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The Top 10 Leadership Qualities

Updated: May 26, 2009

Leadership can be defined as one's ability to get others to willingly follow. Every organization needs leaders at every level. Leaders can be found and nurtured if you look for the following character traits. A leader with vision has a clear, vivid picture of where to go, as well as a firm grasp on what success looks like and how to achieve it. But it's not enough to have a vision; leaders must also share it and act upon it. Jack Welch, former chairman and CEO of General Electric Co., said, "Good business leaders create a vision, articulate the vision, passionately own the vision and relentlessly drive it to completion." A leader must be able to communicate his or her vision in terms that cause followers to buy into it. He or she must communicate clearly and passionately, as passion is contagious. A good leader must have the discipline to work toward his or her vision single-mindedly, as well as to direct his or her actions and those of the team toward the goal. Action is the mark of a leader. A leader does not suffer "analysis paralysis" but is always doing something in pursuit of the vision, inspiring others to do the same.

Integrity is the integration of outward actions and inner values. A person of integrity is the same on the outside and on the inside. Such an individual can be trusted because he or she never veers from inner values, even when it might be expeditious to do so. A leader must have the trust of followers and therefore must display integrity. Honest dealings, predictable reactions, well-controlled emotions, and an absence of tantrums and harsh outbursts are all signs of integrity. A leader who is centered in integrity will be more approachable by followers. Dedication means spending whatever time or energy is necessary to accomplish the task at hand. A leader inspires dedication by example, doing whatever it takes to complete the next step toward the vision. By setting an excellent example, leaders can show followers that there are no nine-to-five jobs on the team, only opportunities to achieve something great. Magnanimity means giving credit where it is due. A magnanimous leader ensures that credit for successes is spread as widely as possible throughout the company. Conversely, a good leader takes personal responsibility for failures. This sort of reverse magnanimity helps other people feel good about themselves and draws the team closer together. To spread the fame and take the blame is a hallmark of effective leadership. Leaders with humility recognize that they are no better or worse than other members of the team. A humble leader is not self-effacing but rather tries to elevate everyone. Leaders with humility also understand that their status does not make them a god. Mahatma Gandhi is a role model for Indian leaders, and he pursued a "follower-centric" leadership role. Openness means being able to listen to new ideas, even if they do not conform to the usual way of thinking. Good leaders are able to suspend judgment while listening to others' ideas, as well as accept new ways of doing things that someone else thought of. Openness builds mutual respect and trust between leaders and followers, and it also keeps the team well supplied with new ideas that can further its vision. Creativity is the ability to think differently, to get outside of the box that constrains solutions. Creativity gives leaders the ability to see things that others have not seen and thus lead followers in new directions. The most important question that a leader can ask is, "What if ?" Possibly the worst thing a leader can say is, "I know this is a dumb question ... " Fairness means dealing with others consistently and justly. A leader must check all the facts and hear everyone out before passing judgment. He or she must avoid leaping to conclusions based on incomplete evidence. When people feel they that are being treated fairly, they reward a leader with loyalty and dedication. Assertiveness is not the same as aggressiveness. Rather, it is the ability to clearly state what one expects so that there will be no misunderstandings. A leader must be assertive to get the desired results. Along with assertiveness comes the responsibility to clearly understand what followers expect from their leader. Many leaders have difficulty striking the right amount of assertiveness, according to a study in the February 2007 issue of the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, published by the APA (American Psychological Association). It seems that being underassertive or overassertive may be the most common weakness among aspiring leaders. A sense of humor is vital to relieve tension and boredom, as well as to defuse hostility. Effective leaders know how to use humor to energize followers. Humor is a form of power that provides some control over the work environment. And simply put, humor fosters good camaraderie.

Intrinsic traits such as intelligence, good looks, height and so on are not necessary to become a leader. Anyone can cultivate the proper leadership traits.

Thousands of articles and books have been published describing what it takes to be a superior organizational leader. Some researchers and authors claim a superior leader possesses certain traits or abilities; others say it's all personality. Still others maintain it's the behaviors--not necessarily the intentions or thoughts--that are crucial. Whatever your viewpoint, it boils down to this: successful leaders share the following characteristics or views: 1. Mission: Leaders know what their mission is. They know why the organization exists. A superior leader has a well thought out (often written) mission describing the purpose of the organization. That purpose need not be esoteric or abstract, but rather descriptive, clear and understandable. Every employee should be able to identify with the mission and strive to achieve it. 2. 3. Vision: Where do you want your organization to go? A vision needs to be abstract enough to encourage people to imagine it but concrete enough for followers to see it, understand it and be willing to climb onboard to fulfill it. Goal: How is the organization going to achieve its mission and vision and how will you measure your progress? Like a vision, goals need to be operational; that is specific and measurable. If your output and results can't be readily measured, then it will be difficult to know if you have achieved your purpose. You may have wasted important resources (time, money, people, and equipment) pursuing a strategy or plan without knowing if it truly succeeded. <insert ad here> 4. Competency: You must be seen by your advisors, stakeholders, employees, and the public as being an expert in your field or an expert in leadership. Unless your constituents see you as highly credentialed--either by academic degree or with specialized experience--and capable of leading your company to success, it will be more difficult for you to be as respected, admired, or followed. Practically speaking, not all executives immediately possess all of the characteristics that spell success. Many leaders learn along the way with hard work. As crises and challenges arise, those at the top of the hierarchy have key opportunities to demonstrate to others that they are in fact, qualified to be leaders. In actuality, greater competency can be achieved as a leader gains more onthe-job experiences. 5. A strong team: Realistically, few executives possess all of the skills and abilities necessary to demonstrate total mastery of every requisite area within the organization. To complement the areas of weakness, a wise leader assembles effective teams of experienced, credentialed, and capable individuals who can supplement any voids in the leader's skill set. This ability is what sets leaders apart from others. However, the leader needs to be willing to admit he lacks certain abilities and go about finding trusted colleagues to complement those deficiencies. After building the team, the entrepreneur needs to trust that team to understand issues, create solutions, and to act on them. 6. Communication skills: It does little good to have a strong mission, vision, and goals--and even a solid budget--if the executive cannot easily and effectively convey his ideas to the stakeholders inside and outside of the organization. He must regularly be in touch with key individuals, by email, v-mail, meetings, or other forms of correspondence. Of course, the best way to ensure other people receive and understand the message is with face-to-face interactions. Getting out of the office or touring different sites is an irreplaceable method of building rapport and sending and receiving messages. "Management By Walking Around," or MBWA, meeting employees at their workstations or conference rooms, or joining them for lunch are just a few of the many effective approaches leaders can use to develop positive contacts with employees. 7. Interpersonal skills: Successful entrepreneurs are comfortable relating to other people; they easily create rapport and are at least more extroverted than they are introverted. These factors help leaders seem approachable, likeable, and comfortable in their position. Those qualities contribute to staff wanting to interact with their leader. They also help motivate employees to do a better job. When workers can relate to their boss, they believe that their boss is more concerned about them, with their performance, and with their output. Furthermore, they believe that they can go to their boss with problems they encounter on the job without fearing consequences for not knowing how to resolve issues. Not all entrepreneurs are adept at interpersonal skills. Those that aren't, might find it helpful to take a course, choose a mentor or locate a therapist to help them build interpersonal skills. The intangible cost is too high to not improve these abilities. In addition,

here's where a strong team comes into play. The less experienced leader who is still learning these skills can rely on the team to get out and to "press the flesh," interact with employees, and spread a positive attitude to help develop morale. 8. A "can do, get it done" attitude: Nothing builds a picture of success more than achievement, and achievement is the number one factor that motivates just about everyone across all cultures. When employees see that their boss can lead and direct, has a clear vision and attainable goals, and actually gains results in a timely manner, then that person's credibility increases throughout the organization. Entrepreneurs must modestly demonstrate their skills to give their constituents valid reasons to appreciate and value their efforts. 9. Inspiration: Quite often, employees need someone to look up to for direction, guidance, and motivation. The entrepreneur needs to be that person. Hopefully, Human Resources has hired self-motivated individuals. Nevertheless, there are times, when many employees need the boss to inspire them by word or action. Employees need someone to look up to, admire, and follow. Even when the production or delivery of services looks like "it is all going well," the leader may at times need to step in personally to offer a suggestion or encouragement to ensure that employees perform their jobs in an optimal manner. 10. Ambition: Resting on your laurels is bad for employee morale and entrepreneurial credibility. Employees need to be constantly striving for improvement and success; and they need to see the same and more in their leaders. When the boss is seen as someone who works to attain increasingly higher goals, employees will be impressed and more willing to mirror that behavior. It's a win-win for everyone. The basic message in this article is that you as the owner/entrepreneur need to "be out there" for your employees. Continually demonstrate to them why and how you earned the position you now hold. Communicate with them using any of a variety of methods that show them you are worthy of being followed. Make that process inspiring and positive and you can almost guarantee that your results will be consistent with your efforts.

Leadership has been described as a process of social influence in which one person can enlist the aid and support of others in the accomplishment of a common task".[1] Other in-depth definitions of leadership have also emerged.

1 Theories

o o o o o

1.1 Early western history 1.2 Rise of alternative theories 1.3 Reemergence of trait theory 1.4 Attribute pattern approach 1.5 Behavioral and style theories

o o o o o o
2 Styles

1.5.1 Positive reinforcement

1.6 Situational and contingency theories 1.7 Functional theory 1.8 Integrated psychological theory 1.9 Transactional and transformational theories 1.10 Emotions 1.11 Neo-emergent theory

2.1 Autocratic or authoritarian style

o o o o

2.2 Participative or democratic style 2.3 Laissez-faire or free-rein style 2.4 Narcissistic leadership 2.5 Toxic leadership

3 Practices

3.1 Engaging employees

4 Performance 5 The ontologicalphenomenological model for leadership 6 Contexts

o o o o o

6.1 Organizations 6.2 Management 6.3 Group leadership 6.4 Self-leadership 6.5 Primates

7 Historical views 8 Leadership myths

o o o o o o

8.1 Leadership is innate 8.2 Leadership is possessing power over others 8.3 Leaders are positively influential 8.4 Leaders entirely control group outcomes 8.5 All groups have a designated leader 8.6 Group members resist leaders

9 Action-oriented environments 10 Titles emphasizing authority 11 Critical thought

11.1 Varieties of individual power

12 See also

o o o

12.1 Other types and theories 12.2 Contexts 12.3 Related articles

13 References 14 Further reading 15 External links

[edit]Theories Leadership is "organizing a group of people to achieve a common goal". The leader may or may not have any formal authority. Students of leadership [2] [3] have produced theories involving traits, situational interaction, function, behavior, power, vision and values, charisma, and intelligence, among others. Somebody whom people follow: somebody who guides or directs others. [edit]Early

western history

The search for the characteristics or traits of leaders has been ongoing for centuries. History's greatest philosophical writings from Plato's Republic to Plutarch's Lives have explored the question "What qualities distinguish an individual as a leader?" Underlying this search was the early recognition of the importance of leadership and the assumption that leadership is rooted in the characteristics that certain individuals possess. This idea that leadership is based on individual attributes is known as the "trait theory of leadership". The trait theory was explored at length in a number of works in the 19th century. Most notable are the writings of Thomas Carlyle and Francis Galton, [4] whose works have prompted decades of research. In Heroes and Hero Worship (1841), Carlyle identified the talents, skills, and physical characteristics of men who rose to power. In Galton's Hereditary Genius (1869), he examined leadership qualities in the families of powerful men. After showing that the numbers of eminent relatives dropped off when moving from first degree to second degree relatives, Galton concluded that leadership was inherited. In other words, leaders were born, not developed. Both of these notable works lent great initial support for the notion that leadership is rooted in characteristics of the leader. [edit]Rise

of alternative theories

In the late 1940s and early 1950s, however, a series of qualitative reviews of these studies (e.g., Bird, 1940;[5] Stogdill, 1948;[6] Mann, 1959[7]) prompted researchers to take a drastically different view of the driving forces behind leadership. In reviewing the extant literature, Stogdill and Mann found that while some traits were common across a number of studies, the overall evidence suggested that persons who are leaders in one situation may not necessarily be leaders in other situations. Subsequently, leadership was no longer characterized as an enduring individual trait, as situational approaches (see alternative leadership theories below) posited that individuals can be effective in certain situations, but not others. This approach dominated much of the leadership theory and research for the next few decades. [edit]Reemergence

of trait theory

New methods and measurements were developed after these influential reviews that would ultimately reestablish the trait theory as a viable approach to the study of leadership. For example, improvements in researchers' use of the round robin research design methodology allowed researchers to see that individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks.[8] Additionally, during the 1980s statistical advances allowed researchers to conduct meta-analyses, in which they could quantitatively analyze and summarize the findings from a wide array of studies. This advent allowed trait theorists to create a comprehensive picture of previous leadership research rather than rely on the qualitative reviews of the past. Equipped with new methods, leadership researchers revealed the following:

Individuals can and do emerge as leaders across a variety of situations and tasks.[8] Significant relationships exist between leadership and such individual traits as:

intelligence[9] adjustment[9] extraversion[9] conscientiousness[10][11][12] openness to experience[11][13] general self-efficacy[14][15]

While the trait theory of leadership has certainly regained popularity, its reemergence has not been accompanied by a corresponding increase in sophisticated conceptual frameworks.[16] Specifically, Zaccaro (2007)[16] noted that trait theories still:

1. 2. 3. 4.

focus on a small set of individual attributes such as Big Five personality traits, to the neglect of cognitive abilities, motives, values, social skills, expertise, and problem-solving skills; fail to consider patterns or integrations of multiple attributes; do not distinguish between those leader attributes that are generally not malleable over time and those that are shaped by, and bound to, situational influences; do not consider how stable leader attributes account for the behavioral diversity necessary for effective leadership.


pattern approach

Considering the criticisms of the trait theory outlined above, several researchers have begun to adopt a different perspective of leader individual [15][17][18][19][20] differencesthe leader attribute pattern approach. In contrast to the traditional approach, the leader attribute pattern approach is based on theorists' arguments that the influence of individual characteristics on outcomes is best understood by considering the person as an [19][21] integrated totality rather than a summation of individual variables. In other words, the leader attribute pattern approach argues that integrated constellations or combinations of individual differences may explain substantial variance in both leader emergence and leader effectiveness beyond that explained by single attributes, or by additive combinations of multiple attributes. [edit]Behavioral

and style theories

Main article: Managerial grid model In response to the early criticisms of the trait approach, theorists began to research leadership as a set of behaviors, evaluating the behavior of [22] successful leaders, determining a behavior taxonomy, and identifying broad leadership styles. David McClelland, for example, posited that leadership takes a strong personality with a well-developed positive ego. To lead, self-confidence and high self-esteem are useful, perhaps even [23] essential.

A graphical representation of the managerial grid model

Kurt Lewin, Ronald Lipitt, and Ralph White developed in 1939 the seminal work on the influence of leadership styles and performance. The researchers evaluated the performance of groups of eleven-year-old boys under different types of work climate. In each, the leader exercised his influence regarding the type of group decision making, praise and criticism (feedback), and the management of the group tasks (project management) according to three styles:authoritarian, democratic, and laissez-faire.[24] The managerial grid model is also based on a behavioral theory. The model was developed by Robert Blake and Jane Mouton in 1964 and suggests five different leadership styles, based on the leaders' concern for people and their concern for goal achievement.[25] [edit]Positive reinforcement B.F. Skinner is the father of behavior modification and developed the concept of positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when a positive stimulus is presented in response to a behavior, increasing the likelihood of that behavior in the future.[26] The following is an example of how positive reinforcement can be used in a business setting. Assume praise is a positive reinforcer for a particular employee. This employee does not show up to work on time every day. The manager of this employee decides to praise the employee for showing up on time every day the employee actually shows up to work on time. As a result, the employee comes to work on time more often because the employee likes to be praised. In this example, praise (the stimulus) is a positive reinforcer for this employee because the employee arrives at work on time (the behavior) more frequently after being praised for showing up to work on time. The use of positive reinforcement is a successful and growing technique used by leaders to motivate and attain desired behaviors from subordinates. Organizations such as Frito-Lay, 3M, Goodrich, Michigan Bell, and Emery Air Freight have all used reinforcement to increase productivity.[27] Empirical research covering the last 20 years suggests that reinforcement theory has a 17 percent increase in performance. Additionally, many reinforcement techniques such as the use of praise are inexpensive, providing higher performance for lower costs. [edit]Situational

and contingency theories

Main articles: Fiedler contingency model, VroomYetton decision model, pathgoal theory, and situational leadership theory Situational theory also appeared as a reaction to the trait theory of leadership. Social scientists argued that history was more than the result of intervention of great men as Carlyle suggested.Herbert Spencer (1884) (and Karl Marx) said that the times produce the person and not the other

way around. This theory assumes that different situations call for different characteristics; according to this group of theories, no single optimal psychographic profile of a leader exists. According to the theory, "what an individual actually does when acting as a leader is in large part [29] dependent upon characteristics of the situation in which he functions." Some theorists started to synthesize the trait and situational approaches. Building upon the research of Lewin et al., academics began to normalize the descriptive models of leadership climates, defining three leadership styles and identifying which situations each style works better in. The authoritarian leadership style, for example, is approved in periods of crisis but fails to win the "hearts and minds" of followers in day-today management; the democratic leadership style is more adequate in situations that require consensus building; finally, the laissez-faire leadership style is appreciated for the degree of freedom it provides, but as the leaders do not "take charge", they can be perceived as a failure [30] in protracted or thorny organizational problems. Thus, theorists defined the style of leadership as contingent to the situation, which is sometimes classified as contingency theory. Four contingency leadership theories appear more prominently in recent years: Fiedler contingency model, Vroom-Yetton decision model, the path-goal theory, and the Hersey-Blanchard situational theory. The Fiedler contingency model bases the leader's effectiveness on what Fred Fiedler called situational contingency. This results from the interaction of leadership style and situational favorability (later called situational control). The theory defined two types of leader: those who tend to accomplish the task by developing good relationships with the group (relationship-oriented), and those who have as their prime concern [31] carrying out the task itself (task-oriented). According to Fiedler, there is no ideal leader. Both task-oriented and relationship-oriented leaders can be effective if their leadership orientation fits the situation. When there is a good leader-member relation, a highly structured task, and high leader position power, the situation is considered a "favorable situation". Fiedler found that task-oriented leaders are more effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations, whereas relationship-oriented leaders perform best in situations with intermediate favorability. Victor Vroom, in collaboration with Phillip Yetton (1973)[32] and later with Arthur Jago (1988),[33] developed a taxonomy for describing leadership situations, which was used in a normative decision model where leadership styles were connected to situational variables, defining which approach was more suitable to which situation.[34] This approach was novel because it supported the idea that the same manager could rely on different group decision making approaches depending on the attributes of each situation. This model was later referred to as situational contingency theory.[35] The path-goal theory of leadership was developed by Robert House (1971) and was based on the expectancy theory of Victor Vroom.[36] According to House, the essence of the theory is "the meta proposition that leaders, to be effective, engage in behaviors that complement subordinates' environments and abilities in a manner that compensates for deficiencies and is instrumental to subordinate satisfaction and individual and work unit performance".[37] The theory identifies four leader behaviors, achievementoriented, directive, participative, and supportive, that are contingent to the environment factors and follower characteristics. In contrast to the Fiedler contingency model, the path-goal model states that the four leadership behaviors are fluid, and that leaders can adopt any of the four depending on what the situation demands. The path-goal model can be classified both as a contingency theory, as it depends on the circumstances, and as a transactional leadership theory, as the theory emphasizes the reciprocity behavior between the leader and the followers. The situational leadership model proposed by Hersey and Blanchard suggests four leadership-styles and four levels of follower-development. For effectiveness, the model posits that the leadership-style must match the appropriate level of follower-development. In this model, leadership behavior becomes a function not only of the characteristics of the leader, but of the characteristics of followers as well.[38] [edit]Functional



Main article: Functional leadership model Functional leadership theory (Hackman & Walton, 1986; McGrath, 1962; Adair, 1988; Kouzes & Posner, 1995) is a particularly useful theory for addressing specific leader behaviors expected to contribute to organizational or unit effectiveness. This theory argues that the leader's main job is to see that whatever is necessary to group needs is taken care of; thus, a leader can be said to have done their job well when they have contributed to group effectiveness and cohesion (Fleishman et al., 1991; Hackman & Wageman, 2005; Hackman & Walton, 1986). While functional leadership theory has most often been applied to team leadership (Zaccaro, Rittman, & Marks, 2001), it has also been effectively applied to broader organizational leadership as well (Zaccaro, 2001). In summarizing literature on functional leadership (see Kozlowski et al. (1996), Zaccaro et al. (2001), Hackman and Walton (1986), Hackman & Wageman (2005), Morgeson (2005)), Klein, Zeigert, Knight, and Xiao (2006) observed five broad functions a leader performs when promoting organization's effectiveness. These functions include environmental monitoring, organizing subordinate activities, teaching and coaching subordinates, motivating others, and intervening actively in the group's work. A variety of leadership behaviors are expected to facilitate these functions. In initial work identifying leader behavior, Fleishman (1953) observed that subordinates perceived their supervisors' behavior in terms of two broad categories referred to as consideration and initiating structure. Consideration includes behavior involved in fostering effective relationships. Examples of such behavior would include showing concern for a subordinate or acting in a supportive manner towards others. Initiating structure involves the actions of the leader focused specifically on task accomplishment. This could include role clarification, setting performance standards, and holding subordinates accountable to those standards. [edit]Integrated

psychological theory

Main article: Three Levels of Leadership model

The Integrated Psychological theory of leadership is an attempt to integrate the strengths of the older theories (i.e. traits, behavioral/styles, situational and functional) while addressing their limitations, largely by introducing a new element the need for leaders to develop their leadership presence, attitude toward others and behavioral flexibility by practicing psychological mastery. It also offers a foundation for leaders wanting to apply the philosophies of servant leadership and authentic leadership.[39] Integrated Psychological theory began to attract attention after the publication of James Scoullers Three Levels of Leadership [40] [41] model (2011). Scouller argued that the older theories offer only limited assistance in developing a persons ability to lead effectively. He pointed out, for example, that:

Traits theories, which tend to reinforce the idea that leaders are born not made, might help us select leaders, but they are less useful for developing leaders. An ideal style (e.g. Blake & Moutons team style) would not suit all circumstances. Most of the situational/contingency and functional theories assume that leaders can change their behavior to meet differing circumstances or widen their behavioral range at will, when in practice many find it hard to do so because of unconscious beliefs, fears or ingrained habits. Thus, he argued, leaders need to work on their inner psychology. None of the old theories successfully address the challenge of developing leadership presence; that certain something in leaders that commands attention, inspires people, wins their trust and makes followers want to work with them.

Scouller therefore proposed the Three Levels of Leadership model, which was later categorized as an Integrated Psychological theory on the Businessballs education website.[42] In essence, his model summarizes what leaders have to do, not only to bring leadership to their group or organization, but also to develop themselves technically and psychologically as leaders. The three levels in his model are Public, Private and Personal leadership:

The first two public and private leadership are outer or behavioral levels. These are the behaviors that address what Scouller called the four dimensions of leadership. These dimensions are: (1) a shared, motivating group purpose; (2) action, progress and results; (3) collective unity or team spirit; (4) individual selection and motivation. Public Leadership focuses on the 34 behaviors involved in influencing two or more people simultaneously. Private Leadership covers the 12 behaviors needed to influence individuals one to one. The third personal leadership is an inner level and concerns a persons growth toward greater leadership presence, knowhow and skill. Working on ones personal leadership has three aspects: (1) Technical knowhow and skill (2) Developing the right attitude toward other people which is the basis of servant leadership (3) Psychological self-mastery the foundation for authentic leadership.

Scouller argued that self-mastery is the key to growing ones leadership presence, building trusting relationships with followers and dissolving ones limiting beliefs and habits, thereby enabling behavioral flexibility as circumstances change, while staying connected to ones core values (that is, while remaining authentic). To support leaders development, he introduced a new model of the human psyche and outlined the principles and techniques of self-mastery.[43] [edit]Transactional

and transformational theories

Main articles: Transactional leadership and Transformational leadership Eric Berne[44] first analyzed the relations between a group and its leadership in terms of transactional analysis. The transactional leader (Burns, 1978)[45] is given power to perform certain tasks and reward or punish for the team's performance. It gives the opportunity to the manager to lead the group and the group agrees to follow his lead to accomplish a predetermined goal in exchange for something else. Power is given to the leader to evaluate, correct, and train subordinates when productivity is not up to the desired level, and reward effectiveness when expected outcome is reached. Idiosyncrasy Credits, first posited by Edward Hollander (1971) is one example of a concept closely related to transactional leadership. [edit]Emotions Leadership can be perceived as a particularly emotion-laden process, with emotions entwined with the social influence process.[46] In an organization, the leader's mood has some effects on his/her group. These effects can be described in three levels:[47]


The mood of individual group members. Group members with leaders in a positive mood experience more positive mood than do group members with leaders in a negative mood. The leaders transmit their moods to other group members through the mechanism of emotional contagion.[47] Mood contagion may be one of the psychological mechanisms by whichcharismatic leaders influence followers.[48] The affective tone of the group. Group affective tone represents the consistent or homogeneous affective reactions within a group. Group affective tone is an aggregate of the moods of the individual members of the group and refers to mood at the group level of analysis. Groups with leaders in a positive mood have a more positive affective tone than do groups with leaders in a negative mood.[47] Group processes like coordination, effort expenditure, and task strategy. Public expressions of mood impact how group members think and act. When people experience and express mood, they send signals to others. Leaders signal their goals, intentions, and attitudes through their expressions of moods. For example, expressions of positive moods by leaders signal that leaders deem



progress toward goals to be good. The group members respond to those signals cognitively and behaviorally in ways that are [47] reflected in the group processes. In research about client service, it was found that expressions of positive mood by the leader improve the performance of the group, although in other sectors there were other findings.[49] Beyond the leader's mood, her/his behavior is a source for employee positive and negative emotions at work. The leader creates situations and events that lead to emotional response. Certain leader behaviors displayed during interactions with their employees are the sources of these affective events. Leaders shape workplace affective events. Examples feedback giving, allocating tasks, resource distribution. Since employee behavior and productivity are directly affected by their emotional states, it is imperative to consider employee emotional responses to [50] organizational leaders. Emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership within organizations.[49] [edit]Neo-emergent


Main article: Functional leadership model The neo-emergent leadership theory (from the Oxford school of leadership) espouses that leadership is created through the emergence of information by the leader or other stakeholders, not through the true actions of the leader himself. In other words, the reproduction of information or stories form the basis of the perception of leadership by the majority. It is well known that the great naval hero Lord Nelson often wrote his own versions of battles he was involved in, so that when he arrived home in England he would receive a true hero's welcome. [citation needed] In modern society, the press, blogs and other sources report their own views of a leader, which may be based on reality, but may also be based on a political command, a payment, or an inherent interest of the author, media, or leader. Therefore, it can be contended that the perception of all leaders is created and in fact does not reflect their true leadership qualities at all. [edit]Styles Main article: Leadership styles A leadership style is a leader's style of providing direction, implementing plans, and motivating people. It is the result of the philosophy, personality, and experience of the leader. Rhetoric specialists have also developed models for understanding leadership (Robert Hariman, Political Style,[51] Philippe-Joseph Salazar, L'Hyperpolitique. Technologies politiques De La Domination[52]). Different situations call for different leadership styles. In an emergency when there is little time to converge on an agreement and where a designated authority has significantly more experience or expertise than the rest of the team, an autocratic leadership style may be most effective; however, in a highly motivated and aligned team with a homogeneous level of expertise, a more democratic or laissez-faire style may be more effective. The style adopted should be the one that most effectively achieves the objectives of the group while balancing the interests of its individual members.[53] [edit]Autocratic

or authoritarian style

Under the autocratic leadership style, all decision-making powers are centralized in the leader, as with dictators. Leaders do not entertain any suggestions or initiatives from subordinates. The autocratic management has been successful as it provides strong motivation to the manager. It permits quick decision-making, as only one person decides for the whole group and keeps each decision to him/herself until he/she feels it needs to be shared with the rest of the group.[53] [edit]Participative

or democratic style

The democratic leadership style consists of the leader sharing the decision-making abilities with group members by promoting the interests of the group members and by practicing social equality. [edit]Laissez-faire

or free-rein style

A person may be in a leadership position without providing leadership, leaving the group to fend for itself. Subordinates are given a free hand in deciding their own policies and methods. [edit]Narcissistic


Main article: Narcissistic leadership Narcissistic leadership is [Definition missing]. It is a common leadership style. The narcissism may range from anywhere between healthy and destructive. [edit]Toxic


Main article: Toxic leader A toxic leader is someone who has responsibility over a group of people or an organization, and who abuses the leaderfollower relationship by leaving the group or organization in a worse-off condition than when he/she joined it.


This section requires expansion.(September

There are four key practices to lead organizations through tough times: Informed personnel decisions, defining roles and expectations, continual skill development, and engaging employees.[54] [edit]Engaging

[vague] [fix]

Engaging employees as part of leadership has been mentioned in various literature. Cohen writes "these initiatives do for the organization is engage both leaders and employees in understanding the existing conditions and how they can collectively assist in addressing them. Reaching out to employees during difficult times to better understand their concerns and interests by openly and honestly conveying the impact of the downturn on them and their organizations can provide a solid foundation for not only engaging them but retaining them when things do [54] turn around". [edit]Performance In the past, some researchers have argued that the actual influence of leaders on organizational outcomes is overrated and romanticized as a result of biased attributions about leaders (Meindl & Ehrlich, 1987). Despite these assertions, however, it is largely recognized and accepted by practitioners and researchers that leadership is important, and research supports the notion that leaders do contribute to key organizational outcomes (Day & Lord, 1988; Kaiser, Hogan, & Craig, 2008). To facilitate successful performance it is important to understand and accurately measure leadership performance. Job performance generally refers to behavior that is expected to contribute to organizational success (Campbell, 1990). Campbell identified a number of specific types of performance dimensions; leadership was one of the dimensions that he identified. There is no consistent, overall definition of leadership performance (Yukl, 2006). Many distinct conceptualizations are often lumped together under the umbrella of leadership performance, including outcomes such as leader effectiveness, leader advancement, and leader emergence (Kaiser et al., 2008). For instance, leadership performance may be used to refer to the career success of the individual leader, performance of the group or organization, or even leader emergence. Each of these measures can be considered conceptually distinct. While these aspects may be related, they are different outcomes and their inclusion should depend on the applied or research focus. [edit]The

ontologicalphenomenological model for leadership

One of the more recent definitions of leadership comes from Werner Erhard, Michael C. Jensen, Steve Zaffron, and Kari Granger who describe leadership as an exercise in language that results in the realization of a future that wasnt going to happen anyway, which future fulfills (or contributes to fulfilling) the concerns of the relevant parties. This definition ensures that leadership is talking about the future and includes the fundamental concerns of the relevant parties. This differs from relating to the relevant parties as followers and calling up an image of a single leader with others following. Rather, a future that fulfills on the fundamental concerns of the relevant parties indicates the future that wasnt going to happen is not the idea of the leader, but rather is what emerges from digging deep to find the underlying concerns of those who are impacted by the leadership.[55] [edit]Contexts [edit]Organizations An organization that is established as an instrument or means for achieving defined objectives has been referred to as a formal organization. Its design specifies how goals are subdivided and reflected in subdivisions of the organization. Divisions, departments, sections, positions, jobs, and tasks make up this work structure. Thus, the formal organization is expected to behave impersonally in regard to relationships with clients or with its members. According to Weber's definition, entry and subsequent advancement is by merit or seniority. Employees receive a salary and enjoy a degree of tenure that safeguards them from the arbitrary influence of superiors or of powerful clients. The higher one's position in the hierarchy, the greater one's presumed expertise in adjudicating problems that may arise in the course of the work carried out at lower levels of the organization. It is this bureaucratic structure that forms the basis for the appointment of heads or chiefs of administrative subdivisions in the organization and endows them with the authority attached to their position.[56] In contrast to the appointed head or chief of an administrative unit, a leader emerges within the context of the informal organization that underlies the formal structure. The informal organization expresses the personal objectives and goals of the individual membership. Their objectives and goals may or may not coincide with those of the formal organization. The informal organization represents an extension of the social structures that generally characterize human life the spontaneous emergence of groups and organizations as ends in themselves. In prehistoric times, humanity was preoccupied with personal security, maintenance, protection, and survival. Now humanity spends a major portion of waking hours working for organizations. The need to identify with a community that provides security, protection, maintenance, and a

feeling of belonging has continued unchanged from prehistoric times. This need is met by the informal organization and its emergent, or [57][58] unofficial, leaders. Leaders emerge from within the structure of the informal organization. Their personal qualities, the demands of the situation, or a combination of these and other factors attract followers who accept their leadership within one or several overlay structures. Instead of the authority of position held by an appointed head or chief, the emergent leader wields influence or power. Influence is the ability of a person to gain co-operation from others by means of persuasion or control over rewards. Power is a stronger form of influence because it reflects a person's ability to enforce [57] action through the control of a means of punishment. A leader is a person who influences a group of people towards a specific result. It is not dependent on title or formal authority. (Elevos, paraphrased from Leaders, Bennis, and Leadership Presence, Halpern & Lubar.) Ogbonnia (2007) defines an effective leader "as an individual with the capacity to consistently succeed in a given condition and be viewed as meeting the expectations of an organization or society." Leaders are recognized by their capacity for caring for others, clear communication, and a commitment to persist.[59] An individual who is appointed to a managerial position has the right to command and enforce obedience by virtue of the authority of their position. However, she or he must possess adequate personal attributes to match this authority, because authority is only potentially available to him/her. In the absence of sufficient personal competence, a manager may be confronted by an emergent leader who can challenge her/his role in the organization and reduce it to that of a figurehead. However, only authority of position has the backing of formal sanctions. It follows that whoever wields personal influence and power can legitimize this only by gaining a formal position in the hierarchy, with commensurate authority. [57] Leadership can be [60] defined as one's ability to get others to willingly follow. Every organization needs leaders at every level. [edit]Management Over the years the philosophical terminology of "management" and "leadership" have, in the organizational context, been used both as synonyms and with clearly differentiated meanings. Debate is fairly common about whether the use of these terms should be restricted, and generally reflects an awareness of the distinction made by Burns (1978) between "transactional" leadership (characterized by e.g. emphasis on procedures, contingent reward, management by exception) and "transformational" leadership (characterized by e.g. charisma, personal relationships, creativity).[45] [edit]Group


In contrast to individual leadership, some organizations have adopted group leadership. In this situation, more than one person provides direction to the group as a whole. Some organizations have taken this approach in hopes of increasing creativity, reducing costs, or downsizing. Others may see the traditional leadership of a boss as costing too much in team performance. In some situations, the team members best able to handle any given phase of the project become the temporary leaders. Additionally, as each team member has the opportunity to experience the elevated level of empowerment, it energizes staff and feeds the cycle of success.[61] Leaders who demonstrate persistence, tenacity, determination, and synergistic communication skills will bring out the same qualities in their groups. Good leaders use their own inner mentors to energize their team and organizations and lead a team to achieve success. [62] According to the National School Boards Association (USA):[63] These Group Leaderships or Leadership Teams have specific characteristics: Characteristics of a Team

There must be an awareness of unity on the part of all its members. There must be interpersonal relationship. Members must have a chance to contribute, and learn from and work with others. The members must have the ability to act together toward a common goal.

Ten characteristics of well-functioning teams:

Purpose: Members proudly share a sense of why the team exists and are invested in accomplishing its mission and goals. Priorities: Members know what needs to be done next, by whom, and by when to achieve team goals. Roles: Members know their roles in getting tasks done and when to allow a more skillful member to do a certain task. Decisions: Authority and decision-making lines are clearly understood. Conflict: Conflict is dealt with openly and is considered important to decision-making and personal growth. Personal traits: members feel their unique personalities are appreciated and well utilized. Norms: Group norms for working together are set and seen as standards for every one in the groups. Effectiveness: Members find team meetings efficient and productive and look forward to this time together. Success: Members know clearly when the team has met with success and share in this equally and proudly. Training: Opportunities for feedback and updating skills are provided and taken advantage of by team members.

[edit]Self-leadership Self-leadership is a process that occurs within an individual, rather than an external act. It is an expression of who we are as people.[64]

[edit]Primates Mark van Vugt and Anjana Ahuja in Naturally Selected: The Evolutionary Science of Leadership present evidence of leadership in nonhuman animals, from ants and bees to baboons and chimpanzees. They suggest that leadership has a long evolutionary history and that the same mechanisms underpinning leadership in humans can be found in other social species, too.[65]Richard Wrangham and Dale Peterson, in Demonic Males: Apes and the Origins of Human Violence, present evidence that only humans and chimpanzees, among all the animals living on Earth, share a similar tendency for a cluster of behaviors: violence, territoriality, and competition for uniting behind the one chief male of the [66] land. This position is contentious. Many animals beyond apes are territorial, compete, exhibit violence, and have a social structure controlled by a dominant male (lions, wolves, etc.), suggesting Wrangham and Peterson's evidence is not empirical. However, we must examine other species as well, including elephants (which are matriarchal and follow an alpha female), meerkats (who are likewise matriarchal), and many others. By comparison, bonobos, the second-closest species-relatives of humans, do not unite behind the chief male of the land. The bonobos show deference to an alpha or top-ranking female that, with the support of her coalition of other females, can prove as strong as the strongest male. Thus, if leadership amounts to getting the greatest number of followers, then among the bonobos, a female almost always exerts the strongest and most effective leadership. However, not all scientists agree on the allegedly peaceful nature of the bonobo or its reputation as a [2] "hippie chimp". [edit]Historical


This section needs additionalcitations for verification.(September

Sanskrit literature identifies ten types of leaders. Defining characteristics of the ten types of leaders are explained with examples from history and mythology.[67] Aristocratic thinkers have postulated that leadership depends on one's "blue blood" or genes. Monarchy takes an extreme view of the same idea, and may prop up its assertions against the claims of mere aristocrats by invoking divine sanction (see the divine right of kings). Contrariwise, more democratically-inclined theorists have pointed to examples of meritocratic leaders, such as the Napoleonic marshals profiting from careers open to talent. In the autocratic/paternalistic strain of thought, traditionalists recall the role of leadership of the Roman pater familias. Feminist thinking, on the other hand, may object to such models aspatriarchal and posit against them emotionally-attuned, responsive, and consensual empathetic guidance, which is sometimes associated with matriarchies. Comparable to the Roman tradition, the views of Confucianism on "right living" relate very much to the ideal of the (male) scholar-leader and his benevolent rule, buttressed by a tradition of filial piety.

Leadership is a matter of intelligence, trustworthiness, humaneness, courage, and discipline . . . Reliance on intelligence alone results in rebelliousness. Exercise of humaneness alone results in weakness. Fixation on trust results in folly. Dependence on the strength of courage results in violence. Excessive discipline and sternness in command result in cruelty. When one has all five virtues together, each appropriate to its function, then one can be a leader. Sun Tzu[68] In the 19th century, the elaboration of anarchist thought called the whole concept of leadership into question. (Note that the Oxford English Dictionary traces the word "leadership" in English only as far back as the 19th century.) One response to this denial of litism came with Leninism, which demanded an lite group of disciplined cadres to act as the vanguard of a socialist revolution, bringing into existence the dictatorship of the proletariat. Other historical views of leadership have addressed the seeming contrasts between secular and religious leadership. The doctrines of Caesaropapism have recurred and had their detractors over several centuries. Christian thinking on leadership has often emphasized stewardship of divinely-provided resourceshuman and materialand their deployment in accordance with a Divine plan. Compare servant leadership. For a more general take on leadership in politics, compare the concept of the statesperson. [edit]Leadership


Leadership, although largely talked about, has been described as one of the least understood concepts across all cultures and civilizations. Over the years, many researchers have stressed the prevalence of this misunderstanding, stating that the existence of several flawed assumptions, or myths, concerning leadership often interferes with individuals conception of what leadership is all about (Gardner, 1965; Bennis, 1975).[69][70]


is innate

According to some, leadership is determined by distinctive dispositional characteristics present at birth (e.g., extraversion; intelligence; ingenuity). However, it is important to note that leadership also develops through hard work and careful observation.[71] Thus, effective leadership can result from nature (i.e., innate talents) as well as nurture (i.e., acquired skills). [edit]Leadership

is possessing power over others

Although leadership is certainly a form of power, it is not demarcated by power over people rather, it is a power with people that exists as a [71] reciprocal relationship between a leader and his/her followers (Forsyth, 2009). Despite popular belief, the use of manipulation, coercion, and domination to influence others is not a requirement for leadership. In actuality, individuals who seek group consent and strive to act in the best interests of others can also become effective leaders (e.g., class president; court judge). [edit]Leaders

are positively influential

The validity of the assertion that groups flourish when guided by effective leaders can be illustrated using several examples. For instance, according to Baumeister et al. (1988), the bystander effect (failure to respond or offer assistance) that tends to develop within groups faced with [72] an emergency is significantly reduced in groups guided by a leader. Moreover, it has been documented that group [73] [74] [75] performance, creativity, and efficiency all tend to climb in businesses with designated managers or CEOs. However, the difference leaders make is not always positive in nature. Leaders sometimes focus on fulfilling their own agendas at the expense of others, including his/her own followers (e.g., Pol Pot; Josef Stalin). Leaders who focus on personal gain by employing stringent and manipulative leadership styles often make a difference, but usually do so through negative means.[76] [edit]Leaders

entirely control group outcomes

In Western cultures it is generally assumed that group leaders make all the difference when it comes to group influence and overall goalattainment. Although common, this romanticized view of leadership (i.e., the tendency to overestimate the degree of control leaders have over their groups and their groups outcomes) ignores the existence of many other factors that influence group dynamics. [77] For example, group cohesion, communication patterns among members, individual personality traits, group context, the nature or orientation of the work, as well as behavioral normsand established standards influence group functionality in varying capacities. For this reason, it is unwarranted to assume that all leaders are in complete control of their groups' achievements. [edit]All

groups have a designated leader

Despite preconceived notions, not all groups need have a designated leader. Groups that are primarily composed of women,[78][79] are limited in size, are free from stressful decision-making,[80] or only exist for a short period of time (e.g., student work groups; pub quiz/trivia teams) often undergo a diffusion of responsibility, where leadership tasks and roles are shared amongst members (Schmid Mast, 2002; Berdahl & Anderson, 2007; Guastello, 2007). [edit]Group

members resist leaders

Although research has indicated that group members dependence on group leaders can lead to reduced self-reliance and overall group strength,[71] most people actually prefer to be led than to be without a leader (Berkowitz, 1953).[81] This "need for a leader" becomes especially strong in troubled groups that are experiencing some sort of conflict. Group members tend to be more contented and productive when they have a leader to guide them. Although individuals filling leadership roles can be a direct source of resentment for followers, most people appreciate the contributions that leaders make to their groups and consequently welcome the guidance of a leader (Stewart & Manz, 1995).[82] [edit]Action-oriented


This section does not cite anyreferences or sources.(September

One approach to team leadership examines action-oriented environments, where effective functional leadership is required to achieve critical or reactive tasks by small teams deployed into the field. In other words, there is leadership of small groups often created to respond to a situation or critical incident. In most cases these teams are tasked to operate in remote and changeable environments with limited support or backup (action environments). Leadership of people in these environments requires a different set of skills to that of front line management. These leaders must effectively operate remotely and negotiate the needs of the individual, team, and task within a changeable environment. This has been termed action oriented leadership. Some examples of demonstrations of action oriented leadership include extinguishing a rural fire, locating a missing person, leading a team on an outdoor expedition, or rescuing a person from a potentially hazardous environment. [edit]Titles

emphasizing authority

This section does not cite anyreferences or sources.(September

This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. No cleanup reason has been specified. Please help improve this section if you can. (February 2010)

At certain stages in their development, the hierarchies of social ranks implied different degrees or ranks of leadership in society. Thus a knight led fewer men in general than did a duke; a baronetmight in theory control less land than an earl. See peerage for a systematization of this hierarchy, and order of precedence for links to various systems. In the course of the 18th to 20th centuries, several political operators took non-traditional paths to become dominant in their societies. They or their systems often expressed a belief in strong individual leadership, but existing titles and labels ("King", "Emperor", "President", and so on) often seemed inappropriate, insufficient, or downright inaccurate in some circumstances. The formal or informal titles or descriptions they or their subordinates employ express and foster a general veneration for leadership of the inspired and autocratic variety. The definite article when used as part of the title (in languages that use definite articles) emphasizes the existence of a sole "true" leader. [edit]Critical


Noam Chomsky[83] and others[84] have brought critical thinking to the very concept of leadership and have provided an analysis that asserts that people abrogate their responsibility to think and will actions for themselves. While the conventional view of leadership is rather satisfying to people who "want to be told what to do", these critics say that one should question why they are being subjected to a will or intellect other than their own if the leader is not a Subject Matter Expert (SME). The fundamentally anti-democratic nature of the leadership principle is challenged by the introduction of concepts such as autogestion, employeeship, common civic virtue, etc., which stress individual responsibility and/or group authority in the work place and elsewhere by focusing on the skills and attitudes that a person needs in general rather than separating out leadership as the basis of a special class of individuals. Similarly, various historical calamities are attributed to a misplaced reliance on the principle of leadership. [edit]Varieties

of individual power

According to Patrick J. Montana and Bruce H. Charnov, the ability to attain these unique powers is what enables leadership to influence subordinates and peers by controlling organizational resources. The successful leader effectively uses these powers to influence employees, and it is important for leaders to understand the uses of power to strengthen their leadership. The authors distinguish the following types of organizational power:

Legitimate Power refers to the different types of professional positions within an organization structure that inherit such power (e.g. Manager, Vice President, Director, Supervisor, etc.). These levels of power correspond to the hierarchical executive levels within the organization itself. The higher positions, such as president of the company, have higher power than the rest of the professional positions in the hierarchical executive levels.

Reward Power is the power given to managers that attain administrative power over a range of rewards (such as raises and promotions). Employees who work for managers desire the reward from the manager and will be influenced by receiving it as a result of work performance.

Coercive Power is the manager's ability to punish an employee. Punishment can be mild, such as a suspension, or serious, such as termination.

Expert Power is attained by the manager due to his or her own talents such as skills, knowledge, abilities, or previous experience. A manager who has this power within the organization may be a very valuable and important manager in the company.

Charisma Power: a manager who has charisma will have a positive influence on workers, and create the opportunity for interpersonal influence.

Referent Power is a power that is gained by association. A person who has power by association is often referred to as an assistant or deputy.

Information Power is gained by a person who has possession of important information at an important time when such information is needed to organizational functioning.[85]

Qualities of Good Leadership

I've worked with, and coached, hundreds of high performance leaders. Listed below are the qualities of good leadership that set these men and women apart.

Are you a high performance leader?

That isn't to say, that these leaders don't make use of the other 50+ leadership traits, qualities and characteristics listed over at the good leadership skills page. But what it does mean is that the leaders who are at the top of the game ... the cream of the crop, if you will, are VERY, VERY good at applying, and integrating into their life, and work, the leadership qualities listed below. =Do you have what it takes, or at least the desire, to have what it takes, to be a high performance leader?=As you read through the list, take some time to think about how well you are doing in each area. And, my challenge to you is this... Don't just read the list. If you are a leader who wants to make a positive dent in the universe, then make a decision to strengthen your capability in one or two areas.

1. Be Trustworthy
Trust is the basis for all the relationships in your life. Without trust, it's impossible to create healthy and productive environments, either in work or personal situations. Be aware that others are watching you ... assessing your values system and integrity. People want to be assured that their trust, followed closely by their respect is being placed in a safe place -- your hands -- and that they are indeed wise to follow where you lead. When people trust you, they are more willing to give their best, as they know that they always get your best. This leadership quality is sometime referred as integrity or honor, but all these terms have the same basic meaning: you say what you do and do what you say ... period. Read more here about how high performance leaders build trust in the workplace

2. Be Self Aware and Insightful About Your Impact On Others

This is one of the qualities of good leadership that you really want to master. The best leaders are really great at watching how others are reacting to them and fine-tuning what they are saying to ensure that they are building the relationship. This doesn't mean that they change their minds every second to get people to like them. Rather it's about finding other ways to say things so that the person they are interacting with wants to work with them and not against them. The master leaders' know that the power is in the relationship (which is why a lot of the site is dedicated to building relationships!). And all relationships begin, and end, with what others think of you. I'm a real fan of the DISC profile system, because it helps you to understand your impact on others, and gives you the tools to adjust your style so that you can get through to others ... so that they are in the place to 'hear' your message ... which stirs them to respond favorably to you. You may want to take a look at the e-course called Communicating With Power which is designed to help you understand your impact on others.

3. Love To Learn, Grow, Expand

If you aren't learning, growing, expanding then you certainly can't expect the people around you to be either! One of the things that seems to set all the great leaders apart is their absolute commitment to stepping into their potential and discovering ways to be the best possible version of themselves. I don't know about you, but I've yet to meet a leader that is considered to be at the top of his or her game, who doesn't read, listen to audios, go to courses or share what he or she learns with others. They certainly don't sit around waiting to be sent on some corporate course. And here's the biggest distinction I've witnessed. They seem compelled to learn, grow, expand and yet they also seem to be very content with who they are as an individual. It is kind of like they have this mantra 'Happy with where I'm at ... but not settling'. There is no sense of desperation or not being good enough. More it is am intense curiosity and that deep knowing that the reason we as humans are on this planet is to grow, learn, expand. One of my favorite sayings is "if you aren't growing then neither are your people" (and you can quote me on that ~wink~). A high performance leader stays relevant by making sure they are at the leading-edge in terms of leadership skills, interpersonal skills and knowledge in their organization's field of expertise. Consider joining our "Make A Dent Club" -you'll get access to our premier information for a few dollars each month.

You'll claim the qualities of good leadership and make your mark when you Learn, Grow, Expand

4. Have High Self Worth and Self Esteem

You might not think that how you feel about yourself has a whole lot to do with how others perceive you or how effective you can be at taking charge of a group situation. However, it would be a huge mistake to make this assumption. Every individual is either their own best friend or their own worst enemy. How you feel about yourself often leads to subconscious patterns. Those with a negative self worth may have many other leadership qualities, but sabotage their own efforts with a deep belief that they aren't good enough to carry the day. Dealing with self esteem can seem like a touchy-feely waste of time, but that is absolutely not the case. It is crucial to your success and leadership ability. In this article on leadership and self esteem you can read how Steve's self esteem almost railroaded his career. It's interesting but almost without exception the leaders that I have coached (and that is in the high hundreds in one-toone coaching, and thousands in workshop situations) have at some point struggled with their self-esteem. In coaching sessions time and again leaders have asked me to help them work through situations where their self-belief is hurting them. For most leaders this is just a momentary thing and not something that dominates their lives. But even those momentary lapses do make sure that you have the skills to recognize when its your self-worth thats creating a problem and pick yourself up and get back into the game with a healthier perspective. I suspect self worth is one of those qualities of good leadership that most people will glide over ... I'm okay with that ... just make sure on those times when you take a hit you've got the skills to get back in the saddle fast!

5. Be Excited By Life
If you aren't excited about the journey ahead how on earth will you excite those around you? Now this doesn't mean you need to go all cheerleader. But it does mean that you get out there with a spring in your step and a vibe of passion, urgency, desire, energy and animation that others just can't help but be compelled by.

As you read the pages on my site you'll guess that I'm a real fan of Richard Branson. He really embodies this quality of good leadership in bucket-loads. You just know that he's thrilled to be alive and seems to bring that sense of thrill and curiosity into everything he does .... whether that's ballooning, building the Virgin Brand, working with a kid in an orphanage or talking to a passenger on a plane.

I contrast Richard's out there, extroverted style with one of the leaders that has most inspired me in a work situation. He was almost the complete opposite of Richard, quiet, more serious than cheerful, considered in his thinking. But did he ever have belief in what we were doing and he was 'quietly' thrilled by the journey we as a team were on. This quiet sense of destiny and purpose that he brought in to our team inspired all of us. It simply meant that the rah-rah stuff he left to those of us in the leadership team who were higher up on the extrovert scale, and he would come quietly behind reinforcing with all the team members that this was a special moment in their life and be excited by the possibilities of where we were going. And his quiet style did embed in each and every one of us a sense of meaning and joy about what we were doing!

6. Fix Problems, Find Solutions, Don't Fix Blame

When something goes wrong great leaders step up and acknowledge their part in it, and don't fall into the trap of trying to shift blame elsewhere. They'll focus onfixing the problem not fixing blame

7. Refuse To Gossip
The best leaders are loyal to those who aren't there. They don't engage inworkplace gossip ... ever. No matter how well justified or frustrated they may feel!

8. Grow Your People

High Performance Leaders build teams of superstars by being exceptionaldelegators of challenging work. They ensure that their people are regularly being challenged to grow and learn. They create the systems and structures that ensure people are always pushing the envelope of their potential. They fully 'get' that if people are bored they become de-motivated. Poor motivation leads to low morale which leads to poor performance.

9. Have An Open Office.

Good leaders make it easy for their people to interact with them. Great leaders aren't into the power trip of having to have an office where others must come to them. They understand that having open plan offices enables them to be in the hub with their finger on the pulse ... providing far better results in terms of communication and camaraderie.

10. Engage And Energize

The very best of leaders help people to see that what they do makes a difference. They put into place the structures, systems and principles that enable people to feel challenged by what they do, a sense of ownership in their part of the process and they regularly make use of their talents and strengths.

The Bottom Line In Terms Here's What Pulls It All Together ...






Act From A Place Of Alignment. For me, this is ultimately what makes a good leader. A leader who takes the time to align with their source energy (whether you call it God, Universe or some other name) and fully gets what it means totake inspired action ... and when it is inspired action it will be the right action!

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

The Roles and Responsibilities of a Manager Qualities Required to Perform the Responsibility The Characteristics of a Professional Golden Steps to be an Effective Manager Three Types of Managers Qualities of a Manager Skills of a Manager


The first step in becoming a professional manager is to understands one's Roles and Responsibilities: Enforce High Work Standards This means telling your staff exactly what they need to do, and the work standards they need to meet, and acting to ensure that they achieve them. What often happens in mature operations is that roles becomes highly analyzed and codified to salary schedules. The tasks and responsibilities assigned to them solidify, and it may happen that the staff is entangled in completing daily assignments and does not think innovatively. It becomes imperative on part of the manger to identify targets and challenge yourself and your colleagues to achieve the required as well as desirable results. Define Skill Requirement The important thing about assigning roles and responsibilities is to define clearly what skills and talents each role needs, then find the people who have those skills and talents. People may have limitations or talents that cross role boundaries. In such cases, creative managers are

inclined to restructure responsibilities, so that they can avail themselves of the best each has to offer. Communicate with Superiors and Staff Many problems in organizations are due to a lack of clear communication between management staff. As a manager, you must be very active and accurate in passing information from your seniors to your juniors and also in reporting important problems, issues and information to the different level of staffs, so that they can be solved. Monitor Staff Performance As a manager, you must spend plenty of time in the field, making sure that your staffs are doing what they are supposed to do. You cannot supervise effectively if you spend all your time in the office. Coach and give feedback to staff It makes sense to tailor roles and responsibilities to the strengths of team members. People are usually good at the things for which they have talent. They learn it easily. They like doing it, and usually have an interest in excelling at it. They do not need external motivation. Similarly people avoid that which they do not do well, what they have no talent for and where learning mastery comes with difficulty. These are the aspects of job that they neglect or put off until there is no longer a way to avoid them. When you monitor your staff, your job is not to punish mistakes. Your job is to show appreciation of work well done, and to help staff correct any mistakes they have made. This means working with them continuously to improve their work performance over time. Solve work problems When you see problems in the field, you need to do more than just report them to your superiors. If you can, you should actively solve the problems with your staff. A good manager is a problem solver, not just a problem reporter. Enforce discipline A manager makes sure his staffs follow the organization's rules and regulations. He/ She corrects the employees who break the rules in a humane and effective way.

Qualities Required To Perform the Responsibility

Knowledge of the subject Willingness and interest in work. Openness and friendly

Listening and accepting opinions. Patience Punctuality and regularity Encouraging Challenging attitude Problem solving attitude Considerate Firm and caring Sensitivity toward others Positive attitude

The Characteristics of a Professional

What is professionalism? Does it depend on someone's profession? Or does it depend on the characteristics of the person? Actually anyone can be considered professional, regardless of the job they do. If they possess the three main components of professionalism, which is as follows: Good Knowledge: What you know about your job. All the theory and concepts that you have learnt about your job Good Skills: Your practical ability to do different tasks to high standards. Positive attitude: The way you see your job and life in general. Whether you tend to see things positively or negatively Someone with good knowledge (K), good Skills(S), and a positive attitude (A+) can be considered a KSA+ person a true professional.

Golden Steps to be an Effective Manager

1. Understanding the needs and characteristics of the team Knowing and using the resources of the group Communicating Planning Controlling group performance Evaluating Setting the example Sharing leadership Counseling Representing the Group Effective Teaching

Understanding the needs and characteristics of the team

Each individual member of the group has certain needs and characteristics.


A manager should understand his/her needs and characteristics A manager should understand the needs and characteristics of each member of the group. This helps the leader to deal with each person as an individual, to treat that individual with respect, and to help the person grow. This understanding helps in planning the program and in getting things done. This understanding creates trust and builds confidence among the group members. Knowing and using the resources of the group

Resources include all those things necessary to do a job. Resources also include people, because people have knowledge and skills. Knowledge is what a person learns through familiarity or experience what you know. Skills are the ability to use what you know. Attitude includes the desire to do something-motivation- and the belief that you can do it confidence. When the manager uses the knowledge and skills of the group members to get a job done, the members gain experience and improved skills. They also develop a positive attitude towards using a skill.


To improve your skills in getting information: Pay attention and listen carefully Make notes and sketches Ask questions and repeat your understanding of what was said.

To improve your skills in giving information:

Be sure others are listening before you speak Speak slowly and clearly Draw diagrams, if needed. Ask those receiving information to take notes. Have the listeners repeat their understanding of what was said. Encourage questions.


Planning is an important part of everything we do in exploring. The following is a simple process for planning. Consider the task and objectives. What do you want to accomplish? Consider the resources- equipment, knowledge, skills, and attitude. Consider the alternatives. Brainstorm. Reach a decision, evaluating each option. Write the plan down and review it with the post Execute the plan Evaluate the plan

Controlling group performance

A manager influences the performance of the group and individual members through his/ her actions. Why is control needed? Control is a function that a group assigns to the leader to get the job done. Control happens as a result of recognizing the difference between where the group is and where the group is going. The manager is responsible for developing a plan to help the group get to its goal. Setting the example is the most effective way of controlling the group. When working with post members, do the following. Continually observe the group. Know what is happening and the attitude of the group. Make your instructions are clear and pertinent. Pitch in and help when necessary. Quickly deal with disruption. Guide members towards self- discipline.



Evaluating helps measure the performance of a group in getting a job done and working together. It suggests ways in which the group can improve its performance. There are two basic categories of evaluation questions. After any activity, ask these questions: Getting the job done Was the job done? Was the job done right? Was the job done on time?

Keeping the group together Were relationships between group members helped or hurt? Was participation equally distributed among the group members? Did the group enjoy the activity? Did the group handle conflicts well?

Setting the example

Setting the example is probably the most important leadership skill. It is the most effective way to show others the proper way to conduct themselves, and is even more effective than verbal communication. Without this skill, all the other skills will be useless. One way to think about setting the example is to imagine yourself as a member of a group and think about how you would like your manager to act.

Sharing leadership

The exploring leader wants to give the members the skills he/ she posses, not to use those skills in ways that keep the team weak or dependent. Lao Tzu a Chinese philosopher said but of a good leader.. When the work is done, h is aim fulfilled, they will say, we did this ourselves He/ she offers leadership opportunities to team members and teaches them the skills they need.


It is important

To help people solve problems To encourage or reassure To help an explorer reach his or her potential

Counseling can be effective when a person is Undecided- he or she can't make a decision Confused- he/she doesn't have enough information or has too much information Locked in he/ she doesn't know any alternatives.

How do you counsel? First, try to understand the situation. Listen carefully, summarize, check the facts, and paraphrase to make sure you understand. Second, help list as many options as possible Third, help list the disadvantages of the options Fourth, help list the advantages of the options

Finally let the person decide on a solution. The counselor role is to give encouragement and information not advice.

Representing the Group

The manager represents the team in two situations: Without consultation- when he/ she doesn't have the opportunity to consult with the team about decision With consultation- when he/ she can meet with team about the issue

Effective Teaching

Effective teaching is a process to increase the knowledge, skills, and attitudes of the manager and its team. The focus is on learning, not teaching. For teaching to be effective, learning must take place. The steps for effective teaching include Choosing the learning objectives Providing a discovery experience that helps the ;learner understand the need for the skill

Demonstrating or explaining the skill Allowing the learner to practice the skill Evaluating the process.

Three Types of Managers

Domineering Professional Timid

Domineering Manager: Domineering manager thinks that people have to respect him/her just because he/she is a manager. They also believe that just because they are managers, they do not need to work as hard as other people. They don't show respect towards their staff and keep themselves separate from them as much as possible. A domineering manager has a win-lose attitude towards his/her staff and is often angry and over-emotional with them. He/she likes to shout at the staff when they make mistake. Often a domineering manager will prevent his/her staff from developing and growing. He/she feels threatened when his/her staff succeeds or gets too clever. He/she enjoys ordering people about to show how important he/she is and doesn't feel the need to be polite to people when he/she is ordering them about. This kind of a manager never admits his/her mistakes to his/her staff and instead shifts the blame onto others. If there is no one else to blame, he/she will find excuses to avoid the blame. He/she always works on the principle that boss is always right. A domineering manager seldom if ever shows appreciation towards his/her staff's good work. And he/she never praises them when they work well, but checks them angrily whenever they make mistakes. In his book Leadership Anthony D`Souza discusses certain characteristics of Domineering Managers Generally strong willed, domineering and to some extent aggressive Must have their own way, which for them, seems the only way

Look upon subordinates more as functionaries than as persons and the best subordinate is their estimation follow directions without questions. Ordinarily are not ready to listen to views and suggestion of others, if they offer different opinions Do not encourage equal relationships. As a rule they do not intermingle with the employees Have business like and task oriented attitudes Generally blame poor results on the inability of others to carry out instructions correctly.

Professional Manager: A professional manager works hard to win the respect of his/her staff. He/she believes that he/she has to work harder than his staff because he/she is a manager. He/she respects hi/hers

staff as equals and tries to understand them as individuals. He/she communicates openly with his/her superiors and other staff as often as possible because he/she realizes that this will help him/her to do his/her job better. A professional manager realizes that his/her relationship with his/her staff should be mutually satisfactory. He/she thus stays calm & rationale', even when handling serious staff problems or mistakes. He/she actively encourages his/her staff to develop their skills and abilities and feels happy when they succeed. This manager delegates work in order to achieve company objectives as efficiently as possible. He/she takes responsibility if he/she makes mistakes and is able to admit and apologize sincerely to his/her staff. He/she shows appreciation towards his/her staff's good work and corrects them professionally when they do not perform well or lack discipline. A professional manager believes that his/her staff can and should contribute to the success of the company. This means that he/she invites and encourages them to give him/her input, ideas and suggestions. He/she also involves them in solving problems by asking them to think of ideas for solutions and implementing the best ideas. He/she is also willing to listen to, understand & act on criticism or complaints from the staff. Professional Managers are characterized by a number of distinctive practices. All of these descriptions have common themes- openness to change, ability to visualize the future, be guided by a vision and communicate it powerfully to others, entrust the mission to others, display commitment through action, and encourage followers. Here are set of categories on which writers have agreed. Characteristic 1- Question groupthink by:

Being curious- investigating, asking why, asking questions, listening, verifying understanding, reflecting Taking initiative, risks, experimenting Being open to diverse opinions Encouraging creativity, innovation

Characteristic 2- Reset direction by:

Developing a vision- synthesizing recurring themes and values Selling the vision- presenting a compelling vision of a possible future Enlisting others- asking for help, showing how they can make a difference

Characteristic 3 Guide cooperative Action by:

Planning, setting team goals Empowering followers Encouraging initiative Delegating authority Coaching, monitoring Providing constructive feedback

Characteristic 4- Walk the Talk by:

Involvement setting an example of personal commitment Committing to quality outcomes Helping solve problems Being persistent

Characteristic 5- Motivate others by:

Recognizing individual and team contributions Giving positive feedback Celebrating accomplishments Reinforcing teamwork

Timid Manager: A weak manager does not show that he/she is a manager. Effectively, he/she is almost the same as the other staff because he/she does not perform his/her managerial roles, as giving guidance and instructions. In his/her relationship with the staff, it is not clear who is leading whom. A weak supervisor ignores the mistakes of the staff and simply does not enforce discipline. He/she is never strict or angry with his /her staff, but he/she often feels stressed, as the work is not done properly. A weak manager does not have the courage to give instructions or guidelines to his/her staff as a result his/her staff always feels that everything is OK and do not feel the need to develop or work hard. He/she often does his/her staff's work for them and corrects their mistakes by himself. As a result the staff often takes advantage of a weak manager, and may make unreasonable demands on him/her. This type of manager does not have the confidence to give feedback to staff about their work performance. He/she cannot praise nor can he/she reprimand, as a result, his/her staff does not know whether their work performance is satisfactory or not.

Qualities of a Manager

Achievement Orientation Target Setting and Decision Making Achieving within Limitations Trust and Interpersonal Relations Teamwork and Cooperation Leadership Qualities

1. Achievement Orientation Motivation is a multifaceted process. Fundamental to it is an understanding of what motivates people. Much of what has been written about motivation in management literature focuses on attitudes towards people and what motivates them. Whenever, and wherever, people are required to offer their services in exchange of compensation, a kind of tussle creeps in most cases between labored efforts and inspiration for doing tasks. At the lower end (of efforts) people are urged upon to do their best in return of wages. At the other end (of inspiration), people are encouraged through incentives of higher payments, personal growth, recognition, better quality of life, and challenges to continue to put in better performance. The truth is that

neither rewards nor fear nor encouragement can by themselves ensure on part of human beings to give their best. It is only a balanced integration of these factors that can bring about motivation, which is in true sense, signifies innate willingness on the part of the working people to give their best and to continue to do better than their best. (Reference: Madhurendra K. Verma, 1997- Managing more effectively') There are three sources of motivation. 1. Affinity 2. Achievement 3. Power An example: A mountaineer achieved his target by climbing a 2000 meters high mountain. If he is affinity oriented he thinks until and unless he receives a word of encouragement from my family, friends and relatives and gets name and fame for his success, he is not motivated to achieve higher targets. If he is a power oriented person he has the expectations of financial or monetary benefits after achieving certain targets. The power, money and the benefits are his main source of motivation to achieve further. But if he is an achievement-oriented person, his work and achievements are his motivation, which makes him to strive further and achieve higher targets. He is not influenced by other sources such as power, name, fame and money. He has only one objective that is achievement. Achievement oriented person has more willingness to put the best of efforts without getting immediately affected by the environment, such a person continues to work even though he may not get all favorable conditions but at the end his hard work pays him. Achievement oriented person 1. Has desire for some standard of excellence in a performance related situation. 2. Shoulders responsibility 3. Makes decision 4. Takes moderate risks 5. Persist in the face of adversity 6. Is innovative and tries various alternatives 7. Compete with others 8. Compete with self

Motivation theories a. Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs The concept of a hierarchy of needs was advanced by Abraham Maslow, a psychologist. Maslow assumed that humans want" beings who seek to fulfill a variety of needs. He assumed that these needs can be arranged according to their importance in a sequence known as Maslow's hierarchy of needs. 1. At the most basic level is physiological needs, the things we require to survive. These needs include food and water, clothing, shelter, and sleep. 2. At the next level are safety needs, the things we require for physical and emotional security. They may be satisfied through job security, health insurance, pension plans, and safe working conditions. 3. Next are the social needs, the human requirements for love, affection, and a sense of belonging. To an extent, these needs can be satisfied through the work environment and the informal organization. But they also include relationships beyond the workplace. 4. Esteem needs include the need for respect and recognition (the esteem of others) as well as a sense of accomplishment and worth (self-esteem). These needs may be satisfied through personal accomplishment, promotion to more responsible jobs, various honors and awards, and other forms of recognition.

5. At the uppermost level are self-actualization needs, the needs to grow and develop as people and to become all that we are capable of being. These are the most difficult needs to satisfy, and the means of satisfying them tend to vary with the individual. 6. Maslow suggested that people work to satisfy their physiological needs first, their safety needs next, and so on up the "needs ladder." a. In general, people are motivated by the needs at the lowest (most important) level that remain unsatisfied. b. However, needs at one level do not have to be completely satisfied before needs at the next-higher level come into play. c. Maslow's hierarchy of needs provides a useful way of viewing employee motivation as well as a guide for management. By and large, American business has been able to satisfy workers' basic needs, but the higher-order needs present more of a problem. b. Hertzberg's Motivation Theory 1. Another model proposed by Hertzberg is even more applicable in work situations like that of an organization and known as the two factor model, or the Maintenance Motivation Model, it can be best understood through following diagrammatic representation. The presence of maintenance factors generally brings employees to a satisfied neutral state, meaning alternatively that while these may not be strong motivating factors but their absence can cause dissatisfaction. On the other hand, the second set of factors can be carefully induced in a working environment for bringing their motivation to a desired level. 2. Using Hertzberg's Motivation Theory. Hertzberg provides explicit guidelines for using the motivation theory of employee motivation. a. He suggests that the hygiene factors must be present to ensure that a worker can function comfortably. But he warns that a state of no dissatisfaction never exists.

b. Managers should make hygiene as good as possible but should then expect only short-term improvement in motivation. c. Managers must work to provide the motivation factors, which will presumably enhance motivation and long-term effort. d. Employee pay has more effect than is explained by Hertzberg's theory. c. Theory X and Theory Y The concepts of Theory X and Theory Y were advanced by Douglas McGregor in his 1960 book, The Human Side of Enterprise. They are, in reality, sets of assumptions that underlie management's attitudes and beliefs regarding worker behavior. 1. Theory X is a concept of employee motivation generally consistent with Taylor's scientific management. The basic assumptions of Theory X include the following: a. People dislike work and try to avoid it. b. Because people dislike work, managers must coerce, control, and frequently threaten employees to achieve organizational goals. c. People generally must be led because they have little ambition and will not seek responsibility. They are concerned mainly with security. 2. Theory Y is a concept of employee motivation generally consistent with the ideas of the human relations movement. The basic assumptions of Theory Y include the following: a. People do not naturally dislike work. In fact, work is an important part of their lives. b. People will work toward goals to which they are committed. c. People become committed to goals when it is clear that accomplishing the goal will bring personal rewards. d. People often seek out and willingly. e. Employees have the potential to help accomplish organizational goals. f. Organizations generally do not make full use of their human resources.

3. McGregor argued that most managers behave in accordance with Theory X. But he maintained that Theory Y is more appropriate and effective as a guide for managerial action. When discussing motivation effective managers recognize that practical implication of motivation theories has a lot more to it than just money. Although money holds importance it is just one factor. The other environmental factors cause dissatisfaction but have little relationship to the job themselves. For example work rules, working conditions, pay, tea, coffee- breaks,

fringe benefits, quality of supervision and so forth. Interestingly, the organizations themselves largely determine the environmental factors. However, what motivates people to make them give their best arises from within job itself If the job is challenging, allows a feeling of achievement, is interesting, provides responsibility, opportunities for growth, offers earned recognition and advancement, people will be motivated. Although it is always difficult to provide the right climate opportunities, effective managers realize its rewards. People are different- with different needs, wants, expectations and ambitions. Furthermore, these needs, ambitions expectations change as they grow older, have new experiences their life situation changes and their environment How to motivate team members?


Encouragement starts with each individual. Managers start by taking the easy way assigning people to aspects of the vision that they are best at, providing them with the training to be successful, giving them enough challenge to keep it interesting, and keeping score, so that the individual knows his success level and can gain satisfaction from it.

Set clear Goals

Team members also derive satisfaction from the knowledge that they are engaged in an endeavor that has meaning beyond their own small contribution. Being constantly reminded of the goal encourages many to persist when they might otherwise give up. Likewise the camaraderie they share with team members provides reassurance and support.


Because leaders tend to know people in general and their followers in particular, they tend to know what motivates them, how they like to work, their skill, motivation, and confidence levels. Because leaders tend to like their followers, they often refer to them as family. They create ways to foster openness and to get to know people on a personal level. They are involved with and in touch with them. They know their aspirations and dreams. That knowledge is invaluable when providing extrinsic recognition.

Provide the right kind of information:

Always give team the total picture of all plans, work schedules, problems and solutions being involved, with which they are, or should be legitimately involved. Pay greater attention to issues that are of immediate concern to them, such as how they have been performing, how their efforts are affecting the quality, cost of production, time schedule, safety, security etc.

Better quality of life at workplace

The team expects you to provide better quality of life at the workplace, particularly in terms of Good physical working conditions

Outlet for creativity and originality Opportunity for challenging and quality work. Congenial co-workers. Being treated as a person with feelings and needs Fair policies.

Giving credit

Credit providing positive feedback. In crediting individual performance, leaders are careful to be credible. A credible source is one who demonstrates knowledge of the specifics of an event in the context of a larger picture. No matter how autonomous or empowered the worker, everyone likes to know that what he or she is doing is being noticed and appreciated by someone. Managers give credit on a regular and frequent basis. They recognize the ordinary and extraordinary efforts people make. They tend to be appreciative of small acts of thoughtfulness. They privately or publicly credit team members as often as opportunity permits. They also recognize unfruitful effort and risk taking even when these efforts do not produce the desired results. Reinforcing risk taking, innovation, and honest effort that fails is as important as reinforcing the efforts that end in the desired results. From a motivation standpoint, workers when successful, get rewards from the task. The failed exploit, on the other hand, has a built-in negative reinforcement. In addition to crediting risk taking and failed effort, the leader helps identify the lessons learned from the unfruitful effort.

Giving Positive Feedback

Crediting steps Here is how to give credible credit: Identify the result the person achieved. Note one or two elements about the behavior that were critical to achieving that result. Explain why that result was important to the mission of the group. Offer your appreciation. Why be so structured? There are reasons for each step. The first acknowledges the person's performance and clearly identifies that you are aware of it. Next comes the credibility builder the part that the manager

is out and about' among his group has no problem with. It requires that you know what the person did, the risk he or she took, the effort required, the problems encountered in other words the real details. Trying the performance to the greater significance of the group's vision identifies the importance of the action which is something the person may not have thought about. Then comes the thank you. When to credit Credit should especially be given for effort and risk taking even when the desired results are not achieved. Credit at such times should be coupled with constructive feedback and support in problem solving. This support involves teaching how to analyze failures (before memory fades) to learn valuable lessons. The leader should publicly credit team members when opportunities arise. Effective managers are generous with credible crediting! It is a reason why their followers are willing to make great effort for them.

Giving Constructive Feedback

Managers know that high expectations are motivating. They also know that there is nothing more de-motivating than one or two team members who bring down the level or results for the whole team. In a sports setting, such performance might cost the team ranking or a game. In a business setting, it may put pressure on other team members, or result in failure to meet quality standards or time frames. Usually, team members will monitor from within. However, it is the responsibility of the leader to make sure that constructive feedback is given when it is required not withstanding the training and coaching that is on going. Team membership requires performance levels. Members are responsible for maintaining them. Constructive feedback steps To give constructive feedback, a manager must:

Make a direct statement indicating what the behavior or performance level is and why it's a problem. Ask the person to comment on what is causing this behavior. Discuss (back and forth) the consequences of the behavior performance level continuing at its current level. Ask the person to identify what he or she can do to change the behavior. Set levels and timeframes. Agree to next steps, and a review date. Opportunities to Celebrate Success

We is a telltale word for the manager. The manager plans with the team. Team members own the process. By tapping into the leadership qualities in the team, the leader creates an atmosphere of appropriate challenge, recognition for achievement, and support for risk taking. Team members are challenged to use judgment, to take risk taking. Team members are challenged to use judgment, to take calculated risks, and to learn from their own mistakes. In a

nurturing team environment, mistakes are a natural outcome of making decisions. The important thing the team learns from them is to correct them quickly. Providing the environment that nurtures this type of involvement and ownership is critical to a team spirit.

Building camaraderie

Some manager has institutionalized occasions to credit team efforts and build team bonds. These include: Rankle gatherings such as the weekly holy hour favored in some of the British armed forces. Here anybody can say anything that is on his or her mind to any other member of the fraternity, regardless of rank. After holy hour, such fluid lines of communication evaporate. Casual days. Casual dress is a metaphor for the lifting of barriers to communications. Organization recreational events such as picnics, outings, sports team. Organizational recognition celebrations and roasts. Organization-sponsored community service events including weekend clean-up projects, sponsorship of school or sporting events. These activities tend to raise spirits and lower inhibitions, such as fostering closeness, camaraderie, and trust.

Recognize contributions

Rewards are also important to member standing within the team. These can take many forms: a public thank you, monetary incentives, plaques, special parking spaces, etc. It is wise to keep rewards simple; so that they do not overshadow or displace the intrinsic reward the person gets from doing the task. 2. Target Setting and Decision Making For target setting and decision-making following things are to be noted: 1. Taking initiative is the first and foremost criteria. 2.. It is important to make appropriate decision keeping one's capability in view- not to over or under estimate one's abilities and potential. 3. One should not get struck at any stage or not get satisfied by the achievements but strive further steadily, grow and move ahead in personal and professional life. 4. Learning from past experiences and setting targets.

5. One should always keep one's objectives / goals in sight and put direct efforts in that direction. 6. Taking risks in life and not opts for simple ways out. One should have the capacity to take up challenges in every work that they are doing. 7. Not to be in hasty in deciding or implementing a decision is very important and also to assess one's potential before taking any decision. 3. Achieving within Limitations The following points are to be noted: 1. One can accomplish tasks within limitations if he or she has the challenge taking attitude. 2. One should work successfully despite minor problems at work area. 3. One should take initiative. 4. Making appropriate decisions setting realistic targets 5. Keeping track of the progress is very important to achieve set targets. 6. To maintain quality of work during the whole process of achieving the target. 7. To work as a team, provide help and encouragement to each other. 4. Trust and Interpersonal Relations 1. Trust in each other is required among the functionaries at the work place to work as a team and ensure that each receives equal opportunities and progress. 2. One should not be selfish to gain all advantages. 3. One should not try to win at the cost of others. 4. One should not feel that since he/ she does not gain, he/ she should not allow others to gain too. 5. While spirit of healthy competition is desirable, it should not be reduced to a relationship of animosity. 6. If one looks for individual gain that the gain is only for a short term which is not sustainable. 5. Teamwork and Cooperation Teamwork is individuals working together to accomplish more than they could alone. This happens as different skills, knowledge and aptitudes are combined.

However in order to do so, a good team calls for certain basic qualities to be possessed in itself and the individuals. These are: Appropriate distribution of responsibilities and work Clear objectives and consensus on the same Openness in behaviour Understanding the needs and aspirations of others Trust and Good Interpersonal relations Cooperation and collective striving for higher goals Appropriate and fair means Good leadership Ongoing review of progress Collective problem solving Growth opportunity for everyone.

TEAM APPROACH If we promote teamwork in our organization, positive results are certain to follow. Participants will achieve better results by collaborating than by working independently. Working as a team provides interaction and interaction provides insights, ideas, solutions and directions. However, despite its obvious advantages it does not always work. If you want to make it work, take care of following: 1. Meet when necessary, but not pointlessly. Always have clear-cut objectives and agenda. 2. Do not push your thoughts leaders often leak their own ideas to subordinates before they have had a chance to state their e.g. I'm absolutely convinced we should get funds from this organization, but of course we won't do it until you have had a chance to speak your minds. This is a means of ensuring that no real discussion takes place. 3. Exercise all options People are most likely to generate fertile, productive ideas when they first have all the information they need. This is necessary for collective decision-making. 4. Nurture good Interpersonal Relationships Good IPR calls for a humane approach to people. A team leader and also other members must try to understand the hopes, disappointments, feelings, needs, and expectations of others. Sensitivity and sincerity within oneself are necessary attributes for having good IPR.

Elements of Team work

Lack of coordination can lead to non-accomplishment of task. Each member has a role to play in the team. Selfish motives can lead to failure of the team as individuals. Giving is as important as taking The most difficulty of tasks can be accomplished through teamwork. It is important for the team to have a leader, who can extend a helping and facilitate the task of others for accomplishments of can thus lead by example. But each one should be provided equal opportunity and the leader should not try to empower the other team members.

Seven ways to Credit the Relationship Account If you want to enjoy a good relationship with your staff, all you need to do is make sure that you regularly show kindness and sincerity to him/ her, through practical and real actions. It's a bit like depositing in a bank account. If you want to save a lot of money you need to deposit money little by little over a long period of time. Similarly, if you want to enjoy an excellent relationship with your staffs, you need to act positively towards that person on a regular basis, so that little by little you build up a great relationship. There are literally thousand of ways to deposit in the relationship account. Here are just a few particular powerful ways. 1.Support and help when you can: Your staff will feel closer to you if they feel that you are concerned about their problems and that you are willing to help and support them when they are facing serious obstacles. A major withdrawal from the relationship account occurs when supervisors demand results from staff without thinking about whether they have the knowledge, skills and equipment necessary to perform the job. On the other hand, staff who feel that their supervisor is there to make sure they get the support and help they need are much more likely to feel close to him or her. 2. Understand people as people There are so many ways to show someone that you consider him / her unique and special. You can take time to understand what's important to him / her and how he/ she see life. 3. Do what you say you will do Keeping commitments and promises is a big deposit, but breaking them is a major withdrawal. As a manager, do not make commitments that you are not sure you can keep to your staff. It is much better to refuse a request from a staff with clear reason than to give a commitment that you know you cannot keep. 4. Congratulate others on their successes When your staff does well, tell them that you are happy for them 5. Show appreciation and gratitude

The words Please and Thank you are vital here. It is extremely important to your relationship account to show that you appreciate and value the help and support your staff gives you. 6. Say sorry when you upset or disappoint people This is major deposit in the relationship account. It is also the first step in building the relationship back up again. 6. Leadership Qualities Leadership is the ability to persuade others to seek defined objectives. 1) achieving the task 2) building the team 3) developing and motivating the individuals The qualities of a good leader and the significance of good leadership are as follows: Understand the task and facilitate others to understand before implementation. Delegating work/assigning roles to each member. Working along with the members. Ensure that members have similar opinion and one plan of action. Ensure that everyone works towards a common objective and do not deviate or loose direction. The capabilities of all members are optimally utilized. All group decisions are timely and work progresses smoothly. Team members should be continuously motivated and encouraged. Keep monitoring the group's work at an ongoing basis.

Skills of a Manager

Effective Delegation Correcting Poor Performance Empowering Staff Communication Managing Employees

1. Effective Delegation Delegation means; Giving opportunity to others (subordinates) to perform their responsibilities, Enable subordinates to discover & utilize their capacities, For completing the task in an effective & efficient manner, To perform more work with better results.

Effective delegation is a way to avoid misunderstanding and maximize the chance that both you and your staff will be happy with the results of the work you delegate to them. When you explain what you want to be done in a systematic and complete way you can be more confident that your subordinate will do the job properly. To delegate effectively, follow these guidelines: 1) Allow adequate time to delegate. Do not rush. 2) Make small talk and ask for help nicely. 3) Explain the background of the task: what is the project, what are the objectives, why the task is important, and the impact of the task on other people. 4) Explain what results you expect, when you will check them and the deadline. 5) Explain the dos and don'ts that must be followed in doing the task. 6) Explain what resources and supports are available for doing the task. 7) Ask the subordinate to ask any questions or give her ideas.

8) Ask the subordinates to repeat the instructions. 9) Thank her for her cooperation. 10) Follow up to check the completion of the task at the time agreed. 11) Show appreciation for any work well done. 12) Facilitate kindly to correct any mistakes

Qualities of a Good Delegator

Cheerful disposition, Trusts his subordinates Patient and confident, Complete knowledge about work, Ability to listen attentively, Appropriate decision making, Encouraging & unbiased, Ability to put challenges to subordinates to extract better performance

2. Correcting Poor Performance To correct poor performances at the beginning, you calmly and logically explain the problem and its consequences in detail; it is the difficult part like climbing the mountain because your staff will feel uncomfortable. As you explain the impacts of the mistake, the staff will probably show that he or she realizes that he or she has done something wrong and apologize. As soon as this happens or you are sure that your staff understands that he has made the mistake you are ready for the second half. You may need to read your staff body language to hear is or her acknowledgement or poor performance. Even if you don't receive a verbal acknowledgement of poor performance you need to move to the next step. The second half is much more positive. Here you ask for input from the staff and focus on solution so that the whole approach has a positive effect. In this way you achieve your objective. It is most probable that your staff performance will improve in future and that he or she will not repeat the same mistake. 3. Empowering Staff Empowering one's staff means helping them to achieve their potential by taking on more responsibility, becoming more competent, and making more decisions for themselves. Here are some ways for you to empower your staff: 1) Give them greater work responsibilities. 2) Allow them to make decisions where they're capable of doing so 3) Ask them for ideas and suggestions and incorporate them in your decisions 4) Involve them in setting team goals and deciding how to achieve them 5) Share your knowledge and skills with them so they become more and more capable

6) Set high work standards and encourage/help them to meet them 4. Communication Effective communication is the core of all managerial activity. Managers know they can best achieve their goals if they have the cooperation of the people they work with. Their ability to communicate effectively enables them to influence the attitudes and actions of their colleagues and subordinates. All phases of management planning, organizing, staffing and human resource management depend on communication, from conceptualizing to executing and to feedback stages. And a manager's job, by its very nature, requires spending more time and effort on communication than on most other functions. What is communication? Communication means a mutual exchange of information and understanding by any effective means. This implies that communication; to be effective must have an exchange of ideas with understanding. Unless the flow goes both ways no real communication takes place. Although usually looked upon merely as a conveyor of information or instructions, communication, is essentially concerned with feelings, ideas, and attitudes. It is a process and capacity of an individual or individuals for conveying and receiving:

Information Ideas Feelings Attitudes Suggestions and Commands

The importance of communication for a manager







In any enterprise involving two or more persons, coordination of activities assumes great importance; and communications acts like a glue that holds the various people and work groups together. It is essential for the success of any enterprise. Communication is not only vital in formulating and implementing enterprise plans, but is also the principal means of achieving the objectives of the enterprise. All decisionmaking, implementations, follow- ups are information- processing-and-sharing activities, which simply cannot be carried out without communication. Managers cannot lead and motivate others if they do not have, and do not know how to user, the vehicle of communication. Communication can be either the best opportunity or fatal weakness for managers if they do not use it properly. Therefore, an understanding of the process of communication and of different kinds of barriers to communication can pave the way to improved managerial performance. Change is a universal factor of enterprise management. In the ultimate analysis, it is only through communication that change can be anticipated, considered, analyzed and introduced. Communication is essential for effective enterprise relations- with the stakeholders whose continued support is so essential for survival and growth of an enterprise.

Breakdowns in communication: Barriers in communication are always there, and they have the capacity to distort the messages beyond recognition if care is not taken to minimize their distorting effects. This we can do only when we are aware of what kinds of barriers, and from which quarter, we have to contend with. The complexity of this aspect of communication can be gauged from the fact that barriers can creep in the following shapes

Barriers in the communicator - communication flow from them only when they choose to do so. But in reality, there are other unconscious or unintentional cues emanating from them also send out signals, often conveying the opposite of, or different from, what they think they communicate. Barriers in the message - words often don't hold the same meaning for everyone. Senders can't assume that a word perfectly clear to them will be perfectly clear to others. Words themselves only point. Their true meaning depends on the speakers' feelings, background, knowledge, and conditioning.

In this connection, it often helps for receivers to restate the speakers positions in their own words so that the speakers agree that the receivers hear them correctly.

Converting inferences into fact - Inferences represents only a degree of probability. They go beyond what people can actually observe. When senders turn inferences into facts during transmission they can cause false rumors to spread throughout an organization. Barriers in the recipient - Sometimes people close their minds to messages. They may not be receptive to instructions that run contrary to the way they think a job should be done, nor do they always greet new ideas with enthusiasm. Barriers in the media - You should decide whether your message should be sent orally or in writing. Inappropriate choice leads to misunderstandings. For example, it is wrong to transmit a large series of complex and important numbers over the telephone, since chances of errors are too great. Barriers in the feedback - If feedback does not follow the original message quickly enough, its value is lost. Similarly, if it is not specific enough, its relationship to the message that triggered it in the first place will not be understood. Barriers in the context - Messages do not occur in a vacuum, they occur in a context- of space and time. Every single communication can trigger off six different messages What do you mean to What you actually What the other person actually What the other person thinks he What the other person What you think the other person says; say; say; hears; hears; says;

How can effective and efficient communication be ensured? To ensure an efficient and effective communication there are three considerations:

You must make your message understood You must receive/understand the intended message sent to you

You should exert some control over the flow of the communication

Thus you must learn to listen as well as to speak. Rule 1: PLAY BACK for confirmation Simple, you ask for confirmation You say let me see if I have understood correctly, you are saying that. And you rephrase what the speaker said. If the original speaker acknowledges this playback version as being correct, then you have a greater degree of confidence in your own understanding. For any viewpoint/message/decision, there should be a clear, concise and verified statement of what was said; without this someone will get it wrong. Rule 2: WRITE BACK for confidence If your time and effort depend upon it, you should write it down and send it to everyone involved as a double check. This has several advantages.

Further clarification is what you thought we agreed? Consistency check - the act of writing may highlight defects/omissions A formal stage - a statement of the accepted position provides a spring board from which to proceed Evidence - hindsight often blurs previous ignorance and people often fail to recall their previous errors.

Rule 3: Give Background for context When speaking yourself, you can often counter for possible by adding information, and so providing a broader context in which your words can be understood. Thus, there is less scope for alternative interpretations since fewer are consistent. When other are speaking, you should deliberately ask questions yourself to establish the context in which they are thinking. Rule 4: Practical points As with all effective communication, you should decide (in advance) on the purpose of the conversation and the plan for achieving it. Some people are proficient at thinking on their feet- but this is generally because they already have clear understanding of the context and their own goals. You have to plan; however, the following are few techniques to help the conversation along.

Rule 5: Assertiveness The definition of to assert is to declare; state clearly This is your aim. If someone argues against you, even loses their temper, you should be quietly assertive. Much has been written about to preach this simple fact and commonly the final message is a three- fold plan of action.

Acknowledge what is being said by showing an understanding of the position, or by simple replaying it (a polite way of saying I heard you already) State your own point of view clearly and concisely with perhaps a little supporting evidence. State what you want to happen next (move it forward)

Rule 6: Confrontations When you have a difficult encounter, be professional, do not loose your self- control because, simply it is of no use. Some managers believe that it is useful for discipline to keep staff a little nervous. Thus these managers are slightly volatile and will be willing to let then have it when the situation demands. If you do this, you must be consistent and fair so that you and staff know where they stand. If you deliberately lose your temper for effect, then that is your decision- however, you must never lose control. Rule 7: Seeking Information There are two ways of phrasing any information: one -way (the closed question) is likely to lead to a simple grunt in reply (yes, or may be) The second way (the open question) will hand over the speaking role to someone else and force him or her to say something a little more informative. Rule 8: Let others speak Of course, there is more top a conversation (managed or otherwise) than the flow of information. You may also have to win that information by winning the attention and confidence of the other person. There are many forms of flattery- the most effective is to give people your interest. Rule 9: Finish At the end of a conversation, you have to give people a clear understanding of the outcome.

For instance, if there has been a decision, restate it clearly (just to be sure) in terms of what should happen and by when; if you have been asking questions, summarize the significant (for you) aspects of what you have learn. Characteristics of Three Communication Styles 1. Aggressive Communication

Often uses the Word I Often uses instruction or order type sentences. Gives own opinion as absolute truth or fact that shouldn't be questioned Asks questions mainly to pressure people or to show superiority or sarcasm The receiver feels pressurized, humiliated or angry.

Aggressive Communication comes from the belief that you are superior to other people and don't need to show them respect. Aggressive person is who:

Think that your own rights are much more important than the rights of other people. Intimidate people to get what you want. Do not see any value in other's people opinions. Do not respect other people's needs or wishes. Expect to win / get exactly what you want, even if this means upsetting other people and ignoring their wishes.

2. Passive Communication

Does not use the word I often Speaks in indirect language that may hide his/ her real meaning Is often apologetic when talking as if he/ she have done something wrong Tends to hide own opinions and feelings. Does not disagree with people openly Listens a lot, but does not respond much. The receiver may pity or hardly notice him / her.

Passive Communication comes from feelings that you are inferior and your opinions and needs aren't really important. A passive person:

Allow the wants, needs and rights of others to be more important than yours. Are too careful in talking, so you don't say what you mean. Are too worried about seen as impolite or pushy. Easily give in when people disagree with you because you don't want to offend them.

3. Assertive Communication

Uses I and you in a balanced way. Takes turns in speaking so both sides have a chance to be heard. Uses a confident, energetic, friendly tone of voice. Gives opinions confidently without forcing anyone to accept them. Justifies opinions confidently with logical, factual statements. Asks questions to really understand what other people mean and how they feel.

The receiver feels that respectful dialogue has taken place in an atmosphere of give and take.

Important Skill of Listening Effective managers learn a lot about what people think, what is important to them, because they listen. The hallmark of their listening includes: Benefits of Effective Listening: 1. Good listening improves morale. When leaders listen effectively (with full attention), they receive respect. This helps satisfy others' needs for self-esteem. As a result, the morale of the group improves. 2. Effective listening makes better leaders. Studies show that managers with good production records give a proportionately greater amount of their time to the human relationships and interpersonal aspects of their jobs. Managers of high production groups differ from those of low-production groups because they: Are more employee-oriented than production oriented; Encourage employee participation in problem solving and in decision making; Spend more time in managing people and less time in straight production work; Have greater confidence in their managerial roles.

Many managers are discovering that getting jobs done requires respecting people. People want to have a say in what they do and to feel that their managers listen to them. 3. Effective listening saves time. When people hear something correctly the first time, they don't have to ask, Would you repeat that, please? 4. Effective listening avoids confusion. Those who listen well get the message and avoid misunderstandings. While effective listening takes time and is sometimes difficult, the returns justify the efforts. Unfortunately, most people receive little or no training on how to listen. We stress speaking, reading, and writing. People spend their communication-time as follows: 45% 30% 16% 9% writing. Grades of listening Most people think that they are good listeners, and that listening is a simple skill. In fact listening is a very difficult skill to truly master and many people are not very good at it. The problem lies in the fact that the people tend to like to speak more then they like to listen. So when they are listening; speaking; and


listening to people they are not really paying attention, but simply waiting for their next turn to speak. There are four different grades of listening Grade 0: Not paying attention When you are not paying attention you are not listening at all. You are either completely ignorant what the speaker is saying or you are pretending to listen to the speaker. Grade 1: Intermittent listening This means only listening to the speaker when he is saying something you are really interested in and pretending to listen or ignore when he starts talking about something that you find a bit boring. Grade 2: Listening with attention Here you are listening quite well. One is concentrating on what the speaker says, and remembering the points that he is making. Grade 3: Empathic listening It is the highest level of listening, you are not only listening to the words that someone is saying but you are actively trying to see the situation from his point of view. How to listen emphatically Emphatic listening is the highest grade of listening. It means trying to hear not only the words that someone is saying to you but also the perspective and feelings behind the words. Listening emphatically is a great way to diagnose a problem accurately before you decide how o help the speaker solve it. It encourages people to be really open with you about what the real problem is. It enables the speaker to talk freely without fear. It is an extremely important skill for the manager to develop. Many managers do not listen emphatically during solving problems. When their staff reports a problem they jump to conclusions before understanding what the real problem is. Then they blame or criticize the staff concerned and force him to implement a hasty solution that may not actually address the real problem at all. Approaching problem in this way is a disaster. Not only does the manager damage his relationship with his staff, but also he usually fails to solve the real problem. Aspects of Good Listener: Accessible Interested Available when people want to talk. Eager to know what other people think and feel.

Attentive Encourages expression Doesn't interrupt Suspends judgment Values different views Shows empathy and understanding through Understanding Doesn't talk too much

Concentrates on the person speaking. Encourages others to say what they really feel and think. Listens without the need to offer other view points. Makes no decision until all viewpoints have been heard. Respects different viewpoints. Demonstrates empathy through action verifying.

Does not seek to dominate conversation.


Many busy managers close their doors so they can complete paperwork. Others find that they end up doing the paperwork before others arrive in the morning or after they leave for the day because they are always accessible to those who want to drop into consult them or to those who want to reach them by telephone. Followers know the person is accessible.


People who are really interested in what another has to say ask questions, want to know details, and explore avenues that the person talking might not have thought about. Interested listeners are valuable.


One sign of interest is the way the listener attends to the speaker. Signs of attention include looking at the person, taking notes, and following what is said.

Encourages expression

Sometimes it is necessary to coax people to speak up, to share thoughts. There are those who think their thoughts are insignificant, or that no one cares. Leaders tend to encourage expression of views by asking lots of questions. They solicit input more widely by encouraging use of suggestion boxes, open door policies, and informal gatherings where everyone mingles on an equal footing.

Doesn't interrupt

Letting someone finish a thought even a rambling one you have heard umpteen times before reinforces an image of interest. It is, of course, also a mark of respect and courtesy practiced in most civil discourse.

Suspends judgment

One reason why good listeners don't interrupt is because they are willing to suspend judgment until they have heard the whole story.

Values different views

A leader's source for views is often his or her ability to synthesize widely varying opinions by finding common concerns in them.

Shows empathy, understanding

Managers have a variety of ways of showing they have heard what speakers are telling them. Verifying understanding is an obvious way. Taking action on what has been explained is another. Action that demonstrates empathy may take the form of food and toy drives, actions to assist with medical care or assistance in a catastrophe.

Doesn't talk too much

Though a leader may speak eloquently, he or she will know how and when to be quiet. In her book, Listening: The Forgotten Skill, Madelyn Burley-Allen offers practical tips for effective listening. Here are some of them: 1. Be attentive. Create a positive atmosphere through non-verbal behavior. When people are alert, attentive, and non-distracted, and have good eye contact, others feel important and more positive. 2. Be interested in the other's needs. 3. Listen from the okay listening mode. That means:

Be a sounding board. Allow the sender to bounce ideas and feelings off you while you assume a nonjudgmental, non-critical manner. Don't ask a lot of questions. Too many questions make the speaker feel grilled. Act like a mirror. Reflect back what you think the other is feeling and/or saying. Don't use stock phrases because they discount the person's feelings. A few stock phrases go:

Oh, it's not that bad. You'll be better tomorrow. It will blow over. Don't be upset. You shouldn't feel that way. It's such a small matter. You're making a mountain out of a molehill

4. Don't let the other person hook you. This happens when you get angry, hurt, or upset. You allow yourself to get involved in an argument, jump to conclusions, or pass judgment on the other person. 5. Indicate you are listening by : Encouraging Non-committal acknowledgement Brief expression, such as Hmmm. Uh-huh I see Right. Oh. Interesting Non-verbal acknowledgment, such as + Head nodding + Facial expression (matching what the speaker is saying) + Body expression or movement that is relaxed) + Body expression or movement that is relaxed and open + Eye contact + Touching. Door-openers such + Tell me more + I'd like to hear what + Would you like to talk + Let's discuss + Sounds as if you've got some ideas or + I'd be interested in what you have to say. about you're about feelings as it. thinking. it? it. about this.

Ground Rules. + Don't interrupt + Don't take the subject off in a another direction + Don't interrogate + Don't teach + Don't give advice + Do reflect back to the sender what you observe and how you believe the speaker feels.

Test Yourself How do you rate yourself as a listener? When taking part in a discussion with your employee, do you: Points of inquiry Usually Prepare your self physically by sitting facing the speaker and making sure you can hear? Watch the speaker as well as listen to him/her? Decide from the speaker's appearance and delivery whether or not what he has to say is worthwhile? Listen primarily for ideas and underlying feelings? Determine your own bias, if nay, and try to allow for it? Keep your mind on what the speaker is saying? Interrupt immediately if you hear a statement you feel is wrong? Make sure before answering that you have taken in the other person's point of view? Try to have the last word? Make a conscious effort to evaluate the logic of what you hear? Sometimes Seldom

Scoring Key On questions: 1,2,,4,5,6,8, and 10 For usually Give yourself For sometimes Give yourself Or seldom Give yourself On questions: 3,7 and 9 For usually Give yourself For sometimes Give yourself Or seldom Give yourself What your score means

10 marks 5 marks 0 marks 0 marks 10 marks 5 marks

A score below 70 indicates you have developed some bad listening habits A score 70 to 85 suggests that you listen well but there is no room for improvement A score of 90 or above means you are an excellent listener

5. Managing Employees There are 4 types of employees:


Low on skill but uninterested in taking responsibilities: Extend full support and monitor his working capacities, Praise their good performance, If the performance is not good, correct them and facilitate improvement, If the performance has been continuously poor, take disciplinary action, Give work and responsibility related trainings. Low on skill and interested in taking responsibilities: Delegate responsibilities to them in accordance with their skills and capabilities, Give work related trainings, Praise their good capacity to work, Extend full support and monitor his working capacities, Realize that mistakes occur due to lack of information. High on skill but uninterested in taking responsibilities: To reach to the root cause of the problems and their solutions, communicate with them firmly, Extend strong support and encourage participation, Let them know that you are aware that they can perform better and encourage them to show their real capacities, Regularly monitor the work delegated to them, praise where required and firmly correct the mistakes, If the problems are not resolved through open communication, take disciplinary action. High on skill and interested in taking responsibilities: Maintain and encourage their positiveness and high motivation, Delegate more responsibilities as well as more decision making authority,




Encourage their participation in decision making and problem solving process, Use different tactics of praise; show that you value their cooperation, Give them trainings to for personal and professional development.

It is very important for the managers to understand the principles of managing the four types of employees this will enable them to adopt an effective approach to manage all four types. Type three employees can be very difficult for managers to deal with. A manager needs to be firm and tactful and not let the staff drag him down into the staff gain. In dealing with such a person a manager needs to implement praising and correcting the poor performance. The manager needs to be confident in giving correction and criticism as necessary. If the manager has tried a positive communication approach over long period of time with type three employees, but the employee continues to show no responsibility towards his work then a gradual process towards dismissing him/her is to be taken up seriously. Type four employees need to be managed positively. It is important for the manager to make them feel recognized appreciated and involved. If managed inappropriately, type four employees may gradually become type three employees, as a way of rebelling against his/her manager. If you adopt a domineering approach to type four employees it is highly likely that they will become type three employees. A manager needs to make sure that he/she does not burden type two employees, and if they are managed appropriately they will develop over time into type four.

leadership development methods and tips

This leadership tips webpage is a general guide to modern ethical progressive leadership. See also the leadership theoriesarticle for explanations and summaries of the main leadership theories. Explaining and understanding the nature of good leadership is probably easier than practising it. Good leadership requires deep human qualities, beyond conventional notions of authority. In the modern age good leaders are an enabling force, helping people and organizations to perform and develop, which implies that a sophisticated alignment be achieved - of people's needs, and the aims of the organization. The traditional concept of a leader being the directing chief at the top of a hierachy is nowadays a very incomplete appreciation of what true leadership must be.

Effective leadership does not necessarily require great technical or intellectual capacity. These attributes might help, but they are not pivotal. Good leadership in the modern age more importantly requires attitudes and behaviours which characterise and relate tohumanity. The concept of serving is fundamental to the leadership role. Good leadership involves serving the organization or group and the people within it. Ineffective leaders tend to invert this principle and consider merely that the leader must be served by the people. This faulty idea fosters the notion that leadership as an opportunity to take: to acquire personal status, advantage, gain, etc., at the expense of others, which is grossly wrong. Leadership is instead an opportunity to give; to serve the organization, and crucially the people too. The modern notions of 'servant leader' and 'servant leadership' are attributed to Robert K Greenleaf (in his 1970 essay The Servant as Leader) however the philosophy and concept of leadership being a serving function rather than one that is served, is very old indeed and found in ancient civilisations and religious writings. Leadership is centrally concerned with people. Of course leadership involves decisions and actions relating to all sorts of other things, but leadership is special compared to any other role because of its unique responsibilty for people - i.e., the followers of the leader - in whatever context leadership is seen to operate. Many capabilities in life are a matter of acquiring skills and knowledge and then applying them in a reliable way. Leadership is quite different. Good leadership demands emotional strengths and behavioural characteristics which can draw deeply on a leader's mental and spiritual reserves. The leadership role is an inevitable reflection of people's needs and challenges in modern life. Leadership is therefore a profound concept, with increasingly complex implications, driven by an increasingly complex and fast-changing world. Leadership and management are commonly seen as the same thing, which they are not. Leadership is also misunderstood to mean directing and instructing people and making important decisions on behalf of an organization. Effective leadership is much more than these.

Good leaders are followed chiefly because people trust and respect them, rather than the skills they possess. Leadership is about behaviour first, skills second. This is a simple way to see how leadership is different to management:

Management is mostly about processes. Leadership is mostly about behaviour.

We could extend this to say:

Management relies heavily on tangible measurable capabilities such as effective planning; the use of organizational systems; and the use of appropriate communications methods. Leadership involves many management skills, but generally as a secondary or background function of true leadership. Leadership instead relies most strongly on less tangible and less measurable things like trust, inspiration, attitude, decision-making, and personal character. These are not processes or skills or even necessarily the result of experience. They are facets of humanity, and are enabled mainly by the leader's character and especially his/her emotional reserves.

Another way to see leadership compared with management, is that leadership does not crucially depend on the type of management methods and processes a leaders uses; leadership instead primarily depends on the ways in which the leader uses management methods and processes. Good leadership depends on attitudinal qualities, not management processes. Humanity is a way to describe these qualities, because this reflects the leader's vital relationship with people. Qualities critical for a leader's relationship with his/her people are quite different to conventional skills and processes:
examples of highly significant leadership qualities

integrity honesty humility courage commitment

sincerity passion confidence positivity wisdom determination compassion sensitivity

People with these sort of behaviours and attitudes tend to attract followers. Followers are naturally drawn to people who exhibit strength and can inspire belief in others. These qualities tend to produce a charismatic effect. Charisma tends to result from effective leadership and the qualities which enable effective leadership. Charisma is by itself no guarantee of effective leadership. Some people are born more naturally to leadership than others. Most people don't seek to be a leader, but many more people are able to lead, in one way or another and in one situation or another, than they realize. People who want to be a leader can develop leadership ability. Leadership is not the exclusive preserve of the wealthy and educated. Leadership is a matter of personal conviction and believing strongly in a cause or aim, whatever it is. Leadership sometimes comes to people later in life, and this is no bad thing. Humanity tends to be generational characteristic. There is no real obstacle to people who seek to become leaders if leadership is approached with proper integrity. Anyone can be a leader if he/she is suitably driven to a particular cause. And many qualities of effective leadership, like confidence and charisma, continue to grow from experience in the leadership role. Even initially surprised modest leaders can become great ones, and sometimes the greatest ones. Leadership can be performed with different styles. Some leaders have one style, which is right for certain situations and wrong for others. Some leaders can adapt and use different leadership styles for given situations.

Adaptability of style is an increasingly significant aspect of leadership, because the world is increasingly complex and dynamic. Adaptability stems from objectivity, which in turn stems from emotional security and emotional maturity. Again these strengths are not dependent on wealth or education, or skills or processes. Good leaders typically have a keen understanding of relationships within quite large and complex systems and networks. This may be from an intuitive angle, or a technical/learned angle, or both. A very useful way to explore this crucial aspect of leadership with respect to wider relationships and systems is offered by the Psychological Contractand how that theory relates to organizations and leadership. People new to leadership (and supervision and management) often feel under pressure to lead in a particularly dominant way. Sometimes this pressure on a new leader to impose their authority on the team comes from above. Dominant leadership is rarely appropriate however, especially for mature teams. Misreading this situation, and attempting to be overly dominant, can then cause problems for a new leader. Resistance from the team becomes a problem, and a cycle of negative behaviours and reducing performance begins. Much of leadership is counter-intuitive. Leadership is often more about serving than leading. Besides which, individuals and teams tend not to resist or push against something in which they have a strong involvement/ownership/sense of control. People tend to respond well to thanks, encouragement, recognition, inclusiveness, etc. Tough, overly dominant leadership gives teams a lot to push against and resist. It also prevents a sense of ownership and self-control among the people being led. And it also inhibits the positive rewards and incentives (thanks, recognition, encouragement, etc) vital for teams and individuals to cope with change, and to enjoy themselves. Leaders of course need to be able to make tough decisions when required, but most importantly leaders should concentrate on enabling the team to thrive, which is actually a 'serving' role, not the dominant 'leading' role commonly associated with leadership. Today ethical leadership is more important than ever. The world is more transparent and connected than it has ever been. The actions and philosophies of organisations are scrutinised by the media and the general public as never before. This coincides with massively increased awareness and interest among people everywhere in corporate responsibility and the many related concepts, such as social and community responsibility (see theethical leadership and ethical organisations page). The modern leader

needs to understand and aspire to leading people and achieving greatness in all these areas. Here is (was..) an Excellent 30 minute BBC Radio 4 Discussion about Modern Leadership - (first broadcast 2 Sept 2006, part of the 'Sound Advice' series). Its mere existence is evidence of changed attitudes to leadership. Such a programme would not have warranted BBC airtime a generation ago due to lack of audience interest. Today there is huge awareness of, and interest in, more modern leadership methods. The radio discussion highlighted the need for effective modern leaders to have emotional strength and sensitivity, far beyond traditional ideas of more limited autocratic leadership styles. I'm sorry (if still) this linked item is unavailable from the BBC website, especially if the recording is lost forever in the BBC's archives. If you know a suitably influential executive at the Beeb who can liberate it please contact me. Incidentally as a quick case-study, the BBC illustrates an important aspect of leadership, namely philosophy. Philosophy (you could call it 'fundamental purpose') is the foundation on which to build strategy, management, operational activities, and pretty well everything else that happens in an organization. Whatever the size of the organization, operational activities need to be reconcilable with a single congruent (fitting, harmonious) philosophy. Executives, managers, staff, customers, suppliers, stakeholders, etc., need solid philosophical principles (another term would be a 'frame of reference') on which to base their expectations, decisions and actions. In a vast complex organization like the BBC, leadership will be very challenging at the best of times due to reasons of size, diversity, political and public interest, etc. Having a conflicting philosophy dramatically increases these difficulties for everyone, not least the leader, because the frame of reference is confusing. For leadership to work well, people (employees and interested outsiders) must be able to connect their expectations, aims and activities to a basic purpose or philosophy of the organization. This foundational philosophy should provide vital reference points for employees' decisions and actions - an increasingly significant factor in modern 'empowered' organizations. Seeing a clear philosophy and purpose is also essential for staff, customers and outsiders in assessing crucial organizational characteristics such as integrity, ethics, fairness, quality and performance. A clear philosophy is vital to the 'psychological contract' - whether stated or unstated (almost always unstated)

- on which people (employees, customers or observers) tend to judge their relationships and transactions. The BBC is an example (it's not the only one) of an organization which has a confusing organizational philosophy. At times it is inherently conflicting. For example: Who are its owners? Who are its customers? What are its priorities and obligations? Are its commercial operations a means to an end, or an end in themselves? Is its main aim to provide commercial mainstream entertainment, or non-commercial education and information? Is it a public service, or is it a commercial provider? Will it one day be privatised in part or whole? If so will this threaten me or benefit me? As an employee am I sharing in something, or being exploited? As a customer (if the description is apt) am I also an owner? Or am I funding somebody else's gravy train? What are the organization's obligations to the state and to government? Given such uncertainties, not only is there a very unclear basic philosophy and purpose, but also, it's very difficult to achieve consistency for leadership messages to staff and customers. Also, how can staff and customers align their efforts and expectations with such confusing aims and principles? The BBC is just an example. There are many organizations, large and small, with conflicting and confusing fundamental aims. The lesson is that philosophy - or underpinning purpose - is the foundation on which leadership (for strategy, management, motivation, everything) is built. If the foundation is not solid and viable, and is not totally congruent with what follows, then everything built onto it is prone to wobble, and at times can fall over completely. Get the philosophy right - solid and in harmony with the activities - and the foundation is strong. Again, the Psychological Contract provides a helpful perspective for aligning people and organizational philosopy. This of course gives rise to the question of what to do if you find yourself leading a team or organization which lacks clarity of fundamental philosophy and purpose, and here lies an inescapable difference between managing and leading: As a leader your responsibility extends beyond leading the people. True leadership also includes - as far as your situation allows - the responsibility to protect or refine fundamental purpose and philosophy.

See also the notes and processes for incorporating fundamental philosophy within strategic business development and marketing.

allegiance and leadership

Different leaders have different ideas about leadership. For example, see below Jack Welch's perspective, which even though quite modern compared to many leaders, is nevertheless based on quite traditional leadership principles. First here is a deeper more philosophical view of effective modern leadership which addresses the foundations of effective leadership, rather than the styles and methods built on top, which are explained later. A British government initiative surfaced in March 2008, which suggested that young people should swear an oath of allegiance to 'Queen and Country', seemingly as a means of improving national loyalty, identity, and allegiance. While packaged as a suggestion to address 'disaffection' among young people, the idea was essentially concerned with leadership - or more precisely a failing leadership. The idea was rightly and unanimously dismissed by all sensible commentators as foolhardy nonsense, but it does provide a wonderful perspective by which to examine and illustrate the actual important principles of leadership: 1. Always, when leaders say that the people are not following, it's the leaders who are lost, not the people. 2. Leaders get lost because of isolation, delusion, arrogance, plain stupidity, etc., but above all because they become obsessed with imposing their authority, instead of truly leading. 3. Incidentally, leading is helping people achieve a shared vision, not telling people what to do. 4. It is not possible for a leader to understand and lead people when the leader's head is high in the clouds or stuck firmly up his backside. 5. That is to say - loyalty to leadership relies on the leader having a connection with and understanding of people's needs and wishes and possibilities. Solutions to leadership challenges do not lie in the leader's needs and wishes. Leadership solutions lie in the needs and wishes of the followers.

6. The suggestion that loyalty and a following can be built by simply asking or forcing people to be loyal is not any basis for effective leadership. 7. Prior to expecting anyone to follow, a leader first needs to demonstrate a vision and values worthy of a following. 8. A given type of leadership inevitably attracts the same type of followers. Put another way, a leadership cannot behave in any way that it asks its people not to. 9. In other words, for people to embrace and follow modern compassionate, honest, ethical, peaceful, and fair principles, they must see these qualities demonstrated by their leadership. 10. People are a lot cleverer than most leaders think. 11. People have a much keener sense of truth than most leaders think. 12. People quickly lose faith in a leader who behaves as if points 10 and 11 do not exist. 13. People generally have the answers which elude the leaders - they just have better things to do than help the leader to lead - like getting on with their own lives. 14. A leadership which screws up in a big way should come clean and admit their errors. People will generally forgive mistakes but they do not tolerate being treated like idiots by leaders. 15. And on the question of mistakes, a mistake is an opportunity to be better, and to show remorse and a lesson learned. This is how civilisation progresses. 16. A leader should be brave enough to talk when lesser people want to fight. Anyone can resort to threats and aggression. Being aggressive is not leading. It might have been a couple of thousand years ago, but it's not now. The nature of humankind and civilisation is to become more civilised. Leaders should enable not obstruct this process.

traditional leadership tips - jack welch style..

Jack Welch, respected business leader and writer is quoted as proposing these fundamental leadership principles (notably these principles are expanded in his 2001 book 'Jack: Straight From The Gut'):

1. There is only one way - the straight way. It sets the tone of the organisation. 2. Be open to the best of what everyone, everywhere, has to offer; transfer learning across your organisation. 3. Get the right people in the right jobs - it is more important than developing a strategy. 4. An informal atmosphere is a competitive advantage. 5. Make sure everybody counts and everybody knows they count. 6. Legitimate self-confidence is a winner - the true test of self-confidence is the courage to be open. 7. Business has to be fun - celebrations energise and organisation. 8. Never underestimate the other guy. 9. Understand where real value is added and put your best people there. 10. Know when to meddle and when to let go - this is pure instinct. As a leader, your main priority is to get the job done, whatever the job is. Leaders make things happen by:

knowing your objectives and having a plan how to achieve them building a team committed to achieving the objectives helping each team member to give their best efforts

As a leader you must know yourself. Know your own strengths and weaknesses, so that you can build the best team around you. However - always remember the philosophical platform - this ethical platform is not a technique or a process - it's the foundation on which all the techniques and methodologies are based. Plan carefully, with your people where appropriate, how you will achieve your aims. You may have to redefine or develop your own new aims and priorities. Leadership can be daunting for many people simply because no-one else is issuing the aims - leadership often means you have to create your own from a blank sheet of paper. Set and agree clear standards. Keep the right balance between 'doing' yourself and managing others 'to do'. Build teams. Ensure you look after people and that communications and relationships are good. Select good people and help them to develop. Develop people via training and experience, particularly by agreeing objectives and responsibilities that will interest and stretch them, and always support people while they strive to improve and take on extra tasks. Follow the rules

about delegation closely - this process is crucial. Ensure that your managers are applying the same principles. Good leadership principles must cascade down through the whole organisation. This means that if you are leading a large organisation you must check that the processes for managing, communicating and developing people are in place and working properly. Communication is critical. Listen, consult, involve, explain why as well as what needs to be done. Some leaders lead by example and are very 'hands on'; others are more distanced and let their people do it. Whatever - your example is paramount the way you work and conduct yourself will be the most you can possibly expect from your people. If you set low standards you are to blame for low standards in your people. "... Praise loudly, blame softly." (Catherine the Great). Follow this maxim. If you seek one singlemost important behaviour that will rapidly earn you respect and trust among your people, this is it: Always give your people the credit for your achievements and successes. Never take the credit yourself even if it's all down to you, which would be unlikely anyway. You must however take the blame and accept responsibility for any failings or mistakes that your people make. Never never never publicly blame another person for a failing. Their failing is your responsibility - true leadership offers is no hiding place for a true leader. Take time to listen to and really understand people. Walk the job. Ask and learn about what people do and think, and how they think improvements can be made. Accentuate the positive. Express things in terms of what should be done, not what should not be done. If you accentuate the negative, people are more likely to veer towards it. Like the mother who left her five-year-old for a minute unsupervised in the kitchen, saying as she left the room, "...don't you go putting those beans up your nose..." Have faith in people to do great things - given space and air and time, everyone can achieve more than they hope for. Provide people with relevant interesting opportunities, with proper measures and rewards and they will more than repay your faith. Take difficult decisions bravely, and be truthful and sensitive when you implement them.

Constantly seek to learn from the people around you - they will teach you more about yourself than anything else. They will also tell you 90% of what you need to know to achieve your business goals. Embrace change, but not for change's sake. Begin to plan your own succession as soon as you take up your new post, and in this regard, ensure that the only promises you ever make are those that you can guarantee to deliver. Here are some processes and tips for training and developing leadership.

leadership behaviours and development of leadership style and skills

Leadership skills are based on leadership behaviour. Skills alone do not make leaders - style and behaviour do. If you are interested in leadership training and development - start with leadership behaviour. The growing awareness and demand for idealist principles in leadership are increasing the emphasis (in terms of leadership characteristics) on business ethics, corporate responsibility, emotional maturity, personal integrity, and what is popularly now known as the 'triple bottom line'(abbreviated to TBL or 3BL, representing 'profit, people, planet'). For many people (staff, customers, suppliers, investors, commentators, visionaries, etc) these are becoming the most significant areas of attitude/behaviour/appreciation required in modern business and organisational leaders. 3BL (triple bottom line - profit, people, planet) also provides an excellent multi-dimensional framework for explaining, developing and assessing leadership potential and capability, and also links strongly with psychology aspects if for instance psychometrics (personality testing) features in leadership selection and development methods: each of us is more naturally inclined to one or the other (profit, people, planet) by virtue of our personality, which can be referenced to Jung, Myers Briggs, etc. Much debate persists as to the validity of 'triple bottom line accounting', since standards and measures are some way from being clearly defined and agreed, but this does not reduce the relevance of the concept, nor the growing public awareness of it, which effectively and continuously re-shapes

markets and therefore corporate behaviour. Accordingly leaders need to understand and respond to such huge attitudinal trends, whether they can be reliably accounted for or not at the moment. Adaptability and vision - as might be demonstrated via project development scenarios or tasks - especially involving modern communications and knowledge technologies - are also critical for certain leadership roles, and provide unlimited scope for leadership development processes, methods and activities. Cultural diversity is another topical and very relevant area requiring leadership involvement, if not mastery. Large organisations particularly must recognise that the market-place, in terms of staff, customers and suppliers, is truly global now, and leaders must be able to function and appreciate and adapt to all aspects of cultural diversification. A leaders who fails to relate culturally well and widely and openly inevitably condemns the entire organisation to adopt the same narrow focus and bias exhibited by the leader. Bear in mind that different leadership jobs (and chairman) require different types of leaders - Churchill was fine for war but not good for peacetime rebuilding. There's a big difference between short-term return on investment versus long-term change. Each warrants a different type of leadership style, and actually very few leaders are able to adapt from one to the other. (Again see the personality styles section: short-term results and profit require strong Jungian 'thinking' orientation, or frontal left brain dominance; whereas longterm vision and change require 'intuition' orientation, or frontal right brain dominance). If it's not clear already, leadership is without doubt mostly about behaviour, especially towards others. People who strive for these things generally come to be regarded and respected as a leader by their people:

Integrity - the most important requirement; without it everything else is for nothing. Having an effective appreciation and approach towards corporate responsibility, (Triple Bottom Line, Fair Trade, etc), so that the need to make profit is balanced with wider social and environmental responsibilities. Being very grown-up - never getting emotionally negative with people - no shouting or ranting, even if you feel very upset or angry.

Leading by example - always be seen to be working harder and more determinedly than anyone else. Helping alongside your people when they need it. Fairness - treating everyone equally and on merit. Being firm and clear in dealing with bad or unethical behaviour. Listening to and really understanding people, and show them that you understand (this doesn't mean you have to agree with everyone understanding is different to agreeing). Always taking the responsibility and blame for your people's mistakes. Always giving your people the credit for your successes. Never self-promoting. Backing-up and supporting your people. Being decisive - even if the decision is to delegate or do nothing if appropriate - but be seen to be making fair and balanced decisions. Asking for people's views, but remain neutral and objective. Being honest but sensitive in the way that you give bad news or criticism. Always doing what you say you will do - keeping your promises. Working hard to become expert at what you do technically, and at understanding your people's technical abilities and challenges. Encouraging your people to grow, to learn and to take on as much as they want to, at a pace they can handle. Always accentuating the positive (say 'do it like this', not 'don't do it like that'). Smiling and encouraging others to be happy and enjoy themselves. Relaxing - breaking down the barriers and the leadership awe - and giving your people and yourself time to get to know and respect each other. Taking notes and keeping good records. Planning and prioritising. Managing your time well and helping others to do so too. Involving your people in your thinking and especially in managing change. Reading good books, and taking advice from good people, to help develop your own understanding of yourself, and particularly of other people's

weaknesses (some of the best books for leadership are not about business at all - they are about people who triumph over adversity).

Achieve the company tasks and objectives, while maintaining your integrity, the trust of your people, are a balancing the corporate aims with the needs of the world beyond.

great leadership quotes and inspirational quotes

Some of these quotes are available as free motivational posters. "People ask the difference between a leader and a boss.... The leader works in the open, and the boss in covert. The leader leads and the boss drives." (Theodore Roosevelt) "The marksman hitteth the target partly by pulling, partly by letting go. The boatsman reacheth the landing partly by pulling, partly by letting go." (Egyptian proverb) "No man is fit to command another that cannot command himself." (William Penn) "It is amazing what you can accomplish if you do not care who gets the credit." (President Harry S Truman) "I not only use all the brains I have, but all I can borrow." (Woodrow Wilson) "What should it profit a man if he would gain the whole world yet lose his soul." (The Holy Bible, Mark 8:36) "A dream is just a dream. A goal is a dream with a plan and a deadline." (Harvey Mackay) "Ideas are like rabbits. You get a couple, learn how to look after them, and pretty soon you have a dozen." (John Steinbeck) "I keep six honest serving-men, They taught me all I knew; Their names are What and Why and When, And How and Where and Who." (Rudyard Kipling, from 'Just So Stories', 1902.) "A dwarf standing on the shoulders of a giant may see farther than the giant himself." (Didacus Stella, circa AD60 - and, as a matter of interest, abridged on the edge of an English 2 coin)

"Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful." (Samuel Johnson 1709-84) "The most important thing in life is not to capitalise on your successes - any fool can do that. The really important thing is to profit from your mistakes." (William Bolitho, from 'Twelve against the Gods') "Out of the night that covers me, Black as the pit from pole to pole, I thank whatever gods may be, For my unconquerable soul. In the fell clutch of circumstance, I have not winced nor cried aloud: Under the bludgeonings of chance my head is bloody but unbowed . . . . . It matters not how strait the gait, how charged with punishments the scroll, I am the master of my fate: I am the captain of my soul." (WE Henley, 1849-1903, from 'Invictus') "Everybody can get angry - that's easy. But getting angry at the right person, with the right intensity, at the right time, for the right reason and in the right way - that's hard." (Aristotle) "Management means helping people to get the best out of themselves, not organising things." (Lauren Appley) "It's not the critic who counts, not the one who points out how the strong man stumbled or how the doer of deeds might have done them better. The credit belongs to the man who is actually in the arena; whose face is marred with the sweat and dust and blood; who strives valiantly; who errs and comes up short again and again; who knows the great enthusiasms, the great devotions and spends himself in a worthy cause and who, at best knows the triumph of high achievement and who at worst, if he fails, at least fails while daring greatly so that his place shall never be with those cold and timid souls who know neither victory nor defeat." (Theodore Roosevelt.) "Behind an able man there are always other able men." (Chinese Proverb.) "I praise loudly. I blame softly." (Catherine the Great, 1729-1796.) "Experto Credite." ("Trust one who has proved it." Virgil, 2,000 years ago.) More leadership and inspirational quotes See also the free motivational posters for leadership quotes.

leadership development exercises and games

The are various games and exercises on the free team building games section that work well for demonstrating, assessing and developing leadership. See particularly the 'leading or managing' exercise, which is a flexible activity for illustrating the differences between managing and leading. As regards leadership exercises for experiential development of leadership abilities, focus on the leadership challenge of leading and managing a team - the task itself is secondary - so virtually any team game is suitable provided you give each leader a team of four or more people to lead. The more people, the bigger the test of leadership. You do not need a complicated exercise to create a leadership challenge. The leadership challenge is produced by having to organise, plan and motivate a team of people. In fact, if the task is too complex it will obscure the team leadership issues, by distracting from or hampering leadership skills and qualities. For leadership development choose exercises that includes an enjoyable and achievable challenge - even very basic games like newspaper towers will be a good test of leadership if you create teams of four or more for the leader to lead. Use games that you feel will produce variety, fun and a mixture of activities. The round tables exercise is particularly suitable to test and develop leadership skills. Choose a mixture of exercises which encourage the leaders think about using a different approach, and different people's strengths, for each challenge.

leadership articles and leadership development justification

Many articles appear in the press and trade journals about leadership; look out for them, they can teach you a lot. Newspaper articles - particularly those that appear in the serious press about leadership and management, organizational and business culture, are an excellent source of ideas, examples and references for developing leadership. A journalist could have spent a week researching the subject, talking to leading business leaders, academics and writers, and preparing useful statistics. This is valuable material. Learn from it, use it and keep it, because finding specific detail like this is usually quite difficult. Serious relevant articles in the newspapers, trade press, or online equivalent, cost little or nothing, and yet they can be invaluable in developing your own

ideas about leadership, and in providing compelling justification to organizations and managers for the need to adopt new ideas and different approach to leadership development. Particularly powerful are articles which describe corporate failings, many with huge liabilities, arising from poor leadership behaviour and decisions, and which appear in the news virtually every week. Recent history is also littered with all sorts of corporate disasters and scandals, and while these high-profile examples are of a grander scale than usually applies in typical organisations, the same principles apply - an organisation is only as good as its leadership at all levels. Business disasters and failures - be their nature environmental, financial, safety, commercial or people-related - are invariably traceable back to a failure in leadership, and so any boardroom that says "That sort of thing wouldn't happen to us.." or "Our managers all know how to lead without being taught.." is probably riding for a fall. Finding specific examples of cost and return on investment relating to leadership development is not easy (measuring leadership 'cause and effect' is not as simple as more tangible business elements), which is why it's useful to keep any such articles when you happen to see them. Certain leadership development organisations are sometimes able to provide ROI justification and/or case studies, which is another possible source of evidence for reports and justification studies. And given the growing significance of corporate ethics and responsibility, we can expect to see increasing ROI data relating to 'Triple Bottom Line' and 'Corporate Responsibility', which being strongly linked to leadership therefore will provide a further source of evidence and justification for leadership development.