frame (U frame). Q75. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission? Ans. In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. Q76. What are the possible ways of data exchange? Ans. (i) Simplex (ii) Half-duplex (iii) Full-duplex.

Q77. What are the types of Transmission media? Ans. Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to two categories. Guided Media: These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted-pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and is contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept and transport signals in the form of electrical current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light. Unguided Media: This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. Signals are broadcast either through air. This is done through radio communication, satellite communication and cellular telephony. Q78. Difference between the communication and transmission. Ans. Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity, synchronization, clock etc. Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media. Q79.The Internet Control Message Protocol occurs at what layer of the seven layer model? Ans. Network Q80.Which protocol resolves an IP address to a MAC address? Ans. ARP Q81.MIDI and MPEG are examples of what layer of the OSI seven layer model? Ans. Presentation Q82.What is the protocol number for UDP? Ans. 17 Q83.Which protocol is used for booting diskless workstations? Ans. RARP Q84.Which layer is responsible for putting 1s and 0s into a logical group? Ans. Physical Q85.What does P mean when running a Trace? Ans. Protocol unreachable Q86.UDP works at which layer of the DOD model? Ans. Host to Host Q87.What is the default encapsulation of Netware 3.12? Ans. 802.2 Q88.Ping uses which Internet layer protocol? Ans. ICMP Q89.Which switching technology can reduce the size of a broadcast domain? Ans. VLAN Q90.What is the first step in data encapsulation? Ans. User information is converted into data.

Q91.What is the protocol number for TCP? Ans. 6 Q92.What do you use the Aux port for? Ans. Modem Q93.Repeaters work at which layer of the OSI model? Ans. Physical Q94.WAN stands for which of the following? Ans. Wide Area Network Q95.What ISDN protocol specifies concepts, terminology, and services? Ans. I Q96.LAN stands for which of the following? Ans. Local Are Network Q97.DHCP stands for Ans. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol Q98.What does the acronym ARP stand for? Ans. Address Resolution Protocol Q99.Which layer is responsible for identifying and establishing the availability of the intended communication partner? Ans. Application. Q100.Which OSI layer provides mechanical, electrical, procedural for activating, maintaining physical link? Ans. Physical. 1. Define Network? A network is a set of devices connected by physical media links. A network is recursively is a connection of two or more nodes by a physical link or two or more networks connected by one or more nodes. 2. What is a Link? At the lowest level, a network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is called as Link. 3. What is a node? A network can consist of two or more computers directly connected by some physical medium such as coaxial cable or optical fiber. Such a physical medium is called as Links and the computer it connects is called as Nodes. 4. What is a gateway or Router? A node that is connected to two or more networks is commonly called as router or Gateway. It generally forwards message from one network to another.

5. What is point-point link? If the physical links are limited to a pair of nodes it is said to be point-point link. 6. What is Multiple Access? If the physical links are shared by more than two nodes, it is said to be Multiple Access. 7. What are the advantages of Distributed Processing? a. Security/Encapsulation b. Distributed database c. Faster Problem solving d. Security through redundancy e. Collaborative Processing 8. What are the criteria necessary for an effective and efficient network? a. Performance It can be measured in many ways, including transmit time and response time. b. Reliability It is measured by frequency of failure, the time it takes a link to recover from a failure, and the network's robustness. c. Security Security issues includes protecting data from unauthorized access and virues. 9. Name the factors that affect the performance of the network? a. Number of Users b. Type of transmission medium c. Hardware d. Software 10. Name the factors that affect the reliability of the network? a. Frequency of failure b. Recovery time of a network after a failure 11. Name the factors that affect the security of the network? a. Unauthorized Access b. Viruses 12. What is Protocol? A protocol is a set of rules that govern all aspects of information communication. 13. What are the key elements of protocols? The key elements of protocols are a. Syntax It refers to the structure or format of the data, that is the order in which they are presented. b. Semantics It refers to the meaning of each section of bits.

c. Timing Timing refers to two characteristics: When data should be sent and how fast they can be sent. 14. What are the key design issues of a computer Network? a. Connectivity b. Cost-effective Resource Sharing c. Support for common Services d. Performance 15. Define Bandwidth and Latency? Network performance is measured in Bandwidth (throughput) and Latency (Delay). Bandwidth of a network is given by the number of bits that can be transmitted over the network in a certain period of time. Latency corresponds to how long it t5akes a message to travel from one end off a network to the other. It is strictly measured in terms of time. 16. Define Routing? The process of determining systematically hoe to forward messages toward the destination nodes based on its address is called routing. 17. What is a peer-peer process? The processes on each machine that communicate at a given layer are called peer-peer process. 18. When a switch is said to be congested? It is possible that a switch receives packets faster than the shared link can accommodate and stores in its memory, for an extended period of time, then the switch will eventually run out of buffer space, and some packets will have to be dropped and in this state is said to congested state. 19. What is semantic gap? Defining a useful channel involves both understanding the applications requirements and recognizing the limitations of the underlying technology. The gap between what applications expects and what the underlying technology can provide is called semantic gap. 20. What is Round Trip Time? The duration of time it takes to send a message from one end of a network to the other and back, is called RTT. 21. Define the terms Unicasting, Multiccasting and Broadcasting? If the message is sent from a source to a single destination node, it is called Unicasting. If the message is sent to some subset of other nodes, it is called Multicasting. If the message is sent to all the m nodes in the network it is called Broadcasting. 22. What is Multiplexing? Multiplexing is the set of techniques that allows the simultaneous transmission of multiple signals across a single data link.

23. Name the categories of Multiplexing? a. Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) b. Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) i. Synchronous TDM ii. ASynchronous TDM Or Statistical TDM. c. Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) 24. What is FDM? FDM is an analog technique that can be applied when the bandwidth of a link is greater than the combined bandwidths of the signals to be transmitted. 25. What is WDM? WDM is conceptually the same as FDM, except that the multiplexing and demultiplexing involve light signals transmitted through fiber optics channel. 26. What is TDM? TDM is a digital process that can be applied when the data rate capacity of the transmission medium is greater than the data rate required by the sending and receiving devices. 27. What is Synchronous TDM? In STDM, the multiplexer allocates exactly the same time slot to each device at all times, whether or not a device has anything to transmit. 28. List the layers of OSI a. Physical Layer b. Data Link Layer c. Network Layer d. Transport Layer e. Session Layer f. Presentation Layer g. Application Layer 29. Which layers are network support layers? a. Physical Layer b. Data link Layer and c. Network Layers 30. Which layers are user support layers? a. Session Layer b. Presentation Layer and c. Application Layer 31. Which layer links the network support layers and user support layers? The Transport layer links the network support layers and user support layers.

32. What are the concerns of the Physical Layer? Physical layer coordinates the functions required to transmit a bit stream over a physical medium. a. Physical characteristics of interfaces and media b. Representation of bits c. Data rate d. Synchronization of bits e. Line configuration f. Physical topology g. Transmission mode 33. What are the responsibilities of Data Link Layer? The Data Link Layer transforms the physical layer, a raw transmission facility, to a reliable link and is responsible for node-node delivery. a. Framing b. Physical Addressing c. Flow Control d. Error Control e. Access Control 34. What are the responsibilities of Network Layer? The Network Layer is responsible for the source-to-destination delivery of packet possibly across multiple networks (links). a. Logical Addressing b. Routing 35. What are the responsibilities of Transport Layer? The Transport Layer is responsible for source-to-destination delivery of the entire message. a. Service-point Addressing b. Segmentation and reassembly c. Connection Control d. Flow Control e. Error Control 36. What are the responsibilities of Session Layer? The Session layer is the network dialog Controller. It establishes, maintains and synchronizes the interaction between the communicating systems. a. Dialog control b. Synchronization 37. What are the responsibilities of Presentation Layer? The Presentation layer is concerned with the syntax and semantics of the information exchanged between two systems. a. Translation b. Encryption c. Compression 38. What are the responsibilities of Application Layer?

The Application Layer enables the user, whether human or software, to access the network. It provides user interfaces and support for services such as e-mail, shared database management and other types of distributed information services. a. Network virtual Terminal b. File transfer, access and Management (FTAM) c. Mail services d. Directory Services 39. What are the two classes of hardware building blocks? Nodes and Links. 40. What are the different link types used to build a computer network? a. Cables b. Leased Lines c. Last-Mile Links d. Wireless Links 41. What are the categories of Transmission media? a. Guided Media i. Twisted - Pair cable 1. Shielded TP 2. Unshielded TP ii. Coaxial Cable iii. Fiber-optic cable b. Unguided Media i. Terrestrial microwave ii. Satellite Communication 42. What are the types of errors? a. Single-Bit error In a single-bit error, only one bit in the data unit has changed b. Burst Error A Burst error means that two or more bits in the data have changed. 43. What is Error Detection? What are its methods? Data can be corrupted during transmission. For reliable communication errors must be deducted and Corrected. Error Detection uses the concept of redundancy, which means adding extra bits for detecting errors at the destination. The common Error Detection methods are a. Vertical Redundancy Check (VRC) b. Longitudinal Redundancy Check (VRC) c. Cyclic Redundancy Check (VRC) d. Checksum 44. What is Redundancy? The concept of including extra information in the transmission solely for the purpose of comparison. This technique is called redundancy. 45. What is VRC?

It is the most common and least expensive mechanism for Error Detection. In VRC, a parity bit is added to every data unit so that the total number of 1s becomes even for even parity. It can detect all singlebit errors. It can detect burst errors only if the total number of errors in each data unit is odd. 46. What is LRC? In LRC, a block of bits is divided into rows and a redundant row of bits is added to the whole block. It can detect burst errors. If two bits in one data unit are damaged and bits in exactly the same positions in another data unit are also damaged, the LRC checker will not detect an error. In LRC a redundant data unit follows n data units. 47. What is CRC? CRC, is the most powerful of the redundancy checking techniques, is based on binary division. 48. What is Checksum? Checksum is used by the higher layer protocols (TCP/IP) for error detection 49. List the steps involved in creating the checksum. a. Divide the data into sections b. Add the sections together using 1's complement arithmetic c. Take the complement of the final sum, this is the checksum. 50. What are the Data link protocols? Data link protocols are sets of specifications used to implement the data link layer. The categories of Data Link protocols are 1. Asynchronous Protocols 2. Synchronous Protocols a. Character Oriented Protocols b. Bit Oriented protocols 51. Compare Error Detection and Error Correction: The correction of errors is more difficult than the detection. In error detection, checks only any error has occurred. In error correction, the exact number of bits that are corrupted and location in the message are known. The number of the errors and the size of the message are important factors. 52. What is Forward Error Correction? Forward error correction is the process in which the receiver tries to guess the message by using redundant bits. 53. Define Retransmission? Retransmission is a technique in which the receiver detects the occurrence of an error and asks the sender to resend the message. Resending is repeated until a message arrives that the receiver believes is error-freed. 54. What are Data Words?

In block coding, we divide our message into blocks, each of k bits, called datawords. The block coding process is one-to-one. The same dataword is always encoded as the same codeword. 55. What are Code Words? "r" redundant bits are added to each block to make the length n = k + r. The resulting n-bit blocks are called codewords. 2n - 2k codewords that are not used. These codewords are invalid or illegal. 56. What is a Linear Block Code? A linear block code is a code in which the exclusive OR (addition modulo-2) of two valid codewords creates another valid codeword. 57. What are Cyclic Codes? Cyclic codes are special linear block codes with one extra property. In a cyclic code, if a codeword is cyclically shifted (rotated), the result is another codeword. 58. Define Encoder? A device or program that uses predefined algorithms to encode, or compress audio or video data for storage or transmission use. A circuit that is used to convert between digital video and analog video. 59. Define Decoder? A device or program that translates encoded data into its original format (e.g. it decodes the data). The term is often used in reference to MPEG-2 video and sound data, which must be decoded before it is output. 60. What is Framing? Framing in the data link layer separates a message from one source to a destination, or from other messages to other destinations, by adding a sender address and a destination address. The destination address defines where the packet has to go and the sender address helps the recipient acknowledge the receipt. 61. What is Fixed Size Framing? In fixed-size framing, there is no need for defining the boundaries of the frames. The size itself can be used as a delimiter. 62. Define Character Stuffing? In byte stuffing (or character stuffing), a special byte is added to the data section of the frame when there is a character with the same pattern as the flag. The data section is stuffed with an extra byte. This byte is usually called the escape character (ESC), which has a predefined bit pattern. Whenever the receiver encounters the ESC character, it removes it from the data section and treats the next character as data, not a delimiting flag. 63. What is Bit Stuffing? Bit stuffing is the process of adding one extra 0 whenever five consecutive Is follow a 0 in the data, so that the receiver does not mistake the pattern 0111110 for a flag.

64. What is Flow Control? Flow control refers to a set of procedures used to restrict the amount of data that the sender can send before waiting for acknowledgment. 65. What is Error Control ? Error control is both error detection and error correction. It allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damaged in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. In the data link layer, the term error control refers primarily to methods of error detection and retransmission. 66. What Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ)? Error control is both error detection and error correction. It allows the receiver to inform the sender of any frames lost or damaged in transmission and coordinates the retransmission of those frames by the sender. In the data link layer, the term error control refers primarily to methods of error detection and retransmission. Error control in the data link layer is often implemented simply: Any time an error is detected in an exchange, specified frames are retransmitted. This process is called automatic repeat request (ARQ). 67. What is Stop-and-Wait Protocol? In Stop and wait protocol, sender sends one frame, waits until it receives confirmation from the receiver (okay to go ahead), and then sends the next frame. 68. What is Stop-and-Wait Automatic Repeat Request? Error correction in Stop-and-Wait ARQ is done by keeping a copy of the sent frame and retransmitting of the frame when the timer expires. 69. What is usage of Sequence Number in Relaible Transmission? The protocol specifies that frames need to be numbered. This is done by using sequence numbers. A field is added to the data frame to hold the sequence number of that frame. Since we want to minimize the frame size, the smallest range that provides unambiguous communication. The sequence numbers can wrap around. 70. What is Pipelining ? In networking and in other areas, a task is often begun before the previous task has ended. This is known as pipelining. 71. What is Sliding Window? The sliding window is an abstract concept that defines the range of sequence numbers that is the concern of the sender and receiver. In other words, he sender and receiver need to deal with only part of the possible sequence numbers. 72. What is Piggy Backing? A technique called piggybacking is used to improve the efficiency of the bidirectional protocols. When a frame is carrying data from A to B, it can also carry control information about arrived (or lost) frames

from B; when a frame is carrying data from B to A, it can also carry control information about the arrived (or lost) frames from A. 73. What are the two types of transmission technology available? (i) Broadcast and (ii) point-to-point 74. What is subnet? A generic term for section of a large networks usually separated by a bridge or router. 75. Difference between the communication and transmission. Transmission is a physical movement of information and concern issues like bit polarity, synchronisation, clock etc. Communication means the meaning full exchange of information between two communication media. 76. What are the possible ways of data exchange? (i) Simplex (ii) Half-duplex (iii) Full-duplex. 77. What is SAP? Series of interface points that allow other computers to communicate with the other layers of network protocol stack. 78. What do you meant by "triple X" in Networks? The function of PAD (Packet Assembler Disassembler) is described in a document known as X.3. The standard protocol has been defined between the terminal and the PAD, called X.28; another standard protocol exists between hte PAD and the network, called X.29. Together, these three recommendations are often called "triple X". 79. What is frame relay, in which layer it comes? Frame relay is a packet switching technology. It will operate in the data link layer. 80. What is terminal emulation, in which layer it comes? Telnet is also called as terminal emulation. It belongs to application layer. 81. What is Beaconing? The process that allows a network to self-repair networks problems. The stations on the network notify the other stations on the ring when they are not receiving the transmissions. Beaconing is used in Token ring and FDDI networks. 82. What is redirector? Redirector is software that intercepts file or prints I/O requests and translates them into network requests. This comes under presentation layer.

83. What is NETBIOS and NETBEUI? NETBIOS is a programming interface that allows I/O requests to be sent to and received from a remote computer and it hides the networking hardware from applications. NETBEUI is NetBIOS extended user interface. A transport protocol designed by microsoft and IBM for the use on small subnets. 84. What is RAID? A method for providing fault tolerance by using multiple hard disk drives. 85. What is passive topology? When the computers on the network simply listen and receive the signal, they are referred to as passive because they don't amplify the signal in any way. Example for passive topology -linear bus. 86. What is Brouter? Hybrid devices that combine the features of both bridges and routers. 87. What is cladding? A layer of a glass surrounding the center fiber of glass inside a fiber-optic cable. 88. What is point-to-point protocol? A communications protocol used to connect computers to remote networking services including Internet service providers. 89. How Gateway is different from Routers? A gateway operates at the upper levels of the OSI model and translates information between two completely different network architectures or data formats. 90. What is attenuation? The degeneration of a signal over distance on a network cable is called attenuation. 91. What is MAC address? The address for a device as it is identified at the Media Access Control (MAC) layer in the network architecture. MAC address is usually stored in ROM on the network adapter card and is unique. 92. Difference between bit rate and baud rate. Bit rate is the number of bits transmitted during one second whereas baud rate refers to the number of signal units per second that are required to represent those bits. baud rate = (bit rate / N) where N is no-of-bits represented by each signal shift. 93. What is Bandwidth?

Every line has an upper limit and a lower limit on the frequency of signals it can carry. This limited range is called the bandwidth. 94. What are the types of Transmission media? Signals are usually transmitted over some transmission media that are broadly classified in to two categories. a.) Guided Media: These are those that provide a conduit from one device to another that include twisted-pair, coaxial cable and fiber-optic cable. A signal traveling along any of these media is directed and is contained by the physical limits of the medium. Twisted-pair and coaxial cable use metallic that accept and transport signals in the form of electrical current. Optical fiber is a glass or plastic cable that accepts and transports signals in the form of light. b.) Unguided Media: This is the wireless media that transport electromagnetic waves without using a physical conductor. Signals are broadcast either through air. This is done through radio communication, satellite communication and cellular telephony. 95. What is Project 802? It is a project started by IEEE to set standards to enable intercommunication between equipment from a variety of manufacturers. It is a way for specifying functions of the physical layer, the data link layer and to some extent the network layer to allow for interconnectivity of major LAN protocols. It consists of the following: 1. 802.1 is an internetworking standard for compatibility of different LANs and MANs across protocols. 2. 802.2 Logical link control (LLC) is the upper sublayer of the data link layer which is nonarchitecture-specific, that is remains the same for all IEEE-defined LANs. 3. Media access control (MAC) is the lower sublayer of the data link layer that contains some distinct modules each carrying proprietary information specific to the LAN product being used. The modules are Ethernet LAN (802.3), Token ring LAN (802.4), Token bus LAN (802.5). 4. 802.6 is distributed queue dual bus (DQDB) designed to be used in MANs. 96. What is Protocol Data Unit? The data unit in the LLC level is called the protocol data unit (PDU). The PDU contains of four fields a destination service access point (DSAP), a source service access point (SSAP), a control field and an information field. DSAP, SSAP are addresses used by the LLC to identify the protocol stacks on the receiving and sending machines that are generating and using the data. The control field specifies whether the PDU frame is a information frame (I - frame) or a supervisory frame (S - frame) or a unnumbered frame (U - frame). 97. What are the different type of networking / internetworking devices? 1. Repeater: Also called a regenerator, it is an electronic device that operates only at physical layer. It receives the signal in the network before it becomes weak, regenerates the original bit pattern and puts the refreshed copy back in to the link. 2. Bridges: These operate both in the physical and data link layers of LANs of same type. They divide a larger network in to smaller segments. They contain logic that allow them to keep the traffic for each segment separate and thus are repeaters that relay a frame only the side of the segment containing the intended recipent and control congestion.

3. Routers: They relay packets among multiple interconnected networks (i.e. LANs of different type). They operate in the physical, data link and network layers. They contain software that enable them to determine which of the several possible paths is the best for a particular transmission. 4. Gateways: They relay packets among networks that have different protocols (e.g. between a LAN and a WAN). They accept a packet formatted for one protocol and convert it to a packet formatted for another protocol before forwarding it. They operate in all seven layers of the OSI model. 98. What is ICMP? ICMP is Internet Control Message Protocol, a network layer protocol of the TCP/IP suite used by hosts and gateways to send notification of datagram problems back to the sender. It uses the echo test / reply to test whether a destination is reachable and responding. It also handles both control and error messages. 99. What are the data units at different layers of the TCP / IP protocol suite? The data unit created at the application layer is called a message, at the transport layer the data unit created is called either a segment or an user datagram, at the network layer the data unit created is called the datagram, at the data link layer the datagram is encapsulated in to a frame and finally transmitted as signals along the transmission media. 100. What is difference between ARP and RARP? The address resolution protocol (ARP) is used to associate the 32 bit IP address with the 48 bit physical address, used by a host or a router to find the physical address of another host on its network by sending a ARP query packet that includes the IP address of the receiver. The reverse address resolution protocol (RARP) allows a host to discover its Internet address when it knows only its physical address. 101. What is the minimum and maximum length of the header in the TCP segment and IP datagram? The header should have a minimum length of 20 bytes and can have a maximum length of 60 bytes. 102. What is the range of addresses in the classes of internet addresses? Class A Class B Class C Class D Class E 0.0.0.0 128.0.0.0 192.0.0.0 224.0.0.0 240.0.0.0 127.255.255.255 191.255.255.255 223.255.255.255 239.255.255.255 247.255.255.255

103. What is the difference between TFTP and FTP application layer protocols? The Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) allows a local host to obtain files from a remote host but does not provide reliability or security. It uses the fundamental packet delivery services offered by UDP. The File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is the standard mechanism provided by TCP / IP for copying a file from one host to another. It uses the services offer by TCP and so is reliable and secure. It establishes two connections (virtual circuits) between the hosts, one for data transfer and another for control information.

104. What are major types of networks and explain? 1. Server-based network: provide centralized control of network resources and rely on server computers to provide security and network administration 2. Peer-to-peer network: computers can act as both servers sharing resources and as clients using the resources. 105. What are the important topologies for networks? 1. BUS topology: In this each computer is directly connected to primary network cable in a single line. Advantages: Inexpensive, easy to install, simple to understand, easy to extend. 2. STAR topology: In this all computers are connected using a central hub. Advantages: Can be inexpensive, easy to install and reconfigure and easy to trouble shoot physical problems. 3. RING topology: In this all computers are connected in loop. Advantages: All computers have equal access to network media, installation can be simple, and signal does not degrade as much as in other topologies because each computer regenerates it. 106. What is mesh network? A network in which there are multiple network links between computers to provide multiple paths for data to travel. 107. What is difference between baseband and broadband transmission? In a baseband transmission, the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. In broadband transmission, signals are sent on multiple frequencies, allowing multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. 108. Explain 5-4-3 rule? In a Ethernet network, between any two points on the network ,there can be no more than five network segments or four repeaters, and of those five segments only three of segments can be populated. 109. What MAU? In token Ring , hub is called Multistation Access Unit(MAU). 110. What is the difference between routable and non- routable protocols? Routable protocols can work with a router and can be used to build large networks. Non-Routable protocols are designed to work on small, local networks and cannot be used with a router. 111. Why should you care about the OSI Reference Model? It provides a framework for discussing network operations and design. 112. What is logical link control? One of two sublayers of the data link layer of OSI reference model, as defined by the IEEE 802 standard. This sublayer is responsible for maintaining the link between computers when they are sending data across the physical network connection.

113. What is virtual channel? Virtual channel is normally a connection from one source to one destination, although multicast connections are also permitted. The other name for virtual channel is virtual circuit. 114. What is virtual path? Along any transmission path from a given source to a given destination, a group of virtual circuits can be grouped together into what is called path. 115. What is packet filter? Packet filter is a standard router equipped with some extra functionality. The extra functionality allows every incoming or outgoing packet to be inspected. Packets meeting some criterion are forwarded normally. Those that fail the test are dropped. 116. What is traffic shaping? One of the main causes of congestion is that traffic is often busy. If hosts could be made to transmit at a uniform rate, congestion would be less common. Another open loop method to help manage congestion is forcing the packet to be transmitted at a more predictable rate. This is called traffic shaping. 117. What is multicast routing? Sending a message to a group is called multicasting, and its routing algorithm is called multicast routing. 118. What is region? When hierarchical routing is used, the routers are divided into what we will call regions, with each router knowing all the details about how to route packets to destinations within its own region, but knowing nothing about the internal structure of other regions. 119. What is silly window syndrome? It is a problem that can ruin TCP performance. This problem occurs when data are passed to the sending TCP entity in large blocks, but an interactive application on the receiving side reads 1 byte at a time. 120. What are Digrams and Trigrams? The most common two letter combinations are called as digrams. e.g. th, in, er, re and an. The most common three letter combinations are called as trigrams. e.g. the, ing, and, and ion. 121. Expand IDEA. IDEA stands for International Data Encryption Algorithm. 122. What is wide-mouth frog? Wide-mouth frog is the simplest known key distribution center (KDC) authentication protocol. 123. What is Mail Gateway? It is a system that performs a protocol translation between different electronic mail delivery protocols.

124. What is IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol)? It is any routing protocol used within an autonomous system. 125. What is EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol)? It is the protocol the routers in neighboring autonomous systems use to identify the set of networks that can be reached within or via each autonomous system. 126. What is autonomous system? It is a collection of routers under the control of a single administrative authority and that uses a common Interior Gateway Protocol. 127. What is BGP (Border Gateway Protocol)? It is a protocol used to advertise the set of networks that can be reached with in an autonomous system. BGP enables this information to be shared with the autonomous system. This is newer than EGP (Exterior Gateway Protocol). 128. What is Gateway-to-Gateway protocol? It is a protocol formerly used to exchange routing information between Internet core routers. 129. What is NVT (Network Virtual Terminal)? It is a set of rules defining a very simple virtual terminal interaction. The NVT is used in the start of a Telnet session. 130. What is a Multi-homed Host? It is a host that has a multiple network interfaces and that requires multiple IP addresses is called as a Multi-homed Host. 131. What is Kerberos? It is an authentication service developed at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Kerberos uses encryption to prevent intruders from discovering passwords and gaining unauthorized access to files. 132. What is OSPF? It is an Internet routing protocol that scales well, can route traffic along multiple paths, and uses knowledge of an Internet's topology to make accurate routing decisions. 133. What is Proxy ARP? It is using a router to answer ARP requests. This will be done when the originating host believes that a destination is local, when in fact is lies beyond router. 134. What is SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol)? It is a very simple protocol used for transmission of IP datagrams across a serial line.

135. What is RIP (Routing Information Protocol)? It is a simple protocol used to exchange information between the routers. 136. What is source route? It is a sequence of IP addresses identifying the route a datagram must follow. A source route may optionally be included in an IP datagram header.