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I . Hardenin& Tempering ilnd
Hear Treatment
Tubal Cain
2. Vertical Milling in the Home
Arnold Tnrop
3. Screwcutting in the L.lthe

Martin Cleeve
4. Foundrywork for tile Amateur
B.T. Aspin
5. Milling Operations in the Lathe
Tubal Cain
6. Me,lSuring and MarkinB Metals
Ivan law
7. The Art of Weldmg
W.A. Vau!te
8. Sheet Metal Work
R.E. Wakeford
9. Soldering iJnd Brazing
Tubal Cain
10. Saw's and Sclwing
lan Bradley
1 1 ffee/rop/alioS
J. Poyner
12. Drills. Taps and Dies
Tubal Cam
13 Workshop Drawing
Tubal Cain
Making Small Workshop
S. Bray

15 . Workholding in the Lathe
Tubal Cain
16. ElectriC Motors
V.l. Cox
17 . C e a r ~ and Gear Cutting
I. Law
18. Basic Benchwork
les Oldtidge
19. Spring Des/g" imd ManufiJcture
Tubal Cain
20. Metalwork and Machining
Hints and Tips
lan Bradley

1. Hardening, Tempering and Heat Treatment
In this valuable book Tubal Cain takes the reader beyond the superficial or
the simply practical with explanations of the composition of steel, its
additives, and the effects of different temperatures on its constituents. With
a grasp of what changes are actually taking place in the metal the care
needed in following the practical processes described becomes under-
standable and will lead to better and more consistent results. Flame, salt
bath and furnace heating are detailed, with information on accurate
measurement or recognition of temperature levels.
For the average small workshop operative or model engineer the
discourses on tool material , hardening and tempering will be of most use,
and in this connection this book replaces the earlier "Hardening and
Tempering Engineers' Tools", providing a broader-based, more detailed
and Lip to date examination of the subject.

ISBN 0- 242-837-5

. . ..
for model engineers

Tubal Cain
ArV"" 10<+'
ArIJUll H _
H.,. H....-.:I
HI'tI.".,....,. HP2 7ST
Cl IIooU lid HI84
Steond "'PI.""" I m
1987, 1988. 1990
All roghll , .... , No PM of lh .. JlUbhCl" """"" t..
_oducood in IiIV loom. by 11"111. l>I>otou'." ..... mOCf<lliltl>
Of "'v 01'* _ .. won .. "....... ......... _ '''''


Ch.pl 1 I,on 11< SIHI
Ch.Iopl lt 2 Principles 01 the H"lIttni"ll P,oeen
" Cto.oop l .. 3 Hea'ing.nd Quenching in PtK,kI
" Ch.IoPllt 4
Ch.Ioptl< 5 Hea'ing Elluiprr.-m
Ch.Iopl .. 7 Om.. Hu, T, ' ........ ' P,oe ".
Ch.Ioptl< 8 Thoo M .............. ' o' H.'cIo .... ..
Home eormructoon 01 F .. ,_
Chlptl<10 Slfery Pteau,ions
'" AppI<Idi. 1 n. .. moc:oul>lH.nd Pyrome,,"
AppI<Idi.2 Carbon Sleel Cunlng ToolI
Ap.,.ndi.3 Bri,ish SlInd.,d 51 ' 5pe<:ific"k>n Numbets
'" 4 HBtdnBSS Convtt,.ionl
Iron & Steel

If "Know you. Enemv" is p.udent coun .... 1
10< Ihe soldier. Ihen eually SO musl be
"Know vou. Male.lal." for Ihe e"9in ..... -
model a. olhefWise. Importanl enoullh
wh"" Ih. malerial. a.e 10 be cuI Or
formed. buI e.en mOre SO when we
propose 10 all.r Ihel. characI islics. And
lhere can be few wch alle'&lloo$ so
lrem. 11 when we COnV8rt a ,.Iallyely
0011 and ductile maler;al into one which is
hard enough 10 aCIII. cuning 1001. So. I
make no excu .... lor Ihis inilial 8)(p10<81ion
of Ihe nalure 01 i,on and 51 .... 1. You can
"skip" Ihe chaple. if vou wish - il may be
Ihet ;1 lells you nolhing new. and could
well ... em la be Irrelevant if all vou wanl
10 tIo i, 10 ha.den a scribe, POin!1 Bulla
begIn 81 11'1. beginning is always <I sound
po!io;:y. end I hope '(DU will beer wilh me: il
won' l lake lonol
Pure Iron. known as FERRITE to Ihe
melels specielist. il a rela tivelV SOft
maleriel. with a lensile slfenglh of abouI
24 tonI/SQ . n and quit. ducti I 11 can be
drawn InlO line wi,,,,, and rolled Inlo Ihin
Olat .... - 800.,1 the only uses for ;t in
practice Ihese days.. 11 is chemically very
Hacliva". combining readilv wllh many
01"'" subSlances. SO th81 melallic iron is
wldom found In nalu.a despite Iha ' ''''t
Ihll il is 11'1. mOSI abundanl 01 earthlv
male,ial . [The Eerth. care is almosl
whOIlV Iron.) The eotnmon ore. ara in Ihe
fOfm 01 o.ides. some. nolablv Haema, i'e.
90% le.n.:: o.ide wnilsl otne1$ may
contain as IInle as 25%. 11'1. remainder
being lime Or s;lica based stone. Olhe.
type. of 0<8 CDnlain i,on Carbonlles. Ind a
.ery abundanl "",ree Is Iron Pyriles -
i.on tulphide and seldom uMd in
the manulaclure of iron di.eclly,
I,on is ",,"acled from the 0", in a Blast
Furnace - Fig. 1. Even in early limes Ihese
we,. I.,ga Sltuclures. 001 ladav Ihey are
huga. The "hearth" al Ihe bonom is 45
feet across _ and lha stad 100 fael Of
more ln heigh,. whh anolhe. 100 feel 01
"lop hamper" above. A medium sl. ad
/u,n&ce will COIllaln 50.000 cu. feel of
male.l., .fld will "make" 9000 Ions!
week: Fig 2. Tha 1.,ge.1 furnace In this
counlry is designed lor 10.000 IonS per
dlJY od keeping I1 led wilh rlw malerial.
i, a major parr 01 ,he pia", O(Ief1ltOfS
concern I
Thew raw mal.,,.I, are iron 0<., <:Oke
l,he luaf) and limestone to ltel as I "'lux"
SO Ihallhe slony mine, in the ore mlJY be
su/ficienllv fluid when meiled. These
malerials. blended and sinlered ;nlo e
uniform sl.a afld composition r. fMf In I1
Ihs lop. Prehealed eir is blown In at Ihs
bollom. Ihrough ,he .. Iuye'e .... aoo this air
forms by far Ihe I"gesl mass 01 mllerlal
' ..
'. '
used. Though fr ... IllIn to be
compressed 10 from 30 10 45 Ib/sq.in. and
hee,ed 10 .,oun<! 750 C. using turbo-
comprellSOfS of 10.000 HP Or more, and
""p.moll. "stov .. ' to achieve \ha
,equirMl lamper"l,,""
Combustion 01 1he coke 81 ,h" hnnll
result. In .. high tamperalU'" and 1he
producl;on of cerbQn d/(J.ide. This lane,
reacts with Ihe .... ry 1101 coke is
reduced 10 carbon mono.ide. This, In \urn,
reacls wnh th" "on ,,.id,, on 1he Ofe 10
,,,mOve 1he O'vgen content. When the
gases reach lh" 1"" 01 the fum"". they
will contain about 27% catbon mono.Kle.
" I"tle hydrO{lel'l, and ,h" 'eS1 is carbon
die,id" and nitrogen: i1 i very uRtul
luelllU. BV ,h",ime 1h" "burden" r.aches
Ill .. lowe, part ol lhe lurn...,., Ihe Ilu> and
stone .. ,ill begin 10 combine 10 form a slag
which melt. and runs down through 1he
coke. Slightly lower down 1he iron also
melts. B01h slag and iron collect in the
hea'lh ..... ith the lIIag lloating on top. At
pe.iodic intervals Ihe slag i. lapped olf
Ih,ough one IIole and the i,on /,om
anothe being collected in .ail ..... ay l&dlus.
the /o.me, being used lor road metal or
cement making and the iron eithe< casl
inlo "pigs" for lhe foundry or taken,
molten. 10 the Bleelworks.
Outing the final pan 01 .h;' pn:>ce-S' Ihe
molten iron Is in dose conlact ..... "h very
IIot coke and ..... ill absorb up to 4% of
cafbon. (This not sound much unlil I
lell \'<>U that. chunk of iron 0)1 22 inch
cube will conlain IS much car\xln as I
of cokell The importanl thing 10
apprsCiete al Ihi. Stage is lhat lhe iron
and carbon lorm a sO/ulio:>n. jusl like the
wge' in \'<>Ur lea. Aft.r passlr>glhrough a
paSIV stage whit", cooling the iron
$Olidifiss at about 1130 C. end we r>OW
have a so/id $Olulion 01 iron IFs"itel and
carbon. bm wilh $Ome of 'he carbon r>OW
combining 10 form an I,on carbide.
How...,., . 85 lhe melal cool. funhe. It.
capacily 10 diuolve carbon diminishes.
and $Ome 'Ir.s carbon appear, .1 Ihs
grllin boundaries as graph;'e. The final
sla,e does depend some ..... h.t on IIow 1 ... 1
flg. l 5_ ot ___ ... , -. ..... "' ... "' _
" ___ ot_",-
the melal ha. <:oolad. bUI ,n. "gray" cas'
i"'" which we use .... iII appear under I;'"
microsCOpe I. small agglomerations
19"insl or iron carblda and Ferrite
Cl"{S1I15. surroundad by flakes of graphila.
(Fig.311f Ihe cooling is rapid then more of
lhe carbon .... ill remain as carbide and lhe
metal .... ill be while. and harder. Henc, lI>e
oc:usional "'hard spot"" al Ihe cor"". 01 a
thin <;IIs,ing; the malal hes cooled too fu,.
I"'" in th's form is very useful; il can be
o;8SI Into complex Shope. and is vary
S\I'O-ng in compression. Bu, il is less Strong
in lansion and rather brill le; II cannol be'
lMnt or fo'ged. It is useless for edged 1001.
and for many m8chine pans. Very early in
I"," history 01 metals means ..... ere sough,
10 render "'I"","' mOre ductile. The ... led 10
'he manufaclure of IRON.
using a procass wl>ich remOVad moll of
lhe carbon from tha Iron made In the
bl ,-furnll<:a. Pig"ron was melted In a
C081 0< ool< .... Ii'ed furnace !Fjg.4J lined
.... ilh male.ial a large '""",nl of
iron oxide. A cenl;n amount d' o.ide .... as
also charged with Ihe pig-lron. AboUI 4
c ..... l ..... as maltad " e&d'l n..! and ..... han
molten .... n. 01 course. In Intima'e COntll<:!
.... ill> Ihe oo.idel- The <el<lll ..... 8. Ihal the
carbon in Ihe iron comblnad .... i,h the
oxygen in Ih, oxides ,0 fo.m carbon
dio><ide - Ihe .eaclion ..... as Quite violent.\
limes ..... i1h the melal appearing 10 "boIl'.
The process was lICCeleraleC by the
flg."_" ",,_ .... _ .... _F, '.' __ "'","._5,"",' ... _, ,s.." ...... '-__
--"''''''''*_."" .. ,,-..., .. - .... - ....... _'''"-_ .......... ''''-_ ....
_12C ___ "_.c ...... ,."',."Stoo/c __
' 'L!: __ ...... ".. .,"'"
, ... _r_ ... _M __ ... _ ' ......
... _ ........ _ ...... -
.... ho ",ItbIJul' o. ,Iif,ldlhe
INIth wnh .n iron 1Nl. IWsperde<l from'
Now. lhe melung pO:nt o. lron d'p"nds
upan il' e.rt>on o;onlenl. wnh pig melting
al .boul 1130 C ,nd pure i.on al .bout
1600. C. As Ihe cerbon cOOl.n. ' ell.
lhe ... O ... p.tty m ...... ppeared in Ihe
mell .nd lhe .. clung 10 the end of Ihe
puddIe.s .. bbl,. Wh.., Ihis "bill" was u
lerge .. he eould hl:ndle M extrllClld It
from IhaI fu .... c:- .nd immedialely ,.,1 il
undeL lhe !UP 01 meeh.nicel hl:m",..
(Fiu.-5,) The hl:mmerir'LQ d!OY1l out most of
IM tllII In tM: INII .neS It IhaI .. me lime
fo<mtod It InID be.. no. prDl:*$S w ..
_.Ied untrt III IM i.on h..:l been
from ,'" fum.c:-. her wtllch
M fu.nac. w,lla _re f. n led with trnh
o. kIe on IhaI lining ,nd .h.., .ech.a'ged.
About fix hull could be work"" in
norm.1 , 2..nour .... Ih.
The be .. ' .om , he hammer were CuI
InlO con",ni.nl lengl h. ,nd boun<!
IOIJI IM' rflQ9Oled'-1 w;lh i,on w ..... Ind
It"",., bundle. _.. then reM""" ID
lemperllu'" .nd inlD
billltL This "' ........ could be reptllJIC
_.- timH. each ._1Ied mor. oI lht
... main:ng 1119 and wNll ... n !eh .... s '"
IM form oI,hln ,'fHks..
The Qu.lity kr>OWn ., "B f" w,. mell
... l>ich had bHn laggo,ed twLC<l. Be"
Be.t" was made lrom faggoled .. B ....
ba", .nd '1'.91>" Bu t"' from flggoleQ
--BeST Bet"-, "B,," bars would have a
tensil' ,trenglh .Iong .he grain ollh. '1811
of aboul 23 lonI/SQ.in. whilsl 1'.eblu
Best millhl r.ach 2B 1<>LV",.ln. The
tt nlllh .crou Ih' fibrn would be abou'
15" teSl IhI: process c.nnol complete",
,Iimln." .11 IM 51.g Ind ,his fmm. ,
fibrous 1I ..... :lu.. within the m"eri.1
u ..... ,he mlo"<MC<IP'I ,he main I>ody- 01
lhe me. ,I" .Imos, pu .. Fernl . Inl-..-'
Md wilh baond.oI5IlIIas '"" in Fig. 5
Wroughl Iron ..... 100 soft for u,., .. ,
cu"'r'LQ ,001 . nd from lhe .aLl;'" limu
Mw "..1,,1.1. h,ving c.rbon con nl
midw.y belW,," w,oughl iron .nd Clot
i.on.. wu m,de hom besl QUl llt ..
" l/OOled ba ... Thi. wlS (;IIlleQ STEEL. .nd
Iny re f".nce '0 metal of Ihis na me
previou. 10 .boul 1 B56 muSI be alllumed
10 epply to Ihi . ,nd nollO Ih. "mi ld" ,,,e'
_ know lod.y The AP"CI"ty selecled
' It . n ......... .. " ." ____ - .,. d,
_ ... : ," 4
.. 13 In. wide . ,f in. Ihickl we,. hell""
In ' bOX co.u.inirlU chl:.coal for periolll o.
8 10 to de,.- " IImp"flIU" of ,boul
,000 C. OU.inll ,hi. lime . h, i, on
c:-tbon .nd IS lhe be ... were
rellr liVIIV Ih'" Ih'- absorp,ion pent""'"
IIghI through. Mu ... w"e "",..:6ed fo<
""""".wino 1"'.0.. !mm lime ID time
"'US erudo: 'orm of Quslity conlrol.
lOP 10 15 Ions 11. time could be trllledl
l1M u rban con"n, could be r-ou""ty
r;>oruroll"" by !hi "nolh of ,he hell, 00. if
100 . hOf! .h. ""neUllion would be
In<:Ompl . ... Carbon con'ent could ","ve.
be below . bou. O.s,,;. bUI could easily be
,.h.", 10 1.5" for le.g_1 lhe muking 01
.. -
Th. proc,lS w.s ca ll.d I h.
"c.m.nlllion p.oce"" and lhou"" h wu
, ff ective lhe IIItticulty WIS thl:l,he Cltbon
conlenl v.rled ' rom bar 10 b;I. ,nd "'..,
8Iong tM: llnolh 01 singl. b4r To
owrcome Ihis. Benjamin Hunts"..n In
1744 found .... _ of mehing !hi bao,.
.h" c:-ment,lLOR. (11 ... ift be appreeialed
!h.I' ID mlk eruc:ib" wh:ch would .IIneS
up 10 'M leml)l<.'u ..... n .. 'ied was very
difficult" Ih., . i",.). f unhe,. M uwd
only pIg-l. on .m.lted uling ch COII I
fu. l. Ihu. ,limin,,1ng Ihe impu'ili ..
II)hoSphoru$ .nd IWI"hur) erising horn
cok. luel. Alter ""menling" Ih. wroughl
iron In lhot ulW.' w' Y he mell"" brolr.en UP
114,. _ .bout 50 lb. " time - in lpICial
cley crucible .. This looir .boul 5 hou ...
The contents of IhaI cruc:1bIe _ re l hen
ClII lruo p,, -he .. "". splil. ellt-I.on
moukh ID ' mm bars. S,eel made by tl>1.
PI'OC . .. w it _ and is - kno ... n IS
"Crucible S,..r or "c.sl Steel". By
",,,fully .. lecting I'" tn':11I1 CI""nl'"
bell _ tnd .... ",11. ulir'LQ p' "e. from
diff .. ..,1 bell made In IIifferefl, MII.
.... '" unifo<m Qu.li ty could be acl>iewd. ler
IU:iMlrior ' 0 lhe old 1<H:.,led "bli.",
1t .. 1". The CIS' bill could ba
wellktd Iwhh some CI.e) 10 m.k. l.rgtI'
P_. m. fm very large objKU. _"I
Cruc:ibltrl casl inlO ...... (sand) mould. The
l1eel COUld. 01 COUfM, be """"'''''' (in lhe
I"hion Iller ID t.. described - u..f' ....... t
Ih .. bool is Iboul l) but l, ... u ,, __ .Iy
uMd .. mply as lough. .ILOng _,...-I,
h mly _m odd tmrl _ .... , meb ,
m"lfill hIgtt In Clrbon, u- ... movor mo.l
of i,. and Il",lty. ecId carbon '0 produce
m" .. 1I1 of lhot ."""Ired _Iysi . bul
li" I, .enaclion will allow IhI:,.a eec:h '''P
Ilso IIfiL>l'd Ihe i,on. 10 som, e. "n.
removing Impuri'iu. and lhe IIn81 l1.p
inlfoduced ,he cl rbon in the fo.m il was
n,t-ded. Ih' p,oceosl, 001 It Illogic.1 .. il
... m . The MUnlllfltlln c",clbl. process
w" In uN until Qui" re<:enlty nd lhot ..
mly be , lew &m, 1I phln .. still "",,"lino
BUI the "ce.1 Ileer- (or. 10 be mor.
clilirule. I':lgh-c .. bon sleel) 01 lodey i.
midi _,nty In .Ieel ric fumac ... and lhot
Cltbon a<IcIId lllreelly Into lhe mell. wilh
very aopI\itriCl.ed melhDlb of .n.lysi.
uMd 10conlroilhe finll Quslity_
n.. MILO STHL we use .odey wll
oriuon,lly .. g.rded loon of
i.on made try di"';l removlIl 01 c.rbon. SO
.voidlng ,he Iroubl800fTl8 Ilag inclutio ....
Ind .hu in,1,I PlO"nlS 01 Menry Beuem,r
wer. 10' 1 "MW wa y 01 ma king w,ought
iron", Thil h. did by bIowing'If Ihrough,
.... ssel ch ged wilh molten I.on, Ind SO
burning ou he c.rbon. Utl,r. Ih' OPtn-
hn"h proce ... inlroduced by ThomH.nd
GUch.i" lboul IB7B. e Uec"d Ih.
con .... '1lon try ,he 'elCl_ between lhe
molten balh.nd the furnace linIng Todey
ho"' ..... .. ..-. mild or low CIfbon
"eel it made by oxygen Ihrough
..-c'''''' "El" con,ainirlU perheo- 300
,_ of moll.., iron. brough, diNC' hom
lhe bles' fu.nac. . Alloying ."ments .11
I(IcIId (Including ,he _nlial cartlDn) ..
reQUired. bul directly imo the molten belh.
,"her , hl:n .. in .h. camen,,1ion P'_N.
SPECIAL STEELS - high alloy. stainless.
...cl .., on. ... maoe IJy mel lOng "mikr
SIHI In .n elac:lric .re Iu...- .nd. 19";".
adding the alloying .lernenl. 10 lhe bem.
firsl model engi .... rs Md bul
11.... I."ou. malerial. ,,,,II,bI. - CUt
iron. WrO\lllhl iron and ""HI" - Ioday Ih'
choic;e I, bewildering. Ind .... .., ca$! iron
may be had in dozen. 01 g,ade nd
For _ pr_nl P"'P'1I .... howto ..... _
.nt COi .... m..t only w,lh 1'- wI>ich a ..
.. nkad a. "ceobon ,001 .Iee"' ... In geAlf.'
" M,'d" 11 1 will conl.in lram 0.05% up
10 0.2" ca,bQn and "M.cIium" caobon
"HI Up 10 pe,hapt 0 6'IC.. ThHe lasl c.n
be lougt>enMI by heat tt lmenl. bu, not
haode,*, ... trocie<llly lor CUllln\l looia.
- caobon Tool SleeI" wll conl';n from
0.75" Up 10 IS much 15" carbon
(NowadayS almosl III ,1 .. ' will conl.in
"Ioylng .I,men\$. m."".,neM .speci,lIy.
bUI It I. Ihe ca,bon con,.n! which
" 1_
, or , .,
-Of ,""
.. " b

(!eta"""'" I .... .. nalu .. .) Above .tIout
1 .71f, carbon COilt ... , lhe .... 1101 wi. be
'call iron-. A general distoncllon mar"'"
be found cerbon "HI
whlctl <;Onl'i"' a ",le only carbon and .
liWe m'ngan,se IS ,'.m.nI5. and
""Ioy" carbon 51 " which will include
nlctal. chromium. and 0' .... ' .1,m,n1$
IIuch ,s vanadium ,nd moIyI>de<Ium ..
_11 'I c.rtIon. But .11 SI .... ar, basicaltv
.'Ioys, of carbon and F..,i,. f pori iron-'
and In m.nV case. The !)O .. ,nca 01 Olhol r
"Ioying .Ie",,"I' (Mr..,i.Uy in - plain
" .. ,,) cIoel no mo .. Ih,n modify tl>e
effect of the carbon. EY.n in Ih' c'" of
t .... "high f4Hed" ,001 . ' H'I - "1oVI 01
iron, lungs,...,. cob.Ilt .nd ca,bon _ 11 is
I.... pr'Mnca of c.obon which provid.n
m .... V of lhei, propen .... It is Hkltary
.. flection lha. OUr ..-joy""'" 01 rr....a
engtn,,"ng d'p,nd, .ntire' y on Ih'
m""I" found in .he core 01 YOU' IUd
pencil I
Principles of the Hardening
Hardening hlgh-clrbon steel is easy _
people have beln doing it for ti'toullndl of
Y"'" Just his, the metal to che,..,. ,eej
.nd qu.nch in cold wate, and 11>1<. I, 1._
hard! H .......... ' . lik, the horse (which i,
, noble .... ""-' bul doll no, "w'yS
do .., . ... ") IhI, cIoH nol .lways work. ,nd
little knowledge of what IiJOI1 on Inlida
.he metal will both mah failure 'ea.lik,'y.
I nd " SO give .."", OcIea 01 whi t 10 do
when I h. occnlonal a wkwlld lob
ThoM who lind thal """" ...... ,
"do ..," .re .'w.ys wrprised how ...... i,
_ when __ who .tIout
horses t&kH O'IIrt Th". is. they w.n IIV.
noth!ng difficult Ibout It - vou jusl ... .cI tO
unden;ta nd the 'nlmal. It Is th."me with
Iteel. No.hing difficult unless you ,re
ICIUe!ty msking the stuff. and ,h't PIt! Is
dooe lor uL You m.V h..,. alight
l)IoL l. ,n wim .."". of t .... .. _ word."
U- J wm ,.pI"n H _ go 1Iong. bu,
yoo, will ,110 find I;', 11 IhI _ 01 the
book to which vou C.n reler if ....... be.
When ""Ill Iron ."rts to solit:lify the
.toms .... ,. in _iN
g . ' IItricaI IS shown in Fig.B. I
have anown t .... ' Iom, .. lill" bell, lor
clwity _ w. know lh't they don'llooio; lik,
Ihat really. but we ere nol concerned wilh
lI<>mic theory. JUII wllh h.rdenlng , t ... 1.
This .... nge.....,. Is Of n_ty
soIit:lified Iron . ...cl It-. will .Iw.ys be
nine lIomL _ . , .actt come, of c:trbe
.nd ...... ;" the cent". ,t IM 1 ....,...IIUfl .
It .. c.lted . ' BodV-cen.red cub;e"' QVlIat.
Such clVI"" 'P9'II" he"'nd lhe" in
lhe melt and I . new ones l orm th.y grow
on thoM ""ady there. Ih' Iln l. grouPl
growing larger until mer m ... , ,h,i, nelgh-
boo.>ring group. Wh"e !hit "-tong 000;:_
I ...... wijl be. disconllnUlty of thegrowm,
SO that whirl is pit:l , IooIr Ihrough the
wlM _Ioo w g ..... areal wi lh line
round them _ Fig.7. fThe cry't,l,
thelllNfvH , .. 100 om,11 '0 be ... n
___ or ____ ..
---_ .. __ .. _-
rlI71 ...... "'. ___ ........ _ -_ -
through ,n ordin.,y mk:roacopel. Thu.
.r ... B.' the .. g.lln .... AI rule. the
"",lIer Ihe Q"in. (within reason) th,
bener. ,od of llIe job of hUI unt
menl la to .. refi ..... llIe mel,l 10 ,educe
gr.in Iill. Pur. troll (F,nil,1 l.nd. IO form
... 1 ..... I.r9'lI'alns.



flt! . , .. _ ...... "' __ ' ..... _
"--'_ .... _"'" , " ... ---
Th. mel.1 now cool 1111 funher. ,nd
wh.n _ re,ch 1392' C In odd thing
h'p(HIn" Th, '.11 In remperl l ure Is
re.led lor Ihor1 whi'-. ,Imost .. if
lhere iI IOU_ of he.1 wilhin the ..... laI,
(Fig.B.! Thil is. in f""t, lhe u .. , for the
iI change I.king place in the cryslll
sttuc:lu,e which ""IU.1Iy reieflMS hilI',
(M.llllu<g;." ull lhia.n .... re51 poinl" in
the cooling of IIIe ..... 1.1), 1I you htd
A --
I 0 I-"\b
--JJ /
_____ "'_
--_ ...... .-"'--"' ... _"-
.. _--_ .... _ ... _.
suiltble equiomenl you would _ Ih'
crysttl. re""'nglng ,hem .. lvlI. ""Iu.'ly
dilinlBg'llil'lll .nd ,.forming in n,w
1>I""n, It I , 111 "cubic", bul Ihis dm.
with .n .IOm In .. ch OOfl',.e, .nd one In
IIIe cenl" 01 .. ch f.e . 14 In .11 - Fig.9.
Thl. ia cllled "FACE-<::enlfed cubic:"
cry.1I1. Ag.'n. Ihue cry.lIl. for m
tggreglle. which "-I .llhII grlin boun"
d.ne ... ""'1 tuCh. ch8n.ge Is possible may
Mtm IUrpriting. lor lhough the mel.' i.
lI<etty holll iI. lOIid. end you would h8v,
to hit it I.irfy ..... rtIy wilh I h8mm.,. 10
d>tnge i" oh.ptr, Thiogl; would _m VIfY
diff.re..., it you were _ of llIe ,toms I
E""" 11 temptr .. ture the"
would be _ dilllftOl betw .... you .nd
lilt ""xl _ ,nd ,I Ihi. high I.mptrrltu ..
you would find you had plenty 01 room,
Whit .P!M .... 10 UI I1I "lOIid" I., In fl'Cl,
onoItly Impty SIlK'. _n wilhln Ih.
CfYIlaI : It la lhe lorces which I'CI between
!I'll IlomI which give us the SIInsalion 01

NOI only Iht!, The .toms Ih.mMlv ..
.....,.t ,t.nd 'bit. T rut. they unnot ch, ..
..,..t .. they do in liquid or I "" .. but
IhtY do vib<.1I aboul Ihlir me.n
Un fKl. It 1,Ihi, vibralion which generat ..
lilt coIou,ad l;g'" we .MOCi.,e with hol
_"11. In wch circumll.nc:es it is nol 10
.... thll some of \ he "om. un d,lft
.t>oul lillle, They do Ihl. 8111h. I;ml.t
high . nd 8t this "cnllc!oj"
IImptrflture Ih.y c",y oUI complete
.. ,n,ngem.nt
As Ihl .... 111 cool. lunhet we meet Y.I
-,hllr "I .. esl point" . Ih,s time 11 9 I
ThII hlt.Id ch'fl\II back to tile orig,n,l
Body...:.nlfM:! cubic shtpe of F;g,B, ThiIl '"
Ih. "b'ighl "d" .nd .bout Ih.
ttmpefatUfl we IhouId normally u .. for
Iootring. Cooling down "iP fun"" IhI" is
Iound In .mll1 poi ... again. ,I 170' C
,.....,. la no chtnge 01 e<yIt., .INelur,
herl, but Ihi. is tile poinl .t whoch In.
..... t.1 Cln become mlgnetic. lit is some-
timl' ullM:! lhe "Cu,ie" pOinll. Thl.
change In mtgnetlc propenift un be ,
.... ful Indicator of IImp'fln u,e lor soml
All of Ih ... ch'r'I{Ie' OCCur in r.V .....
order wh.n lhe met" i. hUled, bull! lhe
" .. t poinl' Ihe mll,1 seem, 10 "h,ng
back" ,nd nol gel 'fIy hotter lor shorl
whill. Ag.in. Ihl. c.n be useful
l'""'I*'IIUfl ind'C1t1On. 1I is import,ni.
how....". to ob ... "" that w. ht.,., been
1IIki"", 01 f,,dull tlmpeolt .. " chtnge,
Though IhII ,tom. _ ,elalively mobil,
whooI; hot lhey "drift or "diffuse" ,"ht,
than "",ver'. The change lll1k. lime 10
COmplel'. The 11<'_ 01 o,hII lemtnl.
- impUrilin, or ,lloy!ng mllerill - un
"' ..... l lm .. m.ke l h. ml"mo.pho.l.
'Iower "ilL Finally, Ih ctullllmperllUrI
1I which Ihl ,rflSl poinll occur Is very
slightly 1I11t.rem whtm t.e.ling lrom Ihl!
found wh.n cooling.
,.". II<IMnc:- of carbon haor milked
elfl'Ct on the behaviour of the ..... '"
When moIlen, lhe urbon i l dissofvM:! in
lhe i.on. 11_ a.w in theltll ch'oler - 11
I. lhe .. mt for moll"" .,NI IS for USl
I,on, 0"" ImmM:!I.lleltect i.lo klwer tile
poinl 11 which IOlidiliutio<! 11.<1. 'nd. In
.do'lIon. 10 spread th. soIidilicllion
proc ... Over a lemperature "ny . The
mlgniludl 01 \hi. depression Ind Ihl
,.nge of ",'idifie. l ion
deplndl on In. .moun, of carbon p .... nt
bul In the u .. 01 (lIIyl 0 ,5" c,rbon
"'" Ihl initi., ..,rlllir""lion poinl (the
,lquldu. ' 1 i. lowered 10 .boul 1 SOO' C -
aboul 50 ' C b,low Ihlt 01 pur. I,,,,, - Ind
the "eollllul ' . whtm ,11 I. lOIid, I, nol
r,lChtd In betv.e .... ,lie ..
TWO lemptr"t ..... the mll., Is
ml'" e<yIl'lI .nd molten melll be'''8
pre .... ' log.lhllr. jYou wHI h8 .... lound lhe
a.me Ihlng wilh som. gr8del 01 101d",.
Now. tile urbon and "on are In
wh.n liquid . ml Ihis S181. pr.v.11s whin
solid .. w.lI. I hIve menlioned thi. In Ch.!
'In palling" .<>cI ;1 does nee<! SOm'
If llIe I.on .nd urbon were mllltu ..
WI .hould h ..... me.su"bIe Plnicl .. of
lhe lWO IUblllnces distributed.
They might. now...'r. OUI . ..
whin Ih. PIgment in (IlI;nl "Ules .. IhII
boU"," 01 lilt. No mill" how RneIv
9round. thest ptnlcles ItCh conllin
thounnd. 01 millions of "om'. A
"lOIulion" Is quit. different. HI .. w, hllII
IhII IndividuII .t()ms forming the dilPlf'
t.iQn, Th, leal. is Quill diffe,enl, I1 is qu'l'
I ... ibl. _ indeed. Quite norm.' - 10 find
.uch ,n .Iomic oisp."sion ("lOluTlon'" in.
fd-- _
/ 0 .
I 0 t iSlsb
<S-- --e/
,--_ .. , ......... -........ -
$011 <1 _ w'lI_m,d, ice-lolly I. an
The urbon . , .......... Iound .Ctu,'1y
within t he ferrite UV-'" lthey , .. much
..... ,let than 11>8 ferri t. Iwmlt I. &hown
In Fig. l 0. The numb41r 01 dlUOl.-.d .toml
which can be accommod.,ed in \his way
cIoel on lhe " mptUltu",n in 11'>.
ClOse 01 Iny liquid .olulionl 001 1\ also
daperKII on ,he !ype 0 1 CryllIl. ' 00. /Thil
h ..... IrfI90rtInl burinu on the herden
ing PfOC ...... _ sn.1I _lall,l. Funh ...
.' lho\Igh they at. a.l .... w,thin "'"
cf'/'SI.' 111t_ \he carbon ,toml aon dritt
or diffu .. jU11 I' CiOn the "0m, 01 iron.
Dui 1hi' dri ll c.on oceu, " .ny HmI. not
1"'1 .1 the ." .. , lempe"'u",. W. "",11
... I.,.r lhe\ the iron .nd carbon .tom.
can "10 be preMnl In 1he form of
-CompOUnd"' _ ifOl1 - but rh;'
.....0 not c;onUm \1$ 11 IM ITI()tnenL
To .. ,urn ID our <Mw .... lIOIidifled m.'aI.
the li .. , .nOCI 0' lh' carbon hI. be." 10
dep,'" ,h, m"hing poOn, .nd 10 cau ...
".nly 11aoe during Once
SOlid. \h' ca<bon i, found in 101k! IOlu';on.
In addition. how .. ,... 'M P< .... nce 01
carbon Inhlbi ... the fits. uy.U,1 fotm found
In pu .. iron. n.. me1-' toIidiliel directly
In.o 'M Fact .. ce." .. cul);c form 01 FIQ 9.
bul Wi.h m,ny 01 'M crys.,1 . ,om. con ..
Utinlng c,rbon ,'ona." -'>own in Fig 10
The<e It; NO ........ poIn. II I 392C. TIt ..
"Solid Sol", ic"", w!lh Ilcl-al""'td
crysllll. It; call"" ""USTENITE' . lIer the
mellllu'gill Si, Wlllilm AUI'en. who fi <s'
kllo, lh d It. G,.in. 01 c'V."'1 , re found.
.. In .h. case 01 pur' I, on.
Still following OIl' 0.5" ca.bon s.eeI ..
iI cools _ find arr ..... , POin. 11 about
1 80 C. wh .. e IhI c'V.,.1 """.u
d\l1IQ" .0 8ody-cenU'ld cubic - you wjll
_ ,hi' .hil oco;urs Ioboul 120"C low ..
In .ne ell. 01 pu I.on. Th.
chang . or 'Cu.;' Point" IBk ..
pI,e.' 'IW degrees Iowe.,
Tlt u . he immedilt. ,lIeel 01 no mo ..
h,n O.S" urbon hi. been. firs., 10
"..,. ... ,he melting POII'I' and to Introduce
pOlY III{II In the IOIkliliution, '0
ehMlnt" """ 01 .he ,M"
ooiOIl .nd ill ... ocl,"d cry. III
ml l,mo,phosi,. end to "duce the
temperature which .he o.hl'" occu .
TIt" m,y no., aI flrl' , seem '0 be of g ....
imporllnce, but it I he implication. 01
IheM chlfllll' whICh ml"", and they
h, .... profound effecl on IhI hlat I .. "
rnenL VOII c.""." N!den pull iron. bul
.... arr 0.5" clrbon .... I c,n Dl IOIIg!Iened
IYIf\ if I'IOt made h.rd .<IOUgh to use .. ,
cut !l1lQ .001.
' . ' I. __ ....... -" .... -.,,-
... t uS now IoIlow Ihil O.S" c.rbon ".el
IS ;. cools. Dui with"",", .II,n.iofI '0
..!>al i. haOPlnlng .0 lh. carbon Ind .he
Ferrite .hi. , I",.. A. solklllica.iofI ,h.
Au ni,. I1 homogeneous IOluliofl of
bOth tub$tlncel. How......,.., '1100I'I" ,he
fIIeI p.oUII lhe ." .. 1 POinl 11 aboul
180-C arrd ooofIlurthot<, o:I'oe composrtlon
oI.he AuSloni,. sIowIv wngu. "
abool 735C 1I con"in. CI1bon
Ih. mulmum 11 eln hold II Ihl.
lemperilu.... It cln only .ch.ev. Ihl.
eonrichm.m 01 ,,<lion by ej&ct ing F""
......... and ,h;' It does orog"uivliy ..
o:I'oe .emper ...... IlnL rThe 5 ... 1 only oon ..
.. onot<l O.S" carbon to ltan .... ,.hl, Tlti.
F .. rill form. ",llM 0.- bands .... rroundlng
the gr;llM 01 Au."ni". whOch now fotm
only p.a n of the whole. The OVIf.II.n,ly.i.
of .h t.eI will 11illlhoW O.S,," 01 c.,bon.
but It is.1I o;oncan,,"ed in lhe Au,"n."
JIO'linI. Fig.1 1.
Just below ,NI lemper.' ur . " 130"C,
wl fi nd II'IOrhe ....... t po;nt" th".i.mI
duto to . ch.....,. In lhe rela'ionshIP of .he
carbon .nd F.r,," In Ihe Auslen .... Above
,he ca<boro I, in $OIulOOf\. but It
it lC!u,lIy comi>;nes w h 10mB of
me iron .o lorM Iron C.,bidfl 11 FE,C .
Iond comai .... 'bOIII 8,1" ca<llon. It I, "'<y
hard indnd arrd is g....... .he ".me
'CEMENTITE" Dle.use it w .. /i ,
identified in 1'''' ...- by IhI C. .... nll ..
1On proceu - _ ol{ll 1 I.
Tltis C,m,nh" comainl much I ...
Feni,e (1100) ,han Ihe AU51en". fr om
..... ich It wit 10.med, 10 lhat l h.r, w.1I be
-... Ferrl' e lell 0lIl' In .he ...... nt. ,he
e .m .. "ite (or Iron carbide)
Inlo "''V .hln pi"". with limll .. ' hin
pia,.. of F"-';II Anr:twiched bel,,"'lIn
\hem, this l_mbIV 01 pi"" torrning
C<O!"spOndi"ll with lha g ,n of
f " , .. _ ........
__ ,_.. "'f "-,, ___ ,,
-...... _-
Aus.en; I.om which it came. Under ,he
microscope IhI.. grainl "-'" I "''V
beautilul lIh.en, .. sembling that of
MOlh .. -oI .. P .. rl, Fo< thi ... ,son It is
cIUedPEARLIT". (I .m 50fTY abOlll ,11
Ihese n,m .. , bul Ihere is. gIOIll<y" .he
.nd ol .hI book 11 'fOtJ r.nd .h.m dlHtcuh'o
.. Th. _aH comPOflloon of
Pe. rl." iI 0.83'1(, ca<llon "iIt, 10 Ih.1 It
the sreel con, ..... only OS" w. Ihoulr:l
. >pee. lhe P .. rlll. ",,;OS to be .... .oun ..
<led by "".nl of F .. nl8. and thil il. in fac'
IhI ca ... S .. Fig 12
This .ecombination 01 AUBtoni' e inlO
Purl;" OCCUII in /tJ1 carbon ,11.1 when
cooled lIowly N.lu.all y . he ,mount ot
Pearlit. will depend on the Clfbon contenl
n liaUy. but 11 ... !ways IhIfI in 11... 1 .. 0.-
leu jlfOpO/1ioft. 8e;1IQ combrn""'" 01
soh .nd cluc:tile Iron (Feni,,).nd ve<y .... rd
ea .... nlil . il I, "'IV lough .
If .... e we. e to Iook., SI"'" w.th' di ll ... nl
ca<bon o;onlln. ... s.houkl find
W"lr"S ' Iking pi" . but " diIf,r''''
/' '''P'''fUf"fll. For '''II'IMI<S
.nd ",.,II'u",,"'" .. semble lhe dill on ,
chart, called the' 1"", .. Qubon Equilibrium
II!I, 0
i !




It 1,_

11 !I
; ,
! !!
'1[J I &H-1


n . ...... .,



D;aQ.Bm", whkh sho .... s the efie(:ts "I
bOIl> carbon an<! 'empera,ure. I ha""
... ",de a slmplitied ver.ion of this in fig 13
th;s deals DJlly with "Sle .. r' I1he
dlov<am 1m;ludes cast iron liS well) and I
hi"" no, bothered .... nn the r"mpenllure.
UP In the meltIng range. Th""" sufficien1IV
inter11SIed will find the complet, diagram
!n most books on ,he MetallurllY of S, ......
bur ther. '5 a .... lfY clear one in
E!>CVclopedi. Brillnn;Ca. in Ihe seCt ion
"Iron and Steer', This can be
looked a' in mOst libra'; ...
I have shown ,he 0.5% Sleel we have
just consIdered B$ 8 venle,' lonll. The
uppe<' I"esl po,nL or CHlieal lemperaIY",
Is shown by Ihe lone ABE, and Ihe lower
by OBE. You will notice Iha. 'h .....
coincide 81 'S"; we will have a look 811his
In moment bu, bafote do,ng so. lel us
loOk a l & Iyp>cal ,ool-steel. wi,h a carbon
conlenl 01 (say) 1.2'l(,. I have sllown a
venical line here also. We Slart wilh
AU$I,,"II' u befo.e. bUI 'his lime ,I
co.n,ins mOr" lhan the 0.83% which is
lhe ma. lmum which can be held in
toIulion 81 , he c.i, icDllempe ,u.e.
(This Is ebouI 720 C in ,h .. case). As ,he
_Ieel cools below Ihe uppe' crilica!. which
la at aboul 900 C, lhe Austenile finds
itself loo .ieh in carbon Ih'5 lim ... whereas
the previous .,mple waS .ich in ferTile.
So. 8S Ihe 1empe.alu.e falls urban i.
PfO\Ilessively r .. j .. Cled. bu, il is rejeculd in
,he fo.m 01 iron clNbid, (C .. m .. ntlte) fo .
unlik. Ihe Ci" 01 Cat, i.on, Ire .. carbon
cannol exisl under 'h ..... condiTions. W ..
find. the.efo.e. ' hat tha g.ain, 01 Aus, .. niT.
Ite now being surrounded by /irSI. sl.eaks.
end Ihon grains. 01 Cemenli1e: Ihe'o is no
fr"", Fe.riTe availabl ... Ely IheTime ' he s'eel
hn 'eached Ihe Iowa, ef ilical' .. mperDlUre
hhe line BE) ,he Ausrenile has again
... " , .. d down wilh 0.S3% d,ssolv .. d
carbon. " belor.. AmI. as befor.. Ihis
Iransfo,ms 10 Pearli,e .. Ih" m .. ,.1
foe. ..... ", __ .. _",_
C_IC_"" .. '
through 'h8 cn',ca!. We now find g.ains of
Pu,liTe surround .. d by a.eet 01
Cemenlit8. (fig. 141 in contrasl 10 .he
p .. arli'8 a<>CI FerriT. 01 Ihe lower carbon
Now look al .,ul with 0.S3% carbon.
You will notic .. thal .he two line, ... p.e-
senlonll IIle upper a<>CI lower c.iTical
lempe.a.u.es (th .. "a".5' poinIS") now
coincide. I1 is. ahe. a 18Shioo, a "Euleclic"
solution. simila' 10 thal lovnd in solders
s<>CI bra.inll alloy,. So,h 'he crys,.11f8nl-
io<malion and ,he me.amorphosis 01 IIle
Au,,,nit. OCCU'.' the same titnfl. and ,he
Aus'''''''8 Change" to P .... h" di.e<; ,ly.
This ".11 Pearlit." s,,,,,' i. abou. th ..
lOUllh8S1 Ihal csn be had with. pl'in
carbon SI .... ,. You will nole ths. as a con
511Qu .. nce of Ihis EU'e<;IOid"., O.S3\tfi
ca.bon .h .. upper c,itical tempe.alures Im
lhe v.rious s'eels vary conside.ably_ .Iong
Ihe 101\8 ABE This has an Importanl
bea.ing on The 18lTlp!II'DlUres needed 10
efleet the annealIng of IIle SI .... 1. The
lower c.iticallempe tu.e. OSE. doe. vary
linle. bu, in many pUblished ve.sions 01
Ih. diagram il i. """wn as a st'aighll'ne.
The difference i, only "ew deg.en.
I have shown on .he diagram 8 numb.r
01 linle skeTch", indicatIng the 1I in 10'
mal;"" - 8clual mIcrographs would be
fig. 11 ",. _, "'.-
"'''-'''' ... '', .. " "-
_Of,,,, , '_
r.,her confusing and are difficult to
.eproduce. Howe".". by e xamining D
Sl>8Ciman Ih.oogh lhe mjc,OSCO!>" .n
expelienced melallu'gisl Can easily
re<:ognise the ".a,ious constituenlS of
Pearlil8. FelTile. and Cemenlile. and by
noling 11>8 p"""",ions of each can mike.
lai. eSlim8!e of Ihe ove",1I carbon o;onlent
ol lhe specimen.
To IWm up; we would expect 10 find
very IIl1le Pearlil8 and a 101 of Fe .. ite in a
low carbon (mildl sIeel ...... ilh Iha pr""",-
tion of Pearlite inctoasing as we aPl)r'Q3ch
0.83% <;;Irbo<l. Beyond Ihis the Camentite
would ne.gin 10 appear. increasing In
proponion 85 lhe csrbon C(l(I lenl raM 10
lhe muirnum BMOCialed Wrlh a 'slael"
,aboul 1.7% "".bon). We would .. peo;l
Ihe "t<XIghnen" end slfenglh 10 inc.ea ...
IS Ihe PU'!;la proportiOfl increased. up to
0.83% <;;Irbon. Thereafter Ihe Sleel could
be a,peeled 10 gat herde,. wilh some loss
01 ductility. This 1 . in faCI. tl>9 case. Fig
IS. 8uI I must emphasise Ihstlhe ... con
sideralions all apply only 10 !Ieel which
has been bOlh healed and cooled
SLOWLY. so thal 11>8 li1l1e al""'l have
,ime la find Ihei' .ighl places. and Ihe
cheml""l changes al lhe Iowe. ctillcalline
have I;me 10 cornp4e!e. 11 is wpical of a
0. 0 11
"hol ,oiled ba." Which hu (0' $hould
have' bften no.mallsed when vou
it from the me.chanl Cold d!1lwing (e.g
. Brighl Drawn Mild Sleel"! ..... ill nol aller
lhe type of struClure IPearlile-Ferrite. or
Pearhle-Cementlte) lhough il mav altel
Ihe me<:hanical strength. and eSpeciallv
11>8 ductility. because lhe fo,ming p,ocess
has diSIOtIoW Ihe g.aln . The stfllCl u,es
found wl>8n the .,eel is cooied loo quickly
for lhe changes la occu, .,e Quite differ
renl. So. let u. now have 8 lOok sI Ihe
effect 01 Olher lhan slow cooling.
Lel u. 8gain consider Out pie<;e of 1.2%
csrbon sleel al (sav) 800' C. which
tempe.a!ure has been reached eilher by
slow cooling Or "0..... healing. The
AUSl8nile will ha"" partly transformed.
and Ihere will be Au.tenit. grains su.-
rounded by some Cernenlite. Wilhln lhe
AU'l8nna mOSI of the crystal. will COIlI.in
one or mo.e r:arbon slams - Ihe "solid
solulion" COndilion. Now lel u. reduce the
lemperatu.e very Quickly. Theft will be no
time I", Ihe alom. 10 rurrang.e I""m-
selv". no lime for cryslalltensfo.mation.
.nd inslead of r.nding Ihem",,'ve' In ,
I.nice for mal ion ..... hich l&aves Ihem
plenly 01 room Ihe cam.m 810m. are
trapPed inside Ihe cryslals wilh inade-
quale "","ce for Il>9m. In addition. Ihe
""Sl enit' is compelled 10 relein fa. mo.e
""rbon Ihal It can normally hold at Ihe
lower lemper.ture. TI>8 AuSlen"e crySt811
.'" put under eno.mous intemal Slress .
od is JUSt Ihe C(l(Idilion which is
associated ..... i,h hardness. In addition. Ihe
Cementite which Is p.esenl is unable 10
QYslallise normally. but InllBed Is con-
strained inlO a needle_like struclure
(known 8$ an <7 Acicular" formation) which
i. very hard indeed. In f.et. it is Ihese
"needles" which help In Ihe formation 0/ 8
good cuning edge. This new SlruClure _
highly sl ressed CryStal5 assodaled wilh
acicular crysl,ls of Cementite - i. given
Ihe name MAflTENSITE. and is Ihe basis
of.1I hardened carbon SI .... 1.
I have already .eferred 10 tile need to
Ihe melal slowlV. partly la en,Ure
Ihallhe v,rioos U8nslo.malions have lime
10 occu . bUllhis i. also ne<:essary 50 Ihal
..... e <;;In be SUre Ih81 Ihe mel81 is hol righ/
fhrough. It does lake lime la. the heal to
,,,,,vel through to the inte.ior. A similar
C(l(Isider81ion 'Wlies w""n cooling. When
cooling .apidly I"quenchlng") ..... hat about
lhe met81 in Ihe middle ol l he workpiece'
The oolllide has fasl. 11 is I,ue. bUI
h Is clea. Iha! (wilh la.gB Spe<:imen.
&speCially) Ihe COte maV not have kepI UP
..... ith Ihe tooling of Ihe Wht! Is
lhe effe<:1 0fI Ihe melll? We tan besl
answer this question ..... ilh anOlher
diig,am. Fig. 16. This shows temper8!u"
on the ve"ical scale. and lime on Ihe
hot;"onlal. Because melallurgistS ,"d
engIneers nead to uamine cooling 'iIles
wlIich maV IUI hours Or days IS well a.
IhoM which 18ke only Ihe odd second or
... lhe lime scale it compressed _ il is. in
fact "Iogarilhmic". The diagram sho ..... n
,elaleS 10 no panicular .t .... l. but It I.
Iypical 01 most. every .u,,,1 speclfi""lion
has ils own "S-cu"'e" like IhiS. It isimpo.-
tanl 10 .ealise Ihal. so fa, 85 ..... e .re con-
cerned. il musI be used artlv 10 illuSlf'ale
11>8 elleclS of lime/lemjMlfaIU'" changes.
Det&iI inl",prelation 0/ lhe dlag"m 11 a
matte' for
looking at fig. 16 YOU will see Ih81
Ihere are IWO "5" shaped cu",es. On the
left ol lhe line A8C ...... have a zone where
lhe 51eel Is AUS\8nillc (in a slale 01 solid
soIulion) bUI 11 is "unstlble" - 11 has nol
yel ltaMformed bUI is feady 10 do so. On
Ihe .ighl Of Ihe line OEF ..... e have the steel
in ils final. 10tally l!1InslormO'd State. In
Ihr. 'rel. if we were IRlking about the
1.2% carbon sleellhere would bft 9,.lns
01 Pu.li" lW.munded bv Cemenlile: if 11
..... ere th" O.S% .tNI we looked 81 ea.lie.
lhe.e would be gra,n. 01 Pea,lile surroun-
ded by Ferrite. In bftlWeen Ihe IwO "S"
cu",es lhe SlruCture is unde'90ing the
I",n.fo.mation process and will consist of
" mixlure of Cemenlile (",,!bides). Pearl,te
and Ferrite and. of course. some 01 Ihe
o';ginal Au"eniIG - c a,bon In solid
s.oiulion. The neare. la Ihe line ABC. the
mo.e Austenile. whilst close to Ihe line
DEF more of the Olher constiluents.
At lhe bottom ollha "S'. IwO horizon-
lallines are shown ckltted. At one. markMl
Ms' Ihe hard Martenslte slarls 'alarm.
and bftlow Ihe line "Mr Ihi. change i.
comp4ele: lhe melal is all In lhe hard con-
diliOfl. Fat "silver sleel" Ms lies 81 aboul
150 C Howev",. Manans1te CIInnot e x;st
10 Ihe righ! of the line 81 'F"
Now. conoid" a piece of hlgh-csrbon
st .... , Ihe painl 0". It Is at .bout
780 C. lilt cool. IIowly 11 wrll follow the
Una OPT "king pe/haps 24 houf'i 10 cool
down 10 15C. The lina panes Ih.ough
bolh 01 Ihe "S' Indicating that
tOlal !fanslOfmalion la Pearlile and
Cementite has laken pinta. The material i.
",nnnled" _ th' h Md tim. to go
thrt>ugh .11 the ch,,,,," w. t.lked .bout
... H Now iooII" tM h .... OR. The .... tal
hu cool.d through .n 'dentic.'
t.mpe,,,tu anw-. but this t, .... in no
more Ihn one uco;"ld AI no poin. _;1
cross lhe "S" CU""'. 10 tht no Tr.nslor-
m.t..." 10 Is p<'''ibIto_ But ;, HAS
uO"sed both lhe M ...cI Mf line . indical-
ing t h.t to"'I"n.rorm'horIIO M,n",$ile
hi' t'ken pl't" Thl. umple i.
ha,dened. T ..... If' Pimples of the
two .. ".m . lIow.nd rut cooling.
You will _ on lhe eII.g"m line
-as . which JUST louchIs ,"" """" 1'1
,he left_hand . S' Cu ..... This Is lhe
sklwUI '.,. _ tM --c.iliclr flIl' - 01
cooling which will .chie". , lully
hardened Mltt,nt"1c CGnd;"Gn. (The
lociItion 01 I"" poinl '5 will depend on
--' '''" -------
tM IVlIfI 1'1 '''el;;1 mighl Iypically be2 Or
3 MCondIJ The q""nch shown by the li ....
"OU--. however. crua IM " S" Curv,
ABC, at 'V' and W. In and oul agaIn,
Betw.... 'V' .nd 'W' :some 01 lhe
Aulll"l'lil. will "ansform 10 P .... ite. bul I.
,'''' cootlng CIJ .... only Ii ... 10 .he right 01
the line ABC rnon>enlMiIy the ._.;..0..
will carry on down OU 10 form M'flent,t"
The final ,t". the for . be m.i"...,.
M.n ... ,it' but with a linle P",lil, ..
well. It will not bt .. h,,,,. BUT. the
p<es.enc. 01 the Pearllle will It I, ..
brinle.nd, billougher.""
rhl. dl'grlm "llps uS 10 unde"tlnd
wh" Cln h.ppen in I"" centre 01. pieea
01 .tnl during th. qu.nch_ 11 it h ... ,m.1I
,nd i. cooled .Iong soml
li ... IUCh IS --OR-. then lhe eanlf, 01 the
IfICIion m.y follow. line belw ..... 'OR"
,nd "OS ,nd will be fully tr,nsformed
righl Ihrough , il will b. "Ihrough
.... tdened'. 11, hOwe'. ... it WlIS , very thiclr.
pilct the can". might ........ bfI cool'd
.Iong-OU even IfIoo.gII the oulside
lollow.d 'OR- Th. e.ntrl of Ih'
_Imen would nol bfI as hard IS IM
OUIaM:t. _ lhough it bflloughl<.
0 .... Gllhl purpo,""S lor wh>ch lIOme 01
the ,lIoying II,mlnts 8rl .dded to
modern c"bon st ... ls Is Ihe Imp,ovI'
mInt 01 the Ih.ough h.,dlnlng-
dI ... the .11oy modifies Ihe "5"
curve. A pI.ln. .... rbon .tlll I1
NoI. t"" " 10 1'101 1< I'i& for _ but In
............ .. t ... del .. " .... I10W MUCI1
....... ,. will !loO' "" .......
"" .. "' ...

\ -,
not tOO in this r1!splCt BUI NO Ihick
IfICIIon 01 steel c.n be h.n:ItI....:l righl
through ........ ""' ... alloys _ MIdtd For
Sit..... which COfIt.f"" ,
Chromium 10 MIp mll"". tht Iim,t 11
5(16 inch lhick. though tht a. 01
ha<d ...... , lhe 0IfI11II of p;aee f inch
thid< lI .... ry am.D joolud. This "'limi' 10
through Hardlning' ,.pllin, 'h'
d,lfieu!!1tt sometim ... met wilh when I
"'1/1 SlCUOn aorbon SIIII tool ;. ground
down ., the point 10 bring 11 ID eanl'l-
he'ghl In a .mtlllalht." in Fig, 17. Th,
pOint 01 1"1 tool i. now localed In th.
cent,. 01 .he section will nol b, ..
hlrd " lhe origin.'. The loss 01 him",
will be quite noticeable 11 I hili-inch tool
11 ground down 10 5il 6 inch poinlMighr.
TIlt cu" I. to ,nneal and '''''"lien, Sat
As _" It hardne'l$ _ ... hequtntly
conctrnld wilh Ihl SIt'PI 01 thl
wotkpiecl. especially when mlkong
g,ul/I' or lorm loo1s. A li\\ll .hougf1t will
'""1191'" thll there is likely 10 bfI, dimen-
.ion,' eh.nge with alllhe tfansformatiOns
within Ih. m., .' .nd Ihll, in 'ddilion. Ih,
highly '''eMGd will "IIe"ect" JUII
11 .ny .1f .. Md membe' will unde, 10.(1.
Not only th" - the very act of coonng
CluH Cor1!flClfon .nd in "q .... neh"
this COfI"Klion is suddotn in the ' ...... e
If the wor1<pieoI ;, not ""ICIly 'V"'-
"""letl thfIrfI is risk of u_n IhrinUgt .
,.. 17 ". __

_ .. _._-
... -....... -.... -
c.L-__ _
.... _ ...... 1000 ..
The higher .he cooling ra,e .he grea.er .he
In cases Is imponanl
we musl usa 8 slower cooling ra.e. even
though .his may mean .hal .he quonch
line for Ihe centre of .he work may CtOSS
Ihe nD$8 of .1Ie ""5"" curve momentarily.
fortunalely .his I1 no. SO Important in
ar1 icles not intended for me'ai-cunrng and
,n SDme caH"S can be an 8""anlag8.
expecially for .0010 subjecl ID shock
loading. The risl< 01 crac:l<ing is not greal
when dealing wilh (say) a "mple "O"-bit.
but can be .cute in the case 01 a mil ling-
culle<, with sha." corners 8t lhe 100lh
rOOI .. In such e Clse it Is p'udenl to
SltCri(oce a linle hardness In order .0 be
su ... of oening Our 1001 in one piece. and I
slower melilod 01 quenching muSl be
In Industl'! _Ci" me.hods are used.
no, neceSSllrily beyond the cap"bllities of
the engineer. !>ul .hey do n"*ld
proper temperalure con.roI. The .imple
method lot uS ,S.O quencl> in oilin51ead of
waler. The risk 01 crack'lljj and dis.ortion
is considerably reduc&<l vel IIIe loss of
hard .... ss i. nol grea . If. I\ow",""r. di.,or-
.ion is of .he first imponaroctl. 85 when
making a lIap gaulle. then It is wiser to
'''''1 .he special oil-han:Jening .000- eel -
"Ground Gauge S.ocII". (Thougl> 11 can
also be abtein&<l In black bar la well). This
ma.erial is alloyed 110 .hat oil-quenching
alwa\1 miss ... IM knGil of .he ""S"" curve.
,nd full aanstorm8tion is ob.ained. It is
nOt IS hard IS , wa1lrh.rdened slraigl>!
carbon s.eel. bUI is adequate tor tha
JuSt as.he ""Good Shepherd" lempers the
wind .0 .ha shorn lamb. so the prudent
.000-maker ,empers hi. han:J steel againsl
shoclc Ioeds. A hj,gh-carbon .001 s."t

PfOptrl y heat treate<!. will Mve ... ached
.ho ma_imum available han:Jness. but il
will be very brill le. As I have tri&<l to
o.plaln. th. crystals are unde' consi<!.r-
able Inlemal .tra;n and any shock
Or .ven rough handling. may cau'"
fracture. This may Ipply occas;pnally ev,n
with Steel. In addition. Ih,
grain ";ze mav not be as favourible .0
clean cutting .ction as we would lik .
e_dally if .he innlallemper8lur. lpoint
""a" of fig. 16) was no. a.ltCtly righl. 11.
however. we now rehUI .he 51 .. 1 '0 e
rela.ively low tamper.lur hese crys.als
Cln be . 0 some tenl . "strass-relieved"
and if tile temperature 15 held fo. a linle
while some .nllree of lira;" refinement
may be had as well. For plo,n cunllljj
loo1s. where shock loading il minimll. a
very low .empering temperature w,lI ... rve
- Ihe usu.1 recommended i. abOut
230 'C, .hough this did refer 10 .uming
.ools 0 .... Or tWO inches square - I shall
have more to say lbou. this lalerl it is. in
addition. prudent 10 "mper the tool'shank
even more. so thlt i. does net c.ad under
the clamping lor<:es of Ih. tool-post .
Tomperinll can HMI ano.her purPO ....
though. W. h."" S8<ln that .I>e quenc:h
oroduces Martensi" - hillhly stressed
Au.tenile crystals in.erspers.d wi.h
needle-lik' Cementite. fo, some
purpo&es. however. we need high $1 ... nlllh
and resilienc, 'alhe, .han hardness 85
such - .he clas .. c ca ... being .he lprinll.
There i. 11<) reason at all why a spring
should be HARO; the engineer e_pec.s
.hem 10 have a htuh yiek! sir .... and high
resilienc . InduSlrially il I. possible to
achi ..... e .hl. direc.ly but 'his doe. need
equipment. (And. In any case,
commercial sprin{lS .re ... !dom made
from &treighl carbon tool-51l1ell. The ,,"IV
way open mOSt of us is .0 harden ,ighl
0<11 (preferably In oil) &nd then ""mper
ba.:k"" the desired condi.ion. We reheDI
.". pert""". 300C - "blue". A.
rampereluru the ne&dles 01 Martens"a
c/l8nQ41 Into li l1 le ""nodules" end, of
coutae. Ihe crys.als e.a completelv . tleu
..... oeved. The SlBal will be "hard" relaltve
to mild 5 ..... 1. 001 nowhere near as hard BS
To sum up. we can modify .he 8tNC'u'"
of our hardened 51ee! 10 sui he purpose
we llave in mind by 8 secondal'! hoa.
" ... men. BI comparativelv low
"",plttl'u",,,, I shall be covering .he
detail needs for various Ipplica.ionl later.
bul you should bear in mind .ha'
'"Tempering" serves Ihree putpOH"S; to
It .... relieve .he "tigh." crystals and so
,..;u.ce Ihe tisk of cr,ding; ,0 improve .he
11' ..... size. loO ,h81 you can gel a keen
cu.tlng &<Ige: and. In some cases . o "ans-
fonn .he Martensite 10 roo<lyi,r condi-
tion, 10 Improve resilience. I sl>all, in
chap",. deal wi,h Ihis In more detail.
npeclally in relalion 10 lhe special nnds
of tumer's tOOls. which musl be
btough, up to a vel'! fine poliSh and sharp
yea,s ago. wl>en .h,
Slandan:J Practices" of model en{l,,,"r-
lng wer, beilljj established, ca'bon 11881
Wh just 1tI,. _ en IlIoy of c,rbon end
.... I. True. I1 woutd con.ain a few
Imourtties, for Ihe days of charcoal-
Imelted iron were over (.hough
Hoit:apfi,1 was ill u";ng Humsman
crucible loolsteel made from imoorted
D.n<lemorr8 char<:oal Iron) 3nd typicallv
D.D3% of $ulphur and phosphorus wu
normal. Today. h.owe"" . almost all sleels
COn"ln o.her elements as well. We have
"'Udy nen how dras.ically the
'*"r&ctIJri51ics of pure iron are altered by
1he addillon of quite small amounts of
""rbon and the ... me applies to .I>ese
alloying elements. The diagram Ifig_13 on
P"ge /8.1 is drawn for Hplain"' carbon
sleel. bill each alloy will ha"" a different
characteris, ic equi librium diagram. some
\OIII'! e<>mple.oc indeed .
AlmOll' all carbon.oo1 S.&ell those d.ys
contain about 0.35% of Manganese. lis
main purp05e being to coumerlc, the
effecls of Ihe Impurilv Sulphu,. Al tl>i,
le\Oel,he effect on fill. I 3 and henc:e on .he
heal 'reelmen' is negligible When
pruent in higher amoun,s - 1% or more-
Ihe steel ne&<ls Special I ... almen'. A few
tOOIsteels ("Silver SIOGI I, one _ il
contains no silver. bv .he way: Ih& neme
,eta rs .0 its appearance I) 1n<::lude about
0.5% 01 Ch.omium. partly .0 help in
re!inilljj the g'ain size bII. also '0 Improve
"",h'ough hardening" A hi. level Ihere is
some sligh. effect on the shope of the
diagrams. including Ih' ""5" curve. bUI no
special treatment ;. needed. The-
quenCl>inll tempera.ure i. $Iightly dille-
renl. Ihal is all. These steels are
eSHn.ially ""carbon" steol. wilh eddir;ves
to imp,,,,,,, performance .
tu .he elloy con,ent r'ses. however.
and. mpre e$pr!Cially. wllen a combination
of alloying elements is used. then ,he
diagrams I" figs. 13 end 15
become very compliCated indeed.
(Chromium, lor uample. lorms a very
han:J carbide on ill own!. When laced with
a s.eel con.aining mo ... than about 0.6%
01 any of th.se elemBnts (and .hey can be
Nickel. Chromium. Cobalt. Vanedium.
TUlljjsten. Molybdenum. nIBn;um and
Olherl) .he answer '0 the heat Ireatment
problem '5. fo' .ho mod.1 engineer.
"" OON'T"I A nice piece of 3% nickel 0.3%
ca,bon 5.eel will (if you are "If, it is
EN21) make e.cellont connec.ing rod
bolts. !>U. un)e .. you have t"" euc. heal
1(.ltmanl dale i. is best left in lhe "80
supplied" .1&1,. Even more SO 11 vou come
ecro ... any of .he higher ,lloyed ste.ls -
.nd .... n _ 110 if il has com.
from ev .. "" the Sa.p' H t I ..... ".,.nt
of t:uch. without propel .nd equip-
.... ne. .. likely 10 W dl"'Pl'Oln1ing if not
catllUaph;c. (Ho_r. t l1l'i.11. in " later
dui wllh 1h. h.lt Ueat"",nt 01
110_ 01 the medium carbon "' HII . .. hich
Cln, .... hh c .... be tr ,.d Quill
efI,cliYelyl, Fjrqlty, (Ion'1 forgel thl1
brU'ng . nd 10 ,n .... n lI.n", e.o.tent.
.. elding, iI. lann 01 .... lu .. 'men'l
There Ire m.ny sit ultionl. balh ,n fullsi ..
end model _i.-rlng. wtl... hard
_,ringsur1ace is n .. <Ied bullhe compo-
nenl ,110 muSt rellsl shod Ioltds _ o.
,.pelted '-NI 0I1oed . Imost
.. bed Cro.hNd 'nd 1Iudwe<>n pins ...
u,mples Th. usual IUV\IHtfon made by
.. ,It ... of ,r1icln in Model Enginur Ind
-, ...... h ... is ,0 UN SI""". St"l. hardlfl.
and then "mper back. This iI nol very
lOIutron 10 Ih. problem. f irsl. l he
l.mrMoring t1Iduces \he "'rdne ... 01 the
_ .. in; ... .-fee. and. 1ICOnd, l&mpered
Martens,t. is nol IhI lint m" .... 1 for
10ldbeatlnll comPOnenl. Ho,su 10'
cou, .. ,1 A 8uII'tti Iype 37 cIoel nol make
'h' bell 01 lown CI"''IIes. ,nd vou would
be h.rd pUI 10 i, 10 m.ke J.n '0" gauge
loco on an , 8-inch looIroom !.Ihe. no
m,,, .. how eeCIH.te It .. "-
The Insw .. I, 10 ..... mild or mediu,"
carbon "eel. of lpeCiflc,,1on Ippropri.,.
to 1ha Ioedinll c:ondition . ,nd Ihln 1<
modify 1he .... .-faca It ye, of lhe m.tal .a
Ihlt il c.n be hl'daned. You .. "
remember lhal lhe earliesl me1hod I>f
m.nuleel .. re 01 high Clmon lIeel invot-.",
ots hlI1inO in Ih. "" .... ne. of arbon. rh,
took long lim., but if _ arry .... 1
N .... proc:ass for sheI. lime .h&n ,h.
c .. ban .. ill pen,,,,,. onlv Iho"
dl""'ce. for mod,l. we onlV need. Ih'"
I.y ... - pertlap ... ,m,1I IS 0.005in. woule
.., ..... - and Ihi' " whal il ;odIieved t>.
'CASEHAROENING' The re v lou
waYlIn wtlich il an be done, """'" wtl"
don't Involved Mlylh'ng ""'" IIIIn. bIov.
I,mp and som, SPecial compound. bul
... QU'" "",clic.1 lot !h. model.ng,n ...
Onc. !h, ..... rll>C. I.V" h been ca.
bu';,ed the p'" Cln be healed aM
Qu.rn:hed and. In motl Cite cIoe. no!
need InV !.mPlfitlg. The .... It is I CO'.
which it SlfOfIII and I .... gh . nd , ..... rI.,
which is .Imosl 111.... -111.(1. F .. r1hI<. "
""OCI"M iI ve..,. n.I obIa . nd " is POIIObl
10 h.rden S&leeh .... ty, and even 10 Cl'"
OUt m.chining ape"",,", on one part 01,
component alte noth" Pin has
tuMee. hafd.ned ! give mOf' det.ils of
lhe procedure on page 64
Heating and Quenching in
In this chap'lr I .hlllI with Ihe
prlCtl<;.it l aspecll 01 Hea, T,eelmlr1l. but I
... IeIvin\I dellil dllCUssion 01 Ihe eelual
"""''11 dn'ieea to. I" .... , Fo< lhe pUlP'''
of !Ius crntPll'. therefore. 1 ..........
d\ltt YOU' 1OU,e. of he., it. like Ihl e"", ...
01 your RoIl,. Royc .. tdequ.,. for ;\1
IIIIIJIOM'. I .m IIO'nll '0 I.ave 'h' ton
tidI'''1on 01 r.mp,ring 10 rh. n""
c:hap1l'. 100. la Ihi' ia .eallv quill I
MPOra" is_.
JM M. , ... i.L The first _ .nd imper.' .... _
T 2 ' Iy it 10 llKide wtlll m.t,rI,1 .ou
... herdening, If you a .. nol tur' lDOuI
tIois - if 11 it JUII I piece 01 lIulf
\'0\1 hltYl pk:hd up from Evan. 'he SCrip
11Ie" my IKIvice Is "Oon"l"". I have by m,
" I wrile Ihi' thl SAE 1051 of steel. whlcfl
MIGIfT be I .... nd in scr.p mol",.':',
dart. If typed oul on paper 7 inctl ..
..... !hi ti.1 would be se,a.,1 fMl long
lea thin one liflh ... ""pI'in" a,bon
"",s - a l( lhe .. 11 ,r, rrtOf' or !.Q highly
IIIovwd - .nd 'V'" .1 you knew Ihll you,
PIe<:e .... 85 c bon "eel it hed prob.bly
hell " .. ,ed .I,eedy Ind would
......... ""001< 'Melling wfor. rehar$n.
In$. The cMnc;H 01 rll\ding "'w ,,"I .... ,.
10 IIN, treel on K .. these <YI
... llim. Ftr be" e. to nln wllh new
1IIIcoI of stock; aft .. Ill. If you ,r' going 10
heel "et' It ., musl be tor some I.i,l ...
import.n, pUrPOM,
How ....... ,he,. 11. eu"s whe .. ma!el
of """e Of le .. known prov_nce un be
'1ICO'CI.d, .nd if you In. lighllPOt Ind
cannot gel new "eel. lhen the IoIlowiog
t1bl. m.v "'Ip In "'II\I'!sling!n. prob,bI
eafbon COnllnl ot old 10011 IIC. I
emph8Si ... Ih. word "Old". IOf Ihu. d.yl
....en lha humbl. COld chisel m,v W m,d.
from a nontemlMfing nickel .llov
" Carbon Type of T ooIzr
0.1 CfOWbI",; Picka.2tS. Screwdrivers
0.8 lI'\IfI M.sonry thistls. 0 .... ..,.
Woodl!lfll1ing Wedgea
0,9 Cold Ch, .. Is; Shea . blad .. ;
Black,m; lh . hol seua:
1.0 S .... lte, Cokl Ch.sels; Old wood.
WO,I"II\I m.th.ne ""u ... :
1. 1-'.2 Eng' ..... 'ecutr"'llloois , O.;lit.
R.,m ... .,c..
12-1.3 Files.
, .3- 1.4 Ruor . Engrlva'-s lools; S .... lil ...
1 4 up Wire(j,awlog diet; Cold S ...... .
01 In. .. o;ould be from
hlghlj:l"d " .... but !his tin ,asily' be
diSTinguished by using the '"Sparl< T .. ,--_
_ lhe Modai [n9_. HandlHHJlr. In
.ny caSl, how ....... lhe mlle,i.1 .""..,id
first be .nneeled (S"" pall/! 7 L) and a
small lest pioce then sawn oH and t8Sl-
hardened wilh 'he e.,imaled cerbon
conlenl as a guide.
Heating We have already ...... n Ihe neod
for slow ..... ,ing. and I canOOI emphesise
Ihi. need sufficiently. The queslion is
"How ,Iowl"" If PU' in' o a cold muffle
furnace end healed up with loo muffle.
Ihis will .... lfree. Wi,h the aver&ge muffle.
in fac' , 'he work will ..... , up slowly
enough il PUI intO Ihe furnace when i . i.
already 8' t .... herdeni"", lemperalure. (In
$O<l1e books VOU will tind this called the
"Aus'enising Temp&rB,u,e. by the way).
If yOu a,e using a molum leed 0' $Ill' bath
Ihan i, is nece.SlII)' 10 preheal I .... wo,k a
anyway. as I e.plain la'"r. BUI wilh
tl>e ordinll)' blowllmp Or gls torch SOme
care IS needed. 11 i. all loo easy 10
overheal Ihin pans localty. I find I lake
about five or si. minules to bring a small
- about i inch. 3 inch long - up 10
Ihe .rresl point. and i't.ke' a li11le longer
to climb the ,emaining 60
C or so. This
gives good result . and can be laken as a
guide Bener 10 be 100 slow than 100 las .
Al Ihe arre.1 poim there i. a lemplation '0
lu," UP the gas. as the met.1 seem. 10 be
making no progress. This Is juSt Ihe w,ong
thing to dol The hllle atoms are In proces.
of m(>\ling house. and W(".,., welcom.
being hurried over tha jobl K .... p heating
ar" s'eedy ,are and when the metal $latlS
10 colour up funher vou are Vel)' nearly at
Ihe right te mpereture Overall. short
answer 1. 'hI! '(DU must use your judge-
ment. and II)' to get Ba much ellP8rience
n you can. If 'fO\' rely on 10tCh Ot tilchen
/ire huti"ll. For the odd D-bit that will be
used once and Inan scrapped Ihe heating
ralG may !lOt be all th .. tr;tical, bul '(DU
MUST pay If Ihe 1001 Is en
Importanl 0118. likely to be used for yea,s.
Once "" to tempemture you must hold
the ...... for SOme I,ma. Again _ "How
long"? You have bo,h 10 ma ke suf8 'hal
the mel al is hol right to Ihe centre. AND
give .hose 8'OmS .ime III dtift '0 Ihelr new
>pol. ForTunalely in this ca"" tha lmSWer
is quila rlefinite; mel. llurgisls and gener.
,ions 01 blacksmi thS over a centul)' 0.-
mOre h.ve established Ihe rule: naal fOr
THICKNESS. once lite is up to tn.
hardeninlltamperalure. This means that i
linch thiclr. 1001 should be healed for
about 20 minu.es. Yes. I knowl You ha",
never held Ihe heat for as loog as Ihisl I
am SO'I)'. but .hat means thst you ha"
never &Chleved Ih. ma.imum poSSible
hardness, JUSI 10 persu&rle you I
have sel up speCiallv and hardened lour
pi""es of carbon steal f,om the ""ma bar
holdir.g Iha temperalure for one. fiva.
and fifteen minu.es. lhe la,,' berng "'ighl
for the t-inch stock used. The hardness
maesuted on my " vin'8g0" Shore
Scleroscope came OUI at 74. 7B. 78,
B1. 'especIJVely. Th<>se who know the"
Itardne" numbers will rellise ,h .. thest
figure. are all low but equalty. thB'\' "' .
'e,lise 'hat th. "Shor. i. 001 ""itable lor
such small speCimens. A subse-quent ' eSl
on lhe las .speciment showed 8 hardness
01 above 900 Vk:hrs. 'nd this i. abau'
righL The reduction In hardn8$$ 10< ,M
&horler heanng limes Is quite evident
tha "one minUle piece" i. softer "a<
hardened" Ihan lhe should be
It is quit. tNe Ihat our lools a"
relativelv small compared wrth
formarly used in industl)' - 0, today. for
Ihal man ... Thev don', con"in
mGlal but thei, surface are. i. Imall. tOO
and Ihe RATE of heB! 1Ian,mil8;o"
needed 10 gel ..... an a 1001 to full
lempe,ature al ,he cen". In 15 minules "
vel)' high. Clearly 10, the odd OCribe'-poi o'
it isnt all thel Importanl. but for cUllinll
'ooIs i, does man.r. I shall. I"ar. be lemnll
fCIU about the u$8 01 mohen salt-bal h
for healing. and one of Ihe gre8' edvan-
.$ , of ,hi. type of fumace i. Iha' 'he
.,...1"11 TIme can be reduced; Ihe ... Ia of
bill' t ..... fe' i$ much belle<. Selling the
In a ookI muffle furnace and lening It
,.., up with th' lumace is good praCli"".
Il10. Ior the muffle heating "18 il aboul
doe same as that 10, the metal. You <;.IIn
....... the haating lime in ,hi. way.
n- Right Temper.ture. At first sighl It
llliglll be aS$Umed Ihat we need 10 lake
ttt. metal up to .bove the uppe' critical
tempeflllUre the 11118 ABC of Fig 13. -
ttut thi$ is not tne c ..... Firsl (for high
... t>on .... teels. lh" is) we do need
_ "Free Caman';la" when we quench.
and this does nol eppeer unlil Ihe melal
hIIS below Ihe upper critical
c.mpef81ure. SOCOnd. a.perience shows
Ih.tlhe grsin si is more favo-u'able 11 the
mOllS! I. Quenched f,om a lower
...,pe ... ture. As general rule steels
IIavlng 1% carbon con"nl Or mof8 are
Qll8nched from below Ihe upper crilical
.00 lhose below 0.9% I,om above il. Thi$
ill. gene ... r Nle - there may be SpeCial
re"no f .... de p.rting from it and one
o:onsequence is Ihel .he quench
Ienlperalure does nol VBI)' much ova, the
whole range 01 carbon Conten . NOla Iha.
... haa! treating OTHER than lor pure har
.... ing Ihis mav nol awly - see Ch.VII .
The fOllowing is drawn up Irom a
""mber of "authorities" for $l8e15 all 01
which conlained about 0.35% manganese
- whll today i. regarded as ""might"'
carbon Ileel. The eJ<Ception is Ihe "Silyer
SI""r'. which contarn$ also about 0.45%
C.<bon. %
Above 1.25
"Silve, Sleel"
Temperature. "C
Th8$f! lemperalu,es a,e for quenching
in water Or bri".. For oif-quenching the
melal is besl healed perhaps
highe,. bul I do not ,dvlse going above
C, FILE STEEl. usually 1.25'16
carbon with 0.5" chromium. glv ..
maximum herdness from sooe. but It
mUSI nOI be heated much .bove Ihi5
In all cases il is muc!t bene< 10 0l:na1n
Ihe COfrOCI quenching temperature Irom
Ihe manufaclu'e'" Of lhe .,ockists if the
beSI 'esul,. Ire 10 be obllined. You will
'lOt go la, wrong wilh tha figures given in
tha lible. bul SS is always Ihe else
"Perfec'ion dftmands more care" . If the
EN No .. Or the newer numbe ... from SS
970/ 1972 ! which. Incidentally.
inCOrpOrate Ihe carbon conlun, in ,he
spe<:1Ilcation numberl Is known. then
reference '0 .he 8ri.i$h Slael Co'po,ation
may produce Ihe 'equrred information.
l l00k in Ihe telephone directol)'. Or II)'
BSC. Smnden House, Rotherh&m S60
3AR). 1/ the SAE number (Society of
Automotive Enginee.. of Americal is
known. Ihen del. i5 In Iheir
handbook.. which shouk! be avel lable in
the local refe,ence lib",l)'. This gives
almost ALL sl.eis made to U.S. r.pedfica
lions. and they lIon't differ much from BS
970; manv 'he sama number. In Iha
case of 'he oil-hardening g.uga sleels The
p<Oper temper"U'" Dre given on the
As a final poinl of comlofl . these
temperBture, are nol crilic.1 '0 few
degrees ; moat Sleelmakars give a range. if
ooly because the,. is loIerance on Ihe
actual carbon content. 1/ you are withrn
10 C yOU will not be far wrono.
PROVIDED you hold the s'eel Ihere for
Ih. proper length of lime.
Judging tha T.mpera ... ,e. Thr. Is what
sepa,ates the men from 11>8 boys I T .... old-
limar. could eSlim8le almoll 10 a degree
Ju" by looking at the ., .... 1. bu, 'h .... w ...
herdenlng ..-rt>on I'''' aU dly long. 11 vou
....... a g'l Of ell<;tric; fumace which i.
w.,h I pyromtIl.' VOU I" In no
d,ffic .. lty - prQ'lidld ,1Nl, VOU dMd< ,he
.." 01 ,he Ins,,,,men' now and
&g'in. U' I1 hU no P'l'tome,,, I g.ioA 101111
hln'. on making one on P89" 107.1 W"h
g81 0.- 11" "..,Ing w. hive 10 "lyon 'he
cokI .. , o. ,h. metal. Now. make no
mi."h; Ihi. I, In EXACT m ....... o. 'h.
,emptt'"u" _ In l,cl. one 10'1'11 01
P'I'<OmIler mlk .. use of ,,,. Thto
ffeq'*'lCy 01 vib,"ion 01 ,he I10MIc
1lI\lC,.... is I dl.1tCI function 01 !he
,b.oIutl ,_., ..... Ind this f.-.quency
df,term' .... the coIou. ollhe light which is
.mitted. Thto problem lies in how '0
,he colou The bi'd. In my
garOen Pfob.bly would no, r.cognlM I'1:IU'
ctlerrl .... being red a, alii And, 10.- ,I'll'
1'111"". .am. ..iiKIerS ""'" have blu.
blood in !heir veins' Only ..-n
giw VOU prope' judgemanL fo.- wM' it
is wonh. glnlflliool 0' blKIttmIm. ow,
a tl'touwnd V-I" or so have adopled ,he
following "1'181'11 .. - for !he coIo'j .. as Men
In I .-.I",vely dim light. CBut NOT. on env
Kcounl. unde, ligh' from 1 11Il0l'_1'11
,ube. whieh m.k" pig S ,1' 01 any
oolou. judg.ment).
825 C
850 'C
l000 'C
Dull Red
Blood Red
Brigh' Chany Fled
Brigi'll Fled
Y.I_ ... ed
The bell thif'lgto do 15 10 find lOI11eon,
who 11... m .. to. fu,nace wilh P'I"O .... , ...
or '''Ing' I elub visil '0 ,he loe.1
T edoniell Coiloge nd hive ,h. 'um.."
broughl .. p 10 the v"iou. II,"""rI'U"I'"
the, VOU ..-n _ whll il ,,,11y Ioob lik .
(Have. piK<t 01 eleln " ...... , In piece
don' rely on thoe .ppe ,nce of ,he
fumace d>lmba<). There is no subltitu,.
'0.- Ih,s type 01 'operien<;e. How .... '. '0
help VOU I h.... liken 101111 coIou,
p1>otog<lphs 0" ehunk of " ... in mv own
muffle. and ,h. prln'er h done his a>:al
lent beSI 10 .eplOduc. lhen on pagtt 33
As a lu"her guide. I IInd that ,he I.'ger
boiling ring (one 01 'he ,pI'll 'vptt) on ou,
Cred. 90R .leculc cooka eached and
., 78O"C efte< runf'llng full on .'"
15 wllh no pan _ It : .nd Ih,
li.ebed 01 Coo.1ie< Type 8R ' ... d s,ove
burning Phufnae", " (the Itgg ..... ped
things) lay be_ 'OOOandl,OO'C
,fie< 'boul 15 m""'tet d,.w;ng "P Ihe
/i ... 'he r,.ebed being obou, 7 i"ch",
The ...... 'ew o'her guides. Thu lowe,
crllie.llempe,.'u .. ;' In <.rrul pOif'l\"' "
which the colour will ... m to hang back
This is .., Indielllo1l 'hit VDU ." wilh,n
abou, SO"'C 01 'hoe _ifed 'empeflrl"".
Un passing. IIfO'IiOtd you '" lbov. "'"
"'UI poiol VOU will get ....... haKlenong
,Heel. but ...,.,. I1 VOU ... be_ Id V,,,,
nea. '0 ,hil I"Ht pain' - WIfY
below - lie. lhe Curie Point"' " whoch
lhe 5'",,' ee .... '0 be m&gnetie, You can
keep checking whh magn., or. as I <kt,
UN "",.11 camp., . Be ea,el .. ,. though
neilhe. magn .. , no< oompaues lih hilI
.nd !he" is risk Ihl1 ,he magnet mlY
pick .. p. "",.11 workpI_.nd " ' USl '0;"
There a ......... Tem",.,'u" Iodic"
Ing Ctayorur' ""'iblble. 01 twO I'fptlI. One
eh.nges colour when the temptt.lru,.
ml"'e-d on ,hi PKkl1 i, .. ..,l1ed; the
Olhe, i, ,lfoked' QIIer ,he wo'" and ".,
malts wi, hin tWO MOOndI 'h, temperaturf
Is u indi..-Ied; It 1Or>ge< It is '00 low. and 1I
sI>o<ter. 100 high, BOlh ar. w.lIV accu'lte
provided lhey haven'l been In $lock ' 0'
yd.s. bul lhey do oeed lill" ptltClice '"
.,.. Mine ... made by .he M,"'all
.-.w" '" available hom a.ve< Choemic:ais
ud. Richmond. 5 ......... Of from T,P
HIiIdIInd & Co. lid. FI .... Kiln Lane.
B.rks. for .... in m .. toe lumaeas
withOut pvrom"ar, Ii'll w.lI known
.'BeIII" Cones'" twang'" Ltd. ElfU,il.
SlOke on Trend e,n be uled. Thtose eull
over I 1 'he 'op whin Ihe righl
.mpe.llu,. is re&ehed, .nd .ra uled In
pDtIlfY kliM, whe .. ea"f .. 1 tamperllure
CIQtIlroIl, equally impO .... nL They h.ve the
5 I .. nt. tha' I ....... e ... be .. sed only
.. DnQI. so !hI! VOU need lhem by !he

I r.
A "1'1" 01 propottlo1l mull be main.
l ll-..:i In an ,hil. n in .11 'spK" 01 hea,
_ ,menl . 11 VOU make 'hoe odd 10.-1'11 '001
Of puneh onee O. ,wice Y"'. 'hen th.
eIII" on page 36 Ihowing ,he healing
coIou .. wlil meel .11 'fOu. need,. And. '0.-
IInlmpo .. ant lobs. p,ovlded 'he
. ' opa1l'U .. 1181 be,_n the 'wo criti<:al
IIOing ILa. for Si ...... r 5t .... be ..... .. "
730"C Ind 83O-C) vou gat SOME
efiacL lhough no, VIf't' good I!
....... em ... I!VOU harden ,0011 l.irIy he-
...... ty lhen you w!ll ve", I0OI1 develop
.. coIou, sense which will ,n,ble 1'1:1" to
__ by eve; If'I any C'H. VOU hmve to
!udal ,he colou. under wo"'&IIop
OCIndilions. no haM ol.n IndulUial heal
_,menl shop. 8u,. It you m.ke .11 VOU.
_ tool. Ind . nd a .. herOef'lino,j
"-1010"", pens .. Will . ...... VOU ....... Id
... weIllldvlsed '0 look 0111 'or , ueond
hand muffle-fumace (0.- even I new one!)
or look e, ....... 01 lhe olher ... ,ngamants
1 ..... 11 in I le.er chapter.
'-1in9. This It 01 1111;' ;mpan,nee in a
Itthe 1001. as IT mUI' be ground in Iny
CIte, but 11 it is I ' orm,ooI. wh>eh has 3
IWoIIIe which CIIlfJO' be lormed on ,he
wheel. 1, ean be I n .. ltarw:e. It no,
dilr .. ulty. 11 uling a m .. ffle !he se.llng
eRn be .educed by ""ing' lew p,e .. 01
/fry ehe.CM1 It the mouth 01 !he m .. !fII.
just ag.inst !he door. This w." _ ....
any o.ygen Irt !he m .. tIIe - or "-, 0111
.nd 'edliCl Ihl! ..... d.bIe to 0IId0 .. !he
mlt,L lOon' . un coke 0. eO.II.
Alllmlllvety .he ..... .".". """,I--ecale
p.inl." ,vlllabl., These Bra uled bv
ce.amic en.mlllle ... bu, .re eQually ,ilK
,Ive In proteeting " .... 1. It It painted on .h,
work Ind is .IN<:,ive up 10 ,round BOO' C.
I ..... it very .... eensful.,. but .Iso uN I
IlUbltitUII, ThI. is whlten'ng
(pc ... de,ed chelk) milled wi.h WI'" or
.... ,hyt .. ed spIrI. Ind painled on, SOM.
tlmtIII I bind Ir9n WO". QII., lhe top, .rId
el." thl! up with ,he pa,te IS welt. (The
wire 1'11.. 11. 01 ;;ou .... be INIIed oH balo ..
Q .. enchlngl Th., is .lIee" ..... Ils.o, Bo,h
hava 'hi disedvantage Ih,u Ihe paint 0'
ch.lk tenda 10 "Incande"",, and ...
p,evenll prOPer eoiour judgement. No
m.lle. In m .. ffIe, bu, latal il uling I
torch. The .nfWI' 10 thit is 10 h ..... In
ideo'icaI 01 terlP .' .... Ilil oeed no.
be ..-rt>on "eel) aIongsode and prQYtded
VOU ........ lhet both the worI<plece and
the te.t lIPICimen ." eQ ... "" he.,ed ,he
lat",r c.n be uled 10 judge the c:oIour.
HOtOIogI,," COlt thel, small pan, wilh toll
soap wMn "'Itlng This Is ",id to .void
scaling '00. but I mus, conl.ss I h.ve not
.. sed il mVIIII.
The.. ." ,hIM quenching mediuml '"
common u .. ; pl.ln WI"r. briol . nd 0'1.
Wlter 11 ctlea.p .nd easy to ob",n . nd
will w",e .lmoat .lIlh, mod.lang)n"'-,
need .. 8r1ne gives. s.omawhal bell" h.,_
d.nlng a Hact end ..-n !live 1'110" ,vln
cooting _!he "lUllS a .......... unito ..... 011
;1 .... n' 1 wlMn quenching comol
WPH - lhe sllghl !oH 01 ... rd ...... is
accepted as a lair e.change to< the
redu<:ed risi< 01 distortion aod cracking.
Tha ac,ual cooling proceu wi,h the
three quenchams il dillerem - i. is 1'101
juSt a case of dmare""" in DI
quenctl . Wilh plain waler Ihft inilial effect
is Iha \lenera,ion 01 s,eam all DVer the
_rkpiece. This cau",. an inlense arid
sudden cooling effecl. as ,helale"t hUI 01
vaporisa'iDn D' waler is very high.
However. Ihis resullS in Iha _rkpiece
being blankeled in a sleam jacket a'lll
steam Is I vary poor conductor 01 heet,
The cooling rata would drop drama,lcally
if Ihis Insulat,ng coating were nOI
remDVad. So. the work must be
In the bath; if Ihis Is t;kIne, then cooling
proceeds a\ a 1."lv rapid aod steady r81.
until Ihft approach 10 lOO C.IAs we shall
"*' 18ter. onee ,he 'emper.tu" has lallen
'0 al>o<lt 300 C 'he rate of cooling is not
In ,he case 01 BriM 8 similar procedura
takes place, but the presence 01 'he "",. In
lhe water seems.o reta.d the IDrm8,ion 01
tha slum blank". Fo, some rGason Ihe
cooling appears '0 be more evan bul it is
fas,er - abDul Iwice as faSt as wale. down
'0 300 C or Ihereabouts. Bdne i,
Invariably used lor "w8t8r" qUllflching
SIsal, in loduslry. lod Ihe Hgures quoled
for hardness in commercial S(ltCifiC8110n,
all asaum, thal the work wu quenehed;n
t O'JIO salt/wale' b,ine,
Oil behaves quile differen" Y.
(Asauming a prOfltlf "Cold Quenching Oil "
is used. "MOIor Oil" will ha.e qUITe
unpredictable ,esults). It is slowe, in Iha
ini'lal cooling, ba<:ause 1)11 has" much
Iowa. Iltenl heal than water. Once Ihe
"vapour blanke!" stans 11) torm. !>owev",..
Ihe r:ot:>Ilng rate (wi,h lhe same degrea of
agit8lion) ;1 ""IV linle diffe,enl from Ihal
of wate,. Balow 400 C. however, Ihe oil
cools tha work vary mucl't llower. Using"
,est rig. It was fouod (wilh slill, unagltalad
Huids) Ihel water would take aboul 3.,
secOodl 10 riKIuce ,he lampemIU,. 01 a
standard probe fmm 10
and oil al>o<ll 5 H<:ondl - nD g,eal
diffarenee. But whereas Ihe wDter...,.",lad
probe only needed a 10lal 01 5 seconds to
lall 10 200 C. 011 lOOk 25 seconds. Thi.
means Ihal bolh fluids Oring Ihe Sleel
through Ihe Iowe, crilical lemperalure at
abDut lhe SlIme ,are _ oil slighl slowe,
00lh a.e "pid enough 10 p,event Ihe
Transforma",," 10 Pearlite. How",,,,. Ihe
muCh $10"'" rate of cooling in the Iowe,
,eachas - below 400 C _ wilh oil mesn.
tha' Ihe Tr"nsformalion 10 Martansil"
lahs place in a much mOte leisurely
fashion, end 'his .educes the risk of diSlor
lion and cfacking considerably. The Mar
lensite will lorm anyway. 8V8f1 il we at(
cooled frOm (aay)200 C. Thi' tesl was. 1)1
cou,,,,,. under quite artificial COf\di,ions,
tha metal would nol be prOfltlrly ha,dened
evan with tha waler _ we need cooli ng
.ates 01 IhoUSllnds 01 d8'\l18eolminule
through the c,ilical range for Ihal _ but "
does give an indication 01 the diff"enl
behaviour ollhe Iwo fiuids. AgilaTion will
reduce Ihe 'ime taken. but Ihe chlfaCt er
of lhe cooling curve will be similar .
For model enginsatS. therefore, we can
say Ihat in genaral weta, will serve for our
need.. but b,ine Is prefe.able when I
ultimale hardness is nsaded. Oil should be
used 10r milling cutters and for gauges Of
hardened jiga _ p",le bly using
proper Oil_hafdening s\eel lor Ihe latte,. as
;1 is fOrmulated 10 avoid dI510"ion. Thft
brine is from Vacuurn..(l,ied Sall "-
tha cos ..... son used by farme, s fo, butte,'
cheaper Ihan domes.;'; salt. and withou'
Ihe SOme 01 whi<:h may 1101 be
de.i,able for a qu,,"ch./)alh. An B '0 10':1(;
solution Is genel1ll - t2- 160<J'gallon 0'
BO-lOOgm/litre. In use. $Ome of Ihe wa.er
will and ,his muSI be made UP_
Art old leSl wBS Ihat a "e.h potato wouk!
' 00'

of _It __ or",. u.,;.g . J _ . .... . __ .. Q"""'II'_

" <N1i<_ .... h I'h"''''' ""*,,,,,.fo<oncf " /ho, ,,,. , . "", ............
... ""P'Wi,-"
fCl __ ,K<vtO<)". _ ... ' _," ._
1_. 1itIW ___ tJo; _ .... b' . _-.
juS! fl081 in it, bUI you can euily me ke up
e simple test lIydromele, il you want 10 be
. ",.
A plastic tube Is weighled 50 IlIal il
fIolIl S wilh the lop about t incll aoo..e IlIe
surf"". In plain watet, h is IlIen calibrated
bY sening it in brine of dil/etlng strengtll$.
If you slatt with tile Quencll balh 81 8%,
and let it down when it tOps 10% you will
tie within t he not very Impatlantlimit$.
Deca,bu. iu t ion, Occasionally one find.
tool Ihal ha, been p'O\lerly Ireated,
.... erythlng a. it should be, bul somehow it
doe' nol seem to be lIard, A lile can
"touCh" it. HOW1lver , any ."emplto saw It
In t WO .esults in a with no tee t h
on It I The cause is surlace decarbu.isat>On
_ the oule, skin 01 the metal ha. "'st some
of its carbon content. and it is not herden-
able s teel any mO(e. This is the origin of
the okl blaCksmith" rule "'Iorge la'ge and
grind small". The tool was always lorg&d
oversize. so Ihal any decarburised surface
wauk! have to be ground off. The problem
ill nol 'cul8 lot rhe model engineer, as he
ill not heating lools Will> _nks up 10
r:oupl. 01 Inches lI<1uare. bUI It can
It is caused by lhe aCl>on 01 oxygen on
the motal, and tllie is one ,eason 10'
.... oiding IIIe use 01 O, y-gBS lleating
flames, It ciln also be caused by scale: yOu
will recall Imm Ch.l. Ihet Wrought Iron
was made by the reaClion "I i,,,n " . ide
wi th the carbon in Ihe clSt i'''n.
r8mlldy 15 . "I c"u.se, I" 8,,<>id scaling in
Ih. firsl plac . U lugge5ted above. I have
very little lrouble wilh lools a'''und 6
1(1 :VS Incll $Qua,e, but the few half_inch
nne. were all made delib.ralely abGut
1132 Inch """size al IIIe pr:Iinl I" pe,mit
SUffi cienl grinding dnwn.
Ovlt<heating. This ""n ari ... f.om several
causes_ The IlrSI _ sheer lorgelful""",
wIlen the work i. left in Ihe muffle t""
Inng - we c iln Ignore: the cu,e is UP I"
youi Lr>cal ove rheating i. almGSI inevi t-
able if " ' y-acetylene used, and I ""Inlo
Ihis in m(lre delail lale . This tVPfl can be
i.reparable, with ". lde inclusions "'.minog
in the lI,ain bounda.ies. rendering tile
steel useless I"r anything but as a m;ssile,
common"! difficully. though, w"h
W<lr kpiec8$ whlcll ere , Ithe. very Ihin (I,
which have e WMY uneven cross section.
The !!C,ib8,-paint is just weh ""se: ;t is
imPOssibl' to hUI 111<1 lapa.ed Hetlon
..... nly. TIle .emedy lIe.e 1$ t" Ir>rm tha
lape' and IIIe paint by grinding altar he8t
I.ealment. Fo. mhe. cases - e.g .. wlle.e
there is 8 5mell prot",soan (In a Is'ge,
mass - Ihe remedy ;5 I" fll a "'heat sink".
A p,ece '" !!Crap "HI with a IIole In I1 (not
100 la' ye a IJlece: ",,",ething in p'DfJ<lrtion
tr> Ihe mein mass "f me,aIlIS!le1 Ov,r the
delicate part, and the wllole lleated up as
one. The slende, part is protected lrom Ihe
di,act heat (lI the lIame. and will .each Ihe
P'(lpe. tempe'8ture JUS! the same, bolh by
conduction lrom \h. main body and by
.adiation j'"m tile shield. The p.olecting
shield must, "f cou'se be .emoved bel(l.e
queflChmg. N(I prOOI .. m arises, " f course.
with lu.nace haating.
Metal which i, (lvemealed will alm<>s1
C8'lainly c.ack on the Que nclI. The beSt
procedu,. Is t(l .rOll w(l,k, anneal Ihe
piece. and st8rt again. It the
sleel h8$ baen broughl up bedly (lve.
lempe'SIY'O . yellowy-red. 10. example -
then I1 will need rel"rging before it will be
eny use 8l/ain. If il h8. II<It 1Io11e. than
this, th.nw it away; It wQn' t be any use -
nol as l""l$leal . anyway.
Whelhe. waler, briM. '" "il 15 used.
$Ome debti. will CGllecl in tile bott(lm 01
the lank. In the caso (If <>il Ihis mav
Include s"me s ludge, wlllch ml ghl
Interfe,. witll the Quencll_ In industry
alewate m81hoos are used 10 keep lh.
balhs clean, bUI I"r us, simpl" methr>ds
a Suitable_ For water, JUS! pr>u, It away
.nd ..... Irnll, Bri ... m.y be kltPl longer
U" pI ,1C conI ......... no! m".1) ..-d l!>en
fl ... shId -.. Itl' "nk wilh pl,nrv 01
w.t,r. It Ihould IISI , long lime '''\''WIIY
Oil I. more predo ..... .-.cI eOllly, bul
.impl, '''einer ca" be used to r,mOve the
dirt. KHP. lid on the oil-beth when not In
...... I Il.-.cl Ihat even .fl" Iwo yeatS my
own .. Idom I'IHdI cle'nlng. 1.-.cI I
.... 0;1 n'IOnI Ih." mosl model er9neers.
The ",ope< oil should be uled it " ,11
POMibIe There .re VIlioul IJI"ades. .nd
.ltCh oil eomp./lny .... It, own. I use fI.P
Que.-.clila An". though Ihe'O ... el'd,l.
19" i. "mOSI as good .nd eheeper, h 1$
u"'onun.,, Ih" the .. oil' ,r, no longer
supplied In lhe old one gallon lins. bY!
25 I;". (about 5 gallonl drum can be
sh"td bitw .... triendl - .nd 400 litre
drum could be che.p .. l1ill lor club
purell ... , failing 11 1PtC1" 011, good
Oil" of .boul SAEIO 10 20
vlt.eoslrv will serve. flul NOT mOIOr oil,
whic:h blended fOf quile dillerenl servic.
and chlr,eteri.,ic.. and mOSI
NOT "used' II'KIlor oil This
.. downrlllhl dlngoelUl: il can corm,;n up
10 25')(, of the tlNvi .. IrltCtions 01 peuol
end can Il.sh 011 ;"to. furlOU' fire if used
lor quenching hol m.lIl.
The .1 .. 01 Ih. Quench balh muSl
lICCOtd wilh the si" I.nd qU'nlily) of the
work p .... sing thr<><ll/h 11 .ny one .ime.
Wheth .. w.t .. , 11.-,,,,, or oil, ,'''' .mounl
$lIQuid be I pe< It> of hot metal 11 0
....,;d und ... t'mpe'.,Ur' ....
A h.II_inc;h ,001 5 Inc"" long w.;g/tl
about O.J5Ib. for lhe odd I;In", punch
and ,imila, small cuu,' iolIIl kelP
"GOIcIon SY'up" lin. " 'h'" hev. good
lids. bu, fo, serioul wo,k plastic
"builde,', bu<;k,," doe, vI1'\' w.U. lThey
can be hid wilh 1Utl. Thi, will hold up 10
two g.al1ont end It varv lObuli - it will
....... wilh'tlnd lhe occuional rtc:e:idwt1t
with hot met., on I"" ",,,,lcl I have.
Ia'",r tin for oir. wtrich """" held ..... ul';""
paint lhit hH lid, bul I em sorry ' 0 find
Ihll pr_n, <Y paint 1101 hili' very poo.-
t<>\M. Mi ... hold bout f which ;.
quir.ldeQua,e for ,11.he work I do.
The iniri.1 0' Ihe mr , h
should not Dft too cord T'ue. V<><I ,
beu..- quench the coIdt, 11 I. 11 hive .n
_nl of tools quanc;hed in freeZIng cokI
mercuryl) but.,.,.. do h ..... to cornpromi ...
t"" ritIt 01 e,itCkL Somethinq
between 20'C .nd JOC iI abQur right
in .h. tumm .. I lust u .. r.n
water which ha! .rood In rh, workshop
for. whi le: in winter I draw some from Ih.
hor tip. 011 should be 'I .bou, 25'C
n.e.. figures ar. not crillc.1 . no n....d t'-
110 round wilh ",rtCllion 1I."mor'''''_
_ ...... them I A u .. ful point to nole ..
Ihll brine or wlte< 11 70C w;U gllle
similar 10 Ihl! obtained h-om cold 0;1
IInd 11 you hlye problems wTth
workpleee constlmlv crecking in Ihe har
denlng IInd have no oil you coul(! t .....
hll,i"9 the wate,."',;n, 10 50C. A
Q"'nch in water 90'C win nol t\arde<'
It .1. bul il ca .. t<><lghen rhe steel, little
The oooIing in Ihi. ca .. ,. "mos' CI<1."
to e,.,. the "S" Cu ..... witl> some Pea,I, ,,
Quenching TltChnlque. Thi' doU requi,.
lIOme .ttent;on. far 100 many Ht
Ih' WOfk in I"" wller and swirl ;t abour
.AoIen11v The recommendllion _n i
__ books ,l>lt the wire, ;n lhe bud .. ,
be ... r In rollry II'KIlron I<Id the tool ralr,..,
-.. vertically .\ one s;de i, ""en ..-,
unfortunat . Look at Fig. 1 fI The wale! ;
pasai"g 1"" wo,k lor the work is ,",ssinn
Ih'OUgh lhe ware' _ asme e fl&C11 wilh th"
'.Iult that the .. I, ,eduehon in Wl10'
pressur. on t"" downstr .. m side. TI>I
me .... 1h8, ste .... will lorm more ",ach",
on rhlt sid. end it will be under
q ... nclltd. The .. iI plenlV 01 m<>1ion t<
di""'cI Slelm 11 lhe front. end perfllPS
fit. tl a I ..... _01 __
.. -._-". __ ..
... -..... " ..
" lhe side', bur very little al Ihe back.
Oistonion illn.v,,,bja; il"ldeeod. s killed fil,-
herd.ne.. UII Ihis phenomenon to
..... ighten filt which hn ben, in the
hUtingl Th, pr.f'ffed method IS
"'IIIvtIv SLOW ci.eula, motion of r'"
.....,n.. combrned wllh an '!<Iu.lly f'lffy
IIow venic., up.nd clown motion. IICIlhal
the work tra",,'. on I halical Pllh through
the quench,nt. All I-ir:Ies get equII "ut
_L The Il'Kllion Ihould be ." .. enough
10 remove s"'m bubbles at ,hey lorm _
no mor . Anything more """'..,t thin thlt
does mora hlrm thin {IOOd.
for long .nd "ender obllet asy.
broach - ""en thi' genlle rollry Il'Kll ion
m.y Dft tOO mueh. In which caS<! Y<><I mull
boo COntent wilh up-.nd--dQwn
...., ...... nl: agein. I .. t .nough to "II'KI""
bubblltl but no more Y<><I "",.r Iry
this for yOU .... ,I _ a ijnlt expe.iment It
be11 .. than _"I PI9H 01 mi .... T""
object is to "II'KIV, the Slum bubblu In
the middle p.n of Ihe quench 0, the
vapOur bI.nk" in rhe caSl ot oil. With 11
very 1 .. 11' yOU mlY hive 10 move it
more. butl1dl genu." to.void hot oooI.nl.
but cItr"ly a larve p',,, n&eds large<
" .... ncl> 11 ..... end yOU should nor try ro get
away with .n inadequ31e volume 01
coolant. In Indu.,ry. of COUrN.
lV5.em, 01 p'<>\Mlle".. underwater jels.
1.-.cI so on r. uSl<l to gel. COfIUoIled bur
random _menl 01 t"" cool.n,. in
wf'uch t"" work can simply be Iowe...t.
Evan IICI. I, doH need, 10, of .X"" ....... "
.nd i, i, Int .... ,;ng 10 know 'hll r'" t-I
files - "",n lhougl> made by lhe rhouasnd
- a,. 5till ha.-.cl quenched in b,i ... ,
There Is JUII One po1nl lbour rh. oil
queneh which mav be helplul. I find Ihet
deepis/! I, bene, thin one 01 1""
" .... voIu .... bur "faner' n... me.ns
thatt'" t'f1'IoI which nlads an
oil QUench can be moved ..-e in
ven;cal di.ltChon thin .. , In m ......
elSeS I lind 'h" no rol ..... mo,ion i.
nfI<KIed a' ell.
Sleg. Qu.nching n,. !)In 01 , ....
Quer.ch is 10 g.1 'he work reduced In
'emperalure !)ISI 'hi k ..... ohh. "S" cu ....
(Fig 15, JUII ID remind youl) Or.c. past
Ihis pOinl Ihe cooling Cln be Qui" , 11<1
1IIow .... - Mln.nsill wiU 11;)1 lorm This
being SO thef. would -'" ID be no
"HOt! wIIv wl .nould nol .. mcv. I ....
work lrom lhe belh onc<I il h \JOI do .. "
10. fIy". 300 10 3oo"C,.nd cool I'" re" 01
lhe way in e MCond biolh Thil i. done in
commercilll plants -'''-I UrWtl.plty. It
ha _rll advlnl.-.- The ilfitn ..... biom
o;toe.s not """ up 110 much - ,mpOrtlnl ,I
VDU I number 01 p'len 10 Quench It
u""II tw .... I"" HCond biolh CIn be d ....
_Ier, which w,1I "mo"' ..... 1 oIlhe ult.
II1d lhe" w,U be I ....... por"ion "om
lhe briM belh Itsell The" it no lor
11JII"1on in .his MCond b11lh Ih' mel.1
GIn tak. lIS own "me The onIv C'fl vou
must lak, ;1 .0 __ d'OfIp,ng IIIe
wor1<pi.eee. eSPeCi,l1y lilt I. f"gile It w,1I
be ",.ny !>rilll. IIIhiS "4i!'
P.ni,1 QUlnching Tt",. I. no nHd ID
quench Ihe whole of la'Ue wo,kp,ecl
(nor nMd tP heal the whole of It lp, Ihl1
mallll') if only part nellds h"deninu Alte.
Nllorging Ih. end 01 mv pichxI, lor
- In .CI which w,1I hi
.noullld 11. 11 Itwo forgi"lllempefalure ;.
aboul 9SOC _ I fi,,, haa. up ID be.ween
"Blood" Ind "Che.ry" ,ed and quench ju.,
Ih. end 6 in<:h'" Itwo painl .. Ihen
rubbed wuh, brol<en grindllo",. wilh l he
hol pan 1.1d oro mv ..... 1I ,,,,,il 10 &Cl .. a
hel1tlnIo.. Then. when Ihe J>POnl i, clean '
hold 1110 ,he light uOl il lhe colours ,un up
10 IIm"". lhe poinl. ThuI ,he poinl is hem
lrod ' emperlld. bul lhe main bo<IV of
held 1s .ela1Oyety 110ft. I shall be
oro TemperinO in lhe "".1 chllDle., bul can
say now lhe, .hos procld"'l is Quil,
Iegi" .... ,.. lhough nowad.ays one would
be h.ppie. (10< imporun poIs) Jf ,he
"mpe, heal could be held for Ionge<.
To ",m ... p. WI muSt heal llIe
1IO .. t\' bol" 10 ens<lre th" il is ho. 'ig!"
Itwoo.rgh end 110 Ihll the transformalOon,
!\IIded luIve ",If"ocienllime'o "ke place
WI musl "lIOlk' lhe m.,,) al lhe h.";"n
ing lemp.r"ur.. choo,ing th.
IImperalUfl 'pprOClliall to the .... ,enll
be,1'II used, The "quench-- 5I1ou1d 'ollo",
immld .... Iy, end 'hil m"" be o:Iona in a
m.""" which ''''''''''''' sleam bubble'
.. ithou, Glusing violen' in ,1\,
cooling medium And lhe Quench
mu" be prOflDflioned ID Ihe si,. and
qu,nlilV of Ihl wo,k in hand. If all t h;, is in
orde. 'fO<l should g., optimum ha,d""",
.v ..... Ilmel It oroly ,.mains ID lempe, iT
.rod Ihis we dui wilh In Ihe ne., chip,,,
The nlld 10' IImplting hIS beln
discuHld In CI'I.II, ,nd 10 some .. lInl ,he
!Mgr" 01 lemper 11110. BUI wIIil., .'"
CIUIfI'Ch "n'l9If.'Url is f'irly .... '" de",
mJoed. depending m.in'" on lhe Glrbon
OOnll nl 01 Ihl ,t .. L tI .. \lmplring
lemoerllure depend. llmesl enl".ty on
tII. UAI ID which the 1001 will boo pUI It is
nol -.. suffiC""t 10 fly" "Lal .... TooII'
flW the lem"", needed (say) for IU'n"ong
EN 1" will be very diff.renl lrom 'hll
Ipproprlall 10 1001 10 an chmld el.I
ir1)n. no. effsct. .. wl h,ve ,Iready "en,
i, to ImpfOye Ihe .. 'oughn .....
reslllIne. 10 ,hock - " lhe upen,. of
IDmI of Ihl h"dne ... A tOOl rrol sublecl
ID shoe:'-. .uch .. I flfl . mev rrol be
tem"",,,., ., all. whil IIlflng will be
lempered almost to tIof,. It follow. thlt
conside" ble pflt$Onl) Judgemlnt must boo
uMd. if onlV to tlk, acoount 01 ,he work
_mllly done In Ii'll shop. 0 ... reason for
uoing elrbon IIHI looll In'''1Id 01 HSS
(Ill'" I<om ,he lse. ' hl1 they.re hltdet-) i.
ihal i, 11 .... ry ""y 10 IImpl< 10 sun Ih.
-The chlngl In toughnetl .nd hlfdnels
ha ""e"", booen m",lionId. ilul t ,how I
lu""" diegf.m in Fig 19 I mUll
.. ,""'"'" IMoI lhe ttcl ull m.". 01 lhe
"""ea will 'I ..... from 1lee1 10 . t .... wiTtl
L ' ...... "
. I m I . Il1O""'\1' pi
lougtvoess " ,elalivety low lemper ),
mUll be 1IId. 100. TtI., the loss of
"'rd ......... y be more Ipp."lnll"'n ... 1,
Ind i, dllfocutl ID pul I numbe< 10. tMud.
lhe PQinl 01 I lI1hl 'ool mly well show
v'rillioro of lWO points oro the Rock_It
IClle ""'" lhe ourface. (Hlrdneu I8Iling
number"nd Iheir delerminllion Ire o;pn.
1ide<..:Iln Ch.B)
There 1, I funhe, poinl nd one .. hieh I
bel"". is oh.n O'I<Ir\ooII;ld, JUSI" "UOted
cUlling In P,oducllon Eng,nee,ing
lextbook. 'fe gelred 10 ind".trill. nol
modll ",g'nellring, condilions. SO Ire Ihe
,ecommended lemperiny tempe!8tu'e5 In
loolmlk,r', C8t1logues and melallurgy
lextbookL The lempe' IheV s.tI9U8S' lor I
ca,bon l1e.1 lathe tOOl, for .. ample.
assumes thll ;, will be in use lor lull
senel of Ihifrs 0"" a 44 hou, well<.
!Aclu,lty. p.-obIblV' 56 i'Iou. week" Ihe
ti .... lhe book wn wriUenl) Some of my
lorm 100II h_ hid no """elh'n ""ft'I"'"
hou, ', wo .... In Iwentv 1'111'11 So - use YOU'
ju<ige .... nl. bea. in mind lhe diKUSoiOn in
Ch.lf . Ind. ,bove ItI. lJq>erimenL The
model engi ...... ing d"b. 1I ,h.,.
ItI. ,hi Society 01 Modll .nd EIlPf-
m."I"ngi .......
Tlmpl<.tu, ... Hiving uId.1I thet I
'ry .0 give IDmI help in .he form of
\Ilfldelina in lhe tIbIe below. I hi .... run

, ,





\j- "-



, .


flt, llt_oIl"._ ........... __ " . _, __ ........ , ''I , ... __
Into QII'" difficulty 0111< Ihl . H diffe .... nt
.uthoritl.... diffe,ant and
different uN" Quote tempe" fo,
the pme tooll. In PIInlcull<, Am",lcan
"",e..ce book' ,,"m to give 'igu," 10
to 15C higher thin do Eu",pean ones.
Thl. m.y <I ... to the different 5t.el
specification. but I I<Ispect It i. J)I'OINIblv
t the end 0 1 tile 19th century.
when much 01 the wo, k wlS firS!
200'C 0. (0._' 200' C "1:' ' .. 25.!127ti' C
...... Cu<Iit!o """

.,-.......... -
I 1(J.. '10 U0-100
' .. _.
c , ...... ,

, ..

1 .... _ ._
nO2$O ,- z'Cl--UO

So .... i .... lto-l!iO
c:.. , .. ""'"
H ...... _
22$0 5I-i ,-
C, ...
14_'_-- =m

0100 '$

2U .. l2S ", .. Go ..... 21C1--UO
NOTESltl Soo ="' .. \1'1_ ... ' "" ...... _
11. __ ............... _od"' ... 9' .... _ ___ _
published. American Ilrms wD.lled tMI.
... 'Ith.,. Mrd8<,h,n w, did In the
uobIe I have Ified to ;,on oul these
$ff .. _n. but whe<" in doubt I IMv.
N"de<! lOW.tdI the lower fig .. ,,,,. 10 Ilk'
IICe ...... nt of lhellghtet duty cycle 01 model
..,.rn .. ' .. tools.
The .. tempe .. ',,_ .... tt..:!i11Ortll11y,
". x:I"..:I Wllh "T&mpering eoIoufl",.nd
_ publications $imolV ,,,I .. , to """w"
or "blu," ;!\Slud 01 quoting ,he actual
I!9Uf' In C. The 100IOwl"{l Cln b$ uHd ..
gu,,", but again, !he., .... slight
clllllflncn helW(tf!n cliffa,,"! publl ...
l Ion . Th i, .,SO I problem In
IfIle!'P"',1ion: wh.t son of .,.8w lor
... mpl,'
lempeft wa have been Itdvised to UN In
thl p .. t ... fBr loo high. When the
KCIII'ed ptlClice ..... Ii", e,"b1ilhed
cerbot\ "HI ,00II we .... uNd,
bolh by anglnee" and In moUllry
Toot MCtions _ .... '''08 - 3'" inCh
Bril.nni. was daslgMd !of hlllinch tooIa
- .nd .... uMd in<!wlri" prlCl;ce whaoa
., I h_ .lready poinled OUI. tlte cutting
q .. we .... I<Ibject '0 .n 8 or 10 hou,
11 \1 Qbv""" lh.t we must temper
down tha ,hunk. olherwiN th' cl.mplng
fOfC" will CIUse fraClu". bUI lh, ,ct u,'
cUltlng edge I, seldom 'ubfec' 10 .nv
Io,d - on a lathe 1001 . ,I.ut: tha
ene of pl,ne' Of shaper 10011 i. d.fferenl .
, ...
2' SC lJgh\ Purpl. 275'C
, ... Str.w 22SC D,rk Putpl, 28SC
Su,w 235C Dark Blue 295C
D,rk SIf.W 2 45-C 81 .. , JOS C
_ _ M
Reddish de'" SI'lw 255C P'-81 ... 315C
8'ow' .... e(!
265C G,ev
The .. cojours "e &$ vi"w"o in davllght
or Strong tungsten lamp electric light.
fheo,o will be Quite at fault il judQitd under
ftuorl lCent tube. We shall look at tile u ..
01 colour-tempering in more deteil I.ter In
.". chapt .. ,
__ 1., CIO.. of I.th. 10011. First. let u.
tNnlt ag.in abou, wh.a, wa ..... doing. The
WlJ II:I 01 tempering is '0 incr .... 'M
IOughnea - ,eobll..ce to shcxt .nd
chipping - _ lhouQh lhis me.n.
-'lght toM 01 ",,,:then. Clearly In
-.rr.-punch 'M risk 01 damage "om
bIo ... is conoiderabloo. BUI in IM cue 01
ENGINEEAS, I would Ougg ... ' Ih" Ihe
Abov. about 330C
Now. Ih, cuning adge I, ",bjlCI to
h .. nng. We can use a highe, cum"g
lpead with '"High Speed St"l"- ,Imply
.. I,. tempe'ing lemper.ture lies
belw"n 600 and 700C: som. lI,ad ..
wlll lIill cut when ,""hol. WI UN low ..
WII<II whh c,rbon stHl beau .. 11 thl
toot pOinl _ oet 11 .11 hol II w,O
T...-pa< down" and IOften. CIe.rIy IM
low lhe ini"" lernpenng temper.,u ..
'M .... riIII of damage to tM toot POinI
Irom ..... ' And 'hi hlfde' IM ,oot point it
' 0 begi" wltt<. 'M tonoer It will ' De to
M.t il up to danger point when Un afl eet)
it ,empers Itself" .nd lose, hlrdn,u.
For th ...... """. my JI\'",clice !or some
tlma hIS bee" to tempe' lithe 1001. vary
tightly - juSt suffiCient to eflect a linle
grain refi""ment and 10 give some '!rep
reliel 10 lhe crys,,1 $ltuClura; Ihere is still
some marked increase in lough"" .... I firsl
temper the whole rooJ 81 DeIW""n 1 BOC
and 200C. and Ihen Ie. down" Ihe
shank o"IV 81 around 280C whll.t
keeping Ihe 1001 point cool eilher In a bath
of water Or by uoing lhe ancient device of
sticking the business end Into 8 new-dug
potalo. This gives excellem "'8UItS. both
wilh "Silve, Sleel" and wilh a straighl
1.15% carbon &Ieel. I use en even mOre
refined me.hod for my Ivoryturning lools
and Iho5e 10< slid ......... 1 work when "o,n,-
mentally lurning" in exotic wOOd. end Ihis
is dealt wilh on page 74.
Temptl,ing Procltdu, . To be prDll"riy
affective Ihe tempering p'ocess muSI De
given lime to _rk and we are also faCed.
as in the ClSe 01 heating belore
Quenching. wilh the need 10 De sure .hat
the loo! I, hol righ. t h,ough. If we have 8
tempereod surface with 8 b<inle core wa
heve nol reaily reduced Ihe .isk of
cr.eking under load al all. The ,ule is Ihe
THICKNESS. though this i. not Quile SO
imponanl in the case m oot shank.
wheN! enV lempe' bftlw""n 260 and
290C will serve. For the tOOl point. of
CO<I""'. Ihe rule applies 10 Ihe Ihkkne ..
!here. not that of the shank. Now. one 01
the ";flues 01 the "classlcal" lempering
method - allowing Ihe heal 1o C'''''P up
the shank 10 Ihe poinl _ is Ihal Ihi. heal
Iravel in .he mein. Ihrough .he cOr' 0'
Ihe 1001: and pmvided Ihe shank is hea{od
I18ntly enough, thl "soaking lime" will
i0oi< ane, itself. Even so. there i. a .isk
Iha. Ih' temper mey nOl De complele: yes:
I know It works. buIlt Is so e80Y to it
"work belle'" and we should always try
lot perfeclion. We will look al Ihis "uoy
melho<!" in a moment.
Tempering should tllke place u .oon
as is preclicable ene' Quenching. The 1001
should, of course. have cooled .o nOt more
I han SOC. and cooling to .oom
!emper8!ur. is $lifer. The reason fo' thiS
expeditious tempering i5 Ih81 lhe melal is
unOe' in.ernal stres. from the quench and
if, n is mOSI usual Ih' workpiece has a
"sh_" a. 0PI><>5ed 10 belng IU'1 D block
there is risk of spontaneous cracking
arising Irom di ffe.enllal conUe<:lion D.
well. The'e i. also a risk of "crazing"
lime cracks: Ih"'" can appee. if ' 1001 is
lenloo long in Ihe "'Quenched condilion.
This ""ed lot "has"" i5 one reason
why horologisls and gunsm11hs like Ihe
"blazing olf' p.ocedure - Ihe lempe.;ng
I.kes place as soon a5 Ihe work cornes
DuI from the quenching oil. I1 !o< any
,eaS<>n tempe.lng must be delayed lhen It
may help if Ihe work is se. in boiling waler
fo. 8 '1ua"e. 01 .n hou. Or SO before
""\ling il .slde 10 aw,it Ihe final Ire81-
Heeting for Tempering. Firsl, the "easie.
way" mentioned abo>re. Go end look .!
.he cook in Ihe kilchen. You will .ee th.1
il has a Ihermoslal on Ihe oven if gas Or
electric fired. or 11 built_in Ihermomeler in
II if fi.ed by solid fue!. Vou will , I think, find
.hat the .hermo"al {108$ up nurly 10
300C - clVtlinly 10 250C Or 10 "Gas
Mark g". (Degme$ Cenligrade _ 140 _
t 1 times lhe gas ma.k aPllrDJr,mlllelyJ So.
you have 8 good Ihe.mo.taliCIIlly con
trolled. ot al lust .emperlllu" indlca.-
ing" tempering furnace on .ha premi...,. 1
The cookery book will give yo<l Ihe
lempera.ures. and 11 you lime things righ!
you CBn ""I your lools in Ihe oven .Iong
,tda Ihe loinL The lable below givas Ihe
usual temperlty." used in Ihis SO" 01
hUBIIN!almenl shop. lhough Ihe time may
Vlry a bit depending on the judgemenl of
lhe oven-shop forewoman.
Irish stew 2h 'Tempering Oil." which CIn De used 10
8,aised pigeon. 4Sm: Ctrsse.oles. lemperatyres 81 high BB i. normally
2th: le5l81"9" of .oasl duck alc. 3h, needed. IQuenchlng oil i. nol witable).
Roast chicken 20m/lb: lasl $Iaga However. you do need a substantlaf con-
m .oasl beef. ISrnI1b. !liner - a Ihin one may O\Ie,hnl t'" oil
Cottage pie, 1 th:Mincepies, 25m locally - and if using gas healing. ' genlle
Cheese Slrsws. ISm. bma. not t hl son you would u .. Ior
Yorkshire pudding. 25m: mOSI pts., brazing,
25m: First stage of ""St or The Sa" 8aln i. Ihe normlll me.hod 01
turkev,2Q.-3Om. Ilmpe,inl! used In indultry. Tempering
Scones. tOm; B.e&d. 30-40m. $lilts ere Quile innocuous, bfting a monu"
Flflil slage of .0Bsl Deet 01 Sodium Nilrile and Pot8s.sium Nitralo.
or pork. 20m, (Nitrile. and Nitr.,e! which melts al
In addition. you probably have a
frying chip-pan, Chips a.e cooked I1
l toC !Of 5 minules or so. and then
Oliowned" &1 t9S C. bUI the oil enn
llfeiy bft laken up 10 abou, 2OQ.-210 C
an an el""tric cooker. (One has 10 be
ClNfu! on gss. as unless the oil i. f.esh
IhIIre will soining and some vapoutl ,
11 you compa.e Ihe above wilh the
..... on j)<Ige 42 you will see !hal Ihis
clurroa51ic workshOp can .empe. many 01
'fIIU! too\$ for you whlle perfo.mlng ils
nonnal office, and I1 is only necessary ID
NogOtill8 mutuallV 8cceplabla le,m. wilh
fie proprietorl There il. 01 cou.se. no
fl 17", Iso far as I am concerned, anywayl
...., Ihe O\Ien or chippan should nol be
-.d "out of coo4o,ing hours" and I" thiS
oon"""'ion il 1$ WOtTh nOling thaI' 1001
which ought 10 bfI .empered a, 200 C is
alten beller trealed if il I. "cooked" for ils
"" time al 190 C lhan if merely "heared
the colours run up" . The Irying oil ,
tlpecially, is u",,',,1. u Ihe heal Transle. is
-..lIent. The only caveal I would enle. is
IhIrI 11 would De p.udenllo use an oven or
Ihe.mome,er , as the !hermoslal
ort domeslic COOkers CIIn gel Oul m
CIIIIbr,don in l ime,
Y"" CIIn, of course, use "'rying oir' IS a
IIInpering oil In wotkst>op, and you
...... slill be able 10 oblain Ihe wecial
l60C. Again, you need a subll.anlial
conlainer . and t use .he oule. v8s.sel ' ,om
an old-fashioned glue-pot, Fig 20 shows
Ihe sel Up; Ihe old boiling nng I picked up
a. a sale for a few pence finally gave up.
Ind you ..... the pot here on 8 replace
ment. Ordinary mercury the,momelers.
usually nitrOgen tilled, are available which
go up 1o 400C. and Ire nol e.pensive -
lhey can De had from labo.atory &Gulp-
menl $YPIlliers, 0. o.dered Ih.ough your
local ph,rmaciSI. Alternatively thl well-
known "Rotolherm" dilll thermomeler.
can De used. 8uI ",. mOSI of our wo .... an
Oun .hermomerer from a scrlPped
cooke. will go up h;gh enough - lhough 11
mev De marked in hhrenheit.
The salt 5 ,.e markeled Ih,ough Edga.
Vaughan & Co. , Legge Shee. , 8ir-
mingham and it may bft thal t>y the liml
Ihls book Is publi.hed Ihe usual model
englnee'" suppliers will mar1(e. Ihem ;n
.a.he. s maller quantitoes. 100rect $Ypply
t,om Vaughans may involve "Club
purchase"). There .r . 01 course. a numbflr
0' brands. bulthe only SO" I hl"l uHd I.
Ihe DEGUSSA type TSt50!ASt40. h
COmll. es a powder m the consislency of
domestic ... n, bol must bfI kept dry, as il
can absorb moisture lairfy quickly. It is
non_loole, and lhe only .... ious haza.d is
th.I, like some weedkillers, If absorbed
inlO woodwork io. vour overalll! it
IUPport. combustion" I deal wilh
"S.fety in hilt t realment on PlIge 102.
1ft(! 0<'IIy mention Ihis now to rllssure you
tltat we fre not ,.,king lbo\It mlleri&l
which is pOl_ .
The g ... at ldYantage of thiS me.hod
(Iik, tha' using the OVfInl is t hlt voo haye
c:ompl .. t .. control of the ,_pe.alu 10
WIthin I degr" or.o. n... .. I, no Ilfoblem
WIth "time" - you can le ..... the worIr; in"
long Is you Irke . And the K tu.1 lIme can
be. bit 51\o<1.r ... t'" h ... , i, very
good Indeed Th .. one thing yr>u do have 10
Wllch is Ihll ther. i. no oil or w ....
,,""*' in lilll, holes . .. Ihi' would be
d.l'IgIfous. n... procedule is l i .. ,IO bring
Ihe bath UP to ,he wor!cing temperaTUI'.
The worl<plece can be set .Iongsid .. Iha
pOt 10 dry If you h.ve ."'" doubls aboul It
btri<19 cIry. /Wilh oII-q...,nched won I
"",.'Iy w.sh in carbon IIlrlChloride or I
.. mile. d.g' .... nl ). You nee<i soma
m .. n, of llokIing Ih .. wo.k _ It i, no lun
g,oping Ibo\Illn hot molten .. 1t 10 fi nd 11.
A piace of wi.e wound .r>und will se"",
Imme.se , he m .. laI slowly: you nolice
rh .. the lampe'"u .. ,.,1 . bul will sIowlV
,..20 .. _" I __ , .. _ . . ..
. ... -.. ........... -.
...... "._ .. ""'- .. " "-'-'
.. ,.".-.. . ----_ .......
_"" .. ,,, .. ,'.-
ri ... IlI"ln - lhe,e i. nol. IS a rul .. '".
nMd 10 incr ...... tha he'ling rlla. la .. ,
the work in loo th .. pr .. scribe<! IIm .. , h,v ...
In eye on th. l .. mper.I ..... ; you mly h'"
10 adjust lhe contro:>l Iwi ' eh I,om lime I,
Ilm ... but If It I " VS Wllhin lew deg'"'
,1>1, will be suffid .. m n... piece can I
.lIowed 10 ,;'-<:001 .Ila. ,"" hom .. hi 1,1,
Ihe<a hi no ......., 10 ""u .. nch quenen
Is onlV neceH-ary when. as In 11 3'
healing. SIO.ed l'Melln one pall of,h' I"
m0g/11 overheat ,he PlIrl being I
Any ... It whICh adhe ... can ealllly 0-
Wished oH In wl.m WII .. "'...-wlrdS
0""" you ha..... tampe.ed ,hoe loo
ove,all In thl' th ... can be .
down" w.lh gas torch. IS I lIav. Per',
vio.rS/Y expl"ned. With milling cu"e.s. 0-
bits. I'VI_ d .... or any Ot"'" eompliul<'d
1000s thl. is not neca ... rv In lhoe e'M '"
long 100+. Irke .um ... , I'OU mly M ... I
use I deep w" ... -bath witll som, mn",
01 hoIdirog Ihe 1001 uprOghl In order 10 I
down lhe d.ivirog SQu.r. on lhe end.
n... IItt wlh i"he InSwer 10.'I"l'1011
lhe probIlms me' wi,h in tampering. F'
comple. Ih,pn - ilPlcially
cutte., - It i Imo" Ihe only way t hll lh
tool c. n be 'empe<ed properly, and w-
no prool .... lilhe,. prOYi(Ied lhe pOt
prOl>Otlroneod 10 lhe ,ize oIlhe wOfk . '
IIfIfHf abou, la.b of Sill loo on .. Ib of lilt<
b\>1 it i",', critical. You mUll. of eO'UJe
.emember Ih., th .. lide will ,I ... when !'
work \10ft In; don' l fill lhe pO' ' 00 1<
Fintlly. a po;nt on heating Wt>.
cold . eru" will lorm on the lop of ,'''
selt- Inill" healing m ... st ha "ow. and II ot
Idvisabla 10 applV just. litlle heal 11) lilt
outside" the lOP oIlhe pOlIO gel. litll
melt around the crust. It lid Ihould a/w.,"J
be in place when reSlarllng. Silt pol
C " .. T ..... peri"". This is lhe ...... Ihod
__ model eng;.-...... accustomed '0 .
CJIIorIoI.I5IY. """" 11 you hava I Silt fu.nace
11 1",'1 wOrlh filing il up if III Ihat
;Oil " I"!"" is I "h dened SCrewdriver
_ I ...... If .. ma"", jobs In lhe aver.
."orhho p for which 'Ollhlll!cl1 .. d
'I"''''''' Ire nol whi ... 01 COUrH, if
,... he" .. no 1I11-bath, and Ihe 1,1... of
dDfMll lc Oven Ind chip pan I" danied
...... , ..... you mult uH "Iempe. colou '
D ItoodiUII the lempe."u.,. I1 caNlO' in
__ y be disQained IS "1>eod lI.actlc .. ,
\1101 me.hod MS been U$ad lor unturies.
lot and plk.-huds in Ihl days
bIfora th ... we any 111n.lools.
The colours I,a IOfmld by film of
QIIiM which is very lhin ind"d...cl which
.... Ihlck IS ,ha temper.tu.e inc.uses.
II:would ..... m Ih"lh .. coIou. ch.ng. is, in
,.-t, due 10 ,he lighl "lIec,ed /rom lhe
ol lhe m.IIIItHII PlI ..... ng ltuough
..... lfI\I of th .. oolda. Cer-
airily tha a. act coIor.l, does on
bDd'I IhI I';'l)e 01 mll" Ind IhI surface
IIniIh. The differenca ha,we .. n lh .. colouI
fA .,eal .nd hl\lh-catbon ., .. , is
-.11. but 11 Ih.... .. Is 'hi d'ffer.nce
Mlwe,,, Ihll 01 qu .. nched and
1MQu.nd>ed carbon 11 ..... Th .... ffec, is 10
gIw v,ri"ion In tempelatu.a 10. l he
..... e $h8<l ... bUI Ihi. I, only Ih. odd
.. cen'igr.-le .nd I, nol imllOrl.nl.
... surface finish should nol be coo
PtIIiIhad. I dull bu, smooth mlll ... rf,c .. is
.... unl ... you ara blu",ng ,h ., .. , for
_ .. 11c e ltecls. The 00101,1 .. will. 01
_ rH, run inlO .. ,ch Olh ... if Ih, wo.k is
.... ,ed from on .. and. trod ,h.,. should be
I."ed In I cliff uM 100tlt 10 avoid
,7 m Oons. The moMl ....... , difficulty i, In
4e<:;,;I;ng wh .. n 10 IIOP; the ,,,.w may
..... 10 be ' 00 PlI" . and Ihen. bill<><e
"-.... time 10 Ihlnl<. becomes 100 d.rIL
.- Is pert\lps ' .. onge. argument lor
... and gentle """"'IIlh.n .ny lhal hu
befoN I It cIoII help 10 Ita .... piecl
of cold .'ee! -""'gl-de loo COtnPllrison If
lhe "'ry PlIlel1 .'raw is !he IIm As lOOn
n ,he coIou. I, ""ght" ' ,he IIlec .. musl ha
"uenched _ In 011 or WII .. , to pnI.etlt
Iny hi" STored In Ihe .... nk of the ,001
from taking il tun""'. The
__ no IlUrpOM IJO I., .. ,'''' act .... 1
tempe.ing is
The worl< can be helled In. bJowlamp.
u"fIg 10ft fl.m ... bul when.",
POI.bIa I USl Spi,it lamp It hi QUlle
ldequll .. kif ",.,.1 ,,,.,. of 1001. and
'hough il lal<.... ,he, longer gas
bu.n .. , thi5 i, ail 10 Ihe good. We I." nol in
hurry I It prOYidel' very clean fI ,ma. and
_ which does nol Inlerf.,.. wilh coIow
/ofmalion. I:",n 10, It is nece ... ry 10
'eMOVe lhe WOfk f.om 1"- fI'm.. 10
00.."" the eo:>lo... . . .. it will not develop
properly in Ih, P'.Mnc& 01 burnltlg luel.
lno:a.d. it is posa.bIe ac'u.lIv 10 .a""", ..
lhe coIou. with I 'edueing II'JII of n.ma.
Nllufllly, you mull keep the worlt I'I'IOYing
.bo\IC In , h .. fllme In order 10 g. , even
healing if you.re IImpe,ing 'h, whol .. .
Obiects whIch .... of ;".gul ... hape
can be difficult. The hell should be
'PI)IIad 10 the he....., PlIrl of lhe lIC'ion.
Ind you mull keep a very c.,etul lYe on
'hing . Fine corn ... mey '"I.ke oH"' into
,he blue befo.. Ihe main body hn
, .. ched Slr,w. For lud'I work I .lw'VI u$l
the Utlt balh <M do"'eslic ......... 81,11 il you
m",t uM. n.me. go...,ry sIowlV lndeotl.
The diffIculty with the di,ecl ...... ing
mathod i, Ihat we 'fe applyi"" Ih. heal
f.om the OUtside . nd ,h,,, C.n be no
IPJ.rlnl .. Ihal lhe int .. m.1 Itruel" ... is up
10 the t .. mpe."u .. , .1 certainly worn be if
you """ loo q"'iCkly.
1I n.me heating i, the onlv mu ...
Ivallable. then I'OU Cln Iry one of Ihe
"Mmi-diract" methods. 0.... whIch 15
often .ecommended 1. 10 bring I.orty
'hiCk " .... pili .. UP to JU51 below dull red
and to expo'" the wo,kpie<:e 10 the
. adiam haal. tumiog il about Ih, while.
The higher tempering tempe,atu,es mav
need Ihe plale 10 be red-hol. You can do e
slmila, thiog wilh a fi,eb,ick oven; jusl
an80ge a few fi.ebricks 10 fo,m an Open
box. Ihem wilh a tOfch. and .hen hold
Ihe work inside wilh IOflg5 - 8galn.
lumin.g i. aboul all Ihe lime. Manv u ... a
ufld-batn. A lray of dry sand I, healed
from balow and lhe wotlc eilhe.laid up on
It Or !>uried, the und balng 'umed asio:!e.o
in""",,1 Ihe colou,. from lime IQ lime. HI
helps 10 have a thin pie<:e of simila,
me1erial laid On Ihe surface of the bed in
Ihat ca ... , 10 eclas an indicatorl, The sand
muSl, of course, ba kepI well stined whilSt
hUtin.g, '0 make .u"' Ihal it is a. an even
,empe.eture. I would no, recommend
sand lor tempe,alures in Ihe "Pale Straw"
region. !>ut fo' deepe' colours il wo,ks
well : 81 lOOn as you see a colour you
kl'lOW thellhe othe .. are nol fir behind.
Transmission T8m"".ing This is Ihe
- claieel"' way 10< 181he lools. bUI ;1 Can
be extended The 1001 is heated al thn
shank end. and as Ihis lurns blue. SO Iha
pUIPle _ dark straw - straw - "raw
colours run lowa,ds Ihe point. As soon as
Ihe i>lrle Slraw reaches Ihe 'egion of Ihe
cunin.g edge Ihe tool is quenched, poinl
down. in wale. The vlnul of Ihis method
is, as I have a!ready suggesled, Ihel Ihe
heat lravels down insjde Ihe melal . and
we can be lalMV sure Ih81 .he ,empering
Ims ,e&<:hed Ihe centre. The diffi cully is
th.t lha temper is uneven, from POint
t>aci<wards. !n .he c.ase 01 knife-lOOl
there will be m,rked dill,reoce 'n
hndness along Ihe cunin.g MIgfI, afl{! I
paning 1001 will gel softe, u il ..
reground. This Is lhe main resson whV I
chan.ged 10 Ihe "two-slege" tempering
process already described. Ne"e,.,hele.,.
Ihe melhod is """nd, and il CBre is Mho
gentle heal, wilh the Ilame moved
backwards. swav Irom lhe polnl, as 'h,
work gets holle.) sallsfac.ory results can
be assured.
The idea can be eXlended. Fig 21
shows, method 01 lempering a small
milling culler , 01 Ihe Ivpa (used in
horology) which 15 screwed on.o 8n Srn",
collet .rbor, The COpptr' rod i5 Ihreadeo
end s<:rewed inlo .he culler, and hU"'d
with 8 blowlamp, The heal 'un. down Iht
rod, Ihrough Ihe me.al 01 Ihe CUlle" to Ih.
'eelh. No'e tha. Ihe culler is se' on Ih.
rod as &hown, so Ih81 Ihe leeth R.e mort
or less of uniform distance I.om .he hot
rod. Fig 22 &h0W1l a similar """ice in U.
temperin.g " die. In Ihi. c ..... he circulat
die is wedged inlO .h. end 01 , piece 01
COpper tube, which hIS lour sillS In Ih,
.nd. There I. e Dall of s.eel WOOl Inside Ih,
lube just below l!>ul nOI ,ouching) the die
10 prevenl 1101 air turrenls from hea"ng
.he centre par!. The tube !Jansmi
heal 10 Ihe die from Ihe Oula' perime'"
and Ihe whole is quenched when
CUl1in.g edge. ,each Ihe tight 'empe'.'ur.
Again, Ihe healing musl be gentle. The
fill. ZI "-....... _. _ ........ -.....
__ 011__
,..UTI, ......... ""' __ ....... _ ... _
_ ".-oi.-----"'--
"" ....... -
..... ,
ge her. is Ihal tha oulside of tha
.. (whkh &<:15 more or lass 8S' spring in
..,...;cel is ho"er Ihan Ihe tunin.g edge
8l'Id SO more deeplv .empe.ed - as it
""""Id be.
I doubt If many people make Ihei. own
jIIItIlng saws these daV5, buI similar
ob/e<:" can be ,empered bv grippln.g
two washe," on a Dolt, held by a
nu\. The hes. is applied by he.tlog Ihe
bolt, M.ny olher e. amples will come 10
Mind, The objoct i. Iha same in all cases:
Irat, 10 heat from Ihe pan of Ihe tool
which need nol ba h.'d, tow/lrd$ the
cutting edge, and sewnd, to arrange
flings so thal where possible Ihe h8at
_Is .hrough 'he Inlerior 01 the too!,
lWChing Ihe CU1l'ng edge f,om wilhin.
lNPioll Off. This is ePfl/icable m"inlv to
-" wtttch has been oil quenched. A.
_ as it Is ",moved f.om Ihe quenching
Mitt Ihe tool 0< component is held over a
_ll h me until Ihe residual oil ignites
Ind !>u.ns eway. The heal so released !the
-" is "'ken from Iha I""'h or lamp
IameJ tempe's Ihe wo, . For large, pieces
"the books" sugGeSt binding some iron
wire round, 10 hold more 011 TIm "'Iheory'
""',need is Ihal lhe temper lemperature
ellSOcla'ed wilh Ihe Hash POinl 01 Ihe
011. This is non ... nse. The IlashPO;nl is
--..Iy en indication ollhe lemperalure al
which lunder very anjf,cial condilionsl oil
wIII"fIn to ignite. The e<:tual temperature
_had will depend on the mU5 of tho
end Ihe amounl of oil relaine<!,
.. well n on the heatinG ",Iue of Ihe oi!'
Fo. the experler>C<!'d pre<:tittoner, and lor
"'Y "",,11 clock pans like click-sprlngs
8nd pallets, Ihe $VS"m wori(s well, !>ul
wll( have experimented a great deal
1Itd, rTIO!It Important, will "' know Iheir oil'",
"-truclions In old books were lhe rnult
01 da<:ad ... if nol cenluries of !fial wilh
one oil - from Ihe sperm whale - bul wilh
'he v.rillV a".lIable and used loday I
would not care to give .nv inSt'uction el
all "'CftPt 10 "'Experimenl fi"I'". I. wo<k.
very effeclively. bul doe. ""ed experience.
To sum up; .he idesl lempering
medium i. Ihe salt or 011 bath with Ihe
domestic oven Of chip pan a praClicable
ellllnalive. Wilh lhase methods Ihe exeCI
tempe"uu." of Ihe work is .nown, end
condition. can be repealed exactlv. The
use 01 colours 10 judge the temperatu.e Is
safe !>ul n.....ds little "i"lend experimanl
to judge Iha .rnlS accurately: Ihe
lempertllureS wlll then be within Ihe
"Ioleranc,,'" 10. Iha 1\1l8 01 work wa do.
The aClu,1 deg."e 01 lempe,ing needed
should be conside.ed, bee,ing in mind Ihe.
m051 of Ihe re<:ommendarlons rn Hand-
books etC ere 10. Industrial condiTion . nol
loose of Ihe mo<lel engineer. The temper
heal $hould be held fo< a pe,iod -
10< one hour pe, Inch 01 seclion _ .nd
should be applied slowly_ Temperin.g
shOuid be carried oul as soon as possible
after Ihe initial quench. t will add Jus, one
final poinl: In some cases we do wanl a
surfBce 10 boo of muimum Ma,dness and al
tMa uma tim8 to nave a fine grain -
w ... lng and ",bbing pans "a cases. It
this Is so. tMen il Is worth trying a temper
at IOOC - iust boil the part in water lOt
h,'I-en-hour or so. This will not .educe Ihe
hudn .. " at all. bul will achieve some
lI'a'n ralinement. For fi ne grain cunlng
lools I 50.1l1li""' , p.ocedure on pall" 74 CHAPTER 5
Heating Equipment
TlwI Open fir ... There may boo a law model
engin&ers who OWn' blacksmilh, hearth.
.od pemaps more who hava inMe.ited
thMn from en ea.li". generalion: il seems
to hllve been an essenl lal pieca 01 equip-
....... 1 in the earlier times. I do hava a small
one with a hand-drh/ton fan and I"""gh !t
used mainly for smi lhy work . od Ihen
only .allly. I have hardento<! large objecl$
in It. The lasl job we. 8 pid ... e point. 'lnd
I mUSI conleN that winding the hBndle
11"1 a bil w .. risome I The forge was Ihe
... tu.al tMing to use - apat! from saving
pensivto gn - n. 01 course. the point
I'I8ed8d reforging &S well.
CoI<a is the usual fu .. 1 - proper coke.
nol the sofl awn sold for domestic fires.
.... In alte.nallve the egg-shaped
manufaCl ured fuel r Pnurnacil,, ' is
handy. 85 Ihe "1Igs a.e mo.e or le ... 01
unil",m Housecoal is usale".
Ihould no1 boo used even 10 s18rt the /i.e.
Ind Steam bener. Fm hardening
you need 8 fairly deep fire. hOI all through.
To achieve thiS the luel muSI tie sl,,,ed
""""t In Ihe earlier stBges. Once vou have
I njee glowing lirebto<! 1he Itn muSI be
Used wilh <l1"",etion _ you neto<! a drlfughl
'I"'er Ih,n , ""bits!". The wOff< Is laid on
of Ihe fl.e el first -In 'ect. It can be !eh
1IIere. ",ahealing. whils1 you tlring Iha
lip. The piece is th8n set In the heart of the
!i .abed. but where you can saa 11 and
obse",e the colou . I1 musl be lumto<!
about at Inte"'als so 1ha1 no one side Is
uppermost lor any lenglh of lime. Take
ca'e Ih81 il Is nol 10 Ihe direct
draughl lrom the fan. Slow ........ n. healing
is thll "'cler of Ihe day, avoiding Ihe
impingemenl eilha. 01 direcI. cool.
d,augMt or a d,aught which hu passed
through anv e",ra hOI part of the li,e.
Overt.eBllng must be guarded .gain!! like
Ihe plague. and you must beat In mind
Ih81 Ihto melll will look coole. Ihan it i
unl il you 11"1 used to observing the ""lour
in contraSlto the IIot co"e. You c(Jn tlring
I 10000B fire up 10 1500C and metal 81
780'C wlllloolc dead cold in comparison.
A useful e. podiant Is to usa Ihe semi
indimcl melhod. Sal a piece of (SltVI 2
inch 51eal pipe in Ihl midst 01 1he fir. Gel
Ihi5 hot - B Hllle above Ihe lemperatu.e
you need - and heal \he inside i,
You a.e then able 10 ludge the
lemperetu'e mo' e directly end. futlh",.
will be protecting the WOr1<rMece bo1h Irom
cold draughts and from local ....... meellng.
I1 ,s slower. bout. as we have seen. las'
heating il NOT the pome rlKlui.emenl.
Oom"lic Fi .... . Thi. i. a practical
.lle.native 10 Ihe smith, hearth for
smaller pieces. After al l. Nnml'"lh made
IMe c8Stlr>gs lor Mi. firsl SlUm engine in
hi' flt.pla",,! The ordlnlry open
g"ll will gl! hol """"gh 001.,. Ior YfI'"
.... all wonc, bUI a...., closed SI"". wuh I
ptopfl' air oonltnl can boo uMd for ,nYllllng
lluIl will P'u Ihrouoh IIIfI ItOOI fintblrL
l f lg 231 Aa wilh the forge 001<1 or
"PhutnICIlI" CIll III "sed, I h .... IIId no
.. pe,1tnce using In!lvlcill.
The g"" mull fitsl be dlt<ed of .. 10
end dink" Ind ,,.,. fi., .1Ien built UII by
adding ..... n Quanttti.s 01 ""I . I liml
unl,l 1111 1;.1bId il as d ... p I. can boo
.ccommOd.utd, The aim mull be 10 gel a
"nll onn .ata 01 bu'ning riglll tll,ougll.
0""" 1101... .chitvld .10, fronl dooI. lor
Ot'I<Iof thlml musl be optned .nd lhe li,
VI"" In lhe IlIhpen .cIju$led 10 gel 1101 lire
lobe vi. bul nol 100 much .beNt , 1"-
temperIIU" needed The ,001 should be
sel In IhI UpPlt pert of lhe lif, Ind . .. in
.he CaM of lha .... "11. he"III, should be
lumed ,bout I1 Inl.",,,I . You nHd h ....
no fet .. 'Mt 11 won', gel hot enougll. Ihe
1I000e In f ig 23 can be brougll. UP 10
l000.C very Quicl<ly ind,ed nd if you
IInd .ny clinlt .. in YOU' g"". 'Ill' I, .n
Indlc:.uon lh" .he ""te "Imperllu .. h .
11 _ IIm . baatI of .he orde, 01
' 23 A, ."'_"',
,.... .
p.oblem I lind il 110 .
unlike IlIe h ... tlh you h .... n,
posil ive "span.., 10 adjul!'
menlS 'It I i, flow and va'
h ..... 0 Inl icipl" ct>angas in .he "" of
N'turally, \'OU musl 'ccounl
yOUr ... ,roundltlQ. 11 IS \'OUt hearth<""
lIt.r Ill ! BUI IhI m'", otr,'I<""," I have'
the use 01 lhe o;Iomestic lIOW> 10< h .. den
Ing is thll lha fronl g'" .... blr. prevenl 110
UM 01 a pi"". of pipe. How""",". w,.h 110 .
cw"ed .lOVe there I. litde problem
'Soaking"' : ooel Ihl fire hIS r.ached it.
'Imperllu" It I,nd, 10 ",,1tV put' I"
QUill long for Ih' sile of ""0"
norm.11y cIonI, It i. YfI'" u .. ""1o< anne.
1"9. IS the pn. can III .1Io,,'ed 10 coc
willl llIe fir. OYImlliJhl E""" il lhe r",
nol "OUt' In lhe morning Ihi.;'; nollmpt>'
lint I1 will h .... cooled IlIrough the
critic.1 tinge ... '" "owly and cln be M'
the .. hpen to l ini"" 011
Some books ""liI\Illt l l>&tthe,e mlV D<
a lendlncy lo"""d, bolh scaling 1,-.1
dlcatbu,i'ltlon wllen uling Ihe smilt,
hearth. bul ,10,. need nol cau"" us 1<"
much c:onc.m, I1 no trul Ihl1' hlatlh "",'"
.... 13 ... ... _ '. ___
Pr ,.". S/, ... .. ..
a' ... _ ....... 1>9<00
--_ .. _-
Itn blnl can dt-cltburi ... bUI ""I ,r, not
dI.llng ""ilh lhe Sll 8 of wo.-k ..... mallv
dontr by the old bl,eklmllh You mav need
10 like u,. if Ih. hllllng lime i, h," an
hour or more. bul it ooly Clse of
.. oidOng direcl impi"",,,,,nl of !ha IIInl.
Some KaI. will be formed, 01 course. bul
'alt ... Ieu wi.h lhe deled .1 ..... IfIlIn VDU
INght imtgine. The alrnosphatl lIIIil1r;" the
IIrIObed 11 mainly carbon mono.i<Iot and
nitrogen - Ihllfl i. much lest OJ(yg8f1
pr ..,nl Ihan in. f.n-(lri ... n n,. h i. good
.... Cllct. 01 course. 10 remove .nv sel!e
.... Ich may be p.esent f,om ptevlous worll.
including The "'mill K,I," on bjack bBr.
Mot, Kilt will be Io<m..r In lhe long hel'
11. kialed ""ilh fi'I _.nne,lIng. ,nd if 1101
e. of scal. no ;mpOfl.nl lhe wor1<
Ihould be prolecled FOf .... emighl Inneal-
Ing good W"l i, 10 _.se il in fi"",ley
!NOT fir"""",,"I) "'nlo<c.d ",,"h Iron
wife. 0, pul it In in bo>< pICked wilh
r.ne with . fillll chltco.l m .. od ""it h it.
' !owllmp, .nd 10fch ... MOll model
-..ginee .. will have SOme form 01 PI ffin
00 ,,"lo.ch 10< use whin brazing and it is
",*,u,,1 Ihat the.. should be .h. fitsl
"' AI when hlaling 10< lletdtnong I will
'""':' ,
I.rongly you NEVER.
.xcept In IIIe mOSI dlr. n",,"I11"/. uM
O...,.-Acetyl.ne lor O...,.-Inythlng .IMI lor
Iny lorm 01 "-rdenlng ape.lllon unll"
lhe use 0I1Uch equipment no pen of yOUt
dliIv E ..... lhen 11 is risky first. lithe
ft,,,,, gell 100 dose 10 lha ......, 10<
IMI poinl will be ..... _.Iod
decatburlNd nd .Imos. Cln,intv ""If"
!tom o.oide ptnetrlllon It IhI gr'in boun-
d.rill. Second. 11 11 VD", diffi cult to gel
evln hnUng IS 110, M81 SOUrCe i, SO COt\-
cenl rtlod. Ilthl flame i. adjusted le avoid
Klllng 110..-. I. lhen risl< 01 UCIU Clr-
bu,"'I"," ""hlCh would ,esul l In er.ding
011 quenchIng fln.'Iy. It le I YI<"f' .. pen_
..... ""Ihod of "-.ling. F_ peoj1II ........
10 though n.. "ame_ v .....
hot IndNd lhe K!.uII hilI ""/pU1 It
'''timely low. In IICI. lhe 1.'1111' noullln
1"- OUtfil I uMd 10 u"" (10< "".ldlng 1 inch
"eel pi".t g .... ou. fllh..- lau he" ,lIln
did my .... '".S1 p.raffin blowI.mp. It le I
call 0I11or ... tor coutsas; 10. ill purl)OM
OO"I'-lCIlyltne lorch 00" ill WOf1t VI..,.
well IMUd. bul Ihlt WOf1t il nol hi"
If."""nl 01 "HI unl.... VDU own a

'"........... . .. ",
_ .... __ .,

'Sho<te''''''lf .... <face 1'1;0.. ",,';"11 pi"
and th.l .. unllkelyl So. let uS turn 0\
'I!ention 10 lhe g"-I" type,
Th. ToreI'! Fll me. Though I shall be .. ,.
nog to .. 9 .... the urne Can t>o
.pplled to the paraff in blowlamp flamr.
The di ff erence In Ihe luella nol imPOrlI "!
- the "'";ng yet ... pe. pour>d mass 01
11lquid o. gill I1 very ne.rly the Jame .
, he p lll" 'ke'OI.ne in USA)
belofe burnlng, $(I ,1'1" In.
n,me ia In ,11 _,0.1 11."",_ Suo
flame. wtIl appe I. shown in Fig. 24
w l,h cent .. ' surrounded by. 1nOf'
Of lul dilfuH outer curtain, though
K IU-' Ih_ win doopend on the ,"", use<!
,IMo rype 01 .or .... ppry, ,nd the .id ....
'I' io. Prom.,., combu'l!on OOC;U'$ with"
the In.... cone .. Id the heal .,lea'
c.u ... dKompalillOR of the ,est 01 \h
1 .... 1 QII. Tllue fuel const it uents burn I
the OUI., using any exces. I"
Ple .. nt w'thln the Ilame and ." draw n in
from outl>de .. well The ;noar cone
will .. lOOm UCfled t tOO' C
bul JU5I tM,oond It.. lip 01 Ihe inner con.
lhe l1IIu" wrll be rn excess of 1600"(
(The theofel,cIJ muimum is highet n
bul Is nol r.ached beeluse no burne< 'l
l*1ecl .-Id In Iny lhen! is coosidp
IbIe rldi.1I0n of heI. from the If.rM
h"lI). Ihl. point Ihe
IImperll .... d,min,"''' egain. 15 ....... e
in It.. "",lid\. It i. nol Ippreci"e<t
"'" ,im",r lempe"IU" IIIl,dienl OCCU"
.... ZI a .. _....... .. 7 . "" " '''' '"
_"_,, _ ..... .,n IC_F-"' ...
.... J. r __ oI ..... I
_.too ___ ....

__ .... _
. - -- .. .
_ ... ... PO
- ---_.
.... -
.. o$. ,,"'0<1
",CROSS the flame. bur Ihi' is the case. 11
ther. I. , lonO inner cone it be th'I
ht'Iino will be mono efficient it Ihe IIlml
Is I,id !he worlr .ethe, thJn be
doreclld . 1I'lOhlll 11
n.. gtnfI 1 lorm of the Will be
the "me for all l ..ell!. I)f!tnaPl some
dItI_. in <><>Iou, ,nd some f ..... wrll
""'" "sh.tpe<" cone l!>an Othen. bul
Ih.rl i. conside1lble In
CHARACTER of lI.m. berwHn .hoIe
.. hicti come Irom "selfbIown' 00 ......
-..ch ,. lhoIe used on
0< BUll".. .nd lhose which h ......
Mpt<" .. COl'1l1olled .ir supply dll1ived
from fin or blower, There i. tome
wide control of the ,iu 01 Ihe
bm. with Ih, sell-blown but any
che"ll" In char'cte, leg. f,om "bushV" 1o
'lIQuires " change in burner
heed. With Ihl .i.-gas IOfCh there i.
compIet . conlrol 01 the name, bolh I. 10
tile (wilhin '.Ioonl .nd ch"eell' S<llely
by mlniput."no lhe Ind gn conlfOi
1 . ... n.... is no doubl t ha, the bu,,,.fS
With leper" ir and gas 1Upp/J loo
eon" ... Ir. by la, lhe ,.,.,. trlCienl .nd
COnv.nl.nt 10 u... The ull-blown
Prop.". br'"ng lorch ... , of course. qu."
of I"" wort "'" if you Iuw. the
hA " noe 01 bu,,,. .. will l&Ckl. III jobI
Irom lhe Ilrge" 10 the "",lIest BUI lheV
do need ca,eful all"n.ion bol" 10 gl'
p._u,. end 10 burner head J.election,
And th.y do need clea, ,,;r round Ih.
bu,,,., head excepl 10< Ihe speci,l on"
...nich hive e . tension tubes beyond .hI
.ir en"""'menl holes. Whe n uHd In
11'ltM'id "c."," the lI"me mull h"'" _
10 ...... top or.rlside the entrlnat 0< 11
"blow IIMIf or.rf The !>a lfin (k.rose".)
bIowt'fI'III is " the< more fle.<ible. 1 .. ",,1y
beet .... lhe Iuellfl1por.r .... p'ehelled. but
,110 beetu.. lhe inHlmmlbility 01
pa,affin is much wde, Ih.n lhat 01
8Ul .".. PfOINIne end Me.h.ne IN 511
GII' 10 thlt Ihe .i,!fueI r. , io is much I".
cti ' ;UI
All t h ... fI" mes will. if Ihe bu,ne, .i"
I. riohl ..... CNd Ihe lempe,alu'e needed
fOf hell Ir18\menl of sleel. There i. no
probl.m he . Howe\l",. we." conr;e,ned
wllh _n he"ing .nd. in mOSt e,M . wit h
"KO<IO"'Y" It I. desi.,ble thll lhe If.me
be short end btoed th", l!>an one which.
lhough _.JIy "pawefful" tin 1 _ 01
hut rlle ... 1 is long end nlld .. With
lhe li"gH type lhis .eq";, .. only lhe
menipulttlon 01 ,hi conuots bul wiTh lhe
lIIf-blown IOfCh lhe burne< heed mu .. be
.. Ie<:Ied ec<:oodingly. n.o.e detcribed I.
,btoId blowlamp" lie usu.11y the mcHtl
.pprOpri.I .
ApplVlng Ih. lI.me. Hell ""n.f .. from
ft ....... to WOttpiecI ill ve.., POOr i"deec1
On IUI . of "HI .boul the sil ' of
5116 Inch IQ 1.1 .... 1001. I.id flal on
Ilrebtid. 1001< r .... mlnulU ID brinog Up ID
'h' h.,deninog tempe"IUfI _ somell>inog
lik, 1500 unllS 01 heat hom lhe burne,
utnsf."inog onty 10 h , units 10 the
"e.1. NOI a good .,orI18y",lIng
simple "e.v," like Ih.t in Fill. 27 t he
hutlng lime w .. ,.dueed to 105
MCOnd.; IOouI 500 h t unit .. Not good.
but bener thin t..ior., You Will. of QOUTSe.
quoll mv own ... ord. al'Od "'Y I"-t !he five
m,nut" 01 t .... firsl .... mpla is I.t ...... loo
fut fo< t ......... 1.Jng-uO ti ...... , VDU
would IHo quit. noghl, 8Ul .... have 10
HOLD I .... ttm",",IU" for ,boul .not ....
qu",.' of ... hou, .I'Od jf ,hill ilto be done
on I .... 0j)etI fI,ebflek the bu"", muSt be
kepI 11 full wonl. 1hI ...t>oIo: 1.Jme. Using
1hI - e ...... 11 can IHo Ihronled down,
Moreover, .. lhe will be heated
la,geIy by radl.,lon from hot Ii'ebtick it
Flo. 21" _ ... _. ___ " . .... _
T ...... ___ ..... " .... __ ... ...., ... " ...
----_... ...---
... be .... l1ed more .... enty. And. finllly. ,\
we have _., pitcH ID h.,(len ' .... n_
Cln ....... .. bIa amount 01 illS
The "uve" ill ,pity .'i"" fu,n..::e.
The intelligenl uSl 01 firebrick wiD bot'
""'''' 01" and .""''' mor ......... "".tino
use \h, .. type .. First. ordinary fi"b,iCII,
f,om I to 3 Inc ..... In thidness. These are
,ehaetory ,,,he, ,h.n hu, ins"lato,.
Ihev ... 111 ... llh.,.nd verv high
t.mp.,.,,,.... Seeond. lighlweight
"lnlWl.tinog B,k", 01 ... hieh "Fossaki l
and "Fol ... in" ... tvpic.1. These i0oi<
feel lik, con. Ind .re inteoGed lor .... at
inwlltton behind will, of Ii'ebrick in
fuMIC ... They ean IHo 11 lOOOC., 01'>1
.nd .nd deed cold I1 , .... 01 ...... _ and . "
..... bablt In I ............. ail" IS firebtid.
80lh IIfIbndt Ind insulat ..... bricks can be
hid ffom most builder. men:h"n,$. The
third tyf* .... "HOt Fac." bric:I<I - more
",frICIOfY th.n lhe Inwl.ting typelwhi""
're In.ble end _It 11 ,round 125OC'
.nd ... ith ben" ""., inwla'""" th&n
t .... ordlnlry fI , ebrick, The" "em to ""
.v.II,bt<! onlv from
tag, Men" FI,m,fnl Lld,
T .. dlng h,,, . M,neh .. " , M27 lFJ. Or
MPI': In.ulltlng Ltd. HVlhe Wo,k.
Cole .... " .. C02 &JUI_ They- can be eu'
...llh saw llId drilled . nd ... ill Slalld
",$Oft,1M IoI(!o. An 1CC<tSSO<V whieh
fil'Od most useful both UPOn open
.nd In fuMIC .. is I"" little oar.m,'
.. uMd trv _ ........ 's _ Fig. 2B
use theM 10 IWIl9O't lID Ihat flam.
can gel bInI,th Ind, in !u,,"- WO<I<. t,
enw .. lhat 1hI unde<sio:le of the piece
,"'llIton helled Ind not by conduction
from the
Fu.nlCIII . Th' obviou. IWIXI ".p lrom lhe
cave It. , PIOOl' ThoH ... ho do
.... 2 ... _ ... , , "
----" .. ,
lot of tNulng m ........ 11 h.&ve one of I .... old
'1JliII Il fi<ed IDfVh ...... idt tin the d .....
....... I h'" lCe.ss to !OWn 9"5l ...... "' ......
.. br,"ong he'"h. heal t""menl Ihoo.
end melhnog !umICe. They "" 51ill ..... 11_
tbIe. modjfied fo, use on North 01" ,
!!'om AtCOll Lld (uecling "" William AIIdIy
Co Ltd. SIOUrporl on Sevem, OVI3
SAPI bul .. I .... ' eostly_ I'm ,h.id. ButlOf
tfle .. ,Iou. PfKtition.', who h."
tor ,11 .he mentioned ,bov._
they are. I belltrle. I"" best small II'lnefll
PUfPQII h"tlng "nit .v.ilabl . The onlv
cIr.wblck i. I"" lack 01 lemperatufl
lndIc.hon. but il VDU us.e hea' wffieient 10
jullity t .... COSI of I Utile 'f"OU ... ill be Pfl1tv
lfMt111 r;oIou" tn'yWIV
Thet, .,e two "",11 fumICII on , ....
mll1lel whicll , 'now of whictI mly be
""""'h looking 11. The I1I1fI .. Slmo/Icity
k">dlld - lhe Ak:ost Pon.bIt
Forge. F'og 2S Intended for " .. by
111o .... te f ...... IbroecI. il an filCh up to
11 5OC Ind i, very ,,,pid in ""ating up.
Onct up '0 tlmpe,"ure the supply can be
I"'UC'" - Ihl lull hut output i5 Iqulvl-
lenl to .bout 1 6kw. The,. i. no pv,omell'!
Ind tempe tu,. must be Judged by
c:okJ<J, VII'! .impl, _ almOSI e,ude - bUI
che,p ,nd .ffecliv . The second i. t ....
'. nT .. _ . __ _, ,,,. T"
_ "" .. ..." . " ........ ' r'l .. __ _
__ .... IC __ r_"_''''
,r .... -
..... H OI'I-fi,ed kiln Is used by _""I"" .
ma .... ted by lhe FI,mel,S! Co . lheir
kUn \VPILHIOOO Thill is ,,,,id 10 rud1
8SO"C In 10 minutes Of lID. and"";lI n.on
up to l000" C. It i , filled with. Plo",n" ..
and ""nullity conuolled firing file, the
m .. ,mum being equ;".len'lo 3tkw. TN
d>fomblr ;. .bout 7 in 5 in x 7:i in .nd il
can be fi,ed on N.Su 9i's. P'OIHine, or
BUllne Fig. 30
The,. I .. olhers. of eou .... In vlrying
dog,,,,,. olllOllhll1it8!ion ,nd si.e.
... ho P .. Clls.s Ihs I" 01 en.mellinll lor
IIDm. tvI)eI 01 pa"'ry. IOf th., matte,) will
hi'" I\>Ch lurn,c. whic:h cln u .... ltv be
f". :MI '''''lM<flAS'''''' __ ''''''''&'' ....
_ "'0" _ ....... __ " .... __
_ ..... ,10<>""" .. __ .. ", ",_._
___ .. ___ IC.., >""''' ,
in""'llng" Ilmesl BYI He Ch.lX.
Tub40 Fu ..... c. M051 01 mv own wa,k 11
done Ill"" In In old ,I.cltic muffle 0<
... 1'1 bath. but 1 do make hlMluenl UA of I
rigged up .. r"ed l uboo fu,,,-, shown in
Ppg. 31 The tube il"" il pi,,, 01 '-I
inch UhlU11 pipe, relic of !h, dlyl w!>en 1
u5ed "p.ope." 11 'vlntlg.) mOlo<call.
lbou! B Inches long. Th.lube i, .... ppo<ted
in , Inch !hid< FDlHitl briocU wil h I hole
CUI using the Ofdinlry lInk hole CU'!ef
0 ... 01 the c:ort!. !tom lhe is used
to plug 'hi bKl< lOO U 11 h ... I'oole hom
uMd Quite eo will ID, h, .. trealment. rh. pilO! d.11I this enables me set
Ther. I, elso 10< hom.-med. Ihennocouple Inside if ""ed
modll 'ngin...... being Ih. tort 01 be. The Olh ... core il uttd I, , "honl
IngenIout peopI. they 11 would nol be _". I g ..... more deui" oilhe """"ItUC-
dit'ficult ID Hm .... \'OU' own
. Thil is not.. tlon on page 90. but It IS \o'Iry .. lIIuI for
law .. 11 _mL Th ... "- be.n more those odd loin whiGh e.OfI .. p which ...
!onu .... 1011 1100 'vebrows 1001) ovlr !hl ""'Ihe. IIrrge """"9h w .... liring up
combulllon of gas lh,n In moo! br,nch" th. muffl., 1>0< er.ough Itull to
of .ngi .... ring _ i, I, nol )UII , caH 01 dirK' helti<IQ.
PlOMlng jet and IPtt It Elec:tric MIIIfl . Th_ e .. manv ""ell
doll MId I 10. of IXI)ef.m",t. end I would electric mulllt .........,.. on lhe mwk.1
-WggHI ,hel il be 11 fillt. tome lot IIrborllory wM, olh .... for
deleved ignition .. ,oeillld w.lh. .""m.OIng eOO Ihese ptovided lhe mosl
ch,mbe.oI 8 cubie foot or so can be mo"",;::economie.1 helting dtvle. where .ny
f ig lI A ___ ._
At;U,.-_, __
.. __ .,, .
'J' _"'_.0, ,
is n_. They do lakl I, ..
lime 10 he .. up. bUI once It Ih" ope.aHng
,""'petlIU'" UM .... rv liWe POwe. indeed.
All e .. lined willl O\'<Om"Ir.,he .. dlVS .
., thlt 1CCU'''e IImpe ,u .. cont.oI I,
pa lniNt even if the .. it no thefmo.1I1
Heating I. "d',nl lhe worII and it i.
easv ID .void scairnv. 1..1111 001 nol least
lhev can be I.f! 10 look Ihe. them..,lvII
with IIIIlV, mBkinv no noise eM. 11 nol
IhIrmotllll'c,11y controlled thefe is ...... 11y
t""m.1 fuse' whoch twuk$ the eite""
If lhe 11'. muimum is en :led. MV own
tFig. 32) wH oolline<l second hend 10<
, hi prO>o<.rbl,1 song som. lime .go. DuI
ev", new OM' ,re nol p.ohibil.velv
upensivI - about the ...... eOll ... g -
Ilred one. Mine hIS e chamber 5 in
, in 6in deep .nd I1 "110:1" l000'C
.....Imum. ,hough mosl todav go up to
Unlike Ihe ga.fire-(! type. il is rel.t<vely
'''v 10 meke your own elee";'; fU'n&ca SO
long you I.U the 1>0<1'1'1,1 PtltCl7utionl
when "'eling wilh IItthal mains ... ..
Ready-.oo mutfIn ...... ,il,bI, I.om
wch fI,ml as G,llenklmps. G.iffin ,
George. and oth .... I.borllorv equipm,n,
suppller$ lthev Ire w." P"IS lor Ihllt
I\lndl.d n\ll' ,,' mullln! .nd !!>eM
need no more than encasing In In&ul.l'<IQ
m .. ",ilII Ind. 1'1'11111 or 'SV1\dnyo to, its
1Q ...... lent) ca... H ... ;nog .mlnts .11
.Iso ... IU.bIt . .olll", In 'he form of
Rods" 0< "Hllung - "ITactory
bricl<1 wilh ,1.1'1'1"'" embedded in the
IKe - 0< fr&ClOrv lubl. wit h .n
element wound round. Hom. con .. <UClion
Is ",.It wuh In o.ll)llr IX .nd the only
POinI would mak. is 'hi' VDU should
........ 11>11 01 11>11 elemen, .... ppli" ....
early In 11>11 ptojecl. Fig. 33 show. I
hom.-m.d. lu.nace which I, supplied in
hki f ' form by K.nt h,1 EI,,,,,oh .. t.
Inver.lmond. Penh PH 1 3EE. """"'" ..
shown it does need IIU.nb filli"ll ov.r Ihl
lltCtrlUI conne<:l""'.
S,lt e,tht. I have .lrllKIy ",te rred to Ihe
for tempe<iong. N.utral .od non-
teWe: NII$ ." .Iso ..... ,Iable for the hillhet
templtl1u,,, nu .... 1 before quenching.
They muSt not be confuted with the
ACTIVE NUS uqci In cylnide -
the conll' lu, ntS 01 Ih. neutr.1 "'Itllrl no
more th.n cornmoft .. " lsodium chlorld.)
mixed wilh I CI.,.ln .mount of pOtlnlum
cI>Ior1de to gMo the ,.qulred tt-mal
chlrKtefisl1c:t. The type whit:l't I u ..
10'11""' C;S660IWS7201 m,ln "
6 70C Ind "an be uMd up to about
I OOO'C: Tt ;5 obtlln,bll Irom Ihl .. m.
IOU'C"" the temperl"ll .. lts. Ip, 4S).
The .. It i. mllted In wekMd IIHI
-pot", In indu'try the .. m.., be IIfIIe and
helled by 1185 or llect ricity - uiRJally the
Iorme, _ but lor the model eno""""" t ....
wntCtI .*lrical tube !u,nae. he,ung
pot made lrom 'lee/tube I. tI" most con
wnlent. C; .. heating "' .... nl. CI"lin
probl.m. 10lhe' Ih.n Ihose ahndy
mentionedland an h .. tl1 is eula,
to control , The siz. of , .... pOl depend. on
'he wor1< \'OU want ' 0 do of course. bul
tl\lt shown In fig J 4 .. qutle .cIeQulle
The Ict uel pOt is aboul J in. ;"terNI
diamlt" .nd I. 10 in deep. with t h" sail
bath il H if abou, 7}- In. d,.p. (You mult
IIOW 10< th' "Iide to rise" when lhe wo'"
Is PIlI inl) It I. In fact.' sm.1I home-made
iab<>I"OIV !u'Nee. ,nd I give det';l, of
the construclion I".,. It Ill. P<lrtu'os.I.,goe'
Ihan Is ,ully needed for mod.1 war'< 11\11
yOu need room 10' Ihe u .. ntl,1 pyrome"r
as well '1lhe woo.
fo< lhe In'lial melt the Hit. which
corn .. 11. fine powde, I.pul in to .bout
4 ''''' ..... below the top of l he pOt .nd, ..
Ihil mel ll. mOt1l is IIfJfV .,. .. luliy..sded'1
Ihe 1 ...... 1 link., When re-melling ,""bse-
quemly, f,lrly heavv Iron Hd Ihould be Ht
0\11, t .... mouth. IS. hard crust m.v fotm
wtren I .... Nil Mlls on cooling Ind t ..... e ..
jus. I risk of IOitting. How ...... ', 10 long"
the top and of the he'li"" -'tmen' Ii ....
,boIIl I .... Nil level Ih. C,uSl ohoukl melt
lrom the OUtside inwa rdl with no such
I'oubl .
The wortcpi_ t-hould be preM.ted
11111. H 11 ill likely 1o hI'IiI wlter or oil in IIIV
holM. end If .ny holes ... deeo 0< l8fgoe
some conllde<ltiQn t-hould be given 10
IhHl ... thl .. i rill< 01 spun,ng 01 1'>01
salt as thl .i, (or, wor$l, "'PO,,,llrBpped
In the 1'>011 "!Hnds.. The pile, c.n then be
set In ,he bath. wilh , wore "handle' It
need be. lA lob I fill or __ can, 01
cou .... h ...... , he ling protruding I""" the
surfacel, The jmmMSlon 01 I .... will
f". loO '" _'f ___ A", "'_ Wt,..
....... c_ ......... " r .. . __ '" __ .".
__ SOt<' __ ..... , .. _ ...... ..-
.... ' ' ....
..,.,.ari!" temperalure.
... thI .. no ...-. to IU$l the conuoll
shoUld rKOWl, very tM" is
cl uldenbl. 110<. of hell In Ihe
(IIoce there 'he wortcoiltCl un be letl lor
.. p'.",.1bed time which. for. ",It bath.
&Ill' be HAlf THAT NEEOeO fOR A
.... fFlE fURNACE le. 30 m,nU' " pe<
... of thickness. This III one 011 .... IIrel1
"ntlll" of lhe sail _ the ot .... ,
ItIIo"II thlt the "".,i"ll i. bound to be
..,Ho<m .nd to the COrreel temper"u ...
The work C'n be qu"nched In wlter .
..... or oil MosI of the Idheting Nit WIn
...... off' on qlllnching. In the nrsltwo,
... the rul will di...,,,, . Th .. win do no
..,.. S.1t will. I'>ow.v" in the
ltIIItIom 01 .n olf beth aod t h,. muSt be
... d OUI .. Int.rv.I . As 1 hevI .... id. the
.... i_If I. quite h .. ml .... (when cold.
.. is; moll ... ",It muSt be " nld wilh
... AmI ,espect IS that ICCOIded to
I11III1," me,,1 - ... Ch. 10.1 Ind r:lebris c.n
.. di5P" le<l of down Ih. link wtth a good
...... of wile, In which conn.ction. the
,,,, 1. 1 OOES .boorb w.,., .. sily nd
.. ..,11 OOwdet- ohould be kepI in plastic
_ in .n .inillhl cont ..... For the I::Jme
, "I, I lid """'Id be kept on the pOl
...... not In u ...
Nllu"l", IUch, pot .I'>ould not be used
.... Iarge tOOls.. The Sltlt IlvII should not be
... then tht"--Qu.ner. lull nor thould It
_ more th.n en inch lbove the top 01
.. hell'"", el8ment - Ind eerulinly
Ifaould not 'Pl)rOllCh I .... top of the po . In
_ sen ... I"goer di.mete, .od short.r
dIoth would .... Ip in this r'lj)IICt. but Ihe
toll of t .... t\>be.nd heating II.m.nl then
becolr>ll r.thet high. S.f,1'/ precautions
... de.11 w,th in Ch. 10 .. bul r wiN
........ 1114 _ poinl now The ...... id is
"'Or ... hot I. molten brl .... Ind \'OU
lJiould wlltlnll proper goggles.
"" ... 11. and. cap OCN'lry to
rID up" ..,11 POI; it mull be properly
CONIU\lCt\ld Ind be IONd enough Ind
.....'" """'IIiI not to tip ...... , for the hot
lilt will set the !loot on fi rl jUll .. would
hol metal .
Fum.", Conlrol . The .. is no method of
control of 111" fi,ed Iumae. which
reuonlbj, In COIot 0""" than "m.nuat" 11
po '!>Ie 10 obr,in modullt."II IIame
bumers w.m If,.. ,,_tits but the COIoI Ind
complic.ol ion would be difficult to JUllify
"" the model '''111,,",.
c, n. however. be controlled ,ulomllk,IIV.
;" two w'vs. The .. 1I"'t ,nd che'P<lst is
the " elllfllV ControUe,'" - IS Is uled on
ttoe hotple,,,, 01 ...".t cool .. s,
Thi. Is. in "'eel. I .. tim,sw,tclo.
Wit h the di. 1 HI It '"0" .he Current Is off
.11 Ihe time; ..,1 " 10'" il il on .11 Ih.
rime. In between the "urrent Is switched
on .nd olf if't P<0Q0ft"" _ Ill. 11 "6" the
cu",n, IIowIfor 8O'JtIi of the time 11
for . nd 10 Ot'l. This is ... ry eIf.cliw,
''''' "",rI cook" controls lor ...... n one
from , ""fliP cooker) are u,"",11y at
lbout 3kw. which Is Quile if!
most c ...... The Oft. essenli,1 1. , p,lot
I.mp. lOt it i. '11100 ...... to "'fo<goef ' Ind
....... it SWllched Of't ,n nighl Ag.",
cool .. control" ......... , set 01 contacts
lj)IICi,lly for such .I. mp.
The p,,,,,,,r '"Thlrrf'tOSlat'" I1 I., ben ...
01 cou'se. as ,he t.mpttrDtu" can then be
conlrolled wil hin close limill. The co.t is
gre"l<, of COUIII , "some fotm 01 re,..,
0< "lOIid Sllte" is nuclld .. """'1
.. the , .... ,,_"""". This I.ner CAN be
the lndlcaling thermocouple. bu, .. ulUally
a ""s rat e el.ment. Thl COit Ind corn-
plic"ion doe. depttnd, of COtJ, .. , on the
dlgru of control ntlded FOt the tort of
..... t Irellment we .re concerned WIth
_ which will hold t .... t ........ "u .. to
wi,hln SC would _.nd . 1_ 5- C
Ill clo"" I. I. nac ..... ry; alll1ulmak,rs
QUOle , It mP<l,' l u'e ""11' lOt their
productl. uoullly 20' C wide Culte
tr.nIt/v.' MYiI found Ih" lhe only problem
wHh my Ine'gV COntroller Iype is
"forgetfulness"! ! preUy well where
lhe die! Il101 ID be MI for .nv p ..
IempeJlI"'". but I h.v., on mote th.n one
ocasion, been ellled IWIY from the-"<>P
Ind forOOllen 10 cIleck lhe tempe,"u
befo.e 'uvlng
Spiril Ympe. from the "'bli .... to the
ridiculous? By no m ..... ' The humbl.
lI)i.I1!.",p 11 Quill 1 ...... I"eble I would
My . Mnli.1 when deelin{j wilh very
am,lI and delicale PfI'", I1 I1 chup. il
prov;cIft .... ry dun ".me, ,00 it needs
no hu...,. g.1 boil," or I.ajli"'ll wit .. 10
feed 11. My own i. one of 1Il10 hnl. ilia ...
lili wilh round wick aboul t inch
dl,meler. bul I do UM one from opiril
fired rnodM which Il101 'Brge< lilt.
from li .... to li ..... The _"';11 bung
h .
.,,,.,, .. ;>""
fit:" , ,_
-, .............
the end 01 3132 in. dI.m" .. rod \IQ It
Quenchi"9 "",perB'u" Quile h.pp, .... '
h9VI el.eadv tef.rred to Ihe USI of I IPi"
I.",p for ,,"'pe.i"'ll. For lienbe<' pOinlS'"
...,.n Imy boring 10011 the whole PtO< ;
Cln be c.rried 0\11 wilh Ih .. r,1Il-e1e11Qo.o.-
Handling. you hi.,., 10 be ,
10 hold lhe hOI mltll I hlvt1.'teldy m.
Pflssing ,..1 .. fInaI '0 Ihis from lime.
ti ..... In m.ny .nide. I "- ... d
.Ul ...... hu m.nlionl<l hoIdi"" lhe '"
with "plie " This 0011 NOT ,efe, 10 "
"",m.1 mech.nic, 1001 which. being lil,
r ... onable Q".lolyl w,1I ....
!oM lhew I.mper il .., IrUled n-
f .... nee should be la "SI.<4m.," \
plie,," - Ih. would c.1I Ih ....
'ongs" pemlllSl Ail 35 showl .,,'+>
pelt. Ind you will _ Ihll 'he nolle ' .,
.Imosl de<:or.lrvt1 ctJ....... This Is 10 '"
some slOghl Sp.ing in Ih. holdi"'ll. A. ',-
lik, ,11. link of, ch,ln eln he ,lipped 0 ..
TII. h.ndlll 10 IIoId 1l1li noM closed on ,t.
Sucll pl1ef11 or longs come 1ft "'.
st>.pes, bul Ih" Ihown hi !lie "-I UI'"
for h ... 1 '''llmenl.
For sm,lIe, wo.k Ih' "'I,bora,o"
,ong," s/iowrr In Fig 36 lie"", lhe 5<0.....
P'I'IXH U .... IIy mid<! of ... inlell tI ...
llIIy Can be .ned ID 9"P ."he. w,11I IN
end. Or wilhin ,h. "ting". 11 is. how"" ..
Important 10 cMu.in OflIV Ih-e bell Quolit,
_n the501 do OCCII""'tlly ,end to '0
llIe .. leg.' and the cIle_ V";,,ry (,
IDId for h,ndli"" bacon In 'lie fryi ng p
.re " .. le .... Thev can be obllined Ih'''''
I IIIIy ...
I .nd on no
. w,,1I ";11'1<
whe.e ' lie uN of "pile '
110' Ih.n i.Ofl wl" Cln be
,,,Id ' 1) make lI,ndl, D.
.... deod IhtoI.ogh hole if lhe., .. one
... Fig. 28.1 R.membet ,h" when II>e
... gell hol il bolh .xpend,. wllicll m.y
..,.n Ihe hold. end loses . !tenglh. Tl k.
... IhlI i, il IeCU .... nd P<O!><I"ioned 10
...... 01 !he job. Allhl ...... lime .....
... TllII " 'lie IhlMIII g'''(/e Ihal"';" be
lIdUIluI!e. 5<1 Ihll it will nol In'erl&r. with
.. Quenching ,clion. The .. 'Im.in. 11,.
_ of lhe .,-n wlllc/l .. 10 smell Ihll
__ thin wi.e would Cl .... Irouble. The
aa "r he .. la 10 heal llIe work In
."".,.. - just I piece of tube .. wn In h.lf _
.-:I 10 use. quencll link 01 "'Ch dep' h
.. 1'10 l1,rring la needed, lhe pan"';lI fall
iIIe bol1om 11 " .. which '!fipa ,I 01
I am or V'pQUf, The hell contan' of
... l inv p.". 11 so smell Ihll th,
"Ind'i i. almosl I"""nll_s Invw.v.
..., Un be I,POId lrom lhe boal 10 lhe
.. "';Ih no f ..... 1Il101 1l1li _ling w,1I be
Con<:l uli on. Domestic fitn and Ih,
IDmrIl b<Ning lOtCh equlpmenl will cove.
_ oIlhe hell"", 'fT.ngemln,. n.etled
.., 1"- mor:Iel eng,neer whoM lIIorde<!i"'ll
PrOOr.m .... la "OCCIsion.Ir' The ......
hell -,rCII should cover lhe Med. 01
.nnesllnll. Ind b .. lorehe. ..e
adequl" for "open hearth" c'lIehan:len
ing ,ef'''ed to in Chapl't e. n..- ""'"
make. 101 01 speci" 10011. whQu work
i ............ 1Il10 h.n:leni"'ll 01 j;g..nd oe ....
or who me ke p<.CtiCI of h.rde<!i"'ll
_Ifi"'ll P.111 on Ihli< mor:Iell lIS we III
oughl to dol wiM find lhel lhe simple
eleclric or gH-fi<ed rn"ffIoI help
IjIfUI M.r. and lhe ."It-bt,h even more
so. For lempe,ing ,11 byt lhe ,impl.$1
.,-nl lhe 1ow-lampartIU" .. i . IS
I h.... ., .. ..,., Indlclled. I.. ..sier .nd
more .eli,ble \lien Iny o'her .... ,11od.
In ullng brellng 10'C"". how ........ 111
usen, I,1 10 sel b'lling p'lelice Ind
b<uing experi.nc, .. ;de, You mull '-Ihink
of lhe lIoms" IS 11 .... re . 11 lhe lime, The
temperalure i. lIigher 'h,n .. needed 10'
silver_..,lo;Ier;ng .nd i. more impolllnl .
VDU h.VI to hold .n
tempe,..'u for Quite. long lime _ jUII
the 10 b<lling .-.QU''''""""
w ..... long llel1i"9 Cln ClUM prob! .....
and whe we delibettlle!y get Ofle p."
hall .. than ' h' r,,, SO thlt lhe elioy wll!
"follow lhe he,,". Nllu"lIy. il i. impoq-
ibIe 10 covet "'..., """,,, r. ry or every
.xpedlenl In ch'PI.' r. ke ,11, . bul if.".,.,
Ihe "orlnciplu" oulllned &a,Ii"
Ifwaya In mind you should hive no
difficully in devi"ng. Mlisf.c,,,,,, Khttme
for .nything oul 01 lhe ordinlfy
So IIf _ I'>awI bHn concerned ... ith WO<I<
whkh needl to be ""rdened right tlwough
- toolt.. puroehel. ellisell M1d the - but
therl a.. mlny ,ppllcationl ... hlre
the dn.;e c, .. being a erossn. ... pin.
Such I comPOflllnt could. 01 cou..... be
m .... from - Silver" .teel. hlrde",,", Ind
ti'Mn tempered to reduce ti'M b"ttI_
How_r. tile tlmperlng would reduce tM
urfaee hardn... and 50 tile wll'
""ist,,,,,,,, - Ind .... hed '0 use In
'lQ)enlive m,,,ri.J In "C=seh.rdan,ng"
w, take I low or medium carbon "eel (in
Industry. ... alloy I.een M1d
modify the "ruetur. of the outer .... in 110
ha, thi, cen be 1I.n:lened witllout unduly
IIf&eting the COfe. Th. main body 01 ou,
Pin ... ill then hlVI III the ctl,racteri.hct 01
the "mild- "eel originally used but the
.. .. hlrd .. an untempeo-ed
h .. de ..... hign.carbon "eel.
To bring ,hi. about'" adopt , 11'0(:1115
known as "Carburl,ing" You will r":811
'h, Chapter I ,her 10 m .... "CaSl SI88I-
"'om wroulItl\ iron 'M malll ..... hn,ed
for I long period in the PInene, of
carbon. SO tllll the carbon con .. nt 01 the
... l\0iii m," WII Increased. For .... h,rd
Ining the 11'_" 11 limitlH. but the
he.ting time I. much less. w"h .hl resull
tlllt the slcin only of .1Ie me,,1 ..... uo
,he carbon Indultr;'11y the time il
,1111 CI"'"II of 'OPreQ.ble thidtIa.
1/16 lroell or mo<l - will allow for
qUln, grinding. For mod-el.making IUc
d.pth. Ife unn..:e_IV end we seklo.,.
1lII0I' ,0 grinding Inyw,y. tl>ough .... ma.
I.., ,he surface to Improve ,he Ii.,;sh. W."
thid ca... ,her. Cln be , dimentio<-
dtaf'l(le. bu. ,here Is no need .0 WO< ,
about Ihi. for the d.p,h 01 carburis .. ,, "
normal for modelmaklng.
Onc. 'M part h .. been suriace .. .
buriMd 11 .. heated agoin up 10 tile 11,. ,
r;lening ,emperllure ,nd QUe"dred. W.
CAN t,mper it if we with. but .hills ","'
nee_IV Ind ",en If It Is lhougtIt deH
able 10 ..-flne 'lie g"ln, 1,"1,. 1()()"140 C
willsulfic. How", . we can modiIV 11"
proc ... Ind so derive 0fIe 01 .he g" '"
.d",nllglJ of e ... hardening
throt.Igh lI.tdening. W, C ... mach'ne ",
pile, ,fr carburising but befo"
Th,s will 'e_ IIIe CllM 1'0'
'ha m,chlned pan . Qu,nching w,lI h3,
no elf..:t on ,he macllined surfae ... a,"
the .. will be soft Thl. Is quite no .. "
Placliol. and mlI"V Ind mac"
pan. ar, designed '0 be Itelled in t'
flShion Fig. 37 ;1 I ca .. In pOint - I r
with a hl.dened bee.ir>g surface and I ....
se'lw ,h'"ds, If mid, Irom 'U'
'h .... threllds ... ould be dead h d unl!'
"",,,,rid. yet if they we tempered '0
the MI, ",'dness ' he wee' ."il1D""" of
\tII pin will be f'1!duced. pe.h'pI unaccep-
IM*r' The Pin sIIo .. n is. In lact. made of
"""" .oened mild eel. At "," ,he pin I,
lOUgh m.chined .t,1Ie ends . bout 1 16
k>ch ovI,sizl, bul ,"" be ing ,urface i,
Inlshed. AI "b" it liDS been c I)u.i$ed .11
ove nd IlIen IM case turned away from
!he ends. down '0 finish..... One IlIreld
halt been ...... CUI. AI --c" lhe pin is seen
8I'ter rehe";ng M1d q",nching ... Iisaol.
paint wl. used, Finally. II "d" YOll see tile
th' ead Cut on tile ollle. end lehe
q.oanchif\g) and Ihe whole cle,ned uP.nd
polished. 80TH thr',," "' solt. despill
!he lact thll one ..... CUt befot, M1d the
CICher ,ft .. QUenching ...... ' the belnng
.. rfece it deld hard, and tool< t"" 'eelh
011 IIIe file. The hard skin W85 sub$eQuen .
!Iv me.w.ed .nd found '0 be belween
0.003 Ind 0005 lroeh Ih>ek,
Thl.e III o,lIe. .'tultion, "''''r.
caseh.n;lening Cln be used to Idv,n'age
For ... mple. ,complex form tool ClIn be
midi from mild 1lee1 end carburised
Ah&!' hardening il will have , SYriacI
ha,d&!' ,h,n lempe'!<i c.rt>on steel. It w,lI
not Stan(! 'egrlndlng. by. till ,001 life will
be IIIlgh,1y Ionget and il t1 I1 .0 be used
only the onctI w, ........ saved lot 01
,-""", m .... iaL Mlde from ca/botI
11",. pivo' oin or a lithe cen". will need
1(1 be ,.mpered: c'seh,'dened _ tMre Is
no need. end Ihe wll' ."Illtance will be
' ... 11. -. ... ,'. """'.""",
..... , a ___ '_" ___ U <.
:::=-:-'" ,' .-. . ... -
=. "'_.,._ .. , Id ....... ..
_ .. _--... _,.,"

11, .. 1.,. )n ANY "llllllon wh.,. lhe l>8<1"
lubl"1 10 shock lo,dlng 0' wh.,.
1<>lIgh ...... 1s n"dMl for Olher "' SO<I$. bul
1 The "n'III tin'lll r .... "nee 10 we ... is
requir..:!. Is the .nswer:
\'OIl \he Iofd bHring co.. in JI,I.
to lake I'" "'"" ,nd the surface c:on-
ditioned 10 ...... 1 ........
C"bu,i.; ng. Th." If. Il'>r" m,in
n'IIIlhod& In u". _ 01 wtlicll. lhe Klive
Hit-bill'>. i. nol sultabl. 10f model
.ngi"".-, Il_ .. O! In",*"" molten
cyanide 11115. which Ir. let hllly
POisonous. In IndUII'V lhe nul most
common method I, BOX CARBURISING.
Thl, Ih' seuing of Ihe wo';; In a
he . ...... w,1ded .1 .. 1 fi lled wilh caf-
burlslng mllerl,1. lhe lid .... sealed or
11,11 ..... w;lh fi"d.y. The comPOUnd used
11 SPK!.'1y /otm .. I.tlld, I'rgetv chlreolll.
b .. 1 with addi t ives 10 ill
IfIKW_ Hut1ng limes 'f' 01 lhe
01'" 01 sO. 01 .0. For OIIr sm.U
parU nolhing 110 elabor.1I 11 needed. ,
hr<I IiMd I10UI hn boil .. - lhey Iasl loo-
two or ' h .... hull _ Of a piece 01 stMII
pipe fnot galv,nlsed) wllh _ end fi ued
with. __ ed plug.nd lhe olhe. sealed
with fI..cI",. (Nole. fir.CLAY. not fi.ece--
me nl. which will .. I hlrd; oblainable from
mOll builder'. merch.n"l, The c8""'rl.-
iog elem,nl I, ch"coal . bullhil. by Ilse!l.
I, slow K tlng. An "Aclivator" mu.t be
added .nd Sodl .. m C.rbon.te fnol Biur_
bonall) Illhe mOlle .. 11y ob1,inable.
.boul 1'1(, by weight 10 1he ...,
mill 11 thoroughly Alteml1ively you C ...
add SOma 01 t ha " Open H .. " ..
comPOUnd. "K"er>il No. 1". whiclll """or
be mtnl lon,"8'"'' . ""'JI 5" "";11 sutriC<!
Othe< m" .. 1Ir1s can be vied - 1 IIa..
.. sl ll'ly c ... h"dened Il";ng 0111
le".... bootlltOlK _.pped fOIlnd
m."I. 10' u.mpl.1 Pr .. llmably
I.nning 1If0Cl" provided an 1
Th. WOtk mill! be SUJfOUn
ded by the compound. which should b.-
packe-d clown ha.d, Th. tid muSt be
ag. inll Ingratl' of el. It Is then heated 10
between B80 C and 920C for le"ll!h
of time which i. dete.mlned by the dep,h
01 feqUlred , Th. fi.s. hour W'
penllr." .boul 0008 inch and case
deplh 01 1 HI Inch m.y be ",,",lied . fte,
_n hoIl ... rn.; MlJmeS we Ire eu,,,!!
mild IIH1). FOI mode-! angi"""", won:
depth 01 0 008 Inch should be adeq .... "
end one-hou. he.1 will be long enougt
I"" goreat., depth of elSe m .... enlon:e
g'inding ope,alion. Note t hat
IhHa tl ...... re li ..... AT lhe ca<bu.isirog
lempe.II' .... and you must ,'Iow some
. ona 101 b.-Ir>ging up lhe temperllure
Th. box I, IlIowed 10 COOl. Ind th" Can
be oulSld. the fu.nace if no 5Ubse<jUen.
mlH:hinlng i. r&<l uired. The P'I!$ Cln Ih pn
be " ken out - Ind here il is worlh
suggesting the Inclu,1on of blank leS'
"''!.' This un be "he. led and Quenclled
!." .... "'k thlt sutrrcienl h .. rdn ... hIS been
I .. se , piece of fOIlnd bar .nd
:pId 011 lhe .oDe ' 0 Iom> flat ,ft ..
This ill .,ched w;th 25" nitrrc
_ in wal" .nd. as seen in Fog, 38 lhe
_Ih of ca .. iI Q .. i1l visible. 1lIiI .. 01
(IOU'''. magnified by lhe "cln:ul"ity" 01
". 1IPKimen. the ICI .... I Ihickneu CAN
be ca\cllleted 11 you Rke. but I .m. IS
NIe. COfI"'" ;tthe tl5l shows the c ... 10
be "adequller' Af"/ " pan-machining'" can
_ be don, .
We nUl have 10 h. r<l.n Ihe else. bul
Ot(:11ion.lly , lurther ope.ation m/lV be
.... i bl., We hive held .he mllll well
.... ,'a 11, c'itic.1 l""'I""alll" lor Qu"e ,
whll' - longer than wl might for h .. 1
.,..li"8 ' carbO<> Ileal. This m.y
CIIIHd tom. , ... ,se<>Ing oIlhe gfain n...
.... nol be _iou, il !he l ime wlS .n hour
Of ..... bul !l1orIger it be wonh .11 ....
dIng to. 11 lhe boo wll heated for 3 hoIlf$
Of mor. I would ,lwayS W" .... the ",M
*'" before hardening. This .erming is
*"- by h.I"'" to a tllfTlJ)ll<lIll.e whjch
dIpefrdI on t he carbon con"nt 01 lhe
.. 1 ,s under:
Tempt'.lIIre C
11,,, lor l he rlllula, "one hour pe. inch
of thlc:kn ..... and Ihen Quench In oil 11
tbOIil 30"C This I, NOT h.rdani"ll
_ ... bul solely di.a<:ted to ,educing
1ha gorlin $ire oIlM core. In IIC!. with """
mild IIM11lbelow 0, '" ca<bonl 11.
.... ItIffic, Ind lhere 1$ no need 10
Ql< 1ru;h.
The comPQnlf'l' is lhen btoughl IlP 10
7eo-1SO"C The hel1i"ll time is short . ..
_ ... concemed ontv w,th the c ... , I
t.w mirllllH is otnOUgh . nd Ih. wor1o. I,
"'n walet.qu.nched. I h.ve ,lready
rwm. <ked 011 need for lemptlflng.
F"ntdy, thIs Is lotaltv unfltlCl"arv fOl
... of the thickness we ""ad and
..Idom kw thlcke, ones - bul it IS tound
_et."", lhal ... ,,_ c'llIng epp.a ..
dltring lhe lI"ndring operat...,.,. and """""I
ptKlica is 10 ""'98< 11 tbOIil 150C 11
e.rtpIrience tnows lhal IhII is htiWy
OpanhHnh Carbllrising. Oculi boo
.. bu.i$ing I, seldom naeded for model
wo<k and """' lau ohen .. led. 'f ontv
beclIUII i, '&<llli'" .ha .... of , mlllfle
Though 11 can be do .... by S<!!ning lhe boo
In an OPen fi,e, I done Ih;s. /lnd il il
QIl"e etr"'Iive . .. th. l emptlfl1Uree .llhls
liege If. nol all th81 critical, However
aurltce harden,ng 011 .hl smith', h .... h
h" been vied tor well over. cenlury. Ind
Is mora thin .deQ .... " Ior- Ih,n ClM$. In
Ihla 1If000U IM metll is bro<..rghl UP to
.bou. 8QO"C (between 780 and 850)
...... Itv ", ... ed 10 1$ "b<ighl ,ed" The
PIfI la IhIm covered with spi.1
comPOUnd .... he< by dipping 01 by rolling
il .boul ... ntil the surface 1IqtI .. ;,ng het-
dening Is complete!y Th.
compound in conlact wilh .he "",.1
melt.. .nd Clrbon is ,b..,.bed Thl
PfOCISI c.n be """eted .......... 1 t.m .. If
thlclotr case is needed. lA I,ngle ""dip
PfOVldn ""thap' 0.002 to 0,003 inchl
The I have used 101 50-odd
V'''' I. Kasenll No. 1. and It i, readilv
obl.in,ble from model suppliers end ..... n
I.om I/QOd I,onmonoars.
Som. Pflclhion.fI Quench
'mmediatetv it no (n'",mIIdi,le machrn"'ll
is nudMl. but I pre'" 10 .. /Mlt 10
betw .... 780 and 800C. 1 .M..". u ..
wltl<, though brine is pe,miM'bIa
No gf .. n relining 11 n I Jed. lhe ...... ".ng
ca .. will be tfY h.rd - _ would Uy It
is h.rdM than woth boo u<buriting, bul ,I
is "''V thin. I seldom .... less lhan IWO
IppHcel ions and otten thr", Of Iou . but t
yel 10 find case which wH not
Ihick enough for the pur-poM Inlended,
Nalurallv. il iOlermediale mactlln'ng is
,equlred it is nece""", la allow Ihe work
la cool. Th,s ean be allowed in ai', bul I
usuellv clap a piec .. 01 n,ebrlck on tOP to
,eduee lhe Clue slightly It is ""t critical 3t
ell indeed. Ihe ... is linle Ihal is cri'ical
about the whole PtOCU$ IMugh nlturally
Ihe more carefully the lemperllur91l are
observed Ihe bettar the resulTs. An
occask>nel problem i. scaling. However
_ 8re dealing with 8 MILD (0< 81 moSI.
medium carbonl sIeel and Ihe,e is ""
need In Case la hUI slowly. When
carbur!sing it is onlv Ihe IhBI i.
.Hecled anyway It is ""1 possible to use
anti-scale paint. ""r a salt-balh. bul for-
lunately Ihe compound itself does have
anti_ocale prapenie .. It I . 01 00<1 ..... . only
l>"'<Ientto remove any axi sting scale Imm
be. (if one needs 10 harden such)
belora "Ianing. There is. 01 course. no
rUson why you should nol heel the metal
in a lil1le box surrounded by the
compound, I have done Ihls occasionallv.
when I h,ve' number 01 very $Mall pans
10 deal with al once. It s8ve.time. You do
h,ve to be SUre that the conlents are up to
lemperature. of course. aod you should
use a "Ihin" (5l'Iallow) box lor Ihet reason.
BUI suc .. , procedure does rathef WOil the
innate .implicity 01 open-heenh carburis-
ing. and you are unlikely to gel iHlllftr
,elults by using a bo . his. occasionallV.
more canvanient, i. ell
Now and lken the,e may be difficulties
in applving tke cornj>Ound - on I rltch81
whe<ll, lor ... ampla - 10 ba ""ra that il
works on the dUi red laces. The
compound can be wettad with wlter end
applied as a paste, It 15 Ihen "ealed very
gentlv 10 dry Out, altar wh1ch the \ltoce-
dure i. a. described abova. There are
situelioos wkere "candary machining
might ba needed with carburising but
can be IVOided wtth Ihe Open hDlflh
malhod. A SCrew thr<! ad. Ior e.ample. can
be pro.&Cted from Ihe action ot t' ..
compound by wr8pping wire or 5l'Iim
round it. Tapped holes can be
with. screw. and plain holes by insarl" ,
plug .. And. 01 course. if all you oeed
harden is Ihe tace of. tappel or the end "I
a tool it i. e&sy anough 10 devise t"
restrict the appli<:allon at compOUnd 0,,1,
10 thl! plnicular SpOI.
StH ls lor cuehBrdening. Any "5tr8'gl"
carbon steel can be tartluriJed - you (;/Ir
il circumstances 'equi'e it. c,rtlurise sit,,",
S'&el! As, rule, however . the process
normally spplied to t .. a lowcarbon "m,ld
steels or. al most. to tho ... with cartlOn
ContentS below 0.3%. Freecutting s.eel.
can occ3sionally Plasent Ploblems -
inclusions which ptO\Oide the tree-culling
qualities may cauSe surface 1
would ""I advise boo carburislng Ihe",
mate,i als. but have successlully surfael
herdened them by the openhean h
method. Steals speci licallv designed lor
Ibo_1 case"ardening Bre .y.ilable. TheM
USUally con'ein about ''lI) of Nickel, Ino
object being to reduea the g'ain growth
during I"e prolonged .. eating. 5"3'11"1
carbon Sttel, intended !Il)8Cifically for
casehardaning by either process afe fr
nc (080M, S in 85910/,9721 wh,cn
0.,5'" carbon. 0 .8'11) mangana ... . and Er
21 (130M,5) w"ic" i. 0,15% carbo
'.3% mangana": somewha! strong.er .,1
40 ton/Sq,in tensile S"angl".
AIIOV .",,,Is should not be casehardened
withouI detailed hea' "Utm"nl &peeilica'
tions Imm tM makers. All such steel '.
"heat Irealable"' and you may well 5el "p
,(!verse condition. dUfing carburisi'
proces. if you do not get the temperal""
righl. Neve'try to caseharden serap Ste'
or oHcuts from Ihe mach1neshop .k"
They may be ilnylhing. from Iow g,aM
sleel for making decorative haodr.il. I"
chrome nic kel.molybdenum -titaniu",
alloy! On lhe Other hand. wrought i,""
.. slly identifi able by the spark tesd
beaulifullY, and YOU CAN
CP8harden caSllronl Obviously you must
.,..,e ,egard to tM shape 01 the casting-
cornPl(l)[ outlines may crack in Ihe quench.
""I hardening the end 01" plunger or even
prasent. no problems.
Examples. Fig. 39 shows a law ellamples.
t"" l!lit il a balljoinl made to ' eplace
!he carburettor conlrol on an ancient
Bright d,.wn hexagon bBr was
used and fi nish machined oomplalely
bel e, e hardening. T"e Ihre.d wu
prolected with thin iron wira and w"iten-
Ir>g. and onlv I"a ball and w3S dipped in
la ... nit No. L It was quanchad direct
Ifter Iha second application. Centre IOP ;5
\tie cranksh.II lot a mO<!e1 steam enll'ne
It/'Ie "Williemson") with hardened
cntnkpin. In this case the beering surface
.. .s tinished to dimension. bul t"e stem
tWIIlch lilS 1nto the web wos lelt ,132 inch
0VDfSi.<e. The workpiece was ""I parted
off lrom Ilta slock at this 5tag8 The
bearing was given 'he IC8senlt treatment
fW\Ce. being dipped inlO Iha compOUnd
only sufficiantlv to cover it Ailef cooling
IIowly tM reSI of Ihe m,chining was com
.... 3. e ......... ,,,,It.
... -""- - """'- -
- ..... , .. _._"---
'::;""- , .... -.--..-
pleled ,nd paned oH. altar wttidt the
H'nged end was finishlld. It was then
rahe.led and quenched. Th",e wu no
difficulty 81 all in rivating the spigot on
Top r;gh' is 8 differenl Situ81ion. This it.
8 tep needed lor finishing tile ,nlamal
Ihreads 01 the boxwood chucks used On
my Hollzapffel lalM. The cost 01 a length
01 silva, sleel thi. size would be pro .. ibi_
live lor Ihe amounl of work it has te do.
Funher. the,e would hava been some risk
of cracking ,ven if grUt care were taken.
as the lh,el!ds h.ve sha,p roots and a line
angle of 50. 11 wa5 made 01 black mild
steel He. hOl not brighl drawnl 50
thal there Was no need to normali" il
lirsl. It was \I'ven, sifl\lle treatment wilh
IC.oonit No. , and quenc"ad direc,ly. The
cuning edges Wefe ve", lightly lIoned
allerwl,ds. It has servad it. purPOSI! wil"
no diHi<:uUie .
Bottom lell is a drilling jig for SOme
cylinder coverS and Ihe associated cylin_
ders. lhe numbef I/Oing t .. rough t"e shop
IUlti/ying the Use ot jOgs. It was made lfom
Brlghl Drawn sleel wh>clt was li.S! nor
malind balo.e machining. I1 was
Clrburilled IOf 30 minurea In a robacco rln
u"'''II mixture of chlfCOBI and Kaseni.
No I compound, Th" WIS r:Ione 10 emu ..
,h., ,he Inne< ..,ri_ 01 ,he holes ",as
hardened. Botlom Cefll .. 11 , .... g'oo.,d
illw lor 11 d'illing vice, wllich was
caseh.n.t.nt open heanh. r .... P""
lekt, 1_ down, In I r .. y 01
compound, Th ... de .... _, ,pplied
The.e "'I' 11 linle oc;.hng on , .... back. Ind
juSt a "8'" litH. dislortion It would have
been .... se. 10 no<",al,H il tlelOf' "'achin
ing (BOMS wu ulled) bUI Ihe IBUIl waS
nOl sullieienl 10 wl".nl rhe making of
Bonom .ighl Il,n '''mpl, 01. spe<:ial
Inrm 1001 Thi. ""1 made f, om mild 5'HI
10< no Olhe .... son Ih.n Ih'l I lIad no
high--carbon 01 I ..... Ighl ...... nd only
limlled slock 01 fill w!>;ch could be
maehined down. n.;, W" fili".., doses 01
K .... il No. 1 allowed 10 cool, and then
,,,,,,",d and quench.cl. The compound
was awtied only 10 IhI too/lip. The 'HUlt
was .... "' .. ndlng. The Cl"" was Ihod.
enougll 10 pe"";I lighl Ilomng of ll1e '00
1_ 10 givl. shall>..sg.. nd Ihe peri",-
m,nc<I lom.m.nlll .... tu,ning grilty
woodl' ',,,pri""Il, As no lempor.i"ll wn
needed ,h. cuning edge was harde, than
could h .... be.n oblllned wilh COfI-
.... ntion.1 tool IIHI. And conl'B,), 10
..PPQSllion, ..,ch ,000s hev. e he,de, tir,,,
lu"'ing theM "Olic wood. "'...,
luming menl melals, lor llIe on .... I'O<Ile lor
r .... nc.tIpe oll he hell I. "" .... gllthe 10<>
-..-.d, 01 C ..... H. no cooI ... t c ... be used
Conclulion. is not. sub
SlilUIl !or "" .... "" h,n:lening wilh a tNg
Clrbon Sleel. bul. ptOC1llS which e",nl i,
place from 111....., nt!"'e W. can design
a comporrenl in mllerial whiclr PfO\Iide'
Ihe s"englh, latigue reJistan<:e. 0'
proplrlv needed .nd lhen surface ha,den
it 10 give Ihe ,oqui,.d wu' resl'lallCO! Th.
nalU" of llIe p,ocess is sucll Ihl! .elecl""
h.rd.nlng ean be appl,ed. and Ih.
risl< of ClIcking i. very much l'8duced. UM
of Ihe 0pe1'I heanll m!!lnoo giv!!s quil ..
.d!!qu... rhickn ... 0' un to, ou,
pu'pos ... nd i. much "uick!!, 'hsn
Ihrough Nrdtning. Wilh lhe III!ed for sub
MQu.,." tempering ..:Idjng ' 0 lire .ime
la ...... Al the tam. t,m!!, ClS!!hardl!ning
CIII be uMd for.uoch .lIi"ll$lI5 tilhe 1001'
.'c. if C"cu .... llnuf demand. 0 ... /ine'
polnl Is worlh Th .... ;s ohen no
,ul n .cI ' 0 h.fde". rubbi"ll surface, br.,
11 IS hardened Ind poIi ........ I .... I,icl ion
101, will be 'educ.cl. The .lmO$l glaos
lIe,d lurl,C' p,oducld b'I cI.ehartlen;ng
il' .eal .dv,nlage In.1I such .poIicalions
Other Heat Treatment
II I Anneall"\I< No,malis;ng. an<! St ....
" .II.vlng. These Ih, .. processes ,'a often
OIIfI' used Thev .te CI"ied OUT In .,milll
"' ...... bu, .he Ih,eepu""""", a d,ft, n. ,
AnnuJi"ll '. rhe softening of SI .. ' l>I"e
...;ou..., hlfdened, whether by he.t " ....
...... 1 or by cold worIr.ing NotmMiling'"
prOCI" Whell r .... in.em.1 struc'ure of rhe
., ... " IIIIOf.cl 10 '"",mal" .ft ... $OM!!
""'!eN' opIfllion - $aY forging Sr'eu
R.o.t Is. IS lts n.me '''''''in, I .... , .... se
of 11,..,.. whreh mllV ha". be.n Iockld
up In Ih. 61HI, !!,the, bv he" ,."atmenl or
by cold forming 'T,mperlng" is. SPeCi'l
form of "'015 'el ieving, We will dui .... "h
lhen proe'NIS In '"rn,
An""alin\l. The .I.el will be M.rlenSl1lc
In IlruClUfe In<! ills l'>ICes'8,), 10 change
rhl. IQ on. OIIfI,.ini"ll pearll" and ,ithe'
lI<,ill 01 c.me"'''e. 8S ,t would h,ve been
hid .he " .. I been cooled sIowfo,o I.om Ih.
Inill.1 ,uste"'''c IIale, This mean. Ihat_
""'51 fi,.t "'ing It 10 a tempe,,"u,, ho(Ih
MOugh 10 en ... " 1"-, the sleelll 1'1;>0'"
lhe Ir,nslormllion templ!r.,ute, and ,hen
COOl i , I1 '"l 'hat ,11ow ,he I .. "'
iotma' ion '0 ""arl;le
In Ih. CIS. 01 low ca,bon .nd mldlum
c.fbon lIeels (bortow 0.85%1 'hi' will be
abou' 30C lbove Ih, uppe, cfI,lcal, bu'
for higher clrbon """ten' "mpe,,,u'l
IO/nIhll abovl .h<! Iawet cril,c.1 wi"
lUfficIo, The ,ecommended lig .. , .....
grrven ;n ,hi I"'" bl!low, (See allO fig 4 II
In .ach ease .he higher lempe"'UII
.... 11 .. , 0 ,he Iowe, carbon con',n' Nor>e
is cril,c.IIG w,'",n 10C,
The m.1I1 muSl be .... ated oIowtv
Ihln "Io.ked 11 'h nn lln\l
tem"","y" 10' one I'rou, "", Inch of
Ihickne.. In lhe caS!! 01 recl8ngul.,
seCtions the ,mal ler dime"!ion is IIk.n, 11
Il>oold Ih'" bor cooled ... lowIV" ctn boa
COII!';ved, l! heated ln a mulfl e wi,h
good heat In.ull1ion '0 Ihe ch,mbe, 'I
m.y bor ,I!owed 10 cool down 11'1 lhe
'umace, OlherwiS!! ;1 mu", be n' in ho,
a.,," or -". 'im!hr, "'1I!eri.! which w,ft
.. "in I .... helt Thin. lIal saclion\l can be
(0111. d belW"" rwo pre-lIl1,ed 1nsull '''"II
The highe' the CllboI, conrenl , ....
MOre imponanl is ,he slow " .. 01 oooI'ng,
F ... '"mild"" IIHI lhe piece mlV be coolld
in ,i, once It has dropped 10 .. ound
C..bon. "
T ..... p.C
B.lowO 1 0 1-03 0305 05-0,7 07_0.9 Abmr.0,9
92()"900 81()"830 850-800 B20-7BO BQO.780 790760
Sihr ..
f ig 40 , __ '" ... " ..... ___ ..
- " ............ , d .....
4OO*C, but il f' inadvi ... bIe 10 quench 11
......, f,om Iow le"-llu, . No,.
WOtiI nw., be fully .".he.led belo<.
imm .... ng in. ul" bIoth ro. .""""rong .
An .... llng high spud s,HI is. chencv
bu ....... 10.- ,he as
any .ubgquent ha.llening m.v wen be
beyQnd Ihe capabilities of ,he equipmenl
.... ,il,bI . il wch .n opetalion
muSI be can ....... 1 the pleao should be
healed VERY slowly- to 850"C. held lhef.
10< one hout pe!" HAlf-inch of MClion.
coohd ......... slowly Ind....:l, , muffle
fu.lIft. I, all'f'H' _n".I, and the
cooling Cln b. b .. , etteCled by
prog.eplvely taducing the power Input
unlil it hll '11!en 10 .round 550"C belo<,
lurning I, oH completely
Notmlliling. Aher !o<tIing 0< rolling a
met" the n.lu.e! shape ohhe '"1I',i"" will
be dislO<1ed .. Fig 40 The siIU"ion
may be ..... n worse If some of the f"'(I'ng
or 11ij,) bending has been done " betow
the p.""", forging tempe .. lures 0' when
It.. .1 .... I, I>righl--dr'wn, To reform and
tefine the ",'in Ittuclu'e il is .g.in
necE'Nry 10 ,&hUllO ,bcMI lhe cr,lical
lempe<.Iu", bul 10 .llhet higher
deOtH Ihln is ....- 10< ,nnllbng.
_ielly 10< lhe high catbor'l "eel ..
n.... mull be lIk,n righl up inlo the lu
lU"eni lie rev'<><>. Fonu"., ely 1001 I teel
ultlom _i.8 ..."....Iillintl. whid1 "
nelded chilltV to imp'ove
mlchineability of medium IntI low carbon
(.nd I lIoyl SI I" The following tabl"
shows "comrrntnded tempe,-,u.es.
, ..
, .

. 6
10C up or down f.om the ..
lempe"lu,es will terva. Tha temperature
mu" be m,intalned, " in IIlI Cl50II 01
1 ...... ling, 10< one hour PI< inch of
IIIClion. and the eooiong must. again. be
Fig. 4 ! $I>ow, , he .nne,ling Ind no,
m.lislng range on Ihllron-.::.rbon diag,.m
Sire.. Relie f, Cerllin rnanufKlurlng
"'OC"5oII1 induce conside,able Sires",
wO/h,n Ihe metll, In col(l
dr_ing Ind w!tlding The Io<mer HIS tt..
IUrl_1kln undef _"1" __ end ,here
m.V be Iockad-up IInsiJe "'1$1 in It..
_e. The ,esuil is tket when .ny PIn of
,he surlace is removed .... mmeuy i$ Ioat
and the ""epe wlll di" on In welding. pin
of ' hi malll is b,oughl up to very high
IImpe .. lures indeed .nd diffe,enti.1 con
!fKI..., between lhi' Ind lhe cold or
.... 1 ..... cold pans can induce str,sses
ohen wff",ienl to dislOfl duting ,he K IUI'
welding. The (legrH of stress relief
needed i, diHe .. "t in the two c.ses. Cotd
drawn Of cold rolled ateel m.y be "Heved
.... fl lcienlly 10 prevenl d,ltor1\on dU'ing
m.chining by hlllong 10 between 400"C
Ind 5(JOQC .nd allowing the PIn 10 cOO
In .i. It is ;mpOfl,nt lkel YOU e"""re
,,"l ing, otherwise lhe '"l .,," m..,
WOf"5oII Ih.n the firsl dUI '0 thermel up.on
...... diHerlnces. Fo< _Ided
_ . . . . . " .. _-.,." ...... ",... ...... ,,"u_;_:::.':::'::::.;;: . ;.:'.;':';, . ___ .
_ .. _ .. " ... , __ ,u .. ' , ... __ " . "
(I em referring to t he smen pin, uted In
model . not to home-m. de bfi<lg O(
.ed;" mUI,11 it 11 beSllo giv full anneal
. s lhe condition In IIlI vicinilV of the wekf
la qui" unknown.
Pir" which have bHn ""'I "",ed
will, 01 eau ... , be uncle< consi<let,bIe
Inlercry.talli ..... ,.;n - This is j>I<I of the
hlfdening procus Tlla subSeQuenl
tempering protl" i, a Io.-m of SIre ...
" Iief. ""an lhough in Ihi5 C.5oII wl also
aim at SO/TIe controtled uan.IO,,"".on IS
.. ,.
11) Scaling. In all the ,bovft O<OCIstes
toma surlace Kaling is to be e ' PlCled
'nd This c.n be. nuisance. It CIOn be pt'e--
""nled by l he use of Plinl.
binding with wi" Ind ancuing in whiting.
or by the UN of ch8rcoal ln Iha muff l8 if
the la n" I1 uMd. However for am.II, .. "11
;1n ingenoou ..... Ihod is dellC. ibed In some
e ....... boob. The ","s to be "'''ed I f a Nt
in a ba. "lied with 0IIi1kl(! lime fbuiide<s
hme"') mi. I(! .. ,th up 10 5'16 of dl"cOlOI.
The I," er Ibsorbs .ny OllYllln prl .. nt. bul
is not sufficl,nt to C8"5011 Inv carbu'is<ftg.
Anol her .... ch rKipe SUIl9'SII Ill' u50ll 01
fi ne CIOs,-iron lurnlngs IS the p&cking
medium. The tormer rrnt, hod doe. wotk
but lhe t..1I Insul'''ng PfOpetlief; of It..
lime enforce long healing lime.
!2 1 R ..... dening, In the cou ... of lome
1001, m.., be 'ev ..... nd $0 ler lhat the!it:> is
broughl back inlO Ihe more deeply
tempe.ed '-Vlon. Thi' applie' ell>8<'i,lfy to
W(jE <I" oriting tool . but cold chisel, .nd
In the seme -V ,nd it ean
ar>I)Iy TO .. ldarftt tools IS well. When this
III.,pen, tll.,. is no oplion but to
,ah .. d.n. It might be thought tllel il
would b. n.cessa,y only to 'eheat .
Q .... nch. Ind tempe' Ig,in, Thl. Is well
enough with "COiYse
tool. mldot f"""
,eill""eIy low carbon IIHI; I Iteet my
P'C .... , _king ba., .nd ..... ;1.. lools in
thal W.V. But it.,.,.. I.., to ,ena,detr I lIigll.
carbon ItHI tool In thi,I.&hion lhe re""lts
wm ... bII.l. be ,nd yOU
m.y IInd the t lhe tool ctlekl. WI must
'"'Ort th. m.tel to thl condiTion It was
befo<l lhe Inilill ha,denlng ",oe,," was
carried OUt. and II>i$ mU .... 'lilt It Ihould
be IuIfy .n .... 1ed IIrs . 1 h .... " 'Iady dotalt
wi.h the JIIl)CeH and lhe", hi no IIHoII to
repel! 11. Howe ... ",. I COIn MId a .afi ....
moml. If The 1001 01 som. ImpOrlance is 10
be "herdened I1 will pev 10 ,,tempe. 10
abouT 300C t)e/o', commencing the
.n .... llng ptocess. Thi, will ,flacl an
.Imost complete stra.. "h' to the
struClu" and I he ........... , hid. 1001 Cf.ck
wheri this 1I'"".k, .. hes bHn toIIowed. I
recommend ;1 llrongfy fo< those tools
wh", lhe .. la conside,,," dillerenc.
betwHn Ih. lempe. In Ih' ,h.nk .nd in
the pplnt h I, only nacusary 10 heat up
.... ry gently 10 "blu ... . lllow 1110 coo! iuS! 1
liu ... and lhen 10 proc: .. d wiTh the lull
........ inghe.1.
III Hlfd ... lng Orn.u" ... 1I1 Tools. The
MOm,menlal- 'u,",,' h , JIfOIl'!m nol
mat with in most othe, typ\II 01 luming.
The In compri .... the CUl1,"9 of lairly
deep p,u,.nl on the surfac. 01 work pr ....
lumed by no,mll methodS to an
ecc""t,ble .... pe. The linal ,H\lCt depends
nt" ..... on the ,eflection of Iioght I""" lhe
multit ..... of lleets so Ioo",.d -.nd willl
well lQjled won. llmosl cIIullng rwfIK
tions COIn be seen on , wood lite Ebon'(.
HI. prOblem hi IWOiol<L First. Ill". is NO
"'._ wll e!>y the Indsed dacorl!ion
COIn be polished. n.. suriac. ",usl be
,eftactivI witll "tool IWsh" This ",rface
lini-" COIn ""''' be bell.' III.n Ihe fini ,h
on Ih' 1001. and tor IlIi' fla""" Ihe
.1II'Plning of Ihe 1001 I. 10 wllal
might 'ppea' 10 be exl.,me limits, Afl e,
forming wrlll nQlmll g.lnding melhod$
,nd I fine Indi. lIone the surf_ os
"rough poIisI>ed'- using ,,",.d """"-
.tOM. 1'" 1001 being held in jig
It'" "Gonio$lal"l which ..., .... ,es tllll both
t'" CUlling .ngl. end tll' "pelletn angle'
ere Iccuralely lorrnrtd. 1I I. than lapped
uslng the Iin.sl oilst_ dust on bra!lr
l.p. ,nd finlOy POIislled I.,ill u:ling the
goniOallll on In l.on I,p witll J_'Ie"
roo,r.ge, n.. Pfoblem hi ,11" mode<n tool
steel. will not ,,,, .. rotled lI'1'in sire
wllicll wlS normal wilh lhe .IH! used
when ,''' In wit being de ... ,!OI)IId. and
I'" common complainT i, th.1 "the SIIIel
won'l "k. the POII,h".
The second difficullV I. th,lluch a 1001
may heviI 10 mlka ,h.ee or Iou, hund.O'd
cu ... - eKII .1 , <;t;fferent sening of lhe
'ppaI"u . It is QUill imppllibb to 'e_
il for "',rpening _ tilt process hIS
It , ... As pr .... ioutlv mento""ed. tilt only
.oul1 try whiell the lie" 01 CUlling Cln
selpe Iltllrough 11111001: Ihe workpiecel
re very good Ileal '''''''IIor'. ThiS ..... n'
Il>It llIe 1001 mull ,.m,in &ha", Ind
t.enc., III,d OVer , long penOd - and 'flY
Iou of sharor- c.n be 1.1.1 10 llIe
,IIICI"'-&s of the won. 'fhes.e lWO
rlQuireman, s. !!nUI g,.,n ,ill .nll
ml.imum hardneu. c,nnol be .chl ..... d
witll Ih' norm"1 carbon 1001 steels lend
, ... ,n IISI 10 with IIlgh-lOll<l .,eell. It IS
pOSllbIe to ecltiew the IllrOneu ,"",ulred
try lolling a file s ,Hl. Ah ... nneaijng 11
abou' 770 C I.nd on no accounl ._
CI the tool CIn be h.lrdened !.-om
7600C/780'C Ind Qu_1Ied In bri ..... The
lUbseQ ... nT t"",pering should be .. mild
IS POSlible 11 ,he point - I do no mort
man boil in wit .. fo< half In hou' for
cuning "Ime 1001 . but sI"'-tll1 1000S
muSt be tempe,ed .lleest to s \faW in Ihe
Altematively. wilh "511 ... " SIHI"
lI'ein lining p,oee .. Cln be CI,rirKI OUl_
,nd tin will glvI Quite satisfactOry IflUItS
_ wen il the purlstl will SI'( nol ..
good IS' genuine HoI'18pffel'"
After "'Icllinlng the pie" 10 Ihe
requl<ed _ion end rough Io<""ng llIe
ne<:ked end III any) hMI 10 belween
B20C and BSO'C 10' 0"0 hou, pe, Inch
of seclion. In Ih' ea ... 01 tOO11 witll Iha
91' 6 incll lNlu,,, ... ""U the '-fUling
section" Is llIe lnell 01 so bel!ind T'" paint.
Ouencll in oil It !Iboul 20-2SC The
won.i"9 end m.... now be ground -
COI fully - ,Imos, '0 finish :lile. but In lhe
ca ... of tll' IIe1VV .lide,esl '0011 11321nch
should be lelt on. Reheat slowlV Iglin. but
10 76O170
C only. and Quench in b.ine
11 IS20C. Tempe, immedi.1Ify 10 nol
....,.e IlI,n 'SOC 101 .. least 30 mirlulH.
Ind then .... t down' lhe oh.nk of st;de.est
tools wim IIIe Klu,l CUlling poin, kepi
cool in w"" AI IlIis IImper hnle. if
'ny. of tha "a.dnes$ wllllM 10SI. bUI Ilia
III.d. ning 11'lnu wHl hne b.,n
relle ... ed. Th. mll.1 will lIa ......... ry line
grain .nd be .. lIard IS possible.
!4! HII' T'Hlm.nl of M.dium C.,bon
SIHI. So f w, hew bHn con$lde<ing
the "h'<dIning' 01 Sleel 10 mak' c""ing
looIs and Ih' like. bul IIIe.e er' m ...,
olh., c,sel w".... some lorm of heal
treatmenl will Imp.ove Ih. qUllity 01 lh.
mele.lal In 0111" dl.""lion5. Indeed. by I ..
1111 grell .. 1 .mount of hell 11I.,menl in
InrIustry i, di'lCIld to this .nd .
11 you "I" bICI< 10 FOg. 'l (.nd ..
perh-. .-I, .... '(OU. memory lrom the
lIIOCil1ed t .. ,1I .,.,.. win see 11111 lsay)
0.4 c.rbon lI.el under norm,1 lie, IkIw'v
"wild) conditions c:ont.isl' of grlinl 01
pe,l1il' su.rounded by I ... <ill 1 tough
""Ienet sel In , m"rur of 10ft .... 1.riaI
The , ..... lting IleeI is I.ifly MJVh end
strong _ "bell"''' Uor some pu."..sul
tllan mild ftee! Suppose, now 11111 we
were to Qu.nch Ihis steel from higll
temperllu,,1 The" hi Insuff..:lenl urbon
presen, fo< t01,1 tr.rwtor .... , ion into IlIe
Ionn 01 Iron COI<bIde _ know .. Manen
";Ie. 10 Ihl1 the l"UClu" wHI. In ellacl. be
mlf of hlrd Manensill w,th
'''';11. It will possess some 01 Ihe
ch.recler 01. higll'COIrbon Ileal Ihlrdness
and 10ughnes.1 and .0"" 01 Ihosa
8!<soci'led wilh "mlld'- 0' low-carbon
sleel: duct,ltty Ind !IOft ... u.. Funher. we
ean temper lhe lleeL This,,"' consider
able dfact. IS in IIIe case of lIigll carbon
steel . nd In t!>is COISlthe selaclion oIt'"
beSt lempe'8!ure is the matt Imponant
pen of Ihe 1".lm .... T Th. ml. tu,e 01
lempe,I(! Merllnsite and ferrlle crysl8ls
Cln be edjul1rtd TO give lIigll atllnglh.
high yield point. bene. ImplCI ",isllnc .
Ind 10 on. Fig. a I shows IIIe eIIacl on a
tn>iCeI 04" COIrbon 11",_ .nd .,.,.. wiM
notice 11111 ."'" hi I dill In ,''' Impacl
resi'''nt4I Ilrod Impacl T elll In the middle
tempering range Tllis need nol wor.., vou
100 much. " it is Sl iII constde.ably lIighe
than 11111 of Ih. unllea,treated lIe.l .
To givl'.n .. ,mple. lel ul conlider OUr
old friend ENB IOOOM40 In lilt BS 970
1972 In the 1>OI""lised
condilion would be lB
TiSqln. VTS 27 T/lQin 'I" .. Id: EIong ion
Iducl llityl 2B" Ind In I.od imp'CT
IIs's,.nce fig"" 01 151 11t.lb The metal
is Austenised by heating TO B30BSOC
fo< 1 hou./inch. ,nd !hen Qu.nclIed in oil.
The IImpering temperl1u" mul' IlIen be
selected ..:con:Iing to t'" ptOp8r1ies _
need. For mui",,,m tougt..-.s Ind the
mosl .rdUOUI f. , igu. Ind sI>ock loading
condillons Ih .. would be belween 550
and 650C and then air cooled. (Note that
lemperir>g salt will no. operate at this
ligore and tha worl< must be daM in 8
muffle). At 600C the UTS woold be
around 42 T/sq.in. Yiald point about 28 TI
sq.in. Elongiltion perhaps 29% - not a
great But the impact res.iStarn:e
hn gone up to 80 f1.lb - around lour
times as greal as The 18tigu8
rlOSt.tance also will be improved. 11 we
tempered 400C we woold ,oisa the
UTS to about 50 T/sq.in. but bath dUCtility
and shock ruistarn:. would be IIOSS -
though s.iII bener than that of the nor
malised 51<.al.
For completion. the normalising
temperature is B40-S60 C. bill il YOU
have EN8 whlcl1 is b'ight drawn Irom the
Oil Hardened and Tamp",ed condition
10.H.lH . in the list) it is , in
lacl, in about tougheSt condition. woth
a yiald point 01 around 46T/ sq.ln. and an
Ilocl (,gu,e of about 60. You are oot likely
to ben8l' this. However, mOSt ENS is
$Oppned to model er>ginee .. in the br>!iht
drawn state with no heat uaatmant. and
no,malising mav be prudent belore
WO<king on it.
F" .... 4.2. , ... ", , " . ..... ' .. ' ". _____ ,.' .... _ _ _ ... _ .......... _

200. 300.
Similar trealmant can be ca"ied Out On
St all eel with a carbon COfltent
0.2%' BUI it i. MOST impoflant
t you know e ctly what matarial you
". trfNItir>g and whet traatment 10 9ive 11.
pnronunat . 1y mosl lI,ms now send .hei,
,..orI< out 10 SPecialists and published data
"h.rd to cOme by. 11 the sleel can be
"""tilled with SAE number" (Society
., Automolive Eogin .... ",. USA) then
tllhe, Iha SAE +1 8ndbook Or
't!Iachinery' s Handbook cen give some
guldanc . Th. probtem 10' Ihe model
-"Ill".,.." Is in selec.jr>g the requi,ed
..... pa'lng tempera ture. It Is on thi rat her
...... the inilial quenCh. that the linal
"OjNlIies depend. and if ,ang" 01
",",p"ring tempe ratures is offered this
...... nt5 a puzlle. Perhaps YD<J migh.
"",k il sale 10 wo,k midpoinr 01 the
"'"'1/8. bur in the absance 01 s.pe<:ilic data
'fOU cannot be sUre 01 what properties you
.. Improving. So. 10< any heat t,eatmen!
., medium carbo<! d. alloy slaal It Is beSt
10 00 nothing. or to go to the
tauntain heed. The make,. ol lhe sleel Can
.... )'OIl chapter and versa. and il)'Oll give
"'e Brirish Steel Corporalion
tpeCilication number and Iha appl ication
PJ have in mind s hould be able to
pov;de vou wilh det" iled ligu,es both for
InItral ha.t and lor tempering It is lor-
Jun. ta that most of Our work does not
n.ed high tensile or high Impacl values-
-..d I hope Ihet .he data I have given 10'
OUr old lriend ENB will help where some_
fl ing belle, than BOMS is needed.
I should, pe,haps, add a linal oote. The
Old 8S970/1955. with ils EN
I\IJmbers. was replaced in 1912 wirh a
1Iew, and la, mo'e logical. spacification
..rerence. ('The number il ... lI. in mOSI
C.oel. tells us Ih' carbon conlenl). Derails
If. given ;., Model Engina e' s
Handbook' end in App.l. ,nd I would
sltor>gly recommend that )'OIl start uslr>g
thase new number. - 001 least bec.osa
steel Is jusI not being mttde to SOme of the
old EN number' any more. ('Thll includes
8 faVOUrite 01 mine - l% Nid<el .teel
EN21 11 The naw Bdti&h Specification
has been in use now lot OIIe' 1 0 yea",.
alte, all.
(S) Coil S[)<ings. W. ma ke the majority 01
OUr coil sprir>gslrom wire which is aheady
ha,dened and lempered. Th. act of coiling
them round the mand,el sua5S8S Ihese
beyond the elasUc limitlthe IIPringmaker"s
term for thiS Is scflgging ') and Ihis
actually improves the strer>gth 01 the
ma'a,ial. Howevar. there are occasions
when this i. just nol possible - .he gauge
01 i, too .hick for the diamele, 01 the
mandrel. In Ih.sa circumstances it is
necessary to solten lanneal) the wire.
wind th' spring. and than harden and
temper 8g8in. Unfortunately wa seldom
have delail, 01 the Sleel CIf which Ihe wi re
is made. It may lie betwaen 1.0% cafbon.
0.4% mar>genese . nd 0.7% cafbon. 0.8')(,
manganese. It should be annealed al
abouI 780 C; this is nOt critical. but the
.mall mu. of the wi <kles mean thal
SOme cere musl be taken over Ihe cooling.
This wire can ai'-cool lait enough to fa-
harden. The spring can then be wcund .
end I SUgge5t that you allow eilh" for
5IJbsequent slfe.ching or compression to
'scrag the spring alter heal treatmenl.
ClosewHlhe and. end eilhef flalten them
on ,he grinder Or lorm tha as
re([uired. at this "Iage.
Ol'ect ha,dening with a name Is mo.t
unwise. There is risk 01 genir>g some part
100 hot and It i. lmpossibla 10 be of
even heating. Set Ihe spring or spring.
inside a stoel 0' copper lube and heatthi.
to 780C Irom the ou"ide .. eventy es
you Can. The springs can then be tiPQBd
Into Ihe ";I-bath - the,e i. no need 10

.... _ .. __ .... _ ou' ..... __ ... , . __ _
.... ft". for 110 ..... 11 mH' ClI m.,,' .-Id
The I!lfIng 1.lIing ICllhe b<mgm will be .... ,
ficien! v .... musl ngw be ve<y Ior
11 thi, "&{1e !he 1If)<1ng will be v.ry bri!11e
i!'!deed - I 1'1,,,,, k_ foF\fl __ ev ....
break ur><! .. !heir own w,igll'.
Th, I.mpe,ing dCIfIl ". ... 1'11 difflcul"",
It i, "mClst impCr"'ble ICI u .. 'he '-eoIou,'
Indica""" InV .n,mp' ICI pgllsh Ill'
sp';n" m.v ,esu!! I ... b,uk.O'_ Tile
'e<lui,ed ',mpe"'u" i. qu", 11,,,11- 3QO.
31 OC - _11 'bClve th' limit e"lIer Ig. Ill'
OOm.SIH:: Oven 0, 1o, bolh"'g Irt oil.
"BI .. ing off" .,Ie"ed \CI "Flier. I, I".
quendy ,ellO<,ed ICI. Wi,h e, pe,iertc. (Cl'
priof npe.im .... " il I. e He<:I"'e, bullel me
repeat Ihal Ih' f1uh-j)(llnllor ""n Ill' 11"
pointl ol,h. ()illlll nothing to do w"h tile
tempe<lng tempe",u,e: rhi, d_nd.
enli,elV Cln how much ()il il ,,,.ined Cln the
spring. If th.,. I. nol enough to bflng th.
wi up ICI 300'C lhen the prOClN mull
be """lied, .nd ._.,ed Immed'-"Jy_
Only, tri.1 c.n t.1I whither I1 I,
nee.,ury. How", ... I1 dCIfI, lhe
procedure is to "',rKllhe spring from t""
QlMflChing <>iI and lhen hold I1 I ... the ft,m,
III !he I.mp un1il ,he oil Ignlt .. ,
..,gn .. it doe. 10 mow It IU<lMr from ,he
spirit ft,,,,, .nd "Iow Itle oil '0 bum awa ...
Quench In <>iI when the name goes 00'
.nd lhen repe.' il ne<:u5IIry. IS il almos.
Cln.inlV will be for he ....,. gauge wire, It ..
.Imosl ......"i.1 ICI make a lrial spring r
Ihil procedu.e;' to be ado!Jted,
The sail balh i. ,he ideal melhod. III
eou .... Thil gi ...... bsotu'e conlto! and 11.
Ilnle wire "stI v" - like en umbrell.
upside down which h .. its cove, - ..
m,de numbe, 01 spri ... gs CB ... be
tempe ..:j .t 0fIC . The .. is nCl need 10
quenCh from ,he ull bath. bul once Ihl
111""" h .. cooled OOmewh'l i, can
Imm" ..... In hol wale, ICI rem""e Ihe ni,
adh&.,,,,, 10 h.
An alterna,ive I. ,h. Slnd-balh .
.. which c .... bI! very effeclive 'O!
1"' lpO'lnO" The bed thou\(! ba 'JirlV deep
.nd kept l u,ned abou, IS I, is heated. A
"" pi_ III .Imil., brigi'll 51eel is ""' 01'
lhe sar><! (. piKe 0' t he same spring
!'NI .. i.1 I. be.,1 .nd .s 5O<IfI al , ...
tempe' coIou. 'ppa'''' "" Ihi, Itle SPring.
Un be I ... angtd in the bed .nd hol sand
... _. the healing lamp or torch
btino ",,_ed .t the .. me lime. S.r><! <S
11<11 I Wf'( good a>nduclor. 10 Itlat ampl<!
lime mu" be 1110 .'" <l
It) Ault.mpe" ... g .... d Mart,mpe. inO
The_ .re 'alFly advanced method. '" hll'
""unenl, much UMd In Ind,,"f'(. M,,_
"",pe.ing i. 0 1 lilll, u .. 10 'he model
.,.,ginee" bul Au,"mpering CM! help.
IlpeCI,11y wllh Ihe ca .. wet>eve JUIl betn
_uSling - the hell "lIlm-.., 01 .... ,11
"",ng" Th. 111''''''" c .... belt be under
by re'erenc, 10 "ew di ...... m .. HO
43 shows the no,mll p.oceso CIf
ctUlf'Chlng end """""rtg. d;,playl on ....
'"$" CU,..., The ,......,..-ing period ill'OOl. 01
COU"",,. In eny w.y connecled wolh lhe
tirM ICII, 0I1he -S" bee ... sa ,he u_
form.,ions whic:tl ClCCU' ... nol lhe NmB
.. lhose wilhln lhe -So The diag .....
........... a high lempe,"u" IImpe', ..
orugit. be uMd 'or lIIfinO Ind \ha
.... ''''i., will end up .. tempered M"'en'
.. " 'UGng. 10Ug/!, bul nol IS h .. d " i,
nEl !'ld for Wtti"llI00t ..
In rog 44 ,he se.., ill quenched f,gm
, aimil .. high tempe'"u,e. bu1 ;n hot
lilt NII'r. IOmtwhe .. beIW .. " 2BOC
Ind 330C, nOI cold wit.. The
Clutnching 18m"",aIU" I. hi9l\e, Ih,n Ihll
" which lhe M'M,nalte IClrma, .nd Ih,
".nrlo,mllion GCe",. "ong line of
CO .... tlnl tempe,.!u,.. as It pas".
Ih' OIIgh ,''' IWO borde", of 'he "S"_ Alter
,ime which depends on lhe perl<>d A-B.
.nd Ihe lize of <he WOfk ill. removed from
th. hol tempering balh ,nd allowed 10
roof n"",.,1y in .i . for 11""', Itae! 1"-
lime 10< "spring lemper" w .... 1d be 16
ml ..... ".1I ,roo,md 320'C and 25 m"""ts
" 300C. The lime incruMS merkedly"
Iowe, temperalu .... - 45 minUI" '.,
275'C .nd 2 hou", 11 25OC. No hlfm
win be c.uMd by slightly Iortger periods.
The and ...... " it nol ItmpII'ed MlITensil'.
bul , F\fIW Struclu,e (ulled Bain"e 1>0.0,
don'l III the, WOff'( you - il doesrt, m.lle,
" Ill) which h,s ..... f'( limifar propanies.
The 0'"1 _ .... ,age oI!IMS me,hod ilthal
the,e is no lherm,l shock during t"""or-
mll'on 10 M.m"''''e (or B,;,.;" in Ihi
c .... la Ihe" i. wi,h COrtvenlion.'
quench'ng. AlJnO$I all commen:i,lIy made
Spring, - .nd such Ihif>9S as f1)Il.p;n rod
the like -.ra AUSlempe,ed in W1lV
The MttnemfW'ing process is snown in
fig. 45. JUS! lor explanation. as i,s rn.in
" .. i. when heat lraallno very CIf
m ... lve components_ The piece I.
quenched f,gm Ihe high 'empef1lIU'e in I
.. .. ,. "'" ....... ,-",.' _ .......... _ . "".' .. -"" ... .... " .. ,
MS. --- --
MF - ____ .i-. -_/
- - - BATH
ull blnh n t>e10<1, but Insl8ld 0 1 ,emain-
ing lhe,a tor ,.anatorrn.t ion It it; liken OUI
'5 IIOOfI 11 It hll reached the lemper ba.h
tempe<If"re ,nd "Iow.-l to cool in IIr. It
is ,utt; ...... tly Iln..,.,.-I. The ..,...nl"9"
OWl< I'" _ ... nlklnal melhod is ...tuc-
lion in lhe rttI< of distortion. ThetI lie no
,d .. lnl.g85 10 be g.ined fo, model
I; ....... ,he helMesl of .....
'MHkpiIteH would IM regarded 11 '.,i<kIly
blu" In Indu",y. Ind would be
The IItOCedu" Iny IS 'W'ied to
sp,ings) for 10 heal 10
,.amawhlt higher figu,e initially, .......
900C. The nit balh i, lIt.pa,ed end
broughl UP 10 In. u".,. tlmpeflllu,. 15
would IM I'>Ieded ' or nDfmal I,moe,ing -
'0< I lIOting. ,.,. soon u the
worI<pre<:e hn been _ked' to. the
'-n .. 'Y lenglh olli".,. I1 is ......, qllic/dr
- wflh the .bIoIu" minimum 01 del-v--
lransffr"ed 10 lhe hol HII bat!>. 11 is IefI
thera 10< lenglh 01 time which depends
both on lhe rype 01 st ... Ind its thickness;
10 minute' whl ",me. "" even tile
he""', lIOt'ng nd 30 minules is .lIlket
would be I'IHIded 01 hell t'"ling ........
largtl cranl<pln In ENS. In this la"e, CUI.
ho ......... '. do "m,mlM, thlt lhe mlXimu",
wort!ng lempe<.t ure to. tem ..... ;"g saI,
bath ill SOOC. end unlortunalely yo<
cannol Quendl the pieGe b'I' selling it i"
muffle ""!\IC" However. most 51eei1 ...
""'" Il"CI<I hut lreeled QDndihons " rh
A lew Pfltet icll no,,1. Fnl. ' his is
HI .. Treating p'OCUI. not I 10<
he,d,ning On,. AI Au.llmpe'; n,
' empe .. ,ur85 below aboul 2S0C t,
lim. required 'or Ihl translo<m ... ""
Im;reasu Quill Quickly. al><l mrghl b. a,
lon.g IS I" hou' ., 2S0C. Fm Austemper_
Ing pieeH requiring' highe, temperature
th,n c.n IM .ch .... ed with the ..... It lead
bath mly IM used (l8Id mllts " lbou'
330 Cl. The high temperalure ..... 11 bath
can be used '0< ini,ill hUling il o:!esill'fl
,nd no h.,m w.ll ..... ,. hom Ihl c .....
ove' of Ihi' Nil inlO llIe lempering ba,.
How ....... I. I, mOll iInport.,-" 'hit ..
lOW Nit eve< gets inlo
hlOh "mper.tu,. balh; as delailed
"Slfety P",e.uho ... ..'her MriD. J
,"etlpn can oceu, Nllu,elly. lhe tugr
lempI,.,u,e Ill. will .olldl", .. tn
f .... . ! -.... " r ...... _ .. _ ... _ ... ,', __ ,,,* _ ... __ , ..
_ t '" Cd... '.
SKIN -.).

IImpe,"u,. ,nd will eolle<:1 i"
t of the bath. This should be
from Itm' 10 lima. bul lot lhe
I w. u.. 11 it. Pflrh&pI best 10
the IImpering bath II.ogetl_
much H T .... 1t has ... , in t ... bII,h
1"0 Interfe .. wilh helting.
As I rem"k.,;l ., the beginning. I .....
tpeei.,lsl proc:esso!1t. "rod do need I
Querw;hlng ba'h_ Mo<IeI I<tginefi.
withoul Ihem for almost
YII" . .0 th .. you "'ed nol WO< ....
dl<:klln.g 10 ignDfe them I Howev".
HAVE gol the eQuipmenl and Ihe
NIl. Ih'" I1 is worlh a few oer!
ISPeCi.'1y it you make sptingl (llel
In Qu.nli ,y. The process I,
comple. pens made Itom
$1"1. which might t!il1OM
COffll""lional mlNMlt_
T .... menl. No _
lflllm ... t is done 10< .trenglh.
.... tIneN_ or 0 1""" mltehlo"ical PfOPlfl"',
Clfn be epplied bolh 10 help ,.51sl COftO-
. nd - ,spec;.Uy in ;"slfume",. ,rod
- 10< ott..... In model
10 tile 'IS
lor "Srowning" n
11 IIItI i. 'el"lvely u .... - It
nl<:" ...... 10 heal t he componenl
""" 300C However. 'h' 'nul"
I .... Ih,n .. , isl.Clary unleu the
pr """IOtl' wor1o:: is well done. In ,''' ca ..
..... " lhe pan Is to simul,.. "fine
forgeworlt on lhe pro,otype il is
m.ia.ke 10 worI< lot ooIiotted finiott The
.m_ should be r .... man. IS ptoduc.-l
b'I' I IDfMY motion 01 In .br.Sive_ ,he
go .... dtperoditlg on tile siza 01 the
The In"",,1Int painl is 10 ...,,,,., thll lhe
IUrlltel, onu Pflplred. I, fret! 'rom oII.nd
", .. se .nd 'SPeCi.l,.,.. fi"ll"r"P<im" The
.. " .. will .how UP t!tSlf8SSdngly cle.,ly
.".. 'he hUI treatment Chemlnl
deg,uslng should be followed by washing
wilh hot dllI' llIltl.nd Wlte<. end lhoan.1t
do-ied, Ilter which il should be Itendled
only with clean tilSUl the . acid
It.. g ..... used b'I' jow.' ....... is ., A
..,rnt la"", is besl to. !IITt.1I !MIttS larger
ml"t' be ""',ed in IIaOd bed 01 in ..... of
lhe improvised muffles ,It udy "fe<tl to-
Oireet ha.ting wi,h lorch ft''''' is
unwi... It It Is difficult 10 9"1 .......
MOora decor ...... parts. as lor SCrlw' I"
cloc'" .nd pa,ts 0 1 inslrumenl'. or Ivttn
clock hind . mUSI be highly polished lirt!.
fine erne..,. 'ollowed by polishing pepe'.
until the IIn.oh i, utisl.croJV, In t hi. UN
th ..... I dilleflncll 0 ' OpInion: SQme
hold thl1 lhe IIn.l strokes 0' lhe POlisher
Ihould be 'in line" (or. for SCltwneads.
done In lhe 1.lhel others hold Ih.,
random effacl is more pleaslng. You muSl
t ..... both.nd _ which ",its yuu besl I1 IS
m'''1t 0I11I1e.
In .It cases ,It et healing to blue lhe
pe'U It. Quenched In oil, nol for "'"
....... lIurgical "I""". bill becau$l 'his
providll QU!1I .n 1111"'" rust-proofing.
TIle combtnatOOl' of the <:id8 layer and
Ihl 011 MIfTt, 10 rlpal cOtrO$ive lumn. A,
10 coIou, thl, has 10 be w81ched ,.lrtv
IS Ihe "llnls' of blue ' ollow ve'y
elonlv, However. I find Ihat 'or
tacltl. (whtCh I blu. 'or pr ........ ,"'"
rl1h., Ihan .ppe .. lnce) a sh.de 0' deep
brown it; nol unple.slng. whilst m."" 0 1
my "' .... urtv 191h eentu .... ,ooI5 ... '!f,w
eoIoured. They .,e nol cerbon .....
lempe.ed. bul loo!< It 11 ' ....... h .... bee" 10
BI..:bmllh'. is ......... 601flcu11 10
Itmul,". Thi. hard. tom>SIOn ''''''"11ft
..,<1_ it the result lin lull size) 01 soml
lime 11 forging he" t1 OOO"CI coupled
wi'h for"" worting III piece 01 mild It eel
it; held 11 Ihi, lempennure '0< any length
0' liml to".,. gr'l" g,owlh i. inevitable, It
doesn't m.n il Is being lorged,
I. ,hi, will r;(IrrKI mlnera, bul il is
Oilfteull 10 do this wilh model p.ns. If iT is
PfKIIcIbI", I'" following procedUf. will
lIiv. lol ... bl nul". Artlnll ' Ih.
mII .... l.clu.ing prog m.... SO 'hlI Iny
whid> mill" leg I'" joum .... nd
c nkpln, of c nk.h.f,) c.n bl
machined ., ... ,he .... 1 blacking i. done.
B.;og the "1orgIof" ...... end '0
I>riIlI\I <I. IINi"", f.w lighl leps w;Ih
na' hltmmer 10 "dlsH'''''' 'hi Dip
in oil Idon'l qu.nch righl oud and again
r,hell, JUII for' I.w momenlS, Repeal
Ihe proce"', lJO'ng up 10 brighl red each
lim" OI'>CI ,.,I,Iled wllh Ih. "finish", no.-
m.li .. Ih ., ,.1 ducllbed on P8ge 72
Ind Then Clrry on wllh IhI m.chin;ng
"kl"", uN 001 10 damage the
Nlw ''''' I1 yOU c.n . fl K I .nr aclull
toroi""" so much ,,,- beller
(11) forei""" h .. , perl\apt:, 'l>POSite 10
dell w,th ,'''' now, hltving IuSI remarked
on the ditflcully of forging model compr:>-
","ISI Mos' boob on -1'''''plflng & HI<-
deni"",' publis/leod In the lay gr""l
sue", on Ihlfor9i"", o/lllhe end $h.ape<
loot., Thi. it; .,.,., .. Idom doI>II - or
nu<ied - nowed.V" C,rbon sleel loot$
a used onlr when HIgh Speed loot. ,r'
nol IVBIIBbl,. fu'lh", Ihl sizl of 1001 we
now u .. I. much ,meUlr Ihen obl8in&d
.lItIn 60 v .... ,go, whin h,lI-inch square
shank' wl'. common. EYln. fin. SQUI.I
p;ec. of "ock w,11 barely hold lIIe hell
Iorrg .nough 10 give more Ih.n coupl. of
hamme. blow . end wilh !i,-'16 in.. lhe
more u$U,1 ,i lhe .. OyI, prOpIf forging
is .Imotl ,,,,pos,ibIe Ho""",,,, lhe." is
the odd whe>n , ,oot mUSI be
1IIgh,,,,, CI.nked. or fIy-CU1l1r needs
High CIIrbon loot 11ee1 muSI be IIeId 10
I.irty close IImplf.lu.. whilst
Io<gl"",. AI 0 7" CIIrbon ... mighl be used
10<, 1I)ICl"lCllwdrNer. lhe m,xlmum i,
IOSOOC. ,nd lOfgl"", mu,I Slop when"
I,ll, 10 .boul 9QOC, Th ... lemperatures
can be used .ighl liP 10 .boul I.""-c_ F",
1,'" CIIrbon .!'Id ,trov." Includ"rng siI. ....
lint, ,he I'lT!PIflllU" should be som.
SOC Iowa'. bul Ilia higM< Ilia CIIrbon
conI ... ' lhe ITION CIIN muSt be leken !
......:MI 0VIfhe,""", Mr ,r<parience is Ih.r
wilh f in. Iqu", ,oot, I can J .. $I 9"'1 " .. ,
bID .. , In wilh lhe h.mm", btiOfe , ...... ".
I"", it; nHded. I .Iw.ys 11...... lull .n ....
belOf' h,'dlnlng ,her .ny bul The
lighlell IOfglng ope"Iion, O.dinary mdd
lleel C.n be forged much hotter - up to
1250C Icco'dlnll 10 $Ome authorllies
Ind I. le WbjKI 10 damage if
tool. lhough I would pilI" 10 no,mali,", ,f
much "black IOfging" hn been done In ,-
ca .. , cweth"ll"", Cl" r .. i" lhe _11),
CIIrbon loot 11111 I1 al r
The<e I. "" WIV itr which. pOe<:e of DV.
"'"ed "nt CIIn be ,Idee""", "'''"PI t>,
melll"", il dow ...
for deraIled InIl""'Iions in lhe uH "
blacksmiths lootl ,,.. Nade< is rnl .. red "
one of lhe m,ny boob on ' W'oug'!
lront'O<l<" hhoullh 'i.on" hi ... !dom usot<!
1"'" d'YI) - 11 i lIpICielisl crih in ",
own lighl. Aboul lhe only uH I mike ,I
Io<ging loot sleel I, 10 rlHluce
IIClion down 10 .eC18nguls. - leu
wU18ful Ihan m.chlnlng il - and Ihl. don
nol ,,11 for ,nything mo 111.10 keeping
.y. on Ih' lampe,"ur". Forging down t hl
end 01 pick, .. Of Cfowba, (8boul 08"
CIIrt>on) is "M'_ u-'ng 5 Ib_ h,mm ..
lhough my ,""", 11 56 Ib .. is '81her ligl'
10< such work,
(9) High SjM,d St"' . The h.r(\e";ng !
high 1fl I I loot-lleel Is 1I.11y I>e ,ond ".
upaclty of Ihe m,jO'ily of
eno"-.... To begin with. lhef 11 co'
side.able yari"ions in "toy .;:orll enl
',ngi"", from 0.5" 10 1.00Ii CIIrbon.
10 4.00Ii Ch.omium. 0 10 18% rungsl""
and oom. with 5" Cob.II -.nd Ihev m'Y
vary.ng PlOpOnionl 01 Molyb-
.nd Vanedium IS well heh
I ""aunenl ,nd an
nol good enough - ,i,he,
cr.ck Of it win nol be herd
'0 I .. nge
by- I.ir!v ouick heating

Of 1300C depending on lhe

MOSI Cln lhen be cooted in '".
IOMI 'O<IUIII plni.1 oil-quench
SOOC by air cooling.
muSI lollow ,nd
Ih". , .. wid8 vB.ielions in Ih'
- \n some cases tempering
I1 don. befonr lhe loot has cooted righl
down - lrom perhaps lS0C. The Iypic'!
te'"9'llring I"""",.IIU .. ia ,boul 5SO-C.
bill In some CHlS. espeQ,lty for !OOII
_iring eonliderlbl. loughnuI (for
roughl"'" worI< on CISTings "Iel , .. ""'Id
temoe<irng I, c"tied OUI el (!ypicIIIy1
The occnions when high-SI)et(Iloot
_u" .e-h.rdening If , .... nd un""'l
Ih. ,>acl .n.lysis i.lr.nown, and lhe
worto:shop has precise lempe.llure control
01 lhe fu.n.tt. this WOfk is btrst ,,,11 10 Ih,
specl,Ii". Eyen h" will orobablv decline
Ihl work unlus Ihe source. IVpe. and
gred. of metal I. "acTty known.
The Measurement of
I, Is 'hi ' mlny model engineers
will h. con,.rnld w"h ,he .,lu.1
me'SUr,menl 01 hardness, 001 il 1I helpful
'0 know HOW 11 is donot w"-" faced wilh
one or other 01 ,he ........ 1 "h,rdness
numbers" uHd. The ml,n d,ff"tC\Ilty is in
de<;;-I!ng 1...,11y whll 10 m su ... for
H .. d" ... I. not ...... 10 pUt on , seelt.
It is I.ir encMJgh to Uy th'l ItHI whi<:h
brllkl unde< 50 10000oq.in. is -twN::e 15
strong" IIIhlT wt\!d\ 1.111" 25 10000..,..in ..
bu' w. Clnnol b. 10 d.lin,le wilh
hardness number"
Mlner.logists d<lfina h,rd",. as " Ihe
,bilitV to lefltch" .nd UN se,le called
"MOh's 1e.1.' on which OiamOf'ld. ,he
"-,d .. 1. 11 "10,10 Ind T"e l"'F,ench
Ch,lk"f il 101181' " No. I On 'his se.le
Mild Sleel WOtlId .ppe .. 11 No.6. and
h8llle....:l 1000sl"1 I1 NO.7 _ nol a ve ....
btu d,ffe<enctl A compar.bIe '151 lor
me'lIs U_ I Itand.rd -_.,cher'- made
01 di,mond carryin; dennil. load which
is dr_n _011 lhe "'rllet oIlhe m,,;II.
L.OMI 11 Idjullld 10 m' -,'andard
wield," oflCrltch. Ind Ih.sload iI lak.., It
, "", ...... 01 lilt "-rd ....... Thil les' is
now buT simplt portablll sc,.tell
'HI .... tfill I .. 11111 ulld tor cllual '"on
,I,," h .. dn ... ,,"1119

The ma)orlty 01 h"clneA les'ill9 done
tod,V d&pInds on .he r,sis"ne. to
". .. ,rr,llOn oIlhe met.l. In The B,;,..,III ,
(Fig 46) , hard " .. I ball, 10m",
di.m" .. , I, imptalMd on thl Speci"""n "f
.... "1 undl< I load 01 3000 kilogram,
(abouT 3 lonaf, n.. di.met .. of lhe
10 lormtrd is "".sured us;ng I
mi<;rovope wllh In ;",em,1 K"le. From
this ,he ",rI.el .... 01 lhe Impression ...
caltultted. end Ihl su,f.el .tresS
obtained by dividing JOOOI<g by IhI Ire,
The r8lull i, I'" -Brinell Number".
is. of cou .... , .... re ... ir>diellled
kilograms/Iq mm, This IHl i, limiled 1"
lboul 500 B"nell numbo" 115 above Ih;
figurl The b.1I i, .. 11 dl'10"'_ For har<l.
mal.rI"1 I lull9 ... n arbl<le ball is u$8(1
while /or lOll mlle,ials lhe ' landa,d bfrll'
ulld bull'" to.d i, re<lueed - usually ".
!iOO kg -.nd I corresponding ldlu'''''ln'
made 10 ,'" Io<mul . The 8,;",11
otll"ned I'iJr .. wlthin Ih. slIndardlim,\S
n.. Rockw.Y "-.d", ... le"" (F"f'iJ 4'
.100 "'" I ophirlCllimpr_, bul maM
"om '''''''II,i" diamond. Ho>o ... , .. , , ....
.... Thod and prlnc,pII of Ope-rl1ion
Qui' e dif/,,,n!. The indent .. , w.th. ,adius
01 O.2mm. is firll impressed inlo ,M
S!)IC'man under ,101<1 01 I OI<.g.
, . 44"._,., .... _- "_K"_""".
g, ....
This I ..... re, ,''''! il il linnly .. lied In
dtt and thll lhe spe<:irnen is
ttC\Ire on lhe auPPOrling arM1. The dri.1
itIdICIling 1'" dep!h 01 the Impression is
then ltro8<l. The "m"",," load. 01 1 SOkg
10< lhe mot! u,"",I'UII, i. lhen aPlllied I1
I1IIdV 'Ill controlled by 11 mecha""m
wIThin Ih. machine. After a ",1 lime -
,boul 5 sewrrd. - Ihe majm kI;td i5 wilh
(\rawn, The di,l Ih,n 18=d, !he DEPTH
of Ih. Imp ..... lon "used bV The major
Ind I>v Ihi, alone: lhere i, no ,"or
dui '0 "Sprill9" In ThI machine frame or
due 10 "1081111119 down" 01 ,he spec:irnen.
Unlil<e lh. 6r1nell, the Rockwell herd ......
It '"numbe-r". nol a surlace S!leSS .
though tht ml'iJnitudt 01 thi' numbe' Cln
be con"llld wi!h such ,"ess.
n.. midline can be UMd
wllh _.1 typeS 01 indenl" and wl!h
_"I mlgnitudes 01 "m.jo<- load, For
hard 11 .. 1. Ind UMlrd<lned high carbon or
allov 11 .. 1., the "Roclcwel1 C' Kale is
used, bUl "Rockwell B", WiTh . 1116 In
"'eeI Dill. il ustd lor "mild" 11 .. 11 Ind
lIOII"Ie nonftr'C>UI allovs.. The "A" scale is
ustd tor e . tremelv h"d $f>ICimens.nd for
'hln, hlfd 'h"' m,teri.1.
The advan,age 01 Ihe RockwIII ",I
""er !'" BrI ... llls ,hlllhe .. is no nead 10
"",,,,r, ,h. IrnprHSion - ,'" h.rd",ss
can be ,,1<1 diractly: il it. lherefore, pr ...
I ... ed for "Pf1XIua""," 'esling. Funher. ,.
Iht Indenl .. eln pe",I,," even hlfdened
11'" IT an be used tor melen"ls beyond
' . n ... " .. __ ___ ..... - ... '0''''
_ ..... __ ._----,' ..
.. "" .... g.' ..,
the f1Inge of IM Brinell. The
il lNI ilia 1101 ""bIoI",." - ,I is ..... ,Iy. a
ha,dne" comp ... ,a. and must be
rlte.lib ..:! I.om lime 10 I,m .
Both the .bove visible Imp.n!!$-
$Ion in 'h' mll,ri,l. Th, Vk:ke,.. Diamond
p-/' Imid (VDP) '"ling mlchine Fill. 48
uSH IQU,,, dllmOr'ld py' lmid as
Ihe Inden,"., wITh In Included engle of
138"_ Tt.. Ippll..:I Io.d Is u.u.11y 5Okg.
but can be .h,,1f(j 10 ... il S!>8Cial condi
leg. thin .... ns Ot ... " hard
ma um.l]. It !hi, iI done IM magnihKle 0'
the mu., be ., ..t. The "a<;tOS$
eotnerS" d'mmJiOns of the imp_ion ,re
menul1ld end lebullled v.l .... of 'VDP
Ha<dnen" fin from the
mUn 01 the two. In the Vlcke.. machintl
the Is "built In' end the
apec/""n ""loml,le,lly 'egi ...... /0'
obse ..... TIon of the lmpreniofl. Th, 1"1 is
,"ga,ded .. very ICCu' I'e and. 10"
fla . .. A v"' ..... ___ ''''' ,'''_ .. , .
__ ,5"", , __ .. ,"'" .. _ ......
_____ '::_"-.D '''''
tu .... ,.". the \lOP numbtro lie vefV cloll<:
to .he S,;""'I 11ard_ numbet'. SO 11\;111
"visulliullQn-' I, 'Hie< than with , ....
Rock .... " Kal ... The' m";n dislK:tvaMIll/I!
o/lhe Vie. e .. machi ... i, Ihat the impo-es
IIion is ....... sm.lI. toO that specill suriace
Pf'IPlI"non il .equi.ed !of ",ally """mato
wO<l<. rh, Roc::kw,1I m.,;hir.e requires onl.
I good m.chrr.e !inish. On Ihe oth"r
hand. Ihe Vlc k.rl do.l nOI disfigure lhe
surfKe so much - Ihe indeflllltions lire
h' rdly noticeabll. All Ihr" lests f1I<I"i.e
Ih" .plclmen 10 b. broughl 10 Ihe
m.,;hi.... Hlrdnep fIgrJ.es quoted in
SpeCificationl .nd t lbooItJ will .11 l!lI.e
beltn mllde on ' Iiny robuSI specimens. 10
.void II'ly .....". d ... 10 SpeC;"'en dist ortion
under I0.0;I . no;! ..... subieCt 10 s .. u,1I
,.,....-.ne. - "" ..... 11y a .. nge 01 1 0.- 2
dlg'11 on lhe Rockw'" scale.
n.. Shot. ScIetoscopo (Fig. 491 .eloes
on dill",", pr!nc;.p!e. It ... Iound lha, if
SpeC; .... n, of ... ..,...bI" si ... '" ..- "
h.l1I... ntI&d h.mm .. will bounc. 10
deg," which be.,. In ,Im051 li"",r
"I",ionshlp to 'h" hardness. The
Sclo'oscope i, PGn.bl" hatdneu '''''8'
in whiCh a ,m,1I dilmOf\d.f.ced 51",,1
plUngtl .... dr_n up ID heighl 01 10
inches wllhin. gl". Iube. It ... held lhere
by a Calch Ind. when rl"lnMd. 1.11, on 1110
specimen and reboundl UP lhe tube. The
amount of In. rabound un be read f.om ,
SICIItt The .... cceHlOn of ope,ations
automltically conuolled by "'.tl<8S5Ure
II""""lled f,om. rubbe, h.lB This ill .........
u .. ful ""'rum,"!' and whe<>
lesll mull be mlda In Ih' worb _ il
e_l" ... Naly uMd In IIHIworks fo, menu'
I"" Ihl h'tdot .. of rolll In Ih. mill. 11
I"aves almOSI no Impo-a .. ion al bul
ca,a doel hIYa 10 be lak.n 10 avoid
DQUncing lhe hammer on Ih. sam" 1 _
mort Ih.n onca. lor In. previous 1nl w,lI
wort.hetdened lhe surf_.
The co-rell'lon bel ...... n Scle<oscope
numbersllnd VDP 0.- Rockwl"ll.nd B' ..... II
ill f .. rty 000d. provi@d lhe ScII1f<tSC01)e
tpeciman wn _son.bIV mHSi ... , lhe
Slanr:IlIrtIs ",cMIMd with In. lnsuu .... nl
a ... boul one IncIIlQua,. 2; inch IotIg
On v ..... "".)1 pitH:H lhe specim.n 'IMII
m .... Dounce lillle on lhe s.uPPGn ,nvil
.nd thil will C'uM I falSi "Idlng I hIve
ona Of IheSl ill Slen In F;g 49) pil:l<ed up
" In ""C' i<)n 181, 10< 8 roally silly price.
.nd f ind Ihl l il gives "clllant
comp"I'Iv. ligu,1S when sPl<:im .... "'"
. Il Ihe ...... aizl. bul unlil Ihu 1001 is ov"
* In. l(Iua I"" '8$111" l&nd to till low
...... n comp 1d with tesls dona on \ha
ume pilea wilh a VlCk ... instrument.
Compa.ll-Qn 01 H d ..... Numbars. The
d\Otca of which teSI 10 use is oft ... mlde
f. om conlld,retions olh.. Ih.n
compa'Jobili .... The B.inell machr ......
fTI05l oft.., "Md !of I"" soft", 1I.ad.1 of
.t"L and l\8a the idvanl"9" 11\81 lhe<" ...
(tor u .. on ,1.1"11" ",I. tioo-lship w'lh
Ill. tenlil. s uengt h' B,;nell IOSI m.y
often "v. Ihe trouble of ma king. ,,"sile
",I spaclm,n. As .I.eady remarked Iha
Rockw,U tell I. Qul,k. an<! much uled in
P' OduCllon wo, kshops. Th, Vlc.er,
mlleh'''' l"vII v ..... Imle evidencl of lts
u ... Ind because il is """I 11
high h.td ... ,ses it is "lturally chosen for
I0OI 11 .. 11 lie. 8 0lh lhe Yid", and lhe
8 ri ... 11 give !he _If in kgiSQ.n>m. of
tmp,eulon . nd "11'"" z.iy It low
ha.duII - balow 220. Wi t h hltd
malll"'" the fllel thltlhe BrineD ball may
' . 4" .. _,_- r _, , .. ,. ..... _
-.--.. ---. ......... -
dillOl"\ Ind tt.. V;ckers di,mon<I will 1"001
,,,ult. In a dr.a'gence of Ih' .. will. The
Shota h.tdnen .. ldings .,a compa.
IObII wilh Olhe. teslS ontv """" In. "'I
...,.c;men h.. masa of It IaUt ......
POUnd (OSk..,). bul Its inokaho.-" .. ,
.ellable when making . ag
an lnu.... from Shot. S6 10 150 win
"""'" ,;sa of appro>.iml1e1y 100 pOont.
on ' h' Vock"'ICIIe.
Th' lable of compa.i ...... g.ven .1 lhe
and of the book is d wn I.om ..I
po-lPlI, 1d Jointly by Ih. Am,. lean Soci.ty
10' Tuling M,",iall. Th. American
MII,I. Soclely. .nd Ih. Society 01
AUlomolive Engi neefS. b UI Sri l ll"
Standard No.S60 - obt.inabie !rom mOlt
libra.i,n - allO gl"u tomlNl."ive taflju.
.nd lhese go clown 10 som.whll
hard"" .... G ... t c ... mu., be In
comp.ring Ih' hardn 01 d,II", n,
claHe' 01 mll.riall; ,he l.a th" {1II.l a
stH"! .nd heal " .. , ..:1 aluminium llloy
have , hardness number will
.efIttc, charK'ariSlIcs 01 ,he
TWO 0fIII may well be much
Th. h .. dn..... whi c h may b.
expected from varioul cIa_ 01 " ...
depend ""'" mllch on lhe precision of
lempe,"u" _trot the ."-..",,,- of
the quench and. In soma c ..... lhe ......
of lhe 'Ut specimen. The flgu ... given In
""""'acIU .... . .... IwIYS
obt.inad from Itanclerd ,.11 specime<\s.
not worttirlQ I"he ,ooIs. Ho ...... ar, ,he
IoIlowing m.y give guide to ,he .....
quenched" .111 .
10 43 Rockw.1I could be machined It
about SO It/min. and I Nich l-Chrom .
Molybdenum .'Ioy sleel, h.,deM<! i "<l
"mpefl.d ID aboul 4S Rocl<wen would
need ,he _ad redlK*110 around 55 60
Wmin lor '1IIOtIaflj'looIlile.
Thl Fill Tut. I h_ left ,his O<1tI lili las,'
le i .. of courH. ,he ""'MI of , .... fi.s,
.. _c"", .ftar qlllnching lhe piece
""shown '0"" I file. and if the 1.11", slips 011
withoul CUlling _ know lhat il ha,
hardened ....uessfully. 11. howeve<. the ft ,
011111"1 1o CUI tllll m.teri.... b...
qu,ta m.nillge it. I ..... -'lIchmg has gor>f'
-wog: ,l1li h.rd.-s il nol .. high .. "
should be - tor a h'gll Qrbon lleel. lhat '5
Fine fil .. wiN cuI .,. ..... Of even purJ)le.
lempered carbon I tHI , bul should not
mlk. If'I ilT\9f''';on on s"aw-colo,,,ed
1001 pooinll. 11 lhe WOf\<piece
ftJga off ,he 'Hlh 01 th. file "f"OU have
dooa very well iNleed.
1 , 1- 1.2C. 0.35Mn. 0 45C. (Sil"" 51,.11
Chrom. M,,."'1IfI non-sh.i .... di.II ....
Non-I.mperlng chl .. I,"el
66_67 AocI<well "C"
22'11; Tung"en 1 2'11; cobal t high _ed "eel
1 8'11; T u"ll'''n High speed 1, .. 1
65. 66
Steel. 1.25'11; Carbon
The above HIIU'8I will. 01 COu .... be con-
side.ably mode.,ted by tempe,lng; to.
carbon 51eel IIIh, toot .. tempe,ing '0
150 will d.op the hlrdn," by no mo'e
than one point on lhe scal,. ,nd 200 C by
twice a. much. C,rbon " .. I tempered to
""blue" {Jl0 CI i. jUlI machl .... fIj . " ,
Rockwell " C"' fogu In Iha '1II1on of 56-
56 At the otller arid of tllll SCIII,. , ... -
ooning mild 51H"!. mlChln ... ,.. " 200ft/
min. will have, II,rdneu equ,vllent to 1 1
on lhe ""e- ICIIa (wf'lich 10 not _0PI'-1I
to m.III .. 110ft lhis; die BrlneN figu ..
would be 180-1 8 51. A ' n; Nic'" 1 1"
Chrome I teal. oil quenched and tempered
COnGlu'ion. Th, difficulty with hard""
numbe .. I, Ihal lhough we know. wl.>
jectiv.Iy. whit hardnes. is. and what it
doH. " il VIfY diff icult to devise B meens
01 ......... i"ll thi' qu,'ity. By convenlk>n
th .... rlac. st .......... eded 10 QUse a n
Indentalion uncle< known load ts u$lld
but thl. cl .. ,.,.,. hIS Iimilllions; . m., ...... ,
which wa. ""ry brillla would nol
an Indent., wlthou! Jj)Iinteri"ll. However
by CUstOM Ihe 8rintt1l . AocI<welL a nd
VId_ , ... 11 .nd. w,thln it. $pICial
aopIication. the Shore. Ire KCepled. a nd
Qn be uliad tor comparing diftefll ... t 51",,1.
Of ...... o;t;ff ..... t materiall if due QUlion
10 used. Th. mod., .nlll""". should nol.
1Iow", ... be 100 concerned 'bout an oo:Id
degree differ.ncl on ,he Aockw&ll or
Brinell KaIH. Of I .... equival'nt on IIIe
Vlck .... IOf 11 11 qui" IIOfmal to lind ,
difference 01 one poinl on C.
Of 30 divllioM on tN Viek .... between
o;t;fierartt 11511 O\Iar ,lie CUlling lurI_ 01
!he ume tool , These differeroeel Ire INInly
due to .-oar; .... nl" '"Ot" in .. ..,ing ,he
microscope or dill. INInly 10 d,lf_ In
...rI_ f\n;sh " the point of m .......
mant. ,nd IMrtly 10 Ktull hardne ..
ditI....ncas So, 11 "f"OU _ on-,*" , " ...
which hardens 10 67. ,nd lhe _I you
.-mally USl ' only" 11"'" 66 dont 'NOt...,
roo ml.>ch l
Home Construction of
G., f i.lng. I II.eady refl"ed b.iefly
I<) tl>e "'fIlcultln whIch ,riu WiTh gas
li.ing. Thl de,lgn pi , cpmbustlpn
chlmbl' dp., 'Iqui ,,,ICi,'il\
knou' . nd of , bu, ... , ...... more.
IIId 101 of expeti ...... '" The on:Iin.ary
-.ir or HII-blown - it intended II'
prOduOI H ..... whleh CIOn be direc.ed .1
the worI<. wtr .... , to< hllting I muffle
you r>Hd one wtrlch dilt'ibutn lhe ..... 1
sideways ,.th .. Ih,n ...ruc.11y or ",t
poin!"' The OII"I'j>Id mulfte referred Tp
on Plge 57 it normlllv uMd on Ihe Ulile
brlzlng I>"rth_ which 1>.. I fi .. <I side-
bu,ne' .. well 11 thl tWO Dlow,p,ches.
The fi,!lbfiekl IUWlled WiTh the hla"l> a'e
siled.o ,hl1 th.v CIOn be ''''''II&d pund
The mulile 11.. 11 II' dl.act .he name
P<OI>Irty. It I, moll eliacli"". and when I
was "on Town g .... I considerable
UII oil!. 11 you '" conIldering. muffle pi
till, ..:wt. built 1nlI" home-made .... "h.
then !ell .. tp Willi.m AIldIIy & Co ..
Aleou Work S,pu'po'l on Sevlrn,
Worcs. OY 1 3 SAP should bring you
!Iellltt of lhe ....... m ... , uMd. to(l8ther
wilh quOlllion to< IM muffle
A ,m.1I "muffl.n.", I menlionod on p8{II
58 and in 31 1m,II TUbe fumllCl
which I rig up from 11.... II' time. HII. 50
gives IhI d",II .. The lulHt i, , plecl pi 1
In. borelt.el I .. h.ull pipt . bout 18 gauge
For hllling will> a"ngle ptOPDne bu ...... il
should not be tnOfl Ih,n 8 in. long
p.herwI .. IhI MI1'ng no. be unik><m
The Ind'lUIlPOfIt ... PIICII of 1 in. Thick
F ...... lclI brieb. wuh. hole bo<ed Ihrough
wi.h. IInko<;utt .. II' lUillM tube. You will
notice thll thi'hoIe it .... ,., Ihe lop OIIM
brick than lhe bonpm. ID lIive $pace for lhe
name tp devtlo!:r PfDl)tlrtv below lhe Tube
One of lhe corn lrom the holes i$ used as a
pe-rm,nenl 11 .hI ,e" end ,nd. !>ome-
mltGa Il>e,mocouple (or evln 11 comme,cill
onll Cln be Inune<l th.ough, holl in Ihe
Cln'" of It. The olhe' co,e i lighTly
I,,,,'ed ,nd ulId II' tlpse the f.OOl end
holding It with IDf>II1I. 01 eou ....
The bu, ... , uMd " Sieve" No.2952
whiCh I. f.lh" '00 t"e-_ but can be th,ol
'Ie<l b.ck pnce Ihe tube Is up ID
Temp,,,,,u,,. 11 Is of lhe typI whietI uMd
ID be known burner
with !he .;, Inlt.inm..,1 hoIn IIIM OilS
feed and 01 !he I""'. Cunenl types 3"
known .. burn .... The name is
din,cled to hell UP thl fi.ebricb (or
" HOtlK'" brlcbl,nd NOT directed" the
tube It"". which I, hellld by .adiation
I,orn the hot brickWOti<.
_ _ _ ... UST 10
SLOrT F'l..OJo4E

I.r CV
.. '/2'

" 9'. " lr .J'
I 9" ... ,. -!.EE O(to.'L
C 9""' /2' . , CUTIH ...... LF
o ,. .... :r T .. to' "EOI' p



.it 110 __ 01. _______ "" __ ....... , t
In the pllotOg'iph. Fig. 51. you eln HI
Ihft Ihe bu, ... , i, di'ected between two
broken hllf-b'iCkS on Ihe left-hand side.
but It I ,ull I u!lt lull b,lck wilh
"mOUH', hple" CUI in ,he bollom Hpt
lines ase.ptlro", I gap be""'e'n lhe top
briek.nd Ih;$ Itor" one - a """ce of lbout
1 in. I, IUfflclen!. Thisli,,!e lu.nlee he".
up In aboul 5 m ..... Tu and is I1DI
upensive In ga' .s lhe burne, SIl, might
Once the bricks 'f' red ho, lhe
g.. Cln be Tu,ned down consid".bIy
The" " no ' .. son why such l .. mKl
should not be Mao. pe.manent. wilh lhe
bncks cem""e<llogelher with r,.ecemenl
but I.m, bll thort 01 space in Iftil depa'l
menl. ID ,imply keep lhe Iwo IndpI.,..
,lid lhe lube and build up ,he rl" when il


.. _ .... - , ......


is ne&ded. I hive uMd a Ipint pa.affln
blowlamp in .h. Mm. wav. Iwl Ihil
needed twiu ,. long to get UP to
temper.l u" It would h ..... Men ben .
too. h&d III tile brick, been 01 the FO$Mlcil
type 8uI 11 did the work fllquirlld It
'fOUnd looC.
Naturllly. a ..... I!.. dl.mal .. tuDe Cln
be uNd. bul lilt is II III Iongef than 11>1 6
In. !Ibout 4+ In. "1\0. length'" I'OU m..,.
need two om,lie< Iw ........ Of kHp rTIOIting
the larver ON lrom sit:Ie 10 I
been muning lor Ior>g urn. 10 devise
heed lot the bu ...... ralhe< b1c.
thole used on paint_,"ippi"" IOfc/le1l. bul
"- not Md the time I Such a heed would
distribute the "'" Iidew.VS much bett ..
Furnace con"oI would be aa,., ... lOO. In
Ihit connection. you mUlt not be temptlld
10 hurry thingl up b\r hullng 11>1 tube
direc:tlv, /or 11 will only grow cold 19Iin.
Onc. the llrebtlck it ho, il it only CIM 01
mi.- edjuI,mentSlo lhe bu .... , 10 li;e.p.
sleady lemparliu ... Ind onc. IIle bfich
Ire hol .11 over the muffle tube keeps
""'Ity .teady.
Electric HMtlng. This it fll"" a .. ", lor
Ihe home c;onSlf\lC101, but ,''' lumlCl will
he ml,hdly ,Iow., In ,eachi"g Ih.
oper"'nll temp .. atur . You will
appreciate Ihal bu'ta. luch ., Ih.I lUll
menlloned has OUIOUt 01
SOII'IlIhing Ilk. 18 kW. end In .Ieclrk
eleme nl ollhal c.PKlty would .,.,1" yOU'
power suppli., sornewhlll On thl ol he,
lIand . lecl"" hel ting i, cllln, lifenl. Ind
...,. 10 conl rol .ulomllicl11y il """ be.
There 11 little 'illk l rom fi,e. The one Ihlng
Iluot mU$1 be bomI In mind. ho'"" ...... , I,
rr... you ,rl delllng with Ieth.1
.00 nw" pev ally 11",,1 .nlnlion 10
Sltlety ",," IS _illS TO ,hi I,E E. ''9U'''-
lioM. All mallol partl mu.t De .. rthoed.
........ ' insulltion m,,"';1oI1 Ipplled .nd -
",le No. 1 - the 'tJPPIv should ALWAYS be
switched off when cn.rlling or dlschrlling
tt.. work. Th. mlle,ial from which wire-
wor.<nd muffles or hUling l ubes e mllde
I, nol I perfacr in.ulalOt_
Wound Muffl ... Furnace muffles ready
wound ." ..... il.bl. from Mess
G.II ...... mPfo, Griffin & GeO<ge Ltd. and
01"', Iaboralory equipmenl suppt;eB.
The'( .... In lac! "'tlPr"es'- I .... furnace.
limil.. 10 Ihll seen in Fig 32 5pecial
in,ulllinll mll"I.1 will b. ne.d.d
edjlCe<1t 10 thl mum. ilsell. .nd this. loo.
r;:en be tuo.d "om t ... same lOU",e. Out ..
insulation r;:en be tile 111_ or si_wool
"""'.tlon used in ",g.! AGA cookers
lrouoo lhe fi.itbo><. A minimum 01 3 In. 01
good heel insuI.'ton ;., requlflld. otherwise
IhI """ Iou to lhe call will prevenl tlte
lu.n.c. hom , chinll iu p.oPet
temp&r.ru,. - lhe "lImenl r.ting il only
lbout 2 KW. The ouler r;:e .. il .. 11 is - or
w .. - ...... ,Iy 5yn<lenyo sheel . boul + in.
thICk. joined with .. If_lapping screws. bul
IS this contains asbestos il is now
repilCl(l by limil" m.l";ll based on
C.lcium Siliclte This Imf V boo available
from build"" SUPl)Iy m chl"IS bul " in
difficulty Meurs Cape Insul.tion Lld.
Walhlnlllon. Tvne 110 Wear NE36 6JL. (or
" lhei. Iocll offiCII) r;:en give the add'ess
of tn, neerest ,eteil ....
The .et uII '''.''\/Gment of Ihe fu.nacn
I, ml lllr lor you. Own la51e and
Inlllnuilyl Don'l IOI\/Gt IlIal rhe door
oe&d,ln.ul.llng (. piece of hot-flce brick
will 1Ie ..... 1 .od. If It has. metal handle,
Ihis needt nh;ng. You can add
py.omeler -Indeed. t would mosl Slrongly
atfy, .. Ihi.. al Ihe virtues of muffle
hu,inll '" con"de.,bly diminished
otherwise_ These can. of cou.se. be
obllinad lrom !hi Mm. sou,ce as lhe
muflle. complele wilh 1I1.1or screwing
10 IIle r;:e... Ind I bradte' to hoid lhe
indicelor. Commarcill furnaces Ire littlld
with. "'hermll fu ... -; this is no..-. th.n
pe;, 01 ro<It ... imo thl cn.rrber.
I w; of
Elamen' Fu, ..ac;a Kil . Fig. 52
of lu,nac. deslllned by
Electrollel' Ltd. t"""ralmood,
lEE tpeeillc,lly 10' home con-
:: (Th. photO wlS "ken. by the
lhe .... mlll ea"h&d gua,d
.": '" OIIe' tll. 1 mi"al,l, It can
,lther as In 8 KW Un;1 tlted .1
o. wirh 1 4 KW loadlnll for
Th. 11111' I, .,..oblbly &dOQuall
modll ""lIin"rlng pu.PO ..... The
.1.manl1 In tlli, cn. ,r, Silicon
rodt. t he endl 01 wh,ch can boo
the pholO 00 IheIIlre HI In thl

HellO"" is enllllly bul I wor.<ld atfy, .. use .. to bring

UP 10 IImpe.atu belore
Inv worIr.. othlrwiM ''''' upper
10 be hI.IO(I , .. , Ihln
The futfllC. bodV " midi
of Hot FICI 1nIU'I"ing 6r1cb
... sawn end driflld to thl dellil
dolwl"" ""pplled b\r K.nth.,. bul !hi
cn.mber tNrM it. $pI!Cill re" .ctory pIa' e
which will "and ..-e wear end te .. th.n
the surf.ce of lhe brick ... f ig 53
shows MClion.I ... iIw$ of the lumllCfl-lhe
"'I It. of course. determined by , ...
number 01 el.menls used, The.mo.tll
conlrol I, ..... ll.ble. but ,arlle. expen.i .....
'!Id I limple en",1I'f controtl.r il ."lly
quite ,dequ.II. A thermocouple'
pytOtTlet I. an _nti.1 il lhe besl is 10
be \101 OUI of tile OQulpment. lhil. onc.
built uP. Is e professional Wilhoul
the normal CI,ing and hinged O. Ililli"lI
door. Ind Ih. chamber size is mo,e rhan
adequate 10' mosl rnodel,ngineers.
Electric Tube Fu.n&el. Over Ihe years
number 01 homa-mld. electric tube
fumlC.. ha ... e been described. using
omin.,.,. eleCI"" fire elements lOO home
fi .., c .. amic tubes. The,e Ife sewn.1
hi<lOen problem ... The fltSt it lha ..-ch
elememl". rlled.O In I ... 11< - t.
ItKing he" It la., It m., ""n. Once Ihey
IM1I ItnCIIIId In insulating mlteri., lhey
wm repidly bum nuL The'( MUI' be
de<1111d for furnece WOfI<. Seoond. I, it nol
... y ' 0 m.k. I fim-cemenl l ube withoul
LL 1



, ....... . -
-.. -
. .
r --
Vr ...
(lR_,",,= MJJECTlOt< ,
... _ . _"'",", , .. """,_ ........ ""'_, __
bliaters and Spalli"ll. Third. such 8 tube ;$
usually very /ragile. and it c8nnol be
strengthened bV moulding if ",und teel
rube lIS some makers hava $uggured: me
e><pansion 0I11l8 tube will burst the clav
Howev.r. fa. tho ... w,lIing 10 a>pe, '
men' , and feee one or Iwo failures wirh
e"uanimltV. Fig. 54 shows Ihe stage. in
rhe tube. The "mould"' is 8 piec.
of ...... 1 tube 01 the desired inlem"
dlamele . furnished wnh two lhlckneu
weshe,s. W .. ed paper is wO<Jnd
Ihe tube - lh.ee leVers - and
Imdpl.,U Or Spacer re greased. Th
flre.:emall! I.hal _n is "I(os") Is "'3<1
1010 "wmms" 01 JUS! over I,."
rh .. desi.ed thickness 01 rhe tube. ITh"
"iv. .. , ... _ __ .. "" __
...... -.. ; ................ "".-,,_._,_ ..
_ ... _--....... " .. _-"'" ..
_ ... _ ... ,,, .... ---
should not be mo.e lhan i In. and 3/16 Is
These wo,ms ",e then wound
Ihe pape' line. and well
toge'he" The li'SI laye, is
.i. dry. and then a second laid
Ihis one being smOOlhed and
down using the two end washers
. This 100. is i lor seve,.1
hOt which Ihe
l ,,, ,to fi,e Ihe
pape., I on no accounl must the fi ,,,,,e-
lube bI! hot at Ihis
Wilh Ihe steel lube extraCled the
musl be further "i,-drled. and Ihe
'lhiSI&SII Ihe beue. UP to a week.
musl Ihen be "fl,ed" IfId Ihis process
t 81so be very slow [The p.oblem is
moiSlure in t he i",,,rior mav form
lift Ihe suriace). Fire
inside wi, h a
Ihe I
You will need tWO alaments. from tha
loul electric s.hop. of 1 KW rating.
Carefullv unwind O<1e bV th.eading a
length 013/16 in. rod through "fId pulling
oft the wi.e. Avoid kinks. Mu.u.e the
length . fId then wind 0<1 to " bobbin.
Unwifld part of . he SE'Cond element. ar'ld
cut oft Ot1e fifth of ils length. Double this
and twist. to make a twin wire. This wllf
then be cut in two to form the connecting
wires. 8f1d 81so serves 10 r .. due," Ihe
applied voltage 10 the aClual ..... ting
element. You will need two sman con-
nectOrS mede by drilling i In. sleel roo t
in. and tapping for two small set-screws;
the Sl ...... rd br."", connKlors will nol do.
U the lempt'fltU'1 illOO high
Mlk. two woodftn plugs to li\
the Iube. onto wllh. clnu,-hoIe in
it. Wind iron wi .. ,ound .. cll .nd ollh,
tube. allo<.n i in. I,om tl>to end . nd Iwi"
liglltlV: llIelll ... Ill' Incho< painlslor Ih.
ends of lhe .1 ..... "1. Thil will be WOUnd
on uling th.ll1h .
F,om II>to known I.ngth 01 th Iem'''t
and Ihe dlemeta, of Ih. lube vou C. n
calculale the number of tu", ... Sel.CI .n
easy se'iW-CUlling phch wlliclI will pe.mh
IlIis number 01 tUff" on the bobbin _
.IoOmelhing betw.en 1 2 ,nd 1 4 IpO will
probabIV SINe. Set I Piecl of wood in t ...
looIhokIe-r with, nolch 10 guide Ih. wire
(Fig. S51 .nd .lI.ch <:>ne .nd 01 the
alement 10 lhe 1Ii1l1ock IInd 'nc/1oo<.
le ..... ing aboul Ih'" Incke. I.". K"" I
fa .. lension on lke wl .. Ind wi'" lhe little
Nnning .1 lbou. 50 rpm. wind on IIIe
wi.e. A. lke Ott- 1Ind. Inc/1oo< lhe wi ..
.in. Not.: It vou 11,,,. more Ihln fool
.. ft _ bulle .. Ihln. yard. don'l wony.
bul It there la mo<l Ihln tIIIl you IIhouId
,e-wind wilh I fiM' Illlch. II llIe wi". !>,,!!
do.. nOI ... ch Ihl end. usa YO,'
Judgmenl .. '0 w","lt- to to., .. ". , st>o.,
unhelted P1 01 1Il10 lube or 10 coa .."
the pilch. ThIs of 1Il10 job take.
timl. ""'\I 56 o.how$the wound l ube
The winding mu .. now be COV1tf1Id
Ye<"f' Ulin layer of _nl - .he ...
IIhouId lull Ihow This. once sel. WIQ 10<,
I binding 10 Idj. c.nl Cc
louching when 1Il10 wi,. ",pands .... .
Il1011. BeIo .. go;ng .ny fuf\he1. list
'''lngetn..,l. An.ch 1Il10 two twIn
IIOIllga d_, lengtla. one I' .edI end
.nd pileI 01 mains cabl. '0 these Wllh
II>to f>OmIel twin pore .... in jolnte,. Make
su" tIIIt Iller. la no rislc 01 any PiOn of I""
bII., w"l touching .nything . nd sel ell on
pieca 01 firebrick. Use I)ILI\I wi.h 13
.mp fulll Ind swllch on. DONT TOUCH
ANYTHING. Afl sl>on while lhe lube
IIhouId 111<1'0 g" hot . end \'Ou musl nole
thl fin.1 tem""fllu". If Ihi' i. no bene'
Ih.n bI.ck. pull oul thll plug. Cui 81>0<11
onto tifth ot! each 01 th. twisted el'd
lenglhs al'd Iry ag.ln_ 11 i. 11"11 10 dull
.nd ItaYI Ihe,e . 11 .hould be well: onco
Inlul8led il lhould '<I8ch Ihe desi' ed
temperBlure.. 11. hoW"""'. It bu,ns
.lter h,lf an hour. YOU ".ed on . he
Iwilled end langlh,l
Onc. IIIli,lied Ills worlh doifl{j .h. ,est
01 the lMUlale lhe leede. wi,es with
cI mic l>eed . ,nd Ih,..., make up c"sing
ollnsul'ting brick.! carved out. feedi"ll , he
W"" OUIW''''" belween twO bricks. Makp
terminal bIocI< "om t in. Synd,nvo end
fill Ihit 10 one 01 the bricl<s. Ut you use
boilS. lken tl>lll mull be earthed. '5 mU$!
m. PlOIKlive W/et .,.....,. ItIe lerminals if
01 .... 111). How you '<TInge this is up ' 0
YOU. but vou need 11 I.esl ""eo ,,'
TUBE 6!1......, BORE
x !I"..".,. TH ICIt
..,.... ,"""'-'
l/4'mr.All ROUND
0 ..
,- 2.1/2J<w 2<lQvoII
SAY 14'
F . M __ .. ' .. _ _ '' __ _
Insul-,Ing brick III round. Any g' PS Cln be
wilh gfOUnd-ull fflgments. ClaM Ihe
oIlhe lube with. brick IlIL1\1. and (10<
I1 i. worthl 1u51 1.ln firebrick
Ihl 0.","' IInd to act" . " cIoot"
give !heM \rnIUUCllons withoul
I "- MIde .....:tI futnKe
end "-<I .. llsIactorv ...,111. bul 1.o
hid ttv" bum out on m. 1ft.. _
monthS 01 SlfYicl . anod oe><et3lglve WllV 11
once. OIlier. hlYe buil' them and hid
lhem In SItf\'iI;e I", Y<la",. A 1I'81t de,'
depeOOI on (. 1 .he 01 the
cam ... l: It mint be _11 knel<l!ld before
end during .ppliclolion. and Ibl .he QUIll",
01 lhe .1am .... 1. You ten. 01 course. buy
ItIe Il'OIlIt< .I$i$u,nee wire from KIn"'."
..-:llled lor 1h;1 IIIfYica. and IlIis win not
......:I de,.,ing.nd be le .. likely 10 "_"
1 the "", Iing lempel.,u.e. m. wl<e
m.y 1181 UP 10 1200'C w"h Ihe lube BI
900C). You c.n, 01 COUI'M. buv It lube,
lOO, from MOfllen Rel'lcIOfie. l Id; DuI I1
you e.e going 10 cIo Ih" YOU mlghl well
buy ready-wound lube, lilhe< /.om
Klmrno, EfecUot.e.t or I.om MOfllans and
heve done wilh It I
High .. tu'l 511\ fUl nIlCI."'9 57
shows my .H In. x 10 In. neutral salt
funuoce for rempe .. ,u," uP 10 abou.
950C. ,"..:t It lUll IInde. 28 KW. This
is, perhaps ... ,he. I.,ge' Ihlln m'ghl be
needed . nd I 2 i in.. M B in, would cIo I",
moll appI;c.liont. DuI 11 WItS origil\.lllly
medto inot by mel ... Im.1I I8bo,e,OtV
futnKl. Fig. 5B 1"IIe dlawi"!! The lube is
f ie" ,'4'1, . ___ ""_. __
3. in. bot, MOfg.n 90E H'9h Alum
wound whh kl<lll>ll element for 240
voIlS. 11 buying 11 wound ,ubi '1 is imp<><
lint to lPItCi/y the _, Inpul - 2 t 10 2 t
kW in ,"'a eau -the .pPlied vollage."'"
Ihl opef.,lng lempetllu,," of lhe ce "'.
lube. This will be higher then ,h" in
Nl\ POI 11.. 11 .... thll Helch 01
1 .. lngemenl, ar. copy 01 Fig. 58, sho .. "
be senl wllh Ihe enquiry. The oul., caSing
I. of tin. Synd,nvo. though lodey Orn! 01
Ihe Calcium SlIical, ... bl, ifUle5 I,om
C.pe Inl .. laUon Lld would be ut!.
Immedlll. inaull1lon m"eti,1 .ound r ...
alemenl 11 "T'ilon KaowooI CI'am"
fibre. aupplled by Marg.n C.ramic fib ....
lid. 8romborough. Wl"1I1 L62 3PH. n..
sllndard g.edto 11 good lot 12SOC, bul
1"9II"'lhe 'High OUly" ",Id 11 1400' C
This il IMcklger:I 1n10 lhe _ belwHn
the ele""nl ilsell ,nd lhe he" insul.t">g
brIcIo.. - which "e cui toughly 10 le."
.t>oul 1 InI;h belwean Ihei.
.nd Ihl1 01 lhe "emenl. The bonom 01
lube I1 j)&Cked wilh Ihe wool 'I .... bul Ih,5
mu,l not Ii, lbov<r lha fi,al c";l of Ih
Fig 59 ShowI Ih' .cl ual POl. 'ThIs i&
mede from drawn sr .. 1 fUbe, wilh Ihe
OOllom welded on wi .h lull Ihickne"
penet"IIon. The 0.0. of lhe POI musI be
,boIIl. ;n, le .. thin lha borlof!he
I .. t... so Ihl1 It t.. necessary 10
mlchi,.. Ihe Ileel Iube 10 sm,lIe'
lhick ...... 'Thi. is nel diff'oculr .nd
Rni.... wtn cIo. The IUppor! flange
IICeIIId .. I/IoWn. This pt"""n" ,n.
spleshH of ul, "om gelling berw, ... IM
PO! .nd the ha".. The hlndl' shown
1>1" Inlanded 10< c.rrylng Ihe PO' llound
when hol. but "mply 10 make ;1 easte' w
lin. A lid 01 some ... " I1 needed, bPl h '"
::.::.:.='"--' ', .....
keep oul din when nol in and 10
_" ,he POI when ren.e.ing. The" 11
jul' 11 slighl .islt tNI I"" !owe. livers 01
Ulr mltV m.h and e>.PInd be,,,,, I"" cruS!
on lOP melll.. end if lhe """ Sl)iill open
1II'dI. lhe pt........ I...... could be I
SPilling oul of hol liquid. Fig. 60 shows
rtwI fu,nlCI wilh the top CO>Ier r.moved.
Thil !u,n'ce hll ,he. le ... Insulatlofl
thin 11 dfI., ble.
Non. of Ih, dlment-ion, is e<II;cel - VDU
,"" mike Ihe lil' Df 'he heale. !ubl: 0'
melting polIO lUll ne-tlds and adjuSt
11 10 luil Howev". 11 Is irnpot""t 10
lllow lot pl,n1V 01 Insulalion - Ihe morl
;;;,;belle ... Il1<s will lID melring
end .It(Iuce eu"enl consumplion
UP 10 1Impot" III". Reducing lhe
I 01 the POI nol .educe lhe
,ile of lhe case very much.. As 10
NVI to ,Uow sufficienl 10< " ..
you ImmerSe ,'''' worf<piece.

of mol'en ult mull

below ,he of lhe winding.
I 01 ,he eleme .. ,
I I I of
PO'- bu, I o;Iont below
1000 w,u, (1 I I
be " Ihe<!. as
I ,."Slance 01 lhe ce mic
nol perfecl. tThe cu"enl should. 01
. be Iwi'c!>ed off when ..... nill"llI
lhe world. Thete is no .eel need 10
I I lhe leltds 10.nd !.om lhe he.I;ng
alemenl. Du. lhe fiule cerllmiC beltds """
c:ooIt.. e"culls Ind ele<;ttic fires , ..
Itdequ"e The Klual leltds '" ,
of lhe heale. w,nding. bu'
and 'wlsled. so Ihallhey will nol
very hel. The re.minal block 11 of
Syndanyo or C,ldum SilicII". Ihough
poreel"n I".mimol block!; ,r" som,,'im ..
I".ilall/e on lhe "surplus" me"''''- The
'''IIul.1Ion of ,he 'umllC" is besr done wilh
In "E""'IIY Conlroflet" - '''''''''o5''''C:
conuol woukl bI very _ ..... Tho .. on
el""tic cook.rs h.ndle 3 kW. I do no.
adi .. bullr:ling 11 inlO lhe fu.nece Clsing.
,a I",", conl.oIle .. inc:orporlle' ,,,,,,,,,,,
IW'IIdI 10 effecllhe lime-in.eNIIs. ,nd lhe
hel1l,om ,he IUlnace would uPIII' lhem
" H,.te. B.lck.... A ,el'Iively new
developmenl i. in Ihe form 01 , hell
Inlull1ing brick with , ""are' elemenl
emt>edded in Ihe lace. AI fi'51 sighl Ihese
woukl Mem 10 be Ih.lde.' module fOI Ih.
of , Ima\l There II
el ... a vitiation. wi,h Ih' in lhe
lorm 01. hollow IUt... mekl"lllhe basi' of
Iubl: fumlCe. The are 'W'O probIl"'.
!he fltsl 11 thll lhe unilS .... wound lot no
mora Ih.n 60 IIOIts .... IhlI e;lhe' e helW
I.e""orm" 11 needed. Of .,.,. musl u"
four unilS. The 5ICOI'\d Is rhll lhe hp, lace
01 lhe bnck!; will nol CI'IY "'V Iced VOU
would need auppor!ing end 'ne" ,,,n
lIII.enl "00<. or e me,,1 lube If lIS;ng lhe
lubul" type. BOlh "001' ,nd lube W'Ould
hlVI ,0 be 01 hUI resiSling steel Of of
conJ.iderable IhicknHS if any .e"on.bl,
life w .. 10 be Howev8f. Ihe5ft
... nol difficult problem. 10 gel end
.ude.. who a.e Inll'"led in Ihis
...... loptT-.nl should wrlle 10 Mesus W,J
fu ... , Co., Lld, Road, HOI -
lingh.m NG2 18 The bricb , .. known
as 'WII_ Cer,mi, fibf. H." ... --
RaIitUnc:e Wi.a. This i. obllin.ble from
Ihe !(anlh.1 Ilrm al raI"'ed 10. from
London EI"I.i<: Wlra , Sm'th. Co.
(LEWCOSl Church Road. London ElO. as
_11 .. olher m.nulaclur.,.... and ,n small
Qu,nlili I,om K.R. WIIiston. New Mills.
_04_ 10 W"
SIOCkPO<t Challlife. Suc:h elem'nl wire ,
IVlil.ble eil"'r al I'" "",m.1 round W".
Of "r;P. I'" I,na' 101 Iha higher KVIr
.. 1Ings. The m.l .. i,1 must be ..... ecled If.
lha oper-'''ng lampe .. t.... 01 In. ... ".
""""'" win be h!ghat than Ihl1 oIlhe WOO'
by quote a bil . Ind lhi& doe. mean
01 the manufK'u.er ... w,lh 'he"
yUI ___ , iI"lIded. To "pI.yule
and ... Iee, I"" hIjfl t riled element wi,.
c.n be rath .. eJlpensive.
The p<oblem i. to effect a compromi ..
betw,... Ihr.. vari,bles. The OVa'al

,elist,nCI needfKj to limit the c","nl to
lhe desired - If!. 101 1 KW" 24011
t ...... ",t.nc;, at Ih. wooing lempe,"ufl
mull be auch It to limit I"" 'u'reIlt 10
10001210 4'7 .mp. SII\' S8 oIIm ...
Nut. lha ",rface aI .. of lhe wife m ... 1 be
""" thl! it Cln dissipeu, this powIf, A no!
untvtIiCIl IIting is a.s wllt&iSQ Inch of
",rf_ ..... So Iong.s lhe le<>glh 01 wife
naadad 10< this crite.ion I, Jeon Ih.n Ihll
needed to provide the reQuired ohmic
fulsllflCil lhe elemen' will be ""le. bill I1
1111 opposite condition Itolds. then it will
probably bu.n ou'. finally. Ihe'" mull be
enough room to wind this calcuID,e<j
IIng,h of wl .. on Ihe ceramic lube. I1 is
nol ul, to wind et close. pitCh ,hln lboul
14 T,P-,-- IS ,"'r. is Ihen risk 01 lIdjacenl
IUffl$ 10000ching each Olher.
The following Cllcul.ti<><> table show.
how 101.1' gauges 01 wI.. ....... bean
I_Mad to ITIMI lhe .equired crill.i. 10<
1 KW 240 OIOIt hell" elemenl. HOII
thl1 theM 1Igu<e. lhough typiCIl should
nol be used In.n KIU.I fu,nK': the table
11 IU5\ .n .... c; ... '0 show how 10 90
Re-qu;red current '000/240 417
,mp ReQuired flll51.nee fllhe operating
lemperature 01 t2ooC. 240/4.17 57.!'!
ohm. Pow" upacity 01 the wire 667
w''''''SQ.ln. surface arel. hence A _ , SO
1q,ln . Ou,slde diamotor 01 htleter lube i.
I In. 1.05 h clfCumlerence.
lInglh Reqd FI
OI.IIPIlI I1 wound to resiSl,nea 01 157.6
ohm. The 19 gtug<! elemenl wHl need
wlndlnglenglh of about 7 Inc;tI, Ind!hills
.. lson.bIa 10< 4 Inches di.met8f or it
could be wound 11 12 TPI ....... an 6-lnch
length 11 desired
The raailt_ pe< IDOl _ ....tat.
.... PI' 1001 (or in metric unilfl I. QUOted
!Iv lhe supplier", .. Is lha ufe
in Wlllf PI' unit ,.et 01 wi'e In...ma
C.MI ;1 m.v be natasa.ary to ch,nge to
11" st.lp heflers, In ordef ID m.,ch the
, .. i,"nea per lOOt ID Iha flQuirlJ(! surfeea
1,81 The wlr. manulaclu" .. will be sbl'
10 lupplv lIb1tS which help considerablv.
bul do nOt expect them 10 ac! IS "Con-
sullln,,'" fOf Ihe price of a few pound.
worth 01 wi .. (The 19 g,ul/fI elem,nl
t.tHd would need ,bou, [9 worthl ,
Conclusion. This dl.ple. neceMIfily
_ brief 101 lurn.ce-mal<jng it not ,
va,.,. ,ommon occup"ion lor model
e"gln .... , .nd Ihefe is nOI mu,h
publiahed inlo<m'IOon. How ...... r I
thl1 wt." I h ...... wfinen wW ha'p you ID
.....,;d...ma of lhe mOle dillicult problams.
I would. howeve-r. sugge" Ihtt befOfI
on Ihe manufacture of.n-, bul
,h. limptH' muffle you elplOle th.
second-h.nd market. "Exchange l!o Men'"
mly bring 10rth something. and ,"'en !llha
fumace rlQuif'" new mullle. Of perhaps
'hi thermocouple of Ihe pv,omete,. Ihe
COIl of repair mav well be less Ih.n lhe
Turm OIl Wind,ng Length
For- Power f Ol Retisllnce 4 in dia i",he$.
'" '"
2. 110.3
Th,. IIbl. $howl Ihll I"" 20 1JI"9'
wl" rlQUlr .. I 11'''''' lenglh 10 diulps ..
the power Ih.n it needed to offer lhe
r.qulree! f .. itt .-,;, Is, Iherebe. unsuil-
,bl,. All the olhe .. will handle lhe power
co.t 01 m" .. ;.I. tor , ho ...... m .... 11,,,
The li"lI g.n-fl<ed lube lurn,ce Is. of
COlII'M. ' ve,.,. "mp'" man ... IS you mull
....... firebrick. around any hell-l<ea,men,
he.nh .nvw.v
Safety Precautions
Sale'v irl llIe WOtkshop 1 . mosl 01 Ihe
lime, no more Ihlll'l "applied common
sen .. ". ,rid ,,, .. Ih'l m.n oflhe Parlia
menl.'V El\IClm8ft" on tile IlUbiecl """'"
10 _me Ih.1 mQll people wor1<Ing in
indull'V 'f' H_,. common
_ Is IIIe 1'\101' eallily applied if :some-
thing is 10.1'10"'1'1 01 IIIe hat.tds, and m
,001001 In Ihi. chllpler is 10 presenl lhese 10
you. no 1'\1011, To 1'- "aders who hive
been IlUck''''iIIh.i, lOfT 01 egg .lIlhei< lives
I can only .. y Ihal ml" Olhet". to.ave nol .
"nd il YOU 'fied ID u .. thei, 1001. you
mighl w,lI do vou ... " .n Inju'V .""ighl
Fi,e, Th il, pemal)l, Ih' mosl obviOUS
danger, AI 780 C Ihe workpiece will. il
lefl , burn. hol. In Ihe nOOl - or lhrough
VOU. bool. Wor .. , il C." bum th.ough V'>II'
ga.hose In MWf'!I . nd lhough ,lie hose
I.llur. v.1ve Id." I .ssu .... Ihal 'j'OOr
lIquipm.." hili ontrn will ehUI off lhe
.... POIy, ,he ""',,' burst 01 n.m. can _
Iir. 10 01 .... Ihong .. The .-cond hazard is
from "'" h .. m", 11..... il .. 1I The ptKlke
of moving IIIe torch ... 10 Gbse",e ,he
m.I.1 i. "o.mal. buI how m.n
practitione.. Ihink on ., 10 ...... re lhe
na .... it. now pain'ingll h.v. HI
fire '0 carel.uty placed piKe of callon
wlls'e thl. w.v
Th nSWIf '0 lhese i. twolold Firs'
Ih. helt IrU,m.nl tpOt It>ould be a.
li.ep.ool possible. 11 worki"ll on
bench, then llIe lOP ,"""Id be covered
with two ,..,. 01 bricks, woth lJIaggere<l
join ... S<) 1hl1 n ..... cannol pass Ihrough
a.n,., u ... pu'po" buill Sleel name
,...;m lhe br;ckt .. I in I .now lhal space
oft.., llIe use of wooden lop
bench. bul if ...... """t .mounl 01 he,ll
" .. ,menl i, tIoIwo Ih8ft the bench shoukl
be made accordinglv The br.ling spot
should t.., 10 equ,pped, ,nd Ihis is, SUrely
thl righl plec. 10 do other - hol worlr " ...
Slcond. h,v. fI,,e.lingui.hing gear
available, Fire e.n gll Oul of hand VU""
quicklV Indeed, ,nd prompl aCllon mav
Slve Vou. 101 of m''''V _ Ind money
""eneh bucket i. the li," relOUfCI. 01
COIl ... (bul noli 1., the on SlI'
balh.) .. rid 1, 'hi liP''''' .nd prope<
fire ulingouisher "'" ,hiftj. I u .. ,he '0",
Powder' tv,,', 'rid h.ve CO,
'inguis.... .. , bae. up. (We .re t 2
miles from thl fire Sla"""). These type<
." both .. f. lor uN on ,lectrical fi .,.
.nd my worklhop, ijk. 'j'OUfS, his I lot 01
wi,ing In 11. A ve-rv .. n,JbItr IInDngttmenl is
!or IhI whole ollhl bench Ibra. ing or heal
lrealm,nll'o l"rId il'l' ""lIow "IY COO'
" inl"'il ,1'1 inch or S<) of DRY "nd. Thl.
will Cllch any d.OlIPings H f,ly, and horn
It QUiclr IhoIfIlful of send can coollin
om.lI fi.. whilsl ... Ching fo' th,
The ot.... h.l'fd from hol melll is
bu.nl"'il The firsl poinl to noli 11
ml! cold wIT" won'l hurt a bum . nd 10
put ...... .or! 01 dre-lSi"'il GVef. din paw"
.... ing for 'rouble. So. on cold wile'
and gal S<)mOilOtlD c.r.fuIlV 10 wash ' hi
,,' "ourld the burn. Then n 1I 10 bad
on. - .edhol meIBI on Ihe beck of Ih.
hend, 10, - 01 01 anv size, do NOT
'P\lIV .nVlhl"'il .tidy. A dry burn d.es';ng
will 0:10 littl. harm, buI even a cI",n I>Id
med. from. clelln hllndkerch;ef (NOT IInl)
'rId looM b.rldll/l will keep lhe I,sion
ct .. n on IhI w .... 10 "Cn",'IV" a1 ,he
IoeII hospil.t, Oon'l neglect .his _ . bum
""nded to p.ompd., by wijl g .....
bllle lrouble, but leave il liD """I d ..... rId
vou mlY well be in ,rouble, For minor
bu'AS. Ihln I"" basad bum
dressings eln t.., usect but ""8ft ...... MIIr
1he ar:Ivic. 01 yGUf doclor if if> doub . KHP
Ih, .. d .... ingl in the worhhop o.
.... rby, bul don", !orga. - ,I is ,he din
.ound lhe bum wh,eh will cauSl infection,
s<)'" thll you. p.eWI are clean,
Clolhing. Whit i. up muSl cOme dow".
arid vou. lell "I vulne.able, C"pet
sliP\lflrl "e nol Ih. belt things to WUf
wilh mll,l 11 800"C I coupl, of 1 .. ,
higher up W... 1,.Iher $!>oM. Catlon
twill GVef,III ,r, .. I. _ or as .. ,, .. Cl"
be - bul lhoIe 01 .... nm_ libfa e,n
mell 11 _heale<!. SoIlshes from
-",h' \lnU can be hol nd tl'lOoe I"""
HlI balh. ARE hot. Protect your thfOll'
.nd On the stlllworks .... uMd 10
"- IWfIII .-.gs which could be hetd in
OUr teeth, fThougtt now_I" I hIIVfI no
doubt Ihll holmel.' clolh'ng 11 da
rigu.u.')" au, an old scarf Is u .. fut _
nolhlng I, WO<$e Ihan a hol piec, of K'"
jumping 011 a 1001 in the qu,nch .nd
bdglng down t"" apert neck 01 I "',n t
The u .. 01 gloves is debalable. 11 , .....
land 10 mlh 'j'OO clumsy and """- "'"
11... 01 droppi"'il .hen partI_
t..,nlf 10 do withoul,"'m, 8uI rf 'j'OO haYI
pa.if 01 flDlOnlbl MJppie chrome ,..,""
_ , iheH IhouId be worn ...... n wortung
with hol high-'empeflll..-. .. IT (or moI1en
lead If you u .. tha". Ther, .11 10 .... 10-
Clllad "hell proor glovel on lhe m"kll .
but Ih.., ... nol suitable fOf Ihis clns 01
won _ mlybe" tempering 'empe'''u,,, ,
bul t hey WOO'I STand redhol m.I." Th,
obiecl cl the glINa 1$. 01 course, '0 pr01<l<:1
yOur h,rId I.om accident, nol 10 .n.bl.
yOu 10 piclr UJ> workplecesl One Importanl
paint _ the gtOVet should be luch Ihll 'j'OO
Cl" wl\ip llIem off smlrTly: lhey w,1l keep
lhe "''' f.om ,'" hol me,,' from VDU_
paw bul the glovl il lhen hol. and Ih ..
hell will travel Ihrough soon ,fterwa.ds.
FiN"". we .. I cap OUIf'ICh I 1Ii_ 01
.,eaI Wllh hoI. in it, and the <><lIb ."
mat. lump 01 supemealilld wa,,,,"";1\ "IP
U(), to t,rId on 'j'OOr Ild palCh. (So 'j'OO
hllve he,,/ Good, bul il would VI' Ih.ough
Ih", toolf, Th.re it; absolulely no na-ed '0
dteu up 11 if vou we .. melting tOO Ions
of "eel when YOU a.e abo<.>l '0 h.rden. i
in, loom 1001. bYll hll 100115 hOl , Ind vou
should," I Slid at the beginning, UN you,
common .. n ..
Splllh". You mav well have dumped ,
flw jobo: Into IhI picklebalh In the 1"$1,
10 you .now whll hIIPJllnl. 00n'1 leln
ov.< lhe QU"""h link, Ind if lhe wor1o Is of
any ..... 11 all , wear proper II"9gl p. TheM
ar. d,,, Che.P. bul MUST t.., \0 Bn"sh
S1Indard 209212 These If' """proal
and will nol .nail'" In>m .... , .. gI_
wm, Th.,. hII .... little side--plec.s Ihlt 11011
thi"'" lrom comi"lllhal way. arid can be
worn ""'" .. They "S<) h.v. I
!illll ',OP sh,II" which prevln,,"utl lrom
111I1"'iI 11'110 Ih. 8!MCI bl!tw ... n IrId
Ihe eyes. If you <10 gel 8fl'(lhing in \'<lur
eye. wISh well wil h cool waler and go 10
Ihe doctot; it is just not wOrlh taking any
risi< her .
SpI.sh" 1'011'1 Ihe oil--<luench tank
nff<! be no more serious than Irom water
_ they should not be too hot - but if al all
painful treat as lor a bum; wash round Ihe
'\POI and apply a dry burn d.essing until
\'<lU t8n g81 medical allention. The b.ine
I .. "h differs only 1'011'1 the wele. Quench in
that .he selt is an irritant. Sut <Ion"1
neglect any Injury from hOl wlas'les. Irom
wate., brine. 0' oil. The point is not so
much Ihat .hey are hot 8S lha. they e.e
01 RTY, and it Is from this that subsequent
iofection can .. ise.
Salt Satht; Oen, .. 1. ALL hol liQuid balhs
s.e dange'ous if they can overturn. The
fif1lt rule, Iharefor . is thal the furnace. or
if used. the holplale fo, lempering sslt,
should be secure in Ihis respect. A heavy
pot on to\l DI 8 mmsy slove is JUSt nor
ac;ceplable and il you are unable 10
an80ge for really solid SUPPOrt. don't use
tha ""slem al all. Second, the sel15 -
sodium nitrite and polassium nitrate for
'emperlng, and sodium and polassium
chloride lor Austenising. are, Ihough
s"iclly nonto. 1c. irrilaling; Ius' like
kitchen selt. The cold $!lit should no' be
handled wilh b.are hands. and any powder
Willed should be dealt with using a brush
and shove!.
All salts can absorb a liW" waler. and
all contain "waler 0' CrySlallisalion"
melled. AI firsl mell, Ihluelore. therll will
be quite 8 bil of Irolhing 85 Ihio waler is
IIxpelled. Start Ihe m .. " with lhe PO' only
hell-full, and apl)/y hUt very s lowly_ Lel
Ihe frolh die down - <Ion'l incroase
the lemper&1ure - ,nd then acid a liltle
mor .. salt. Use a me lal scoop ID put 11 In:
don'! "' lip It OUt 01 Ihe Ing"', Lilt the
evaporale and again a<id mOfe
s alt, In ..."all quan1ities 81 8 timt . un.iTlhe
required amounl is In Ihe pol. Allow plentv
01 wace Ior Ihe ti(le 10 rise when wor. i$
puT in. In the case of lhe electrically
healed high'lemperalure furnace Ih' salt
level should be below t he UP!ler end 01 the
The,,, will be no 'rOlhlng on remelting
SO long as you have had a lid on SO th81 it
cannol absorb any moi$lU'8. and ..... en
Ihen i. will be rolatlvely slight. However. il
is worth again repeating Ihal Ihe selt may
form 8 cru51. and when re-melted 'he
e"pansion of Ihe Ikluld below may cause
this to crack and send out a spurt 01 hol
salt . So, keep a subs.anlial lid on .he por
unlill"" whole is melloo
N,ver Slick your head over Ihe top 01 a
salt pol in service ... Iway. observe at an
Bngle, always wear 852092 grade 2
"" Impact"" IIOIJgles.nd. efl', .nd glolleo il
you can po ibly manage wilh Ihem
All work PUI In.o Iha bath muSt be
waler- Bnd oil -free . and should be
immersed SlOWlY. Particular care mUSt be
laken when oil .... uenchrtd work is to be
lempered al above about 220C. aO any
residual oil may "Huh off"" Prlor degrels,
109 i. 'eCOmmended Il lhe tempering balh
is above 24S C. Slighl oil con
laminalion should cau ... no trouble in Ihe
Auslenising bath. but if Ihere are any
holes in the work;>iece these should be
cleered 0' oil belore immersion. No
fi",url!$ Of olher d ..... ices for U$e in salt
baths should be made from lube G.eal
cere should be lahn ID ensure Ihal no
foreign malte' lalls inlO Ihe balh. whelher
COld or It is imperative Iha. no waler
should f811 Into a salt bSlh_ waler
should nol be used 10 exti nguish anv fire
adjacent 10 One.
Avoid overhealing any salt bath. They
should nol be left "on hllat"" when leaving
the workshop lor more than Ihe odd
mlnule or two. even il Ihermostatic
control il filled. Overheal ing can be
, and POlassium Nitrale.
These can initate Ihe s kin. but 8re classed
IS "'non to. iI:". Soap and waler can be
used 10 wash off Ihe Skin . nd an eye-
wash solution if sny powdel gelS in Ihe
The sell i00i<5 li ke coIou'ed so
but Bny is by mOUlh
plenlV of waler 10 d,ink and call Ihe
I . I I moheo
area wilh
solution (b)
wash again (c)
0;,,", epply a medicaled
see Ihe doclor or _
.he pa.ien. 10 .he
sail is nol inflammable In ilself. but
slrong &UppOrtM of combustiOn' wood
clolh contaminaled wilh the salt witl
vigorously. Some organic com-
.esct vigorously wilh the sah
healed. Cafe should be laken Ihal
01 powder on wood
cleaned up promplly
be washed. NOT dry_
. as is 8 'UCtion with dry-

above 01
, "
r8{Juires medical
The salt is supplied in plaslic sacks, and
be ladled from Ihese inlO !he POt
8 metal spoon 01 ladle. Slorage con-
should be moi$lu,e-prool: I keep
plastic bags inside large Ne&cafa
U$Ml sah can be dispo5lld of by
washing down Ihe .ink with, good HOOd
01 wale .
Within Ihe temperalu.... range and
quantities used by model 'ngi"",, thi'
$811 can be regarded as non-hB.a<dou1
provided reasonable care 10 laken.
High-temperature (Aunenising) S.H.
This I. 8 mixture 01 Sodium Chloride
(common sah) Ind Po!aplum Chloride. I1
i. virtually nonharmful and can be trealOO
... if it were household salt 11 h gets in lhe
eye . In. CUI. or- is laken by mOUlh. In Ihe
of bums lrom molten sail lhese
should be treali!d a. for Ihe . empering
sal' . bul burn may be severe and
immediale .esort 10 Ihe casualty depart-
menl ollhe hos.pilal is recommen-de<J.
Spillage of Ihe cold salt powdar i$
unimportant though il will absorb waler
an-d may damage (rust) metal Spillage 01
hot sell can be conlalned wi.h dry sand
dam., and th' fire. it any. tackled with CO,
e. tinguishe",: water l hould nol be used in
Ihe presence 01 molten sail .
Materi,llmme .. ed in the balh musl be
dry. and Ihe work should lie $e' in slowlV
to allow any ai, !rapped in holes.o escape
'lowly - a rapid immersion may cause
spurting. Care must be la!<8n when
,emelting, with a subslanliallid, in CBOe a
c",sl IOfms on the lOP 01 Ihe balh. and
inillal melting must be slow: Ihis sail
mel1s a. aboul 670C. so that frothing al
Ih1s stage should be reduce d .0 a
minimum with the daplh 01 Ihe balh being
Increased only slowly
This selt Is ;nherenlly fe. but Ihe
halard from very h()t liquid is presenl. II
treate-d &! a mollen melal. wilh lhe seme
pre<;autions, dangerous si ' uations .re
unlikely 10 Ifi .... . Ilhough ! repeat mv
prevIous warning: on no accounl allow
any lemperinll salt, 0' melal conlaminaled
therewIth, 10 get inl O Ihe hillh_
tempera lure sail, col<J or hot.f C' .... ful
8ttenliooto proteclive clolhing el ,11 .imes
Is Ihe orde, of Ihe dey. SIOfage and
dispoul condlTloM .'" \he Mme IS fOf
Te"._ t"\IINIT.
Elec1ri.,.t. h .. 1Itk in Ihehelt
t .,tmenl ahop 1'1 _ .... the A"'" as
It- I'M,,, tw<I, bul ,am.. ..-.. ca",
m .. " be _ traWi"\ll leMlI. Me UlI at
quendJing I .... PIt.t .... will bum Itwouvh
InI<Ilttlon .nd UUM a Ihon-ci"; .. il very
QUick ..... and wUl11M1f III the Insulation on
fi ... WI ... WlIllln furnace calingl should
bI Insulated with cerlmk: be...n. oblain-
.bIe trom Ihl Iocll EIt'Ctricily Service
depolS. GIIIs-libre in, .. I,Ilng sl"ving is
bUI Ihll I, norm, lly ,a led only
for Ihe lampet'Iu'e' lound in dom&slic
cook .... ALL me'll PI't' of , Iu,""""
mUll be prooetIy la"hed. the U,tl'l wire
bll"\ll not Ieu In dlamllll Il'I,n the main
IeMlI Ind more These cOn;l8C
tton.. especially when ea"hing. hol POinl
1 . \11 lhe POI In a Nit ' .. macll musl bI
...... ted .nd c"lnod ''9''., .... , o-ide
",",,-l ion may NI up In Unacceplable
l..m leakage ..... IInca.
Cables la lhe t.uppty .acl<et mUll be
routed .w.y lrom rislo. 01 contacl wil h
n.ml . hol mll'l. or All .nd. W pe,meneflt.
COIfIracI by mllll -""lid or cooduil -

whk:l\ mull bI .. "heel. Fuail'l\ll i$ beSI
doni I1 lhe 3 -p1n pl U\lI.IOQ, b .. 1 if
" ..... he .. tor If cif1:uft tw .. k .... 'e fill e(!
to t"- conlrol bo"J IheM must be 8n""ge<I
to bf"k the "line" cin:uit only; on NO
account mull ."Y fuM be NI in Ir.
" Neutral" .. 01
le ..... the IPP!I. IIU ...... 10 urth.
f inally, beeauN no fu,nacl m .. ml if,
perfacl Insul.lor, It I. common prudence
10 ' WiTch oH ,,,- circuit when handling Ih.
work. Thla Ippfies IspIC"lI.,. 10 muflle
lu,nac .. : Mlt POt wil h In la"hlll POI
should bI qUill IIIla SO 10f'l\lI IS th. eanll
conn...,tlon I, tound,
Conclulion. 1""- cI'eful p,actitioner w"
m"1 few dlf'l\llll'l in heal I,,,"ment. bu'
no .mount 01 " prec.utions will sa .... ,n.
ca,..... from inlury. Heat treaU'nem
prKlice 11 probablv Ieu dlnge<OUS Ih,
bfaring. as Ihou\lIl'I letnpe<alures m;oy bo
l'Iighe. 1"- .mounl 01 hql po .. enl is le.
11, in this I h've been
my blu .. , how 10 wet. eggs" I const)
mysell with the IlIou\lIhl Ih.t I hol I\lI\lI '
h.r<f.boiled. and SUCh clnnol bI blown "
,". My m. I .. lal much.bove 70'C need,
ID be tr.ated wil h reSPeCI!
Thermocouples and
It i. POnlbl. 10 <>bl ain me,curyln-9lln
th.'momll .... which will safely ''IIis,.,
"P 10 360-C Quite cheaply. and nitfO\lliln
filled me.c .. ry in splCl'l
glu, c.n be had which ,ead 10 6OQ- c,
They ..... .,he. "191., bul can bI used lot
IIrnper1ng - lhough 1 make .,HI
PI'OIt'Ctil'l\ll illlellh lot mine. Thl WIll
known "ROIOl h m" lemp ... tu
indi<:atorl, bIIed on I bi-melallic coil, can
be boughl to .. MI "P 10 300 C hilly ,
used It OVln Ihenno"""lrs)lnd Ife more
robult The m.f1:ury.in'$t"1 di,l .11,,
mom ...... will ope'l.e saflly up 10
6SO"C, bUI IhlY Ifl bolh expensivI .nd
None Of these, how_ . win "' ......
I", 1Imper"UII Indlcalion wllen hea.in\ll
(A"'.lnl"II\II) I", quen<:h ha rtlenil'l\ll. Th.
11I, .. " o-.la<:tric pyrometlr i. the onty
pra<:Tlc.ble .... w .. ,
15' sI>ow. \ he prino;ipfe. If \h.
;;;;: belwee" lhe lwo wires., . is
.nd I"-t 11 i. coot, llIen
.he ..... 1 WIW show tlllt. volt. i.
dlv.lop.d which dlPendl on Ih.
t differencl 11 lhe TWO junc-
thal il Is lhe t .... PIt.IUll
OIFFERENCE wIIi<:h ; If the mel ..
and "S" 11 .1
""." will bI lboul
EMF 9&""81111 doos nol vary eu clly with
Ih. lempef,tu ; plOtl 'r'I\lI EMF l\I&in.l
IImpe<'llu" dIHe,,,,,,,e show! ,tighl
cu"'e 10 lha \II.;oplL This mean. Ih" tile
lrue tlmp .. "ure mey nol be .. Icily Ihlt
lound by Iddi"ll me hol ,nd cold J .. nctlon
l.mPlt.t ...... WI will deal wnh Ih ..
probl .... lale,. bul il is not ":ioul for 1Ie.1
""tment P<l.pc .....
1""- normll 'rTatI{IIIml'" 11 thll sI>own
In Fig. 62 'A" Il lhe hol junction ,nd BB
lhe wtres within lhe immersotd le"\lllll -
Ihe m.,,,i,I, blll'l\lI tile "tl!e,moelactric"
alloy. CC .re connecTlr'l\ll wi.n lelllil'l\llto
11'1' mll., "M" Ind "Rn II H,i"
, 1.1.",,1. 1I CC are plaIn cpppe, con-
d .. ctors, Ihen Ihe effective cold JunClion
will be I1 DO. This may be clOH 10 Ihl
lu,n'CI. Ind 00 CO\>Id be Quite hol. 1""-
e ffective cold Jut'>Ction can bI .nov.d 10
Ihe m.'I< .ltlle, by usil'l\ll .1Ioy
_ifI\lI c.tlllllcalled I .. compensati"ll
IeMl") CIf more limply by conl,nuing Ihe
llIermocoupll ellment .we from ". tighl
t hrougl'110 M ,nd R, This is the mllhod I
UH, lhe ""', ... need not be .11 1"'1 I.
aw.,. from lhe fumace . nd one h .. 10
buy Ylld or SO of tt.ermocouple wire
.nyw .,.. The /un<:tion of lhe ,eallllnee
.'1'1" 11 to .111""" Ihl effect. pi ch.f'l\lI<tl 01
,"III. nee In Ihe circuit whlcll m,y <>cc .. '
f ", I' ' ............. ',.."4"' . ' "
A. B.
as the cOIJple elemenl yetS ho . If the
feslstance of 88 and CC were, SIIy 0.5
ohm and thal of the meter 1 5 ohm. then
anv In the former would be
app'eciable, 8y in .... .,ing this "ballast
resistance" say 100 ohm, then the changa
in re.iManco of AA and CC wi th
temperatu.e will have n8{fligible elleel, It
saN8\I fUMha. pu'pose, too. II Can be
used to ma tch the Indicalor to the pa.-
thermocoupte used. We ,hall make
use of thiS whe" "adspting"
for home-made indicato.s.
A number of differant Blloys a,o used for
the thormocouple element!. The cheapest
is coppe' "Constantan" 160%
Cosloer 40% but this ope.ate
safely only up to about 500C. Chrome!-
Eureka (90% N! 10% Cr vS 40% N! 60%
CuI Csn be wOfked up to
850C. or 100C conlinuOlJsI-i . and has
Ihe merit .hat it delivers the highest EMF/
C of any. lro,,-Con$!&ntan is the ne_t
besl in thl' .espect, and Can work con-
150C and intermil1ently up
to IOCOC. 11 is cheap, and well suited to
ou' wo,k, provided you ,ocalibra'e ir 1t i.
uslld fOr long pe,;oos above about
The commonest for high-
lemperBtu.e work is Ch'ome!-Alumel
190% Ni 10% Cr vs 94% Ni, 2% AI + Si
and Mn) which can work al! dlY St
I 200C. It does nOt d8\/elop Quite a
high EMF 81 the Pfovious types. but suI-
klr OUr putp<>se. There DU' mhef
, ,
alloy . notably those OIl Platinum,
but none likely to be of inte,ost to us. Atl
these thermocouple alloys a'8 now made
to 8.ilish Standard Specifica,lon, and
the following table, ta ken from "The
Model Enginee, s Handbook'" shows the
EMF developed in millivolts whan Ihe cold
junctiOll "ands at O C. This assumes that
the wire is to the releyant 8.5. . but Ihe
diffe rence between this and others (8{f. to
OIN Sld) is negligible
The EMF in MilliolOlrs de""loped bv
couples isgiven in the table,
A=Coppar-Con$lMtan III 851828
to BSI 829
, ,
, , ,
.. 202 258 202
663 801 6.1 3
10 78
liS," 11 .88
1356 1 O I 6
300 .<It,, 14.67
1633 1 22 I
350 ("1'" 11 59 1909
400 2059 21.8S 1640
500 1
(" 2610 2739 2065
600 /of' 3311 2491
100 ("C" 3915 2914
800 ,<Ill"
4553 33.30
900 ( 'l'
1000 IfO' 41 ,3
""" ...... "" .. / __ .JB". ___ --,,,. ____ ____
A. "
Now, let uS suppo .... Ihal we are using
en IronConstanlan coupla with Ihe I>ot
junc,;on at100C end the cold 811OOC.
The indicatlld voIl&oe will be 39. 15 -
521 n 33,88 mY. This correSpOnds 10 a
temperature of 613 C. Add on the cold
junclion tempera ture and we find the sum
to be 1 13C - 13C rugher than it
actually is. So, the cold junclion must,
fi rst, be kept as cool B. possible (in reallv
accu,ate work it i, set in ite In B thermos
"ask) and sarond, we should keep a ther-
mome t er nurbv .0 check the
'empere,ufe. If the cold junction is k9!l'
within +/_ 2 C of IS"C. the will net
exe&ed two Or Ihree degrees if the cold
juno: t>on temper.tufe is simply to
Ihet indicatlld on the mete'. If Ihe meter
end Ihermocouple .re CALl8RATEO with
the cold junction e< 1 SC the etfOr will be
The con,(fuction of the thermOCOtlple
is simplicity It lif. It can. indeed, work
Quite satisfactorily if the wifes are lightly
twlsled tDgethef, ThiS .... ill read cO ... II<:lly,
nu, the'e will be a tlrne-Iag between
f". U ,...
_ ", ... ,,'" .... rho """""
-,_ .. _ ..... -
IIfO, C ___ "'-
--' .. "' .. _,- _+oR' V .... __ .,_
.eeching the temperature and that
indicatlld. The ends cln easily be wefdlld
together if you I !ittle Microfllme
o>cy-butlne , ... ch .... indeed. any welding
eQuipment. The ga"!J" of wire is unimPOr-
tam except as regards COSt, and 26 gauge
Is Quite lhough I would Jlfe/er
to .... e this in a proleclive shealh, That
seen in Fig. 63 is 18 gauge, and Ihls can
be used in a lurnace or .ven a salt POI
wllh 110 sheath, lhough or>e Is preferable
In the IlIler ca ..... Twin Ihermocouple
pairs, aboul 30 insulatlld wilh fine
heat-resitlsnl sle""ing, are 1IV8ilable. For
the knockabout work of heal tfurmen. I
would tend to favour the 18 gl U{le wife,
bul il IS 001'1 a IIueSliOll of fragility; Ihere
is no differance in the effecliveness.
The couple wires mu". of COUr!l{l, be
insulated behind Ihe 8<:lual lunCtlon, end
eilher $Ongle or twin bore ceramic or silica
in..,lators can be had for thiS pu,P0S8
from Scienliflc in."umen! supplier.,
(Gfiffi" & Georg.e. Gallenkamp etc) Of
ffom Mo'g'" RefraCIOries, already
ment;oned in connll<:lion wilh muffle .
Som, 01 mu. I" seen In "'ov, 6J. The ..
In lurn. be prOleclad by "'lIing the
wnola Inside. ""al sn ... ll>. The end etn
be cl.:oad eillMo. by folding O\Ie. M>d I>lm_
lMI'ing. <It 1>'1' _Iding In , plug ,.....
""-Ill> should be I fal"" cion fil on 1"-
inwll lOB. Thi' will prolecl Ine coupl.
f.om knock nd llso (In 11>, c .... o' Ih,
Nil poll from g<ad .... 1 eroding aWlY 01
,he wI.1$. On the 0"- hand. I'" sI>e .....
will ell''' I I,ma-tag in 11>. ifldicalionl
I'0Il' Indicato. wHl land 10 ",ad the
l"ml1l"l u , It was J <It 4 minutll
.. tile . depending on I>ow heavy I'" lube
it. There ;" no need. 10< our 1)1.1'1>11181. 10
1'" II,inl..a 11 ... 1. Once ele'r of lhe
8etuII'um.,,, tl>' wir .. mly be in,ul"ad
wltl> ordinaoy 1l_lng. <It I'0Il un I'M the
gI ..... libre type If It>er , likely 10 11"1 hol.
Such 11""inll etn b" ob .. ,ned lor
otdefed) 1h ...... 1l1> radio ... rvice .hops.
Th. Indicato, . Th. maximum .".ding
"ling Jron..conlt,n"n wdl be about 50
milll"oI". and lor 8$1827 Nie.- NiAl,
,boul JS mY. 11 I'0Il ha", a "multimll''''
will> I milliVOIt 1C,le. wall and 1I00'I. YOU
C.n 1''' tl>il. Olh" rwi ... YOU muSt eilh
buy _ or mike 0/11. T""I was a "m.
when ..... rpI"'. micro-......... ten; Wl<.
,eldlly ''''iI6bll. Ind the ... ,. o' eJ<Ce'l
I"nl Quality. TheM reading uo to 50 or
100 JiA would be lhe mOll ""itabte, But
sucto mllen; ,r, not _naiya new .nd.
ag''''. can be OIde,ad Ihrough radio
.. rviee lhopS. A 0--50 mell< will lIP niClly.
bul you muat know lIS coil ,elistane". Ind
if Ihl' I, nol .. "eO In I'" '"llogv . ob .. in
the Information from !he m,ke .. belorw
buying IL
Now. III '" wppose Ih"l _ ha". Ihe
meter. and Its ... I'I8nCe i,
ellK'", 1 CXlO ohm. W. arl horn" .nd ruv,
10< _ millnrotl wHI g ..... a defleclion 01 I
micrO-Imp. and !he IClle C.n be uMd
dir-ctfy. /Th. aXllm,,1 ... I,"nca of Ihe
COIIple won' l m'II"I. Suppo .... ho_"r,
that it it ot"-I ... end ..... "ncea 01
.. ound 750 ohm ,,, common. Le. 1'1
IlUPPO" It is Il>own as 7JS ohm. This Is
whe" tha ."si'"nea "R" of Fig. 62 comes
in. 11 _ "",k. this lCXlO - 7J5 .. 265
ohm. lhen w ....... a total .. listll<'lCe o.
ICXlO. ,nd the m"" w;Urald di'Kt. Sucll
, .. lllane" would be "built up' willl one
at 200. _ It 50 . nd one It 15 oIIm'
egain. from the ,Idio seMc. sI\ocl. High
SI.bln", I" T oIer.nea- tn:Ht,
Howeve . sUppPle tll. ml t, . hIS
.... Is"nc. HIGHER then 1000 Ohm. what
than1' h ....... one har . 0-100 JiA. 1250
ohm. Apply Ot",,.. law e E1R. <It. mora
convan,ently. E e R. 100,111\ 1250
rl 125.000 mlero"'Oltl . Or 125
milliyohl. So. 10<, mile. WITh a "sistance
' R- "ceading I 000 ohm the conve,""'"
;s ACtu,1 M" Scala Mv . I\ilCXlO
where R I, the m" .. ",Ii."nel_ It is as
eny ... 1'0111 Fig. 64 shows three mete ...
one ci.eul., " Eo Go .... m'""" " 0/11. whicll
il IliA .. 900d .. ""'" "tller small
J.pe ...... meter .... "" ' 00 smlll I se.la
lenglll; and a la'ga O lOOm"" which i.
in fac1. Ihe on. I would U$l de""il ' lIS
"''''5\.nce of 1 2 50 oIIm.
e.lib,"ion. Th,. os Simply. clleck on the
labIe. and ought to be done juSt in c .....
11>. m,," 'O$isl.nce ia ",,\ as ""ed !lh ....
all I" made 10 .. 100.,a __ 1 Ind .. fIe,
pe,iod. In u ... 'IIerI 11<15 been I tt>enga in
the cll .. "'''ri$lCl of tile coupola llemenls.
The Iowl< and ia done at I 00" c. The lher
mocouple is $It In Ih' " m above
boiling w"", _ NOT In tile Wal". Ilself
s... "''11 65, llIougI'Ilt UfO be done in In
etKUjc; ke,tlfI JU61 IS .asily ... "
tIIlt Ih. cold junetion li.a. Ilia m"tll. if
usad u In Fig, 62) I. It 15e. le' the
Junction .elk kM ebout len minutes and
obse",. t ..... ading. let it cool 1 linte. and
,_.,. 00 mi!l th, .. times and like Ilia
me.n. For In inlermediate tamperll""
you Ctln. 11 you hi"" IImpetlng ul. bll h
hLd .... '1
'" .,. 0 '0'" " .
w,.,, Q-'_. _'; ..
0 - ''''''''' " ... _ .....

" .

,hera will be an arre.' In ,he INCA EASE in
'empera,ure. Aepea, 'his a coup1e 01
,ime always removing any .cum which
forms on ,Mo surface of ,ho metal. The
mean of the ."e$l pointS is lhe actual
melling poinl 01 'he me,al. You can do
another" aOIC. with pure $81!. Note.
NOT ,he I>ou&el>old variatY. Ask 81 ,he
chemls,s lor Sodium Chloride BPC -
,hi, is commoo salt. bu, chemically JlUte.
Once 811 ,his h&5 been dona \'Ou can
ei,her make up table or mah a I$W
.cale out 01 paper ' 0 6,k:k on 'he di'l. I
use a labia. as I hltVe O1her uses for micro-
mme' .... and don, wan, 10 ,ie any of
Ihem up on one iob.
The linal alternative is e-pensi"e. but
definitely io ' he mood. You can buy (or
oome 01 you may be abl. to make. for all I
know) a oolid Slala digi'allf\dica'or. which
will read OUt Ihe ,emp.lfatu,. on lighr .
emiuing diodes. 11 you ha"e .... "e.al the._
mocouplft$. high tempera, ures end low
yOU tan build in 10 Ihil 8 correcting ci,cui,
which will allow fo' ,he use of coppe.
constantan "one end 01 the temperature
range and Platinum Aho(Iio-pla'inum at
'he olher:. univ&ff.81 !lVrome,., IndicalO'
Thi. i. nol a booI< on electronics" 50 rh811
mUSt leave Ihe delail for you 10 tort oul
Sufficien, for mosl of 'he eleclronical ....
minded 10 know Iha. it can be done I
Carbon Steel Cutting Tools
Many reade,s may neve, have made a
Culling 1001 in their livei. apart from 'he
oOd O-bil. 800 would 'egard anylhing
.... cept high_spell'd steel (Of e\litn tungSlen
carbida) ss being (I very inferior 1001
This is a miSlaka. The ONLY re.son for
using HSS is Ihal it can operale ar 8
highe, tempe,atu,e. and can. 'herefore,
cut FASTEI'I. HSS is much mo,e oxpen-
sive: ;1 Is not hard a5 prOPflrly I,urll'd
carbon looI- lleal; at ,he prOPflr CUlling
speed carbon 51 .... , has B longe, 1001 lifa,
and fo, fini,hing cu's below 80U/ min.
lUll much longe' AOO (again. when
properly trealed) ca,bon 5teel will give a
belter finish. Nor i, it lrue , ha, YOU can,
lake heavy cuts. This is nonsense I have
bv me a table of speeds and feeds for
carbon steal 181hetools whit:h listS cuI. up
10 one inch deep el feeds of ona e,ghlh of
an inch per re>". Finally, ca,bon steel will
'the really ha,d stuff. Until quite
recently I1 was used fOf machining ,ha
chilled C8St iron foil. used in Sleelworks
(Ihe aurfaca deliberalely made as hafd as
Ihe hard SPOts you can"' machine On your
C8Stinglil and habitually cui
hDrdened and lempe,ed sleel pivots wi,h
a carbon "eel graver_
The only dil8d'1antage whiCh afflictS
rhe matenalls thalli tempers a\ quire I
low figure. HSS 11. inillal ..... SoOfter Ihan
carbon .teel. (Fig. 66) but whe'eas Ihe
1811er would Sl8rt to lose some of ils
cuning ha,dness 8' about 270 C al the
1001 point Ihe former can be oper.,1I'd 50
hot thar rhe cUl1ing 011 will smoka and.
inde&d. I have .... en SPeCi81 grades ,un for
demonstration pUrpOse. cuning al a dull
red h08'. The same is I,ue of Tungslen
Carbide: its virtue is 1'101 ils i. is
inlended as 8 FAST CUTTING TOOL
perhaps 8"hre. lime. 'he SPeed 01 HSS.
This is Iha Crux of 'ha malte,. You can
buv a couple of feet of carbon 1001 Sleel
fOf IM price of one short HSS loolbit : you
can file it. bend It. forge 11, and harden i"o
cuI tough allO'( steel. ""en hard cas' iron:
and you can gel superb 1001 finish on rhe
worIt . aur you MUST keep Ihe CUlling
speed down and keep the 1001 point cool.
For roughing cuts ' ha speed ","",uld be
aboul one Ihird Ihal used for HSS I,hough
if Ihe COOlanl supply is good you can rry
fasle,) and for normal finishing curs ,he
machine should be run at abou"w" ,hirds
Ihat used for HSS. In facl. for bfas. '"
"""-cutting mitd eel . laking modftl
engineers' finishing cuts. 'hera may be no
-<. CA''''"



1500 8CXl.
__ 7",,"7 " __ """'."'"'_< _______ ' __ M c ... ..
:-, , .!. .... __ .. '7 7 ..... ' . __ < __ ............ ..
nMd 10 redUc. apeed 11 III 11 of
COU''' , ... urning rh" tou ua. Ihe
"proper' HSS c,ming iIIl .. ds: m.ny
engi,,"", run .1 urbon ",-.I
speed. ,lithe time)) ClIrbon steel will CuI
Inything 111,1 etn be cui by HSS . >'Id
.... ny ,hi' _ ohen use C'fbidto kII' I.nd
donn', chip ., The edOM .itherl but i ,
doe. lak, longer eUI will' if; lhe hUlry.
On l toe o,,"lion of 'qu"ity 01 finish'-;,
i. not .Iw ...... pprKiated I"" the ",rt_
of Ihe ill. when leIting Y1IfY 11,..
CUll.' ...tI",,'Mln oI lne t.urfa.;c of 'he 1001.
11 Ih. 1001 point has groove. I,am Ihe
grintle, 11 mu.t ,,_ groov.. (>I ,ib. on
m. wor1<. Carbon It'" h ... r..- g in
man most HSS, .nd 11 gllln fefiM'd, ......
mOre ID. Prop.tly "' "d.ned, .... d
lemJ)ttred only 10 fi r I, 1. esssnli." 11
Ilk .. up Mn .. IInish fr om the oi .. ,.,.....,
l!>us !JivIng In ...... ben .. 1in0ah 10 ,,,-
worIt. In 'O,,..,...nlll TummgH we .......
10 go IUMl>8r SlIII; we rely enllrely on the
"1001 Iln;!IIl" I", the decoraliv. reflective
SUrflCH whOch Ire 50 much admired. Ind
......., go to lhe 01 lapping lhe
culIl"" edge with rouge on In iron liP'
Wilh Ihe ever-Increasing COSI 01 ,11
alloy lleelllend HSS in PIM!eular) il does
some sense to reconside, Ihe ollC'
01 Ih, 'oId flllllionl<!" c.tbon ",eel. W.
are nol III th'l oon<:,med wilh OP'imum
HOOf- Io-floo, um ... and few of us woutd
ever conaider wo,lUng ou' tools IS ha'd u
.hay do in indoJltry !The "econornie tool
lif," mllY be no mono Ihan 4 2 minuI"" on
cenvel.tl>8 worllll. I would not of
COO'H. suggest Ih., w. aben!ion HSS
wholeHle, Ih., would be foolish But /of
"""at It is worth I wilt conclude thiS not,
by wl:z,nring Ihll Al l Ihe c nkshlft. I
have made. end thlt is quill I lot. hive
been finished. In(! mo.t of them ,oughed.
using clrbon 51"'looIs on the crlnkpins.
Ind mosl hive been lurned on lhe
jou",," ''''1 wIlY IS Why nol g;"'" I1
British Standard Steel
Specification Numbers
The Old Brit ish SIIndard 97&1955
characII'io.ed by 11>8 "EN" numbers which
many of uS 51ili UH. wu ,epllced by Ihe
","w BS970 in 1972, h re.11y is t>mlllh't
we stifled 10 uM ,11 It h.. one gore"
Idvantage. in thlf the BS numbe, i,sell
g;ve. u. ,h. cafbon conlent ' 0' many
steel .
The numbe, COMprises Ih'H dig" .
followed by I !ener. loIlowed by rwo mar.
digils. Th. fr"l 'h'" digit. "rv. twO
purpo .... They lIiye b,oad Indication 01
11>8 TYPE oI,teel. thus -
000 10 199 '" all --pl,in- cerbon .teel
With some m.nea""' contenl
200 to 240 "e "F,ee-cuning" "'e",ons 01
the above
300 10 '99 a,e III 'S'linleu" 0' "Hu'
Reslsling "eeis
500 10 999 I,e In --Alloy" lleels and
wilhin Ih, number Ih. mlin .IIOVir.g
,'emenll cln be Id.nt,fI,d.
W .... concerned lfor ..... t".,men,!
only wlUI the pI.in Clrbon Iteel. .ncI,
pemlpl. their I,u cunlng 8QyiVllenl. The
first dillll nn be ;gnorad; 0 .nd 1
"plaln" end 2 m .. n. "frH-CUlI ing". The
SKond lWO dlglts. Ipr&ceded by 0 0.- I J
g;ve 1"- "'Ing'''"' conlenl myl"plled by
lOO; thu. 145 mIIanl 0.' 5" m.ng .........
If preceded by 2. Ihne digits Indic81e th.
sulp/>u, """tenl. &{IlI,n, , 100.22. will be
I O,2' !!Ii Iulphu, 5t ... 1
The .. con!! group 01 IWO digi ls
Indicl1es ,he c.fbo.-t conllnl multiplied by
100. Th", '5 indicate 0, ' 5" ca<borl
"ee'- The II1Ie, showl t ... ba.,. 01 ,""
specification. " M-- mun. ' h" lhe steel
mUlt m .. t ,''' maCh,"'cal prope' tl .. 01
the ml1eri.,: A' ........ Ih., il mull be 1o
1"- spec,f,ed chemiocll Inalyais. 01 ....
properties being second.l'\': '"H' means
'hall! mUll melt 'he '8QU"emenll cf Her
dan'bility. Most of Ihe 11",' we uH il 10
Th&re ... of tourN, on lhe
" f'llu,,, lor c,rbon .net ot .... m'teri')S:
lhus 0,2" ca,bon may lift between O. I 6
.nd O.2 4!!1i - ,hough the UH' Cln
Iprovided "" pr(S! specify close. limili.
As I gener" .ule. Ih .. efore,
.pproxim.l. he., " .. Iment procedures
can be deduced f'om t he Specification
nUmbe', ThuI 080M30 la I 0.3" CMbon
on meng ....... st"", which "'IIY be
hell t ... ted by Quenchtng Irom .boul
875C.rod tempering '0 IUillh. IpplfCI.
lion. W, c.n .Iso deduce fmm th' lron-
t:IIfbo.-t dia-gflm on J>8g8 I B Ih.tll thould
be "",m.,ised It.round 880C.
The speCifit:lll_ doe. no. COW< 'Tool
Steel.", with m",e Ih,n '" ca,bon.
Approximate Conversion of
Hardness Scales
(ASTM Conversion Tables)
(FOI' Sleels)
"" No.
"c" 1000 lbffSq.in.
'" "
820 64.7
" ""
,SO 54, 1
'" ""
" ""
'80 4 7.7
46. 1
(For Sleels)
"" No
" C' 1000 lbl/Sq.ln,
" ""
" ""
41 .8
" ""
" '"
280 21. 1
" '"
200 20.3
Rockwell "C' is nOI
220 15.71958)
applicable below lhi.
13.4193.4 81
range. Rockwen "8"
8. 5189.581
in br. ckelS
6.0187. 181 SA
0 181.78)
'50 178.781
171 .281
The .... conversions musl be u$OO wilh
discretion. especi811v as regards ...
Ultimate Ten.Ho Snenglh column. TheV
relale onlV 10 C.rbon and low alloy 11HI.
and ... clude "Slain le"" sleell.
Glossary of Terms
Alloy 5'H'
Arrnt point
Bodv Cemred
C.st St .. 1
........ enc ... Iron and Steel 'ns','Ule.
""'_"" SocielV 01 MK"-nicI' Eng;neoers
Ame<ican Society 101 TH",,!! M" ..
Crys'a'" formIng. nH<IIelik, 1"",,'Uf' in piKe of 'he
"""" youe
5,", containing .I,man's 0'","' .Nn ifon end carbon
IhouOh UP 10 0.35% Mengll'lt!M i. round in ,11 Sleels.
A ""at ""',m,nl wt.;';h sohens an al,,,1tdy hard"ned
'I .. el.
1'01"1$ 81 whi,,, 'h" ,emper.tur. clnu 10 ,ise I"," st>o'I
period wllen Ihe s,,,.1 I. h.,,<ffi SlOWlY. and simUarly
whe" cooling.
A cons,an, '"mpe",''''. ulnsformation prOCIU mainly
used lor small PIIn . l(Ii'ingl. etc. fig 44
A solid solution 01 carbon in Iron
e""oh Standards Ins,,,,"'on.
A ,trUClu obtain<td when "-'IIen,1t is uansf ... me(I ".
COI'I$lIn, low Temper.,ur . le" bul IOUgl1er thM1
Manensi, . T 'fPic .... ,he '""It of
A $Quar. or ,..,'Ingul., bar. usually ,lie raw
I.ter hot lormirlg ptoc:_
Th. name given 10 t'" ItHI after the complelion of !hoo
cemen"tion proce$S. Th, lurlaee of lhe melal is at thi,
poinT covered In ICale bliStera.
Applied 10 crvstals. On, with In I tOm" each co,ne. e'ld
one in the geometric cenue 01 t'" laulce.
(;on(:enlmled ""IUTion 01 commOn lilt ,N,Cn in w.'e'
Any process wh..:/'l eau"'" 01 cemon,
A. ... rI.ce hardening pJOCeSS whictt .ell"" lhe no<ma'
ItruClu" of the sleeI in lhe _e 01 I"" IH'n. NONNtIIY
JChieyed by s.u01_ cerbu"s.ing. h"ling, and quenching.
The name given to h;gh'cbon " .. , which hM been
melted , fI",.he cem"m"ion proc: ... la compIele. At OM
time synonymous wltl< \001-11", it I. now liable to bt'
confuted with casungs mad, Irom "mild"' ,,"1 The
te",,1 Sleel" or "High Cltrbon SIU'" are 10 be
Cem ... t".
C"I':" T"mperIlU"
Curie POtnt
EN No.
FICl! C"nt.ed
Gauge StOCk
G.tin A. llnemenl
The proceh by which Wroughl Iron is taused 10 absorb
carbon th,ough t ... lulill<ickness 01 lhe me .. '. to produce
"Bliat"'" or "High C.rbon SI"'.
MetallurlllCal n.m" for I,on Cltrbide. Fe.C. So ... mtd
becaUH it wl. fi, .. iden"rHld in SleeI mede by ca",,,m.
The ' .... per.,u" " wt.id, structural dwlnge. OCCUr on 11"
mel.l. Us.ually, but 1101 _'}'S. coir",ident with 1"-
. ""HI PoOn ..
An """'rly .... ngement of atoms, IJlmoal .lwa}'S in
preciH lI4'O"'elric Ih,pe, Iron cryStalS I.e IIw.VI 01
cubic lorm.
Th, tempe wr. abO';e which steal lOses 111 mllgnellC
An i. onworks in Swl!(jen. which was 'epul"d to p,oduc,
lIn iron remarkably ,," ' rom impurities.
The reductron 01 c.rbon content us.u"lIy on I'" s.urftce 01
t'" melal. CauHd I rul. by lhe IICI"", 01 oJ<V1lfi' or
i,on ""idel" hOgtt lempe' .. ur ....
The "Engrnee"ng Number" IM ident,rocation numbe, 01
sleels used in B S 970" 955.,- ""petSeded
A chart pIo",ng the ailic., tempe.,,,u'H 01 steelll>O<'tn$1
lhec..bonoonlent f;g 13.
The oornposil>On 01 It"' el which I'" _
lamperllIU'. coineidH witll I"" lower. 'EutICloid" it",
"entir.ty pel!rtihC.
Appohed to U'i'I1.,s. one ... ,," In atom at each corner and
one in The cemre of 'l'Ch of the laces ol lhe lattice,
The act of welding 1.lhe. Wrought Iron to make
MetallurlliCltI name 10< Ihe elmosl pu.e iron observed in
t'" mic'OSlrucWra 01 .",,1 (Not 10 be c:onlused wit h lhe
s.inlered le.",,' used lor coil cores atC in _lectronic
An oiI-h,,"""ng c.rborI-dlrom; ..... .,roy SI"' compoun
ded to reduce dislOIUOn on quenching to minimum.
Someti..- known H "ground "at aloc:k"
Aw< ..... IH 01 CIVIla'" The.. form when I'" me1l1
soIidifiH. but .... y chlnge the .. Ihape .nd di,,,o.mon _,
it cools.
A.ny proc:eH whkh ait he. reduces 0< mak ... more uniform
Ih .. oltha g"'nL
High C,rbon S'MI
1200 numblt
u m lce
Mo ....
O H. & T.
S'M' with , c.lrbon content above 0. 8 5""- Mo<.
.ccu,a'ely. I'''''' which Ihowl I'M Camenti'e in Ih.
Usuelly , high"Clwomi .. m high_Tu"",ten IIlIoy with
..,h.need ho.-h&tdnns. but mlV not '" sl .... 1 It , 11.
is In elloy of CoMIT. Chromr .. m.nd TungSl.."
will! no lton conlllnl.
The energy in foot -poundI 'MIII;,ed 10 lint"" , Sllndanl
""";mom .. ndotr , p' ...... lbed imt:>aC1 10 .... A tu. for
shock ""Stlnc,.
A "ameworir. 01 Imagln,,,, llnel lOining I'" location 01
"oms In I cryst al.
The lempe'atu,e 'bove 'h' mel,lls , "'i,ely liquid.
HUI lre.lmenl PfOUn de"gr'led 10 ,educe diSIOtIiOn on
I. rge 0< complex componenlS. Fig. ' 5.
The SHuCl u" Iotmed wher1 comblnalion 01 Au"""ill
end Cam""li" il COIll l d 100 quietlV 10 ,11ow lhe norma'
, .. nsfotmllion 10 P .... i".
The .. ,. of lemper.I .... "'M"" lhe Solid ... and t he
Uqu;dus. where the metel ll in PIOI'" IlIle. with bo.h
solid end liquid .,.e-'I.
A """.ce in which the wo<k ;. prOlected I,om 11>11 di.ecl
Impinoemenl of the hel'ing n..... It il now ePQNed ,Iso
10 most ''''''' Ince lumecet.
A sa" whictt Is uMd 11 helling medium but which
neither carburises nor declrbufisel l he melll.
A condilion whe.e ' h' I,on C"bida g,ainl are in the IOtm
of nodule. "llIe, Ihan the no,m.1 n,edla-like ahape.
Hu , UU t menl intended la retlOre di9tonlld grains 10
thei, ,-",el shepe. A Iotm of grain relinemenl.
The "",m.1 tr.nslor .... tion prodUCI when Aultenite ;s
IJoNtv Ihrough the IowfIr <;<itOc.llllmper'tu". It
conoisu of sub-micto.cQPio!: "plll"'" 0< '-min" of Fe .... "
.nd C ..... ntit .
The f)rOCeSl of con",,";ng c.l5I i,OfI inlO WfOU9hl iton.
Rodewe" Hardness '"1 number. 0fI Ill. " c"' .cll1e. thoe OM
normally used 10< herd mlt.nall.
Th. ne me somelimes ulld 10< the critical "mpe<IIU'M.
Silver StMI
TT.T. Curve
V.O P.
Yield Poinl
Society 10< Aulomol;'" Enginee .. (USAI,
Curve .howlng t,_lotma.ion filM ag,lfllrl tempe .. ture
,nd lime (Fig, 161
"OfI o.lde Iorming 0fI the lurl_ of hol 51""
The condiTion where lhe Itoml of one solid IUbstlnc, ...
disposed within lhe CrysT" lallice of ,,,,,,hat .... Iaoou.
10 the more usullliquid lIOIution.
T.mperlIU" which lhe me,,' ... "i.etv solid
I,on-carbon elloy wi th. carbon tonlent between 0.0' "
and I,n(.. 8efore.bout 18S5 the IMm w;os ""i-..1Iy
epfIIied only to -- High Carbon 51'""-- el wtI know it
High Carbon StMI 10 85 1407 5<>--c.Illed bee.use 11 I.
usulllv g.ound.oo 10 Pre .. nlS a ",ilvery" Ippe8r.nce. in
cOfllrlSt 10 Ihe normal bl.ck"' 1001 sleel of earlier d.y,.
TY!>Ic,lIy 1. 1- 1 2" Cerbon. 03..().4% Manag.nes". 0.4-
0.5" Ch,omium. 0. 1"().25% Silicon, and mulm. 01
0.35% Sulphur & Phosphorus.
A tlthelt;ng Pfocen which modifiM the .. ruct" .. of
ileaH""ed "MI. (NOli Ihlt in early booka lhe
11"""'" 01. 11", oft ... refefted to its carbon content ).
'Time-T."-al" .. trenslormlt"'" Curve _ I'" "5'
Cu .... of Fig 10. A ch.an wtlich shows lhe li .... IIk,n lot
con .. en, tem"""u .. trens/OI"ml1ion of Sleel,
Any c:n.nge of '''' microscopic SltuCtu,. 01 chemical
coml)Oi tion of 11"' brougtll .bout by heal Irellm..,t.
Ultrm.te T..,,,le St''''IIth. The Slrlls ., lhe breakrng
paint. me'JUred uflder pn,scribed condition$ on
s tanda,d test pi.ece.
Vickerl Oilmond PYrlmid. Th. VOP numbe, Is. menure
of ' h' hltd"",,. of lhe m.te,1,I.
The Predecessor to IIMI MHIe by dec.rbu,ising ClSl lrOfl
in the pu(IdIing f,,'n.ce_
The IlreSl beyond which .... ,,' will not .. tum to I1I
oOginel lenglh wherI,he load la ,emoved
- -
51 -. - ......
M : ..
_", ..... 0 ..... ",

0 ... .., ..... 0_"' ............ _0 N
....... -........ ,,"' ...... -

! ,I . .1 __ ,I
, . .
1 ;; E
I' ';
Ijl . h
'.11 i'l
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