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EXAMPLE 10.

5-3: Radiation Heat Transfer between Parallel Plates


Figure 1 illustrates two aligned parallel plates, each with dimension a = 1 m x b = 1 m, that are separated by c = 1 m. Plate 1 is at a uniform temperature T1 = 600 K with emissivity 1 = 0.4. Plate 2 is at a uniform temperature T2 = 350 K with emissivity 2 = 0.6. The surroundings are black with temperature T3 = 300 K. Assume that the back side of each plate (i.e., the sides facing away from one another) are insulated so that radiation only occurs from the sides of the plates that are facing one another.
a=1m b=1m plate 2 surroundings, surface (3) T3 = 300 K

3= 1

c=1m plate 1

surface (2) T2 = 350 K

2 = 0.6

surface (1) T1 = 600 K

1 = 0.4

Figure 1: Parallel plates.

a.) Determine the net rate of radiation heat transfer from plates 1 and 2. This problem can be solved either using Eqs. (10-96) and (10-97) or, equivalently, using Eq. (10-100) to compute each of the F parameters and then using Eq. (10-107) to obtain the solution. Here, we will use Eqs. (10-96) and (10-97) to obtain a solution and then use the F parameter to interpret the solution in a way that would not otherwise be possible. Finally, the same solution will be obtained using Eq. (10-107). The inputs are entered in EES; note that 3 is entered as a number close to but not equal to 1 in order to avoid dividing by zero in Eq. (10-96):
"Example 10.5-3" $UnitSystem SI MASS RAD PA K J $TABSTOPS 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 3.5 in a=1 [m] b=1 [m] c=1 [m] T[1]=600 [K] T[2]=350 [K] T[3]=300 [K] "emissivities" e[1]=0.4 [-] e[2]=0.6 [-] e[3]=0.9999 [-] "width of plate in y-direction" "width of plate in x-direction" "plate separation distance" "temperature of plate 1" "temperature of plate 2" "temperature of surroundings"

"emissivity of plate 1" "emissivity of plate 2" "emissivity of surroundings"

The areas of each surface are computed. The areas of the two plates are: A1 = A2 = a b The area of the surroundings (A3) is arbitrary and is set to a large value:
"areas" A[1]=a*b A[2]=a*b A[3]=1e10 [m^2] "area of plate 1" "area of plate 2" "area of surroundings, ~infinite"

The view factors between the surfaces must be determined. The view factor from surface 1 to itself (F1,1) is zero since plate 1 is flat. The view factor from surface 1 to surface 2 may be obtained using the function F3D_1 in EES view factor library. The view factor from surface 1 to the surroundings is obtained using the enclosure rule written for surface 1:
F1,3 = 1 F1,1 F1, 2
"view factors" "surface 1" F[1,1]=0 F[1,2]=F3D_1(a,b,c) F[1,3]=1-F[1,1]-F[1,2]

"plate 1 cannot see itself" "view factor from surface 1 to 2" "enclosure rule written for plate 1"

The view factor from surface 2 to surface 1 is determined by reciprocity:


F2 ,1 = A1 F1,2 A2

The view factor from surface 2 to itself (F2,2) must be zero since plate 2 is also flat. The view factor from surface 2 to the surface 3 is obtained using the enclosure rule written for surface 2:

F2,3 = 1 F2,1 F2 ,2
"surface 2" F[2,1]=A[1]*F[1,2]/A[2] F[2,2]=0 F[2,3]=1-F[2,1]-F[2,2] "reciprocity between surfaces 2 and 1" "plate 2 cannot see itself" "enclosure rule written for plate 2"

The view factors between surface 3 and surfaces 1 and 2 are determined from reciprocity:
F3,1 = A1 F1,3 A3 A2 F2 ,3 A3

F3, 2 =

The view factor from the surroundings to itself is obtained using the enclosure rule written for surface 3: F3,3 = 1 F3,1 F3,2
"surface 3" F[3,1]=A[1]*F[1,3]/A[3] F[3,2]=A[2]*F[2,3]/A[3] F[3,3]=1-F[3,1]-F[3,2] "reciprocity between surfaces 1 and 3" "reciprocity between surfaces 2 and 3" "enclosure rule written for surroundings"

Equations (10-96) and (10-97) are written for each surface: qi = i Ai ( Eb ,i J i ) for i = 1...3

(1 i )

qi =Ai Fi , j ( J i J j ) for i = 1...3


3 j =1

"Radiosity method" duplicate i=1,3 q_dot[i]=e[i]*A[i]*(E_b[i]-J[i])/(1-e[i]) q_dot[i]=A[i]*sum(F[i,j]*(J[i]-J[j]),j=1,3) end

The boundary conditions for each surface correspond to the specified temperature:
Eb ,i = Ti 4 for i = 1...3
"boundary conditions" E_b[1]=sigma#*T[1]^4 E_b[2]=sigma#*T[2]^4 E_b[3]=sigma#*T[3]^4

Solving the problem leads to the net heat transfer from each surface. The net heat transfer from plate 1 is q1 = 2719 W (i.e., 2719 W must be provided to surface 1 in order to keep it at T1 = 600 K) and the net heat transfer from plate 2 is q2 = -102 W (i.e., 102 W must be removed from surface 2 in order to keep it at T2 = 350 K). b.) Determine the rate of heat transfer from plate 1 to plate 2. The heat transfer from surface 1 to surface 2 cannot be computed directly using the solution obtained in part (a); in order to determine q1 to 2 , it is necessary to determine the F parameters for the system using Eq. (10-100):

Fi , j = Fi , j + (1 k ) Fi , k Fk , j for i = 1..3 and j = 1..3


k =1

"determine F-hat parameters" duplicate i=1,3 duplicate j=1,3 F_hat[i,j]=F[i,j]+sum((1-e[k])*F[i,k]*F_hat[k,j],k=1,3) end end

Once the view factors for the system have been determined, it is possible to use Eq. (10-106) to determine the net rate of heat transfer from plate 1 to plate 2:
q1 to 2 = 2 1 A1 F1, 2 T14 T24
q_dot_1to2=sigma#*e[2]*e[1]*A[1]*F_hat[1,2]*(T[1]^4-T[2]^4)

"heat transfer between surfaces 1 and 2"

which leads to q1 to 2 = 314.6 W. It is interesting to note that the problem could be solved using the F parameters rather than using Eqs. (10-96) and (10-97). The corresponding equations are commented out:
{"Radiosity method" duplicate i=1,3 q_dot[i]=e[i]*A[i]*(E_b[i]-J[i])/(1-e[i]) q_dot[i]=A[i]*sum(F[i,j]*(J[i]-J[j]),j=1,3) end}

and instead Eq. (10-107) is written for each surface:


qi = i Ai j Fi , j Ti 4 T j4
j =1
3

for i = 1..3

"solution using the F-hat equations" duplicate i=1,3 q_dot[i]=e[i]*A[i]*sigma#*sum(e[j]*F_hat[i,j]*(T[i]^4-T[j]^4),j=1,3) end

which leads to q1 = 2719 W and q2 = -102 W; the same answer that was found in part (a).