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TECHNICAL REFERENCE GUIDE

Steam distribution

Contents
Introduction Steam distribution Steam system basics Working pressure Determining the working pressure Pressure reduction Pipeline sizing Effects of oversizing and undersizing pipework Pipeline standards and wall thickness Pipeline sizing on steam velocity Pipeline sizing on pressure drop Pipeline sizing for larger and longer steam mains Steam mains and drainage Drain points Waterhammer and its effects Branchlines Branch connections Drop leg Rising ground and drainage Steam separators Strainers Mains drainage method Steam trap selection Steam leaks Summary Pipe expansion and support Allowance for expansion Pipework flexibility Expansion fittings Pipe support spacing Air venting Reduction of heat losses Calculation of heat transfer Relevant UK and international standards Summary Appendix 1 - Sizing on pipeline capacity and pressure drop Further information Appendix 2 - Steam tables Appendix 3 - Conversion tables 2 2 2 4 4 6 7 7 8 9 11 12 17 18 19 21 22 23 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 32 32 33 36 40 44 46 47 49 51 52 57 58 60

Introduction
Steam distribution The steam distribution system is an important link between the central steam source and the steam user. The central steam source may be a boiler house or a cogeneration plant. The source must supply good quality steam at the required rate and pressure, and it must do this with the minimum of heat loss and maintenance attention. This guide will look at the distribution of dry saturated steam as a conveyor of heat energy to the point of use, for either process heat exchange applications, or space heating, and will cover the issues associated with the implementation of an efficient steam distribution system. Steam system basics From the outset, an understanding of the basic steam circuit, or 'steam and condensate loop' is required. The steam flow in a circuit is due to condensation of steam which causes a pressure drop. This induces the flow of steam through the pipes. The steam generated in the boiler must be conveyed through pipework to the point where its heat energy is required. Initially there will be one or more main pipes or 'steam mains' which carry steam from the boiler in the general direction of the steam using plant. Smaller branch pipes can then carry the steam to the individual pieces of equipment. When the boiler crown valve (the steam outlet from the boiler) is opened, steam immediately passes from the boiler into and along the steam mains. The pipework is cold initially so heat is transferred to it by the steam. The air surrounding the pipes is cooler than the steam, so the pipework will begin to lose heat to the air. As the steam is flowing to a cooler environment, it will begin to condense immediately. On start-up of the system, the amount of condensate will be greatest as the steam will be used in heating up the cold pipework - this is known as the 'starting load'. Once the pipework has warmed up, condensation will still occur as the pipework loses heat to the surrounding air - this is known as the 'running load'. The resulting condensate falls to the bottom of the pipe and is carried along with the steam flow and by gravity, due to the gradient in the steam main which should normally fall in the direction of steam flow. The condensate will then have to be drained from the lowest points in the steam main.

When the valve on the steam pipe serving an item of steam using plant is opened, steam flow from the distribution system enters the plant and again comes into contact with surfaces cooler than itself. The steam then gives up its energy in warming up the equipment (starting load), and continues to transfer heat to the process (running load) when it will condense into water (condensate). There is now a continuous flow of steam from the boiler to satisfy this connected load, and to maintain this supply more steam must be generated. In order to do this, more fuel is fed to the boiler and more water is pumped into it to make-up for the water which has already been evaporated into steam. The condensate formed in both the steam distribution pipework and in the process equipment is a ready made supply of useable hot boiler feedwater. Although it is important to remove this condensate from the steam space, it is a far too valuable commodity to be allowed to run to waste. The basic steam circuit should be completed by returning all condensate to the boiler feedtank, wherever practicable.

Pan

Steam Pan

Process vessel

Space heating system

Steam Vat Make-up water Feedtank Condensate Steam

Condensate Vat

Boiler Feedpump

Fig. 1 A typical steam circuit 3

Working pressure
Determining the working pressure The pressure at which the steam is to be distributed is partially determined by the point of use on the plant needing the highest pressure. It should be remembered that as the steam passes through the distribution pipework, it will lose some of its pressure due to resistance to flow, and condensation from loss of heat to the pipework. Therefore allowance should be made for this pressure loss when deciding upon the initial distribution pressure. To summarise these points, the following need to be considered when selecting the working pressure: Pressure required at the point of use. Pressure drop along the pipe due to resistance of flow (friction). Pipe heat losses. Steam at a higher pressure occupies less volume per kilogram than steam at a lower pressure. It therefore follows that if steam is generated in the boiler at a higher pressure than that needed by its application, and is distributed at this higher pressure, the size of the distribution mains will be smaller for any given mass flowrate. Figure 2 illustrates this point.
Specific volume m/kg 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.2 1.0 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Pressure bar g

Fig. 2 Dry saturated steam pressure/specific volume relationship

Steam generation and distribution at a higher pressure will have the following advantages: Smaller bore steam mains are required, resulting in lower capital cost of steam mains, for materials such as pipes, flanges, support work, and labour. Lower capital cost of pipe insulation. Drier steam at the point of use due to the drying effect of pressure reduction. The thermal storage capacity of the boiler is increased, helping it to cope more efficiently with fluctuating loads, reducing the risk of priming and carryover at maximum conditions. Having distributed at a higher pressure, it will be necessary to reduce the steam pressure to each zone or point of use in the system in order to correspond with the pressure required by the application. Please note, it is often thought that running a steam boiler at a lower pressure than its design rated pressure will save fuel. This logic is based on more fuel being needed to raise steam to a higher pressure and thus temperature. Whilst this is marginally so, ultimately, the rate at which energy is used is determined by the connected load not the boiler. Hence the same energy is used (say in kJs) by the load wether the boiler delivers at 4 bar g, 10 bar g or 100 bar g. Hence the energy supplied by the burner is exactly the same. Standing losses and flue losses increase, but these can be reduced by insulation and heat recovery technology, and can be considered marginal when compared to the advantages of distributing steam at high pressure.

Pressure reduction

The most common method for pressure reduction is to use a pressure reducing station, similar to the one shown in Figure 3.
Safety valve Reducing valve
DP 17

Separator Steam Strainer Steam

Trap set

Condensate

Fig. 3 A typical pressure reducing valve station A separator is used before the reducing valve to remove water from incoming wet steam, therefore allowing only dry saturated steam to pass through the reducing valve. This will be looked at in more detail later. If a pressure reducing valve is used, it is appropriate to fit a safety valve downstream to protect the steam using equipment. Should the reducing valve fail, and allow the downstream pressure to increase, the steam using equipment may be permanently damaged, and the possibility of danger to personnel may result. With a safety valve fitted, any excess pressure is bled off through the valve, to prevent this from happening. Other items completing the pressure reducing valve station are: The first isolating valve - to shut the system down for maintenance. The first pressure gauge - to monitor the integrity of supply. The strainer - to keep the system clean. The second pressure gauge - to set and monitor the downstream pressure. The second isolating valve - to set the downstream pressure on no load conditions.

Pipeline sizing
A natural tendency exists, when choosing pipe sizes, to be guided by the size of connections on equipment to which they will be connected. If the pipework is sized in this way, then the desired volumetric flowrate may not be achieved. The use of concentric and eccentric reducers can be used to correct this, enabling pipework to be properly sized.

Steam

Steam

Concentric

Eccentric

Fig. 4 Concentric and eccentric reducers Pipe sizes may be chosen on the basis of either: Fluid velocity. Pressure drop. In each case it is wise to check using both methods to ensure that the alternative limits are not being exceeded. Effects of oversizing and undersizing pipework Oversizing of pipework means: The pipes will be more expensive than necessary. A greater volume of condensate will be formed due to greater heat loss. Poorer steam quality and ultimate heat transfer due to the greater volume of condensate formed. Higher installation costs. In a particular example, the cost of installing 80 mm pipework was found to be 44 % more than the cost of 50 mm pipework which would have had adequate capacity. The heat lost by the insulated pipework was some 21 % more from the 80 mm line than it would have been from the 50 mm. Any uninsulated parts would have lost some 50 % more from the 80 mm, than from 50 mm size. This is due to the extra surface area available. Undersizing of pipework means: Higher steam velocity and pressure drop creating a lower pressure than required at point of use. Risk of steam starvation at point of use. Greater risk of erosion, waterhammer and noise due to increase in steam velocity. 7

Pipeline standards and wall thickness

Probably the most common pipe standard in global use is that derived from the American Petroleum Institute (API), where pipes are categorised in schedule numbers. These schedules bear a relation to the pressure rating of the piping and are eleven in number ranging from the lowest at 5 through 10, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 140 to schedule no. 160. For piping 150 mm nominal size and smaller, schedule 40 (sometimes called 'standard weight') is the lightest which is specified. Only schedules 40 and 80 cover the full range from 15 mm up to 600 mm nominal sizes and are the most commonly used schedule for steam pipe installations. For the purposes of this guide, reference will be to pipework of schedule 80 (sometimes called 'extra strong'). Tables of schedule numbers can be obtained from BS 1600 which are used as a reference for the nominal pipe size and wall thickness in millimetres. Table 1 is an example of the bore sizes of different sized pipes, for different schedule numbers. In Europe, pipe is manufactured to DIN standards and DIN 2448 pipe is included in the table.

Table 1
Pipe size (mm) Schedule 40 Bore (mm) Schedule 80 Schedule 160 DIN 2448 15 15.8 13.8 11.7 17.3 20 21.0 18.9 15.6 22.3 25 26.6 24.3 20.7 28.5 32 35.1 32.5 29.5 37.2 40 40.9 38.1 34.0 43.1 50 52.5 49.2 42.8 60.3 65 62.7 59.0 53.9 70.3 80 73.7 66.6 100 97.2 87.3 125 128.2 122.3 109.5 131.7 150 154.1 146.4 131.8 159.3 77.9 102.3

82.5 107.1

Example

For a 25 mm schedule 80 pipe, the internal bore diameter of the pipe is 24.3 mm, likewise a schedule 40 pipe has an internal bore diameter of 26.6 mm. Pipes most commonly used are heavy grade carbon steel (standard length 6 m) for steam mains and condensate lines. Another term which is commonly used for pipe thickness is 'Blue band and Red band'. These are referred to from BS 1387, (Steel tubes and tubulars suitable for screwing to BS 21 threads), and apply to particular grades of pipe, Red being heavy, commonly used for steam pipe applications, and Blue being used as a medium grade, commonly used for air distribution systems. The coloured bands are 50 mm wide, and their positions on the pipe denote its length. Pipes less than 4 metres in length only have a coloured band at one end, while pipes of 4 to 7 metres in length have a coloured band at either end.

Single band. Up to 4 m in length

Double band. Between 4 m - 7 m in length

Fig. 5 Pipe band locations 8

Pipeline sizing on steam velocity

If pipework is sized on the basis of velocity, then calculations are based on the volume of steam being carried in relation to the cross sectional area of the pipe. For dry saturated steam mains, practical experience shows that reasonable velocities are 25 - 40 m/s, but these should be regarded as the maxima above which noise and erosion will take place, particularly if the steam is wet. Even these velocities can be high in terms of their effect on pressure drop. In longer supply lines, it is often necessary to restrict velocities to 15 m/s if high pressure drops are to be avoided. By using Table 2 (page 13) as a guide, it is possible to select pipe sizes from the steam pressure, velocity and flowrate. Alternatively the pipe size can be calculated by following the mathematical procedure as outlined below. In order to do this, we need to define the following information: Flow velocity (m/s) Specific volume (m3/kg) Mass flowrate (kg/s) Volumetric flowrate (m/s) C v m
q q

m(kg/s) x v(m3/kg)

From this information, the cross sectional area (A) of the pipe can be calculated:
q

Cross sectional area (A)

Volumetric flowrate (V) Flow velocity m/sec (C)


q

i.e:

p x D2 4

V C

This formula can be rearranged to give the diameter of the pipe:


q

D \ D

= =

4xV pxC

4xV pxC

This will produce the diameter of the pipe in metres. It can easily be converted into millimetres by multiplying by 1 000.

Example

It is required to size a pipeline to handle 5 000 kg/h of dry saturated steam a 7 bar g, and 25 m/s required flow velocity. - Flow velocity (C) - Specific volume (v) - Mass flowrate (m)
q q

= = =

25 m/s 0.24 m/kg (from steam tables) 5 000 kg/h 3 600 s/h
q

1.389 kg/s

- Volumetric flowrate (V) = = = Therefore, using:

m x v 1.389 kg/s x 0.24 m/kg 0.333 m/s

Cross sectional area (A) = p x D 4 D D = = =

Volumetric flowrate (V) Flow velocity (C) 0.333 25

4pxx0.333 25
0.130 m or 130 mm

An alternative method is to use Figure 6 (page 14) for calculating pipe sizes by velocity. This method will work if you know the following requirements; Steam pressure, temperature (if superheated), flowrate and velocity. The example below will help to explain how this method works. Example Using the above example, it is required to size a pipeline to handle 5 000 kg/h of saturated steam at 7 bar g. The maximum acceptable steam velocity is 25 m/s. Method refer to Figure 6, page 14. Draw a horizontal line from the saturation temperature line at 7 bar g (point A) on the pressure scale to the steam mass flowrate of 5 000 kg/h (point B). Now draw a vertical line to the steam velocity of 25 m/s (point C). From C, draw a horizontal line across the pipe diameter scale (point D). A pipe with a bore of 130 mm will suffice in this case.

10

Pipeline sizing on pressure drop

Sometimes it is essential that the steam pressure feeding an item of plant is not allowed to fall below a specified minimum, in order to maintain temperature, thus ensuring that plant heat transfer factors are maintained under full load conditions. Here, it is appropriate to size the pipe on the 'pressure drop' method, by using the known pressure at the supply end of the pipe and the required pressure at the point of use. There are numerous graphs, tables and even slide rules available for relating pipe size to pressure drop. One method which has proved satisfactory, is the use of utilizing pressure drop factors. An example of this method is shown in the appendix at the end of this guide. An alternative and quicker method to sizing pipelines on the basis of pressure drop, is to use Figure 7 (page 15) if the following variables are known: steam temperature, pressure, flowrate and pressure drop requirements.

Example

It is required to size a pipeline to handle 20 000 kg/h of superheated steam at 15 bar g pressure at 300C, and a pressure drop of 0.3 bar/100 m. Method refer to Figure 7, page 15. Draw a vertical line from 300C (point A) on the temperature scale to 15 bar g (point B) on the pressure scale. From B, draw a horizontal line to the steam flowrate of 20 000 kg/h (Point C). Now draw a vertical line to the top of the graph. Draw a horizontal line from 0.3 bar/100 m on the pressure loss scale (point D). The point at which this line crosses the vertical line from point C (point E), will determine the pipe size required. In this case 200 mm.

11

Pipeline sizing for larger and longer steam mains

These pipelines should be sized using the pressure drop method. Calculations usually consider higher pressures and flowrates and superheated steam. The calculation uses a pressure ratio between the total pressure drop and inlet pressures, which may be utilised in Figure 8 (page 16). It is required to size a pipe to handle 20 tonnes of steam per hour at a pressure of 14 bar gauge and a temperature of 325C. The length of the pipe is 300 metres and the permissible pressure drop over this length is 0.675 bar. Note that the chart is in absolute pressure and for an exercise of this kind, it is sufficiently accurate to approximate that 14 bar gauge equals 15 bar absolute. First find the pressure ratio: Ratio = = = Pressure drop Inlet pressure (absolute) 0.675 15 0.045

Example

Method refer to Figure 8, page 16. From this point on the left hand scale, read horizontally to the right and at the intersection (A) with the curved line, read vertically upwards to meet the length line of 300 metres (B). At this point, extend the horizontal line across the chart to point C. Now read from the base temperature line at 325C and extend vertically upwards to meet the 15 bar abs. pressure line (D). Read horizontally to the right to meet the line of 20 tonnes/h (E) and from this point, extend a line vertically upwards. The pipe size is indicated where this line intersects line B - C at point F. This shows a pipe size of 200 mm. This procedure can also be reversed to find the pressure drop in a known pipe size.

12

Table 2 Saturated steam pipeline capacities at specific velocities (schedule 80 pipe)


Pressure bar 0.4 Velocity kg/h m/s 15mm 20mm 25mm 32mm 40mm 50mm 65mm 80mm 100mm 125mm 150mm 200mm 250mm 300mm 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 15 25 40 7 10 17 7 12 18 8 12 19 12 19 30 16 26 41 19 30 49 22 36 59 26 43 71 29 49 76 32 54 84 41 66 104 50 85 126 60 102 151 14 25 35 16 25 37 17 26 39 25 43 64 37 56 87 42 63 116 49 81 131 59 97 157 63 114 177 70 122 192 95 145 216 121 195 305 145 234 366 24 40 64 25 45 68 29 48 71 45 70 115 60 100 157 70 115 197 87 135 225 105 162 270 110 190 303 126 205 327 155 257 408 205 331 555 246 397 666 37 62 102 40 72 106 43 72 112 70 112 178 93 152 250 108 180 295 128 211 338 153 253 405 165 288 455 190 320 510 250 405 615 310 520 825 372 624 990 52 92 142 59 100 167 65 100 172 100 162 275 127 225 375 156 270 456 187 308 495 225 370 595 260 450 690 285 465 730 372 562 910 465 740 1210 558 888 1452 99 162 265 109 182 298 112 193 311 182 295 475 245 425 595 281 450 796 352 548 855 425 658 1025 445 785 1210 475 810 1370 626 990 1635 810 1375 2195 972 1650 2634 145 265 403 166 287 428 182 300 465 280 428 745 385 632 1025 432 742 1247 526 885 1350 632 1065 1620 705 1205 1865 800 1260 2065 1012 1530 2545 1270 2080 3425 1524 2496 4110 213 384 576 250 430 630 260 445 640 410 656 1010 535 910 1460 635 1080 1825 770 1265 1890 925 1520 2270 952 1750 2520 1125 1870 3120 1465 2205 3600 1870 3120 4735 394 675 1037 431 716 1108 470 730 1150 715 1215 1895 925 1580 2540 1166 1980 3120 1295 2110 3510 1555 2530 4210 1815 3025 4585 1990 3240 5135 2495 3825 6230 3220 5200 8510 648 972 1670 680 1145 1712 694 1160 1800 1125 1755 2925 1505 2480 4050 1685 2925 4940 2105 3540 5400 2525 4250 6475 917 1457 2303 1006 1575 2417 1020 1660 2500 1580 2520 4175 1606 2590 2806 4101 4318 6909 3678 5936 9500

0.7

1708 27911 3852 2816 4629 6204 4532 7251 10323 1864 2814 4045 3099 4869 6751 4815 7333 10370 2814 4845 6277 4815 7525 10575 7678 11997 16796

1.0

2.0

3.0

2040 3983 6217 8743 3440 6779 10269 14316 5940 10476 16470 22950 2460 4816 7121 10358 4225 7866 12225 17304 7050 12661 19663 27816 2835 5548 8586 11947 5150 8865 14268 20051 7870 13761 23205 32244 3400 6654 10297 14328 6175 10629 17108 24042 9445 16515 27849 38697

4.0

5.0

6.0

7.0

2765 3990 7390 12015 16096 4815 6900 12288 19377 27080 7560 10880 19141 30978 43470 3025 4540 8042 12625 17728 5220 7120 13140 21600 33210 8395 12470 21247 33669 46858 3995 5860 9994 16172 22713 6295 8995 15966 25860 35890 9880 14390 26621 41011 57560 5215 7390 12921 20538 29016 8500 12560 21720 34139 47218 13050 18630 35548 54883 76534 6258 8868 15505 24646 34819 10200 15072 26064 40967 56662 15660 22356 42658 65860 91841

8.0

10.0

14.0

17.0

2244 3864 3744 6240 5682 10212

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Fig. 6 Superheated and saturated steam pipeline sizing chart (velocity method)
600 500 400 300 250
ity m /s

e St

am

10

100
20 30 0 5

0 10 50 1

80 70 60 50 40 30 25 20 15 10

Pipe diameter mm

l ve

oc 5

200 175 150 125

Steam pressure bar g

am te S

te ra w flo 10

/h kg

50 %
20 0 3

Vacu

um

50 0 10

0 20 0 50 00 B 0 1 00 0 0 2 00 3 00 5 0 000 10 000 0 20 0 00 0 3 00 0 50 0 00 0 10 0 00 20

A
Sa tur e mp n te atio curve

g 0 bar 0.5 1 2 3 5 7 10 20 30 50 75 100

100

300 200 400 Steam temperature C

rat ure

500

The dotted line A, B, C, D refers to the example on page 10

14

Fig. 7 Steam pipeline sizing chart (pressure drop method)


18 10
10 15

5 3 2 Pressure loss bar/100 m 1 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.05 0.03 0.02 0.01 Steam pressure bar g

20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 100 125 150 200 250 300

20 30 50

50 %

Vacuu

10

g 0 bar 0.5 1 2 3 5 7 10 20 30 50 75 100

A
100 300 200 400 Steam temperature C 500

The dotted line A, B, C, D, E refers to the example on page 11

100 20 3000 500 10 00 20 3 0 00 0 50 0 00 10 000 20 30 000 000 50 000 100 000 Ste 20 am 0 00 flow 0 rate kg/ h

400 500 Insi de p ipe 600 diam ete rm m

Sa tura per tem tion rve cu atu re

15

Figure 8 Pipe sizing chart for larger steam mains


0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2
10 0 50 00 30 00 00 15 00 70 0 40 0 20 0 10 0 50 30 15 70 00 40 00 20 00 10 00 50 0 30 0 15 0 70 40

Steam velocity m/s

Pi

4
pe le ng

th

6 8 10 15 20

m rm ete iam ed 750 Pip

150

400 300

200

100

50

500

70

0.1 0.09 0.08 0.07 0.06 0.05 0.04 0.03 0.02

30 40 60 80 100 150 200

125

175

450 350

250

600

60

80

10

20

2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80
am ne/ h

0.004 0.003

Pressure drop bar Inlet pressure bar abs

ma

ss f

low

rate

ton

Ratio DP =

G=

Ste

30 50 100

100 110 120


100 400 200 300 Steam temperature C 500

The dotted line A, B, C, D, E refers to the example on page 12

16

200

1.5

3 5 8 15

150 300

4 6 10 20

40 70

0.01 0.009 0.008 0.007 0.006 0.005

re bar ressu inlet p Steam

abs

Steam mains and drainage


In any steam main, some steam will condense due to radiation losses. For example, a well lagged 100 mm line 50 m long carrying steam at 7 bar, with surrounding air at 20C, will condense approximately 26 kg of steam per hour, when heated from cold. This is probably less than 1 % of the carrying capacity of the main. Nevertheless it means, that at the end of 1 hour if not drained, the main would contain not only steam, but at least 26 litres of water and progressively more with time. So some provision must be made for draining off this water. If this is not done effectively, problems such as corrosion and waterhammer will set in, which will be covered later. In addition, the steam will become wet as it picks up water droplets, thereby reducing its heat transfer potential. Under extreme conditions if water is allowed to build up, the overall effective cross sectional area of the pipe is reduced, hence increasing steam velocity above recommended limits. Whenever possible the main should be run with a fall of not less than 100 mm in 10 m, in the direction of the steam flow. If the steam main rises in the direction of flow, then the condensate will tend to be dragged uphill with the steam flow. Instead relay points may be installed allowing the pipe to fall in the direction of flow between the points. Refer to the Figure 9 for further details. By installing the pipework with a fall in the direction of steam flow, both steam and condensate will run in the same direction. A drain point is needed at the foot of each relay, and the steam and condensate will run in the same direction towards the drain points. The subject of drainage from steam lines is covered in the UK British Standard BS 806, section 4.12.

Steam Steam Trap set Rising ground Condensate

Fig. 9 Diagram of rising ground pipework

17

Drain points

The benefits of selecting the most appropriate type of steam trap for a particular application will be wasted if condensate cannot easily find its way to the trap. For this reason, careful consideration should always be given to the size and situation of the drain point. Consideration should also be given to what happens to condensate in a steam main at shut-down when all flow ceases. Due to gravity the water will run along falling pipework and collect at the lower points in the system. Steam traps should therefore be fitted to these low points. However, the amount of condensate formed in a large steam main under start-up conditions is sufficient to require the provision of drain points at intervals of 30 m to 50 m, as well as at natural low points. In normal operation steam may flow along the main at speeds of up to 145 km/h, dragging condensate along with it. Figure 10 shows a 15 mm drain pipe connected from the bottom of a main to a steam trap. Although the 15 mm pipe has sufficient capacity, it is unlikely to catch much of the condensate moving along the main at high speed. Such an arrangement will be ineffective. A more reliable solution for the removal of condensate is shown in Figure 11. The drain line off-take should be at least 25 to 30 mm from the bottom of the pocket for steam mains up to 100 mm, and roughly a third to centre of the pocket for larger mains, allowing a space below for any dirt and scale to settle. The bottom of the pocket may be fitted with a removable flange or blowdown valve for cleaning purposes. Steam mains diameters Drain pocket up to 100mm Bore same as main depth at least 100 mm 125, 150, 200 mm Bore 100 mm; depth at least 150 mm 250 mm and above Bore half that of main depth at least diameter of main

Steam trap

Pocket

Steam trap

Fig. 10 Incorrect 18

Fig. 11 Correct

Waterhammer and its effects

Waterhammer may occur when condensate is pushed along a pipe by the steam instead of being drained away at the low points, and is suddenly stopped by impacting on an obstacle in the system. The build up of droplets of condensate along a length of steam pipework, as shown in Figure 12 eventually forms a 'solid' slug which will be carried at steam velocity along the pipework. Such velocities can be of 30 m/s or more. This slug of water is dense and incompressible, and, when travelling at high velocity, has a considerable amount of kinetic energy.

Steam

Steam

Steam

Fig. 12 The formation of a 'solid' slug of water When obstructed, perhaps by a bend or tee in the pipe, the kinetic energy of the water is converted into pressure energy and a pressure shock is applied to the obstruction. (The laws of thermodynamics, state that energy cannot be created or destroyed, but is simply converted into a different form). Commonly there is a banging noise, and perhaps movement of the pipe. In severe cases the fitting may fracture with almost explosive effect, with consequent loss of live steam at the fracture, providing a hazardous situation. Fortunately, waterhammer may be avoided if steps are taken to ensure that the condensate in the pipework is not allowed to collect along the pipework. Avoiding waterhammer is a better alternative than attempting to contain it by choice of materials, and pressure ratings of equipment. Common sources of waterhammer trouble occur at the low points in the pipework (See Figure 13). Such areas are: Sags in the line. Incorrect use of concentric reducers and strainers. For this reason it is better to fit strainers on their sides in steam lines. Inadequate drainage of steam lines. 19

Steam

Steam

Steam

Fig. 13 Potential sources of waterhammer trouble To summarise, in order to minimise the possibility of waterhammer; Steam lines should be arranged with a gradual fall in the direction of flow, with drain points installed at regular intervals and at low points. Check valves should be fitted after all traps which would otherwise allow condensate to run back into the steam line or plant during shut-down. Isolation valves should be opened slowly to allow any condensate which may be lying in the system to flow gently towards, and through, the drain traps before it is picked up by high velocity steam. This is especially important at start-up.

20

Steam

Steam main

Steam

Branch

Steam

Fig. 14 Branchline Branchlines It is important to remember that branch lines are normally much shorter in length than the steam mains. Sizing branches on the basis of a given pressure drop is accordingly less convenient on short lengths of pipe. With a main of 250 m length, a pressure drop limitation of 0.5 bar may be perfectly valid, even though it leads to the use of lower velocities than might be expected. In a branch line of only 5 m or 10 m length, the same velocity would lead to values of only 0.01 or 0.02 bar. Clearly these are insignificant, and it is usual to size branch lines on a higher steam velocity. This may create a higher pressure drop, but with a shorter pipe length, this pressure drop will be acceptable. Sizes are often selected from a table, like the 'Pipeline capacities at specific velocities' table (Table 2). When using steam velocities of 25 to 35 m/s where short branch connections to equipment are being considered, it should be noted that the accompanying rate of pressure loss per unit length can be relatively high. A large pressure drop can be created if the pipeline contains several fittings like connections and elbows. Longer branch lines should be restricted to a velocity below 15 m/s unless the pressure drop is also calculated.

21

Branch connections

Branch connections taken from the top of the main carry the driest steam. If taken from the side, or even worse from the bottom as Figure 15, they can carry the condensate from the main and in effect become a drain pocket. The result is very wet steam reaching the equipment. The valve in Figure 16 should be positioned as near to the off-take as possible to minimize condensate laying in the branch line, if shut-down for extended periods.

Steam

Fig. 15 Incorrect

Steam

Fig. 16 Correct

22

Drop leg

Low points will also occur in branch lines. The most common is a drop leg near to an isolating valve or a control valve. Condensate builds up in front of the closed valve, and will be entrained with the steam when the valve opens again - consequently a drain point with a steam trap set is required at this point.
Steam Steam main

Steam

Drop leg Control valve Isolation valve Trap set

Isolation valve

Condensate

Fig. 17 Diagram of a drop leg Rising ground and drainage It is not uncommon for a steam main to run across rising ground, where the contours of the site make it quite impractical to lay the pipe with a natural fall, therefore the condensate must be induced to run downhill against the steam flow. It is then wise to make sure that the pipe size is large enough, over the rising section, to lower the steam velocity to not more than 15 m/s. Equally, the spacing between the drain points should be reduced, to not more than 15 m. The aim is to prevent the condensate film on the bottom of the pipe increasing in thickness to a point where droplets are picked up by the steam flow, Figure 18 below.
Increase in pipe diameter Fall

Steam velocity 40 m/s

Fall 30 - 50 m

Steam velocity 15 m/s

Fall

15 m

15 m

Fig. 18 Reverse gradient on steam main 23

Steam separators

Modern packaged steam boilers have a high duty for their size and lack any reserve capacity to cope with overload conditions. Incorrect chemical feedwater treatment, TDS control and transient peak loads can cause serious priming and carryover of boiler water into the steam mains. The use of a separator to remove this water is shown in Figure 20. Selection is not difficult when using a sizing chart. See Figure 19.
DN150 DN125 DN100
5 000 2 000 1 000 500 200 100

Steam flowrate kg/h

10 000

DN80 DN65 DN50 DN40

DN32 DN25 DN20 DN15

Separator size

10

20

50

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 101112

A 16

18 20 22 24 25 5

10 15 20 25 30

35 40

Steam pressure bar g


0.002 0.02 0.05 0.01

Flow velocity m/s

F
0.1

0.2

Pressure drop across separator bar

Fig. 19 Separator sizing chart Separator sizing chart example Determine the size of separator required for a flowrate of 500 kg/h at 13 bar g pressure. 1. Taking the pressure and flowrate, draw line A - B. 2. Draw a horizontal line B - C. 3. Any separator size curve that is bisected by the line B - C within the shaded area will operate at near 100 % efficiency. 4. Additionally, line velocity for any size can be determined by dropping a vertical line D - E. (e.g. 18 m/s for a size DN32 unit). 5. Also, pressure drop can be determined by plotting lines E - F and A - F. The point of intersection is the pressure drop across the separator, i.e.: 0.037 bar approximately. 24

Separators should be selected on the basis of the best compromise between line size, velocity and pressure drop for each application. As soon as steam has left the boiler, some of it must condense to replace the heat being lost through the pipe wall. Insulation will naturally reduce the heat loss, but the heat flow and the condensation rate remain as small but finite amounts and if appropriate action is not taken these amounts will accumulate. The condensate will form droplets on the inside of the pipe wall, and these can merge into a film as they are swept along by the steam flow.

Wet steam

Dry steam

Condensate to steam trap

Fig. 20 A typical cut section through a separator The water will also gravitate towards the bottom of the pipe, and so the thickness of the film will be greatest there. Steam flowing over this water film can raise ripples which can build up into waves. If this build up continues, the tips of the waves will break off, throwing droplets of condensate into the steam flow. The result is that the heat exchange equipment receives very wet steam, which reduces heat transfer efficiency and the working life of control valves. Anything that will reduce the propensity for wet steam in mains or branch lines will prove beneficial. A separator will remove both droplets of water from pipe walls and suspended mist entrained in the steam itself. The presence and effect of waterhammer can be eradicated by fitting a separator in a steam main, and can often be a cheaper alternative than altering pipework to overcome this phenomenon.

25

Strainers

When new pipework is installed, it is not uncommon for fragments of casting sand, packing, jointing, swarf, welding rods and even nuts and bolts to be left inside. In the case of older pipework, there will be rust and in hard water districts, a carbonate deposit. From time to time, pieces will break loose and pass along the pipework with the steam, to rest inside a piece of steam using equipment, which could prevent a valve from opening/closing correctly The steam using equipment may also suffer permanent damage through wire drawing - the cutting action of high velocity steam and water passing through a partly open valve. Once wire drawing has occurred, the valve will never give a tight shut-off, even if the dirt is removed. Therefore, it is sensible practice to fit a simple pipeline strainer in front of every steam trap, meter, reducing valve and regulating valve. The diagram shown in Figure 21 shows a typical strainer in section.

D Fig. 21 A typical cut section through a strainer Steam flows from the inlet 'A' through the perforated screen 'B' to the outlet 'C'. While steam and water will pass readily through the screen, the progress of dirt will be arrested. The cap 'D', can be removed, allowing the screen to be withdrawn and cleaned at regular intervals. A blowdown valve can also be fitted to the cap 'D' to facilitate regular cleaning. Strainers however, can be a source of waterhammer trouble as previously mentioned. To avoid this problem strainers should be installed on their sides when they are part of a steam line.

26

Mains drainage method

The use of steam traps is the most efficient method of draining condensate from a steam distribution system. The steam traps used to drain the main must be suitable for the system, and have sufficient capacity to pass the amounts of condensate reaching them with the pressure differentials which are present at any given time. The first requirement is easily dealt with, the maximum working pressure at the steam trap will either be known or can readily be found. The second requirement covering the amounts of condensate reaching the trap under working conditions, when only the heat losses from the line are leading to condensation of the steam, may be calculated, or read with sufficient accuracy from Table 3 (page 31). It should be remembered, that traps draining a boiler header may at times be required to discharge water carried over from the boiler with the steam. A total capacity of up to 10 % of the boiler rating is usually thought reasonable. In the case of the other traps further along the system, Table 3 page 31, shows that providing the drain points are not further apart than the recommended 50 m, the condensate loads will normally be well within the capacity of a 15 mm low capacity trap. Only in those rare applications of very high pressures (above 70 bar), combined with large pipe sizes, will greater trap capacity be needed. A little more care is sometimes needed when steam lines are frequently shut-down and started up. Amounts of steam condensed while the pipes are being warmed from cold to working temperature are also listed in Table 3 page 31. Since these are steam masses rather than steam flowrates, the time allowed for the heating process must also be taken into account. For example, if a pipe is brought to working pressure in 20 minutes, then the hourly rate will be 60/20, or 3 times the load shown in the table. During the first part of the heating up process, the condensing rate will be at least equal to the average rate. However, the pressure within the pipe will be only a little above atmospheric pressure, perhaps by 0.05 bar. This means that the capacity of the trap will be correspondingly reduced. In those cases where start-up loads are frequent, the DN15 steam trap with normal capacity may be a more appropriate choice This also highlights another benefit of the large pipe-sized drain pocket, which, at start-up, can fill up with condensate when steam pressure may not be high enough to push it away through the trap.

27

Steam trap selection

The specification for a mains drain trap should give due consideration to a number of aspects. The steam trap should discharge at, or very close to saturation temperature, unless long cooling legs are used between the drain point and the trap. This means that the choice is often between mechanical traps like float and inverted bucket patterns, or thermodynamic traps. Where mains are outside buildings and the possibility of frost damage arises, the thermodynamic steam trap is pre-eminent. Even if the installation is such that water is left in the trap at shut-down and freezing occurs, the thermodynamic trap may be thawed out without suffering any damage when it is to be brought back into use. Historically, on poorly laid out installations where waterhammer may be prevalent, float traps may not have been ideal due to their susceptibility to float damage. Contemporary design and manufacturing techniques, now produce extremely robust units for mains drainage purposes. Float traps are certainly the first choice for proprietary separators. The high capacities which are readily achieved, and the near instantaneous response to rapid load increases, are desirable features. Thermodynamic steam traps are also suitable, for draining longer runs of large diameter mains, especially where lines are in continuous service. Frost damage is then less likely. Typical steam traps which are used to drain condensate from mains are shown in Figure 22. The subject of steam trapping is dealt with in more detail in the technical reference guide 'Steam Trapping and Air Venting'.

Ball float type

Thermodynamic type

Thermostatic type

Inverted bucket type

Fig. 22 Steam traps 28

Steam leaks

Leaking steam is all too often ignored. However, leaks can be costly in both financial and environmental senses and therefore need prompt attention to ensure the steam system is working at its optimum efficiency with a minimum impact on the environment. For example, for each litre of heavy fuel oil burned unnecessarily to compensate for a steam leak, approximately 3 kg of carbon dioxide are emitted to the atmosphere. Figure 23 illustrates the steam loss for various sizes of hole and this loss can be readily translated into an annual fuel saving based on either 8 400 or 2 000 hours of operation per year.
Coal tonnes/year 1 000 200 500 400 300 200 100 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 100 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 3 2 1 Heavy fuel oil x 1 000 litres/year 500 400 300 200 100 50 40 30 20 10 100 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 3 2 Gas x 1 000 kWh/year 5 000 4 000 1 000 3 000 2 000 500 400 300 1 000 200 500 400 300 200 100 50 40 30 100 50 40 30 20 10

Steam leak rate kg/h

1 000 500 400 300 200 100 50 40 30 20 10 5 4 3

Leaking hole 12.5 mm 10 mm 7.5 mm

5 mm 3 mm

1 2 3 4 5 10 14 Steam pressure bar (x 100 = kPa)

8 400 2 000 Hours per day

5 1 4 3 0.5 2 8 400 2 000 Hours per year

5 20 8 400 2 000 Hours per year

Fig. 23 Steam loss through leaks

24 hour day, 7 day week, 50 week year = 8 400 hours 8 hour day, 5 day week, 50 week year = 2 000 hours

29

Summary

To summarise this section, proper pipe alignment and drainage means observing a few simple rules: Steam lines should be arranged to fall in the direction of flow, at not less than 100 mm per 10 metres of pipe. Steam lines should be drained at regular intervals of 30-50 m and at any low points in the system. Where drainage has to be provided in straight lengths of pipe, then a large bore pocket should be used to collect condensate. If strainers are to be fitted, then they should be fitted on their sides. Branch connections should always be taken from the top of the main so the driest steam is taken. Separators should be considered before any piece of steam using equipment ensuring that dry steam is obtained. Traps selected should be robust for the job to avoid the risk of waterhammer damage, and appropriate for their environment. (i.e. frost damage).

30

Table 3 Warm-up / running loads per 50 m of steam main


Warm-up loads per 50 m of steam main (kg/h)
Steam pressure bar g 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 Main size - mm 50 5 6 7 8 8 9 9 9 10 10 10 11 12 17 17 19 21 22 24 27 29 32 34 35 42 50 5 5 6 7 7 8 8 9 9 10 11 12 12 14 15 15 17 20 24 27 29 34 38 41 52 65 9 10 11 12 13 13 14 14 15 16 17 17 19 23 26 29 32 34 37 41 44 49 51 54 64 65 5 6 7 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 21 25 29 32 35 42 46 50 63 80 11 13 14 16 17 18 18 19 20 20 22 23 24 31 35 39 41 46 50 54 59 65 69 72 86 80 7 8 9 10 11 11 12 14 14 15 16 17 18 19 21 23 25 30 34 39 43 51 56 61 77 100 16 19 20 22 24 25 26 27 28 29 31 32 35 45 51 56 62 67 73 79 86 95 100 106 126 100 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 17 18 20 23 24 25 28 31 38 44 50 56 66 72 78 99 125 22 25 25 30 33 34 35 37 38 40 42 44 47 62 71 78 86 93 101 135 156 172 181 190 227 125 10 12 14 16 17 18 19 20 21 21 23 26 29 30 31 35 39 46 54 62 70 81 89 96 122 150 28 33 36 39 42 43 45 47 50 51 54 57 61 84 97 108 117 127 139 181 208 232 245 257 305 150 13 14 16 18 20 21 23 24 25 25 26 30 34 36 37 42 47 56 65 74 82 97 106 114 145 200 44 49 54 59 63 66 68 71 74 77 84 85 91 127 148 164 179 194 212 305 346 386 409 427 508 200 16 18 20 23 24 26 28 30 32 33 36 39 42 44 46 52 51 70 82 95 106 126 134 149 189 250 60 69 79 83 70 93 97 101 105 109 115 120 128 187 220 243 265 287 214 445 510 568 598 628 748 250 19 22 25 28 30 33 35 37 39 41 45 49 52 55 58 66 73 87 102 119 133 156 171 186 236 300 79 92 101 110 119 124 128 134 139 144 152 160 172 355 302 333 364 395 432 626 717 800 842 884 1052 300 23 26 30 33 36 39 42 44 47 49 53 58 62 66 69 78 87 104 121 140 157 187 204 220 280 350 94 108 120 131 142 147 151 158 164 171 180 189 203 305 362 400 437 473 518 752 861 960 1011 1062 1265 350 25 28 32 37 40 43 46 49 52 54 59 64 68 72 76 86 96 114 133 155 173 205 224 242 308 400 123 142 156 170 185 198 197 207 216 224 236 247 265 393 465 533 571 608 665 960 1100 1220 1288 1355 1610 400 28 32 37 42 46 49 52 57 60 62 67 73 78 82 86 97 108 130 151 177 198 234 265 277 352 450 155 179 197 215 233 242 250 261 272 282 298 311 334 492 582 642 702 762 834 1218 1396 1550 1635 1720 2050 450 31 35 40 46 49 53 56 61 64 67 73 79 85 90 94 106 118 142 165 199 222 263 287 311 395 500 182 210 232 254 275 285 294 307 320 332 350 366 393 596 712 786 859 834 1020 1480 1694 1890 1990 2690 2490 500 35 39 45 51 55 59 63 68 72 75 81 93 95 100 105 119 132 158 184 222 248 293 320 347 440 -18C correction 600 factor 254 1.39 296 1.35 324 1.32 353 1.29 382 1.28 396 1.27 410 1.26 428 1.25 436 1.24 463 1.24 488 1.23 510 1.22 548 1.21 708 1.21 806 1.20 978 1.19 1150 1.18 1322 1.16 1450 1.15 2140 1.15 2455 1.15 2730 1.14 2880 1.14 3030 1.14 3600 1.13 600 41 46 54 61 66 71 76 82 88 90 97 106 114 120 125 141 157 189 220 265 296 350 284 416 527

Running loads per 50 m of steam main (kg/h)


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20 25 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 120 1.54 1.50 1.48 1.45 1.43 1.42 1.41 1.40 1.39 1.38 1.38 1.37 1.36 1.36 1.35 1.34 1.33 1.31 1.29 1.28 1.27 1.26 1.26 1.25 1.22

Note: Warm-up and running loads based on an ambient temperature of 20C, and an insulation efficiency of 80 %

31

Pipe expansion and support


Allowance for expansion All pipes will be installed at ambient temperature. Pipes carrying hot fluids, whether water, or steam, operate at higher temperatures. It follows that they expand, especially in length, with an increase from ambient to working temperatures. This may create stresses upon certain areas within the distribution system, such as a pipe joints which could be fractured. The amount of the expansion is readily calculated using the following equation, or read from appropriate charts. Expansion = where: L = Dt = a = L x Dt x a (mm) Length of pipe between anchors (m) Temperature difference C Expansion coefficient (mm/mC) x 10-

Table 4 Expansion coefficients (a)


Material Mild steel 0.1-0.2 % C Alloy steel 1 % Cr 0.5 % Mo Stainless steel 18 % Cr 8 % Ni <0 12.8 13.8 9.4 Temperature range C 0 - 100 0 - 200 0 - 315 0 - 400 0 - 485 0 - 600 0 - 700 14.0 14.4 20.0 15.0 15.1 20.9 15.6 15.8 21.2 16.2 16.6 21.8 17.8 17.3 22.3 17.5 17.6 22.7 23.0

Example

Find the expansion of 30 m of pipe from ambient (10C) to 152C (steam at 4 bar g) L Dt a \ Expansion i.e. expansion = = = = = 30 m 152C - 10C = 142C 15.0 x 10- mm/mC 30 x 142 x 15.0 x 10- mm 64 mm

Alternatively, the amount of pipe expansion can be determined by using Table 6 (page 40) to calculate the amount of expansion over 10 m of pipe for the different pipe materials. Expansion charts like Figure 34 (page 41) are also an easy method for determining the amount of expansion.

32

Pipework flexibility

The pipework must be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the movements of the components as it heats up. In most cases the pipework has enough natural flexibility, by virtue of having reasonable lengths and plenty of bends, that no undue stresses are set up. In other installations, it will be necessary to build in some means of achieving the required flexibility. An example of building in flexibility is when condensate is drained from a steam main drain trap to a condensate main. In this case, the difference between the expansion of the two mains due to the change in temperature or the pipes' material expansion rates must be remembered. The steam main may be at a temperature very much above that of the return main, and the two connection points can move in relation to each other during system warm up. Some flexibility should be incorporated in the steam trap piping so that branch connections do not become over stressed. (See Figure 24).

Steam

Steam main

Steam

Condensate Condensate main

Fig. 24 Flexibility in connection to condensate return line The amount of movement to be taken up by the piping and any device incorporated in it can be reduced by the use of 'cold draw'. The total amount of expansion is first calculated for each section between fixed anchor points. The pipes are left short by half this amount, and stretched cold, as by pulling up bolts at a flanged joint, so that at ambient temperature, the system is stressed in one direction. When warmed through half the total temperature rise, the piping is unstressed. At working temperature and having fully expanded, the piping is stressed in the opposite direction. The effect is that instead of being stressed from 0 F to +1 F units of force, the piping is stressed from - F to + F units of force. 33

In practical terms, the pipework is assembled with a spacer piece, of length equal to half the expansion, between two flanges. When the pipework is fully installed and anchored, the spacer is removed and the joint pulled up tight. (See Figure 25).

Position after cold draw Neutral position Hot position Half calculated expansion over length Spacer piece

Fig. 25 Use of spacer for expansion when pipework is installed The remaining part of the expansion, if not accepted by the natural flexibility of the pipework will call for the use of an expansion fitting. Pipework expansion and support in practice, can therefore be classified into the following three areas as shown in Figure 26 below.

Point A Fixed

Point B Variable anchor

Point C Expansion fitting

Point B Variable anchor

Point A Fixed

Fig. 26 Diagram of pipeline with fixed point, variable anchor point and expansion fitting The fixed point support (A) provides a datum position from which expansion takes place. The variable anchor point (B) will allow free movement for expansion of the pipework, while keeping the pipeline in alignment. 34

Fig. 27 Chair and roller

Fig. 28 Chair roller and saddle

Roller supports are an ideal method for supporting pipes, while allowing them to move in two directions. For steel pipework, the rollers should be manufactured from ferrous material. For copper pipework, they should be manufactured from non-ferrous material. It is good practice for pipework supported on rollers to be fitted with a pipe saddle bolted to a support bracket at not more than 6 metre centres to keep the pipework in alignment while expansion and contraction occurs. Where two pipes are to be supported, it is bad practice to carry the bottom pipe from the top pipe using a pipe clip. This will cause extra stress to be added to the top pipe whose thickness has been sized to take only the stress of its working pressure. All pipe supports should be specifically designed to suit the outside diameter of the pipe concerned. The expansion fitting (C) is one method of accommodating for the expansion. These fittings are placed within a line, and are designed to accommodate the expansion, without the total length of the line changing.

35

Expansion fittings

Full loop (Figure 29) This is simply one complete turn of the pipe and should preferably be fitted in a horizontal rather than a vertical position to prevent condensate building up. The downstream side passes below the upstream side and great care must be taken that it is not fitted the wrong way round. When full loops are to be fitted in a confined space, care must be taken in ordering, otherwise wrong handed loops may be supplied. The full loop does not produce a force in opposition to the expanding pipework as in some other types, but with steam pressure inside the loop, there is a slight tendency to unwind, which puts an additional stress on the flanges. This design is rarely used today due to the space taken up by the pipework, and proprietory expansion bellows are now readily available. However large steam uses such as power stations or establishments with large outside distribution systems still tend to use loop type expansion devices, as space is usually available and cost is relatively low. Horseshoe or lyre loop (Figure 30) When space is available this type is sometimes used. It is best fitted horizontally so that the loop and the main are on the same plane. Pressure does not tend to blow the ends of the loop apart, but there is a very slight straightening out effect. This is due to the design but causes no misalignment of the flanges. In other cases, the 'loop' is fabricated from straight lengths of pipe and 90 bends. This may not be effective and requires more space, but it meets the same need. If any of these arrangements are fitted with the loop vertically above the pipe then a drain point must be provided on the upstream side.

Fig. 29 Full loop

Fig. 30 Horse shoe or lyre loop

Expansion loops (Figure 30) A development of the Horse shoe loop, expansion loops are fabricated from lengths of straight pipes and elbows welded at the joins. The amounts of expansion which can be accommodated in such assemblies are shown in Figures 36 and 37 page 42. 36

2W W

Welded bend radius = 1.5 dia

Fig. 31 Expansion loop

Weld joint

Sliding joint (Figure 32) These are sometimes used because they take up little room, but it is essential that the pipeline is rigidly anchored and guided, to the manufacturers' instructions, otherwise steam pressure acting on the cross sectional area of the sleeve part of the joint tends to blow the joint apart in opposition to the forces produced by the expanding pipework. Misalignment will cause the sliding sleeve to bend, while regular maintenance of the gland packing is also needed. Bellows (Figure 33) A simple bellows has the advantage that it is an in-line fitting and requires no packing as does the sliding joint type. But it does have the same disadvantages as the sliding joint in that pressure inside tends to extend the fitting so that anchors and guides must be able to withstand this force.

Fig. 32 Sliding joint

Fig. 33 Bellows

37

Bellows can incorporate limit rods which limit over-compression and over-extension of the element. These may have little function under normal operating conditions, as most simple bellows assemblies are able to withstand small lateral and angular movement. However, in the event of anchor failure, they behave as tie rods and contain the pressure thrust forces, preventing damage to the unit whilst reducing the possibility of further damage to piping, equipment and personnel. Where larger forces are expected, some form of additional mechanical re-inforcement should be built into the device, such as hinged stay bars. There is invariably more than one way to accomodate the relative movement between two laterally displaced pipes depending upon the relative positions of bellows anchors and guides, but generally, axial displacement is better than angular which, in turn, is better than lateral. Angular and lateral movement should be avoided wherever possible. Figure 34 a, b, and c give a simple indication of the effects of these movements, but, under all circumstances, it is highly recommended that expert advice is sought from the bellows manufacturer regarding any installation.

Guides

Axial movement Short distance Fixing point Axial movement Guides

Fig. 34a Axial movement of bellows 38

Guides Small lateral movement

limit rods

Small angular movement Small angular movement

Medium distance

Fixing point

Guides

Small lateral movement

Fig. 34b Small lateral and angular movement of bellows

hinged stay bars

large angular movement

Long distance

Axial movement

large angular movement

Fixing point

Fig. 34c Angular and axial movement of bellows 39

Pipe support spacing

The frequency of pipe supports will vary according to the bore of the pipe; the actual pipe material (i.e. steel or copper); and whether the pipe is horizontal or vertical. Generally, pipe supports should be provided which comply with BS 3974, Part 1, 1974: 'Pipe hangers, slider and roller type supports.' Some of the important points are as follows: Pipe supports should be provided at joints in the pipe, i.e. bends, tees, valves, flanges and at intervals not greater than shown in the next table, Recommended support spacing for steel pipes. The reason for supporting at joints is to eliminate the stresses in screwed or flanged joints. Where two or more pipes are supported on a common bracket, the spacing between the supports should be that for the smallest pipe. When an appreciable movement will occur, i.e. where straight pipes are greater than 15 metres in length, the supports should be of the roller type as outlined previously. The following table can be used as a guide when calculating the distance between pipe supports for steel and copper pipework.

Table 5 Recommended support for pipework


Nominal pipe size (mm) Steel / Copper Bore Outside dia. 12 15 15 18 20 22 25 28 32 35 40 42 50 54 65 67 80 76 100 108 125 133 150 159 200 194 250 267 Interval of horizontal run metres Mild steel Copper 1.0 2.0 1.2 2.4 1.4 2.7 1.7 2.7 1.7 3.0 2.0 3.4 2.0 3.7 2.0 3.7 2.4 4.1 2.7 4.4 3.0 4.8 3.4 5.1 5.8 Interval of vertical run metres Mild steel Copper 1.2 2.4 1.4 3.0 1.7 3.0 2.0 3.0 2.4 3.6 2.4 4.1 2.4 4.4 2.9 4.4 3.2 4.9 3.6 5.3 4.1 5.7 6.0 5.9

Vertical pipes should be adequately supported at the base, to withstand the total weight of the vertical pipe. Branches from vertical pipes should not be used as a means of support for the pipe, because this will place undue strain upon the tee joint. All pipe supports should be specifically designed to suit the outside diameter of the pipe concerned. The use of oversized pipe brackets is not good practice. 40

Table 6 Thermal expansion of pipes (mm per 10 m)


Temperature C -30 -25 -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320 330 340 350 360 370 380 390 400 410 420 430 440 450 460 470 480 490 500 C. steel mm/10m -4.99 -4.44 -3.90 -3.35 -2.80 -2.24 -1.69 -1.13 -0.56 0.00 0.57 1.14 1.71 2.29 2.86 3.44 4.03 4.61 5.20 5.79 6.39 6.98 7.58 8.18 8.79 9.39 10.00 11.23 12.47 13.72 14.97 16.24 17.52 18.81 20.11 21.43 22.75 24.08 25.42 26.78 28.14 29.52 30.90 32.30 33.70 35.12 36.55 37.98 39.43 40.89 42.36 43.84 45.33 46.83 48.35 49.87 51.40 12 % Cr steel mm/10m -5.05 -4.49 -3.94 -3.38 -2.82 -2.26 -1.69 -1.13 -0.57 0.00 0.57 1.13 1.70 2.27 2.84 3.42 3.99 4.56 5.14 5.72 6.29 6.87 7.45 8.03 8.62 9.20 9.78 10.96 12.13 13.32 14.50 15.69 16.89 18.08 19.29 20.50 21.71 23.04 24.28 25.53 26.78 28.04 29.30 30.57 31.85 33.13 34.42 35.71 37.01 38.32 39.63 40.94 42.26 43.59 44.93 46.27 47.61 48.96 50.32 51.68 53.05 54.43 55.81 57.19 58.58 59.98 61.38 Materials 18/8 s.s mm/10m -7.79 -6.92 -6.05 -5.19 -4.32 -3.46 -2.59 -1.73 -0.86 0.00 0.86 1.73 2.59 3.46 4.32 5.18 6.05 6.91 7.78 8.64 9.50 10.37 11.23 12.09 12.95 13.82 14.68 16.41 18.13 19.85 21.58 23.30 25.02 26.75 28.47 30.19 31.91 33.63 35.35 37.07 38.79 40.51 42.23 43.94 45.66 47.38 49.09 50.81 52.53 54.24 55.95 57.67 59.38 61.10 62.81 64.52 66.23 67.94 69.66 71.37 73.08 74.79 76.49 78.20 79.91 81.62 83.33 Ductile iron mm/10m -4.54 -4.04 -3.53 -3.03 -2.52 -2.02 -1.51 -1.01 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.01 1.51 2.02 2.52 3.21 3.75 4.28 4.82 5.36 5.89 6.43 6.96 7.50 8.03 8.57 9.10 10.53 11.64 12.75 13.86 14.97 16.60 17.74 18.89 20.03 21.18 23.38 24.58 Copper mm/10m -7.16 -6.38 -5.59 -4.79 -4.00 -3.20 -2.41 -1.61 -0.80 0.00 0.81 1.61 2.42 3.24 4.05 4.87 5.68 6.50 7.33 8.15 8.98 9.80 10.63 11.47 12.30 13.14 13.97 15.66 17.35 19.04 20.75 22.46 24.19 25.92 27.65 29.40 31.15

41

Temperature difference C Length of pipe (m) 220 200 100 50 40 30 20 10 5 50 100 200 300 400 500

10

20

30 40 50

100

200

300

500 1000 2000 Expansion of pipe (mm) 20 215 25 226 30 236

Temperature of saturated steam bar g 1 2 3 4 C 120 134 144 152

5 159

7.5 173

10 184

15 201

Fig. 35 Expansion chart for mild steel pipe

42

Expansion from neutral position (mm) 25 Nominal pipe size (mm) 200

50

75

100

125

150

175 200

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 2W 20 0.5 1 1.5 W 3 3.5 4 W. metres

Fig. 36 Copper expansion loop

2 2.5 W. metres

Maximum pressure 10 bar

Nominal pipe size (mm)

25 400 300

50

75

Expansion from neutral position (mm) 125 150 175 200 100

200

100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 25 0.5 1 1.5 2

3.5

4.5

5 W. metres

2W W

Welded bends radius = 1.5 dia.

Fig. 37 Steel expansion loop

3 2.5 W. metres

Maximum pressure 17 bar Maximum temperature 260C

43

Air venting
It is often overlooked that when steam is first admitted to a pipe after a period of shut-down, the pipe is full of air. Further amounts of air and other non-condensable gases will enter with the steam, although the proportions of these gases are normally very small compared with the steam. Nevertheless, these gases will accumulate within the pipe and in the steam spaces of heat exchangers when the steam condenses, unless steps are taken to discharge them. The warming up of the steam system will become a lengthy business which will contribute towards a fall in plant efficiency. A further effect of air in a steam system will be the effect upon pressure and temperature. Air will exert its own partial pressure within the steam space, and this pressure will be added to the partial pressure of the steam in producing the total pressure present. Therefore, the actual steam pressure will be lower than that shown by the total pressure on a pressure gauge. The overall temperature will also be lower than that suggested by the pressure gauge. In reality this is usually a marginal effect. Far more important is the effect air has upon heat transfer. A layer of air only 1 micron thick can offer the same resistance to heat as a layer of water 25 microns thick, a layer of iron 2 mm thick or a layer of copper 17 mm thick. Therefore it is of utmost importance that air is removed from the system. Automatic air vents for steam systems are nothing more than thermostatic steam traps, fitted above the level of any condensate so that only steam, or air, or steam/air mixtures can reach them. They are usually best located at the ends of the steam mains and the larger diameter branches as can be seen in Figure 37.

Steam Air

Condensate

Fig. 38 Draining and venting at the end of a main The discharge from the air vent can be piped to any safe place. In practice, it is often taken into the condensate line, where it is a gravity line falling towards a vented receiver. 44

In addition to air venting at the end of a main, other parts of the steam system which may require air venting are: In parallel with an inverted bucket trap which is relatively slow to air vent on start-up. In awkward steam spaces such as at the opposite side to where steam enters a jacketed pan. Where there is a large steam space, and a steam/air mixture is to be avoided.

45

Reduction of heat losses


Once a steam main has warmed up, condensation will continue as heat is lost by radiation, the rate depending upon the steam temperature, ambient temperature, and the efficiency of the system insulation. If a steam distribution system is to be as efficient as possible, then all appropriate steps should be taken to ensure that any heat losses are reduced to the economic minimum. The most economical thickness of insulation will depend upon several factors: Installation cost. Value of the heat carried by the steam. Size of the pipework. Pipework temperature. If the pipework to be insulated is outside, then the air velocity and potential dampness of the insulation must be taken into account. Most insulation materials depend on minute air cells for their effectiveness, which are held in a matrix of inert material such as mineral wool, fibreglass or calcium silicate. Typical installations use aluminium clad fibreglass, aluminium clad mineral wool and calcium silicate. It is important that insulating material is not crushed or allowed to become waterlogged. Adequate mechanical protection and water proofing are essential, especially in outdoor locations. The heat loss from a steam pipe to water, or to water saturated insulation, can be as much as 50 times greater than from the same pipe to air. Particular care should be taken to protect steam lines which must run through waterlogged ground, or in ducts which may be subjected to flooding. The need to insulate all hot parts of the system must be kept in mind. This includes all flanged joints on the mains, and also the valves and other fittings. It was, at one time, common to cut back the insulation at each side of a flanged joint, to leave access to the bolts for maintenance purposes. This meant about 0.3 m of pipe was deliberately left bare, in addition to the surface of the flanges themselves. The total effect was as if some 0.6 m of pipe had been left uninsulated at each joint. Fortunately, the availability of prefabricated insulating covers for flanged joints and boxes to insulate valves is now more widely appreciated. These are usually provided with fasteners so that they can readily be detached to provide access for maintenance purposes.

46

Calculation of heat transfer

The calculation of heat losses from pipes can be very complex and time consuming, as heat transfer theory by conduction, convection and radiation need to be considered. The formulae for these factors are all different, and assume that obscure data concerning pipewall thickness, heat transfer coefficients and various derived constants are easily available. The derivation of these formulae is outside the scope of this guide, but it may be said that further information can be readily found in any good thermodynamics textbook. To add to this, an abundance of contemporary computer software exists to provide this service for the more discerning engineer.

This being so, the commonplace solution to the problem can easily be found by reference to Table 7 and a simple equation. The table assumes ambient conditions of between 10 - 21C, and considers heat losses from bare horizontal pipes of different sizes with steam contained at various pressures. Table 7 Heat emission from pipes
Temperature difference steam to air C 56 67 78 89 100 111 125 139 153 167 180 194 15 mm 54 68 83 99 116 134 159 184 210 241 274 309 20 mm 65 82 100 120 140 164 191 224 255 292 329 372 25 mm 79 100 122 146 169 198 233 272 312 357 408 461 32 mm 103 122 149 179 208 241 285 333 382 437 494 566 Pipe size 40 mm W/m 108 136 166 205 234 271 285 333 382 437 494 566 50 mm 132 168 203 246 285 334 394 458 528 602 676 758 65 mm 155 198 241 289 337 392 464 540 623 713 808 909 80 mm 188 236 298 346 400 469 555 622 747 838 959 1080 100 mm 233 296 360 434 501 598 698 815 939 1093 1190 1303 150 mm 324 410 500 601 696 816 969 1133 1305 1492 1660 1852

Note: Heat emission from bare horizontal pipes with ambient temperatures between 10C and 21C and still air conditions Other factors can be included in the equation, for instance, should the pipe be lagged with insulation providing a reduction in heat losses to 15 % of the uninsulated pipe, then M is simply multiplied by a factor of 0.15.
q

M = Q x L x 3.6 x f hfg
q

Where: M = Rate of condensation (kg/h) Q = Heat emission (W/m) (as Table 7) L = Effective length of pipe, allowing for flanges and fittings(m) hfg = Specific enthalpy of evaporation (kJ/kg) f = Insulation factor. e.g.: 1 for bare pipes 0.15 for good insulation
q

47

48

Relevant UK and International standards


Symbols have been used to indicate harmonised standards, technically equivalent standards, and related standards - ; = and respectively. BS 10 Specification for flanges and bolting for pipes, valves and fittings. BS 21 = ISO 7/1 ISO 7/2 Specification for pipe threads for tubes and fittings where pressure tight joints are made on the threads. BS 806 Specification for design and construction of ferrous piping installations for and in connection with land boilers. BS 1306 Specification for copper and copper alloy piping systems. BS 1387 Specification for screwed and socketed tubes and tubulars and for plain end steel tubes suitable for welding and screwing to BS 21 pipe threads. BS 1560 Circular flanges for pipes, valves and fittings (Class designated); Part 3 Section 3.1 Specification for steel flanges ( ISO 7005); Part 3 Section 3.2 Specification for cast iron flanges ( ISO 7005-2); Part 3 Section 3.3 Specification for copper alloy and composite flanges ( ISO 7005-3) BS 1600 Dimensions of steel pipe for the petroleum industry. BS 1965 Specification for butt welding pipe fittings for pressure purposes. BS 1710 Specification for identification of pipelines. BS 2779 = IS0 228/1 and ISO 228/2 Specification for pipe threads for tubes and fittings where pressure tight joints are not made on the threads. BS 3600 Specification for dimensions and masses per unit length of welded and seamless steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes. BS 3601 Specification for steel pipes and tubes with specified room temperature properties for pressure purposes. BS 3602 Specification for steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes: carbon and carbon manganese steel with specified elevated temperature properties. BS 3603 Specification for carbon and alloy steel pipes and tubes with specified low temperature properties for pressure purposes.

49

BS 3604 Steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes: ferritic alloy steel with specified elevated temperature properties. BS 3605 Austenitic stainless steel pipes and tubes for pressure purposes. BS 3799 Specification for steel pipe fittings, screwed and socket welded for the petroleum industry. BS 3974 Specification for pipe supports. BS 4504 Part 3 Section 3.1 Specification for steel flanges; Section 3.2 Specification for cast iron flanges ( ISO 7005-2); Section 3.3 Specification for copper alloy and composite flanges ( ISO 7005/3).

50

Summary
To summarise what has been covered within this Technical Reference Guide, it is appropriate to finish with a check list which can be used to ensure that a steam distribution system will operate with optimum efficiency. Are steam mains properly sized? Are steam mains properly laid out? Are steam mains adequately drained? Are steam mains adequately air vented? Is adequate provision made for expansion? Can separators be used to improve steam quality? Are there leaking joints, glands or safety valves? Can redundant piping be blanked off or removed? Is the system sufficiently lagged?

51

Appendix 1 - Sizing on pipeline capacity and pressure drop


The following is relevant to the section titled ' Pipeline sizing on pressure drop'. The example demonstrates the theoretical method for calculating the pipe size using pressure drop. Example Suppose we have a boiler supplying a heater battery as in Figure 38 below.
150 m + 10 % equals 165 m

Boiler at 7 bar g 284 kg/h

Heater battery at 6.6 bar g 270 kg/h

Fig. 39 Boiler - Heater battery The length of travel from the boiler to the heater battery is known, but we must allow for the frictional resistance of the fittings in terms of equivalent pipe length. If the size of the pipe was known, the resistance of the fittings could be calculated. As this size is not yet known, an addition to the equivalent length is made based on experience. If the line is over, 100 metres long and a fairly straight run, then the proportional allowance for fittings would be 10 %. A similar straight run, but a shorter length of travel would rate an allowance more in the region of 20 %. One further allowance has to be made and that is for heat losses from the pipe. The heater battery requires 270 kg/h of steam, therefore the pipe must carry this quantity plus the quantity of steam condensed by heat losses from the main. The size of the main is yet to be determined so the true calculations cannot be made but, assuming that the main is insulated, it may be assumed reasonable to add 1 % of the steam load per 30 m of travel as heat losses. This equates to 3.4 % per 100 m, i.e. in this instance, 3.4 % of 270 kg/h per 100 m multiplied by the pipe length, the calculation would be: 3.4 x 100 270 kg/h x 150 m = 14 kg/h due to heat losses 100 m

Total steam load = 270 kg/h + 14 kg/h = 284 kg/h 52

Returning to the equation, From the pressure factors for pipe sizing table (Table 8 page 54) P1 at 7.0 bar g P2 at 6.6 bar g Length L = 56.38 = 51.05 = 165 m F = P1 - P2 L 56.38 - 51.05 165 0.0323

Therefore,

Follow down the left-hand column of the pipeline capacity and pressure drop factors table (Table 9), and it will be found that the nearest two readings around our requirement of 0.0323 are 0.030 and 0.040. The reading 0.040 implies a pressure drop to a final pressure lower than 6.6 bar and, therefore, we should choose the next lower factor nearest to our requirements, in this case, 0.030. Alternatively, It is bad practice to size any pipe up to the limit of its capacity as it is always important to have some leeway to compensate for any errors in design. Therefore the next lowest factor is chosen. Readings can also be interpolated with reasonable accuracy, however, the table does not conform to a straight line graph, so interpolation cannot be absolutely correct. From 0.030, follow line x (volume of steam), and it will be seen that a 40 mm pipe will carry only 229.9 kg/h and a 50 mm pipe will carry 501.0 kg/h. Obviously the pipe will have to be of 50 mm bore due to its larger capacity. Having sized the main using the pressure drop method, we can check to see if we are still within the limits of our required steam velocity. This will involve using the velocity factor (y) line of Table 9, which is based on a steam volume of 1m/kg. Our diagram (Figure 38), shows 284 kg of steam passing through a 50 mm pipe. Referring to Table 9, and scanning the 50 mm pipe column, it will be seen that where this quantity of steam is being carried, the velocity factor (y) by interpolation is approximately 40.

53

Steam at 7 bar g has a volume (as shown in Table 8 page 54) of 0.24 m/kg, so the true velocity of the example system using a 50 mm pipe is: y = True velocity x 1 40 = True velocity 0.24

True velocity = 40 x 0.24 \ True velocity = 9.6 m/s It may be thought that this velocity is low in comparison with maximum permitted velocities, but it must be remembered that the steam main has been sized to limit pressure drop, whereas maximum permitted velocities are usually accommodated by a high pressure drop.

54

Table 8 Pressure factors for pipe sizing


Pressure bar 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.013 bar gauge 0 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.50 0.55 0.60 0.65 0.70 0.75 0.80 0.85 0.90 0.95 1.00 1.05 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 1.40 1.45 1.50 1.55 1.60 1.65 1.70 1.75 1.80 1.85 1.90 1.95 2.00 2.05 2.10 Volume m3/kg 28.192 14.674 10.022 7.64 9 6.204 5.229 4.530 3.993 3.580 3.240 2.964 2.732 2.535 2.365 2.217 2.087 1.972 1.869 1.777 1.673 1.673 1.601 1.533 1.471 1.414 1.361 1.312 1.268 1.225 1.186 1.149 1.115 1.083 1.051 1.024 0.997 0.971 0.946 0.923 0.901 0.881 0.860 0.841 0.823 0.806 0.788 0.773 0.757 0.743 0.728 0.714 0.701 0.689 0.677 0.665 0.654 0.643 0.632 0.622 0.612 0.603 0.594 0.585 Pressure factor 0.0301 0.0115 0.0253 0.0442 0.0681 0.0970 0.1308 0.1694 0.2128 0.2610 0.3140 0.3716 0.4340 0.5010 0.5727 0.6489 0.7298 0.8153 0.9053 1.025 1.025 1.126 1.230 1.339 1.453 1.572 1.694 1.822 1.953 2.090 2.230 2.375 2.525 2.679 2.837 2.999 3.166 3.338 3.514 3.694 3.878 4.067 4.260 4.458 4.660 4.866 5.076 5.291 5.510 5.734 5.961 6.193 6.429 6.670 6.915 7.164 7.417 7.675 7.937 8.203 8.473 8.748 9.026 Pressure bar gauge 2.15 2.20 2.25 2.30 2.35 2.40 2.45 2.50 2.55 2.60 2.65 2.70 2.75 2.80 2.85 2.90 2.95 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30 4.40 4.50 4.60 4.70 4.80 4.90 5.00 5.10 5.20 5.30 5.40 5.50 5.60 5.70 5.80 5.90 6.00 6.10 6.20 6.30 6.40 6.50 6.60 6.70 6.80 6.90 7.00 7.10 7.20 7.30 7.40 7.50 7.60 Volume m3/kg 0.576 0.568 0.660 0.552 0.544 0.536 0.529 0.522 0.515 0.509 0.502 0.496 0.489 0.483 0.477 0.471 0.466 0.461 0.451 0.440 0.431 0.422 0.413 0.405 0.396 0.389 0.381 0.374 0.367 0.361 0.355 0.348 0.342 0.336 0.330 0.325 0.320 0.315 0.310 0.305 0.301 0.296 0.292 0.288 0.284 0.280 0.276 0.272 0.269 0.265 0.261 0.258 0.255 0.252 0.249 0.246 0.243 0.240 0.237 0.235 0.232 0.229 0.227 0.224 Pressure factor 9.309 9.597 9.888 10.18 10.48 10.79 11.40 11.41 11.72 12.05 12.37 12.70 13.03 13.37 13.71 14.06 14.41 14.76 15.48 16.22 16.98 17.75 18.54 19.34 20.16 21.00 21.85 22.72 23.61 24.51 25.43 26.36 27.32 28.28 29.27 30.27 31.29 32.32 33.37 34.44 35.52 36.62 37.73 38.86 40.01 41.17 42.35 43.54 44.76 45.98 47.23 48.48 49.76 51.05 52.36 53.68 55.02 56.38 57.75 59.13 60.54 61.96 63.39 64.84 Pressure bar gauge 7.70 7.80 7.90 8.00 8.10 8.20 8.30 8.40 8.50 8.60 8.70 8.80 8.90 9.00 9.10 9.20 9.30 9.40 9.50 9.60 9.70 9.80 9.90 10.00 10.20 10.40 10.60 10.80 11.00 11.20 11.40 11.60 11.80 12.00 12.20 12.40 12.60 12.80 13.00 13.20 13.40 13.60 13.80 14.00 14.20 14.40 14.60 14.80 15.00 15.20 15.40 15.60 15.80 16.00 16.20 16.40 16.60 16.80 17.00 17.20 17.40 1 7. 6 0 17.80 18.00 Volume m3/kg 0.222 0.219 0.217 0.215 0.212 0.210 0.208 0.206 0.204 0.202 0.200 0.198 0.196 0.194 0.192 0.191 0.189 0.187 0.185 0.184 0.182 0.181 0.179 0.177 0.174 0.172 0.169 0.166 0.163 0.161 0.158 0.156 0.153 0.151 0.149 0.147 0.145 0.143 0.141 0.139 0.135 0.133 0.132 0.130 0.128 0.127 0.125 0.124 0.122 0.121 0.119 0.118 0.117 0.115 0.114 0.113 0.111 0.110 0.109 0.108 0.107 0.106 0.105 0.104 Pressure factor 66.31 67.79 69.29 70.80 72.33 73.88 75.44 77.02 78.61 80.22 81.84 83.49 85.14 86.81 88.50 90.20 91.92 93.66 95.41 97.18 98.96 100.75 102.57 104.40 108.10 111.87 115.70 119.59 123.54 127.56 131.64 135.78 139.98 144.25 148.57 152.96 157.41 161.92 166.50 171.13 175.83 180.58 185.40 190.29 195.23 200.23 205.30 210.42 215.61 220.86 226.17 231.54 236.97 242.46 248.01 253.62 259.30 265.03 270.83 276.69 282.60 288.58 294.52 300.72

55

Table 9 Pipeline capacity and pressure drop factors


Factor F 0.00016 0.00020 0.00025 0.00030 0.00035 0.00045 0.00055 0.00065 0.00075 0.00085 0.00100 0.00125 0.00150 0.00175 0.0020 0.0025 0.0030 0.0040 0.0050 0.0060 0.0080 0.0100 0.0125 0.0150 0.0175 0.020 0.025 0.030 0.040 0.050 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.45 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y x y 15 20 25 32 40 50 30.40 4.30 34.32 4.85 38.19 5.40 41.83 5.92 43.76 6.21 50.75 7.18 57.09 8.08 62.38 8.82 68.04 9.62 77.11 10.91 81.89 11.58 87.57 12.39 98.84 13.98 103.4 14.63 118.2 16.72 132.0 18.67 143.4 20.29 173.1 24.49 196.1 27.74 215.8 30.53 251.5 35.58 283.9 40.16 302.1 42.74 342.0 43.38 360.4 50.99 411.9 58.27 459.7 65.03 501.1 70.89 600.7 84.98 676.7 95.73 750.3 106.1 872.8 123.5 980.7 138.7 1079 152.6 1195 169.0 1427 201.9 1565 221.4 1710 241.9 1802 254.9 2059 291.3 2083 294.7 23214 327.4 Pipe size in mm 65 80 55.41 4.86 62.77 5.51 69.31 6.08 75.85 6.65 80.24 7.04 92.68 8.13 103.8 9.10 113.8 9.98 124.1 10.88 140.7 12.34 148.6 13.03 159.8 14.02 179.3 15.72 188.8 16.56 215.8 18.93 240.5 21.09 262.0 22.98 313.8 27.52 354.0 31.05 392.3 34.41 456.0 40.00 514.9 45.16 547.3 48.00 620.6 54.43 665.1 58.34 760.1 66.67 834.6 73.20 919.4 80.64 1093 95.87 1231 108.0 1373 120.4 1594 139.8 1804 158.2 1986 174.2 2161 189.5 2599 228.0 2876 252.3 3126 274.2 32.61 286.0 3727 326.9 90.72 5.55 103.0 6.31 113.2 6.92 124.1 7.60 130.01 7.96 150.9 9.24 170.8 10.46 186.7 11.43 203.2 12.44 230.2 14.09 245.2 15.01 261.8 16.03 295.1 18.07 311.1 19.05 355.5 21.77 391.3 23.96 429.8 26.32 514.9 31.53 578.6 35.43 647.3 39.63 750.3 45.95 845.9 51.80 901.9 55.22 1020 62.46 1073 65.70 1226 75.01 1367 83.70 1480 90.62 1790 109.6 2020 123.7 2231 136.6 2599 159.1 2942 180.1 3236 198.1 3494 213.9 4217 258.2 4668 285.8 5057 309.6 100 199.1 6.82 225.6 7.72 249.9 8.56 271.2 9.29 285.3 9.77 333.2 11.42 373.1 12.78 409.8 14.04 445.9 15.28 505.4 17.32 539.4 18.48 577.9 19.80 652.8 22.37 686.5 23.52 784.6 26.88 881.7 30.21 924.4 32.29 1128 38.65 1275 43.68 1412 48.38 1648 56.46 1863 63.83 1983 67.94 2230 76.40 2360 80.52 2697 92.41 2970 101.7 3264 111.8 3923 134.4 4413 151.2 4855 166.3 5688 194.9 6424 220.1 7110 243.6 7769 266.2 9317 319.2 125 360.4 7.90 407.0 8.92 450.3 9.87 491.9 10.79 519.2 11.38 604.6 13.26 674.2 14.78 739.9 16.22 804.5 17.64 911.8 19.99 968.5 21.24 1038 22.76 1172 25.70 1270 27.85 1451 31.82 1556 34.12 1701 37.30 2040 44.73 2305 50.54 2250 55.92 2976 65.26 3334 73.11 3589 78.70 4045 88.70 4291 94.09 49.04 107.5 5422 118.9 5884 129.0 7710 155.9 8042 176.3 8827 193.5 10249 224.7 11524 252.7 12700 278.5 150 598.2 9.16 662.0 10.13 735.5 11.26 804.5 12.31 845.3 12.94 979.7 15.00 1101 16.85 1207 18.48 1315 20.13 1490 22.81 1579 24.17 1699 26.01 1908 29.21 2017 30.88 2305 35.28 2456 38.97 2767 42.36 3330 50.97 3727 57.05 4148 63.50 4879 74.69 5492 84.07 5867 89.81 6620 101.3 6994 107.1 7993 122.3 8817 135.0 9792 149.9 11622 177.9 13044 199.7 14368 219.9 16672 255.2 18879 289.0 20841 319.0 175 890.0 10.05 1005 11.34 1108 12.51 1209 13.65 1279 14.44 1478 16.68 1663 18.77 1823 20..58 1977 22.32 2240 25.29 2403 27.13 2544 28.72 2896 32.69 3046 34.39 3482 39.31 3819 43.11 4183 47.22 5051 57.02 5757 64.76 6277 70.86 7355 83.03 8336 94.11 8844 99.84 10022 113.1 10512 118.7 12014 135.6 13296 150.1 14481 163.5 17457 1971.1 19370 218.7 21282 240.2 24518 276.8 27461 310.1 200 1275 10.94 1437 12.33 1678 14.40 1733 14.87 1823 15.64 2118 18.18 2382 20.44 2595 22.27 2836 24.34 3215 27.59 3383 29.03 3634 31.19 4091 35.11 4291 36.83 4904 42.09 5422 46.53 6068 52.08 7208 61.86 8189 70.28 9072 77.86 10543 90.48 11867 101.8 12697 109.0 14251 122.3 15017 128.9 17163 147.3 19332 165.9 20917 179.5 25254 216.7 28441 244.1 31384 269.3 36532 313.5 225 1755 11.94 1966 13.37 2183 14.85 2390 16.26 2497 17.00 2913 19.82 3281 22.32 3597 24.47 3908 26.59 4429 30.13 4707 32.02 5035 34.26 5631 38.31 5921 40.28 6767 46.04 7544 51.33 8275 56.30 9905 67.39 11278 76.73 12406 84.40 14417 98.09 16280 110.8 17426 118.5 19584 133.2 20595 140.1 23538 160.01 26357 179.3 28595 194.5 34571 235.2 39229 266.9 43152 293.6 250 2329 12.77 2623 14.38 2904 15.92 4172 17.39 3346 18.34 3884 21.29 4338 23.78 4781 26.21 5172 28.35 5861 32.13 6228 34.14 6655 36.48 7493 41.08 7852 43.04 8974 49.19 10090 55.31 11033 60.48 13240 72.58 14858 81.45 16476 90.82 19173 105.1 21576 118.28 23074 126.5 25974 142.4 27461 150.5 31384 172.0 34750 190.5 37697 206.6 45604 250.0 51489 282.3 57373 314.5 300 3800 14.54 4276 16.36 4715 18.04 5149 19.07 5406 20.69 6267 23.99 7057 27.01 7741 29.62 8367 32.02 9482 36.29 10052 38.47 10639 40.71 11999 45.92 13087 50.08 14956 57.24 16503 63.16 18021 68.97 21625 82.76 24469 93.64 26970 103.21 31384 120.1 35307 135.1 37785 144.6 42616 163.09 44194 169.1 50508 193.3 56581 216.5 62522 239.3 75026 287.1 85324 326.5

1.96 4.10 2.10 4.39 2.39 5.00 2.48 5.19 2.84 5.94 3.16 6.61 3.44 7.20 4.17 8.73 4.71 9.86 5.25 10.99 6.08 12.72 6.86 14.36 7.35 15.38 8.27 17.31 8.58 17.95 9.80 20.51 10.99 23.00 12.00 25.11 14.46 30.26 16.43 34.38 18.14 37.96 21.08 44.11 24.03 50.29 25.99 54.39 28.50 59.64 34.32 71.82 37.72 78.94 41.37 86.58 43.34 90.70 49.93 104.5 50.31 105.3 55.90 117.0 62.28 130.3 63.07 132.0 72.08 150.8 73.28 153.3

3.62 3.54 4.04 3.96 4.46 4.37 4.87 4.77 5.52 5.41 5.84 5.72 6.26 6.13 7.35 7.20 7.51 7.36 8.58 8.40 9.48 9.29 10.34 10.13 12.50 12.25 14.12 13.83 15.69 15.37 18.34 17.97 20.64 20.22 22.20 21.75 25.00 24.49 26.39 25.85 30.16 29.55 33.48 32.80 36.78 36.03 44.16 43.23 49.53 48.52 52.96 51.88 62.28 61.02 70.12 68.70 77.48 75.91 84.13 84.42 102.0 99.93 112.7 110.4 122.7 120.2 128.7 126.1 147.1 144.1 150.0 146.9 166.7 163.3 185.3 181.5 188.8 185.0 215.8 211.4 218.4 214.0

6.86 3.88 7.94 4.49 8.99 5.09 9.56 5.41 10.57 5.98 11.98 6.78 12.75 7.21 13.57 7.68 15.17 8.58 16.30 9.22 18.63 10.54 20.75 11.74 22.5 12.73 26.97 15.26 30.40 17.20 35.80 20.26 39.23 22.20 44.13 24.97 47.28 26.75 53.33 30.18 55.78 31.56 63.75 36.07 70.73 40.02 77.23 43.70 93.17 52.72 104.4 59.08 115.7 65.47 134.8 76.28 152.0 86.01 167.7 94.90 183.9 104.1 220.7 124.9 245.2 138.7 266.6 150.9 283.2 160.2 323.6 183.1 326.6 184.8 362.9 205.3 402.1 227.5 407.6 230.6 465.8 236.6 476.6 269.7

10.84 3.74 11.95 4.13 12.44 4.30 14.56 5.03 16.18 5.59 17.76 6.13 19.31 6.67 21.88 7.56 23.50 8.12 24.96 8.62 28.04 9.68 29.61 10.23 33.83 11.68 37.25 12.86 40.45 13.97 48.55 16.77 54.92 18.97 60.31 20.83 70.12 24.22 79.44 27.44 81.00 27.98 95.62 33.03 100.4 34.68 114.7 39.62 127.3 43.97 137.9 47.63 169.2 58.44 191.2 66.04 210.8 72.81 245.2 86.69 277.0 95.67 306.5 105.9 334.2 115.4 402.1 138.9 447.9 154.7 487.3 168.3 514.9 177.8 588.4 203.2 600.2 207.3 666.9 230.3 735.5 254.0 750.9 259.3 858.1 296.4

16.18 3.96 17.92 4.39 19.31 4.73 20.59 5.04 23.39 5.73 26.52 6.49 29.14 7.14 31.72 7.77 35.95 8.80 38.25 9.37 40.72 9.97 45.97 11.26 49.34 12.08 56.39 13.81 61.30 15.01 66.66 16.33 80.91 19.82 90.23 20.10 99.05 24.26 116.2 28.46 130.4 31.94 140.1 34.31 157.2 38.50 165.6 40.65 189.3 46.36 209.8 51.39 229.9 56.31 279.5 68.46 313.8 76.86 343.2 84.06 402.1 98.49 456.0 111.7 500.2 122.5 551.7 135.1 622.0 162.1 735.5 180.1 804.5 197.0 841.0 206.0 961.1 235.4 979.9 239.9 1089 266.7 1201 294.1

x = kg/h capacity y = m /s velocity with a volume of 1m/kg

56

Further Information
This technical reference guide has been designed to give works engineers or energy managers, an introduction into the subject of steam distribution. It is quite impossible to cover all aspects of steam distribution within these covers, as almost every installation is unique, and will have its own details where choices can be made between several alternatives. It is not always apparent which will be the optimal solution. We have tried to cover the most often found areas where these alternatives exist, but it may well be that we have omitted mention of the options available in any particular part of an installation being considered. In such cases, on the spot advice is always gladly given by our team of regional engineers, or by telephone or letter from our head office as required.

57

Appendix 2 Steam tables


Specific enthalpy Pressure bar absolute 0.30 0.50 0.75 0.95 0 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.20 2.40 2.60 2.80 3.00 3.20 3.40 3.60 3.80 4.00 4.50 5.00 5.50 6.00 6.50 7.00 7.50 8.00 8.50 9.00 9.50 10.00 10.50 11.00 11.50 12.00 12.50 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 20.00 21.00 22.00 23.00 24.00 25.00 26.00 27.00 gauge 30.0 50.0 75.0 95.0 0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0 90.0 100.0 110.0 120.0 130.0 140.0 150.0 160.0 170.0 180.0 190.0 200.0 220.0 240.0 260.0 280.0 300.0 320.0 340.0 360.0 380.0 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 600.0 650.0 700.0 750.0 800.0 850.0 900.0 950.0 1 000.0 1 050.0 1 100.0 1 150.0 1 200.0 1 250.0 1 300.0 1 400.0 1 500.0 1 600.0 1 700.0 1 800.0 1 900.0 2 000.0 2 100.0 2 200.0 2 300.0 2 400.0 2 500.0 2 600.0 2 700.0 69.10 81.33 91.78 98.20 100.00 102.66 105.10 107.39 109.55 111.61 113.56 115.40 117.14 118.80 120.42 121.96 123.46 124.90 126.28 127.62 128.89 130.13 131.37 132.54 133.69 135.88 138.01 140.00 141.92 143.75 145.46 147.20 148.84 150.44 151.96 155.55 158.92 162.08 165.04 167.83 170.50 173.02 175.43 177.75 179.97 182.10 184.13 186.05 188.02 189.82 191.68 193.43 195.10 198.35 201.45 204.38 207.17 209.90 212.47 214.96 217.35 219.65 221.85 224.02 226.12 228.15 230.14 289.23 340.49 384.39 411.43 419.04 430.2 440.8 450.4 459.7 468.3 476.4 484.1 491.6 498.9 505.6 512.2 518.7 524.6 530.5 536.1 541.6 547.1 552.3 557.3 562.2 571.7 580.7 589.2 597.4 605.3 612.9 620.0 627.1 634.0 640.7 656.3 670.9 684.6 697.5 709.7 721.4 732.5 743.1 753.3 763.0 772.5 781.6 790.1 798.8 807.1 815.1 822.9 830.4 845.1 859.0 872.3 885.0 897.2 909.0 920.3 931.3 941.9 952.2 962.2 972.1 981.6 990.7 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 336.1 305.4 278.6 261.8 257.0 250.2 243.4 237.2 231.3 225.6 220.4 215.4 210.5 205.6 201.1 197.0 192.8 188.7 184.8 181.0 177.3 173.7 170.1 166.7 163.3 156.9 150.7 144.7 139.0 133.4 128.1 122.9 117.8 112.9 108.1 096.7 086.0 075.7 066.0 056.8 047.7 039.2 030.9 022.9 015.1 007.5 000.1 993.0 986.0 979.1 972.5 965.4 959.6 947.1 935.0 923.4 912.1 901.3 890.5 880.2 870.1 860.1 850.4 840.9 831.4 822.2 813.3 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 625.3 645.9 663.0 673.2 676.0 680.2 684.2 687.6 691.0 693.9 696.8 699.5 702.1 704.5 706.7 709.2 711.5 713.3 715.3 717.1 718.9 720.8 722.4 724.0 725.5 728.6 731.4 733.9 736.4 738.7 741.0 742.9 744.9 746.9 748.8 753.0 756.9 760.3 763.5 766.5 769.1 771.7 774.0 776.2 778.1 780.0 781.7 783.3 784.8 786.3 787.6 788.8 790.0 792.2 794.0 795.7 797.1 798.5 799.5 800.5 801.4 802.0 802.6 803.1 803.5 803.8 804.0 5.229 3.240 2.217 1.777 1.673 1.533 1.414 1.312 1.225 1.149 1.088 1.024 0.971 0.923 0.881 0.841 0.806 0.773 0.743 0.714 0.689 0.665 0.643 0.622 0.603 0.568 0.536 0.509 0.483 0.461 0.440 0.422 0.405 0.389 0.374 0.342 0.315 0.292 0.272 0.255 0.240 0.227 0.215 0.204 0.194 0.185 0.177 0.171 0.163 0.157 0.151 0.148 0.141 0.132 0.124 0.117 0.110 0.105 0.100 0.099 0.090 0.086 0.083 0.079 0.076 0.074 0.071 kPa Temperature C Water (h f ) kJ/kg Evaporation (h fg ) kJ/kg Steam (h g ) kJ/kg Specific volume steam m3/kg

4 6 8 2 7 8 0 4

58

Specific enthalpy Pressure bar 28.00 29.00 30.00 31.00 32.00 33.00 34.00 35.00 36.00 37.00 38.00 39.00 40.00 41.00 42.00 43.00 44.00 45.00 46.00 47.00 48.00 49.00 50.00 51.00 52.00 53.00 54.00 55.00 56.00 57.00 58.00 59.00 60.00 61.00 62.00 63.00 64.00 65.00 66.00 67.00 68.00 69.00 70.00 72.00 74.00 76.00 78.00 80.00 82.00 84.00 86.00 88.00 90.00 92.00 94.00 96.00 98.00 100.00 102.00 104.00 106.00 108.00 110.00 112.00 114.00 116.00 118.00 120.00 kPa 2 800.0 2 900.0 3 000.0 3 100.0 3 200.0 3 300.0 3 400.0 3 500.0 3 600.0 3 700.0 3 800.0 3 900.0 4 000.0 4 100.0 4 200.0 4 300.0 4 400.0 4 500.0 4 600.0 4 700.0 4 800.0 4 900.0 5 000.0 5 100.0 5 200.0 5 300.0 5 400.0 5 500.0 5 600.0 5 700.0 5 800.0 5 900.0 6 000.0 6 100.0 6 200.0 6 300.0 6 400.0 6 500.0 6 600.0 6 700.0 6 800.0 6 900.0 7 000.0 7 200.0 7 400.0 7 600.0 7 800.0 8 000.0 8 200.0 8 400.0 8 600.0 8 800.0 9 000.0 9 200.0 9 400.0 9 600.0 9 800.0 10 000.0 10 200.0 10 400.0 10 600.0 10 800.0 11 000.0 11 200.0 11 400.0 11 600.0 11 800.0 12 000.0 Temperature C 232.05 233.93 235.78 237.55 239.28 240.97 242.63 244.26 245.86 247.42 248.95 250.42 251.94 253.34 254.74 256.12 257.50 258.82 260.13 261.43 262.73 264.00 265.26 266.45 267.67 268.84 270.02 271.20 272.33 273.45 274.55 275.65 276.73 277.80 278.85 279.89 280.92 281.95 282.95 283.95 284.93 285.90 286.85 288.75 290.60 292.41 294.20 295.96 297.66 299.35 301.00 302.61 304.20 305.77 307.24 308.83 310.32 311.79 313.24 314.67 316.08 317.46 318.83 320.17 321.50 322.81 324.10 325.38 Water (h f ) kJ/kg 999.7 1 008.6 1 017.0 1 025.6 1 033.9 1 041.9 1 049.7 1 057.7 1 065.7 1 072.9 1 080.3 1 087.4 1 094.6 1 101.6 1 108.6 1 115.4 1 122.1 1 228.7 1 135.3 1 142.2 1 148.1 1 154.5 1 160.8 1 166.6 1 172.6 1 178.7 1 184.6 1 190.5 1 196.3 1 202.1 1 207.8 1 213.4 1 218.9 1 224.5 1 230.0 1 235.4 1 240.8 1 246.1 1 251.4 1 256.7 1 261.9 1 267.0 1 272.1 1 282.3 1 292.3 1 302.3 1 311.9 1 321.5 1 330.9 1 340.3 1 349.6 1 358.8 1 367.8 1 376.8 1 385.7 1 394.5 1 403.2 1 411.9 1 420.5 1 429.0 1 437.5 1 445.9 1 454.3 1 462.6 1 470.8 1 479.0 1 487.2 1 495.4 Evaporation (h fg ) kJ/kg 1 804.4 1 795.6 1 787.0 1 778.5 1 770.0 1 761.8 1 753.8 1 745.5 1 737.2 1 729.5 1 721.6 1 714.1 1 706.3 1 698.3 1 691.2 1 683.7 1 676.2 1 668.9 1 666.6 1 654.4 1 647.1 1 639.9 1 632.8 1 626.9 1 619.0 1 612.0 1 605.1 1 598.2 1 591.3 1 584.5 1 577.7 1 571.0 1 564.4 1 557.6 1 550.9 1 544.3 1 537.3 1 531.2 1 524.7 1 518.1 1 511.6 1 501.1 1 498.7 1 485.8 1 473.0 1 460.2 1 447.6 1 435.0 1 422.5 1 410.0 1 397.6 1 385.2 1 372.7 1 360.3 1 348.0 1 335.7 1 323.3 1 310.9 1 298.7 1 286.3 1 274.0 1 261.7 1 249.3 1 237.0 1 224.6 1 212.2 1 199.8 1 187.3 Steam (h g ) kJ/kg 2 804.1 2 804.2 2 804.1 2 804.1 2 803.9 2 803.7 2 805.5 2 803.2 2 802.9 2 802.4 2 801.9 2 801.5 2 800.9 2 799.9 2 799.8 2 799.1 2 798.3 2 797.6 2 796.9 2 796.6 2 795.2 2 794.4 2 793.6 2 792.6 2 791.6 2 790.7 2 789.7 2 788.7 2 787.6 2 786.6 2 785.5 2 784.4 2 783.3 2 782.1 2 780.9 2 779.7 2 778.5 2 777.3 2 776.1 2 774.8 2 773.5 2 772.1 2 770.8 2 768.1 2 765.3 2 762.5 2 759.5 2 756.5 2 753.4 2 750.3 2 747.2 2 744.0 2 740.5 2 737.1 2 733.7 2 730.2 2 726.5 2 722.8 2 719.2 2 715.3 2 711.5 2 707.6 2 703.6 2 699.6 2 695.4 2 691.2 2 687.0 2 682.7

Specific volume steam m3/kg 0.068 9 0.066 6 0.064 5 0.062 5 0.060 5 0.058 7 0.057 1 0.055 4 0.053 9 0.052 4 0.051 0 0.049 8 0.048 5 0.047 3 0.046 1 0.045 1 0.044 1 0.043 1 0.042 1 0.041 2 0.040 3 0.039 4 0.038 6 0.037 8 0.037 1 0.036 4 0.035 7 0.035 0 0.034 3 0.033 7 0.033 1 0.032 5 0.031 9 0.031 4 0.030 8 0.030 3 0.029 8 0.029 3 0.028 8 0.028 3 0.027 8 0.027 4 0.027 0 0.026 2 0.025 4 0.024 6 0.023 9 0.023 3 0.022 6 0.022 0 0.021 4 0.020 8 0.020 2 0.019 7 0.019 2 0.018 7 0.018 3 0.017 8 0.017 4 0.017 0 0.016 6 0.016 2 0.015 8 0.015 4 0.015 0 0.014 7 0.014 4 0.014 1

59

Appendix 3 Conversion tables


Table 3 Length
From - To millimetre centimetre metre kilometre inch foot yard mile millimetre 1 10 1 000 25.4 304.8 914.4 centimetre 0.1 1 100 2.54 30.48 91.44 metre 0.001 0.01 1 1 000 0.304 8 0.914 4 1 609.344 kilometre 0.001 1 0.000 914 1.609 344 inch 0.0393 7 0.393 701 39.370 1 1 12 36 foot 0.032 808 3.280 84 3 280.84 0.083 333 1 3 5 280 yard 1.093 61 1 093.61 0.027 778 0.333 33 1 1 760 mile 0.621 371 0.000 568 1

Table 4 Area
From - To cm m km in ft yd acre mile cm 1 10 000 6.4516 929.03 8 361.27 m 0.000 1 1 1 000 000 0.000 645 0.092 903 0.836 127 404.86 km 0.000 001 1 0.004 040 7 2.589 987 in 0.155 1 550 1 144 1 296 ft 0.001 076 10.763 9 0.006 944 1 9 43 560 yd 0.000 119 6 1.195 99 0.000 772 0.111 111 1 4 840 acre 0.000 247 1 247.105 0.000 023 0.000 206 6 1 640 mile 0.386 102 0.001 562 1

Table 5 Mass
From - To kg tonne lb UK cwt UK ton US cwt US ton kg 1 1 000 0.453 592 50.802 3 1 016.05 45.359 2 907.185 tonne 0.001 1 0.000 454 0.050 802 1.016 05 0.045 359 0.907 185 lb 2.204 62 2 204.62 1 112 2 240 100 2 000 UK cwt 0.019 684 19.684 1 0.008 929 1 20 0.892 857 17.857 1 UK ton 0.000 984 0.984 207 0.000 446 0.05 1 0.044 643 0.892 857 US cwt 0.022 046 22.046 2 0.01 1.12 22.4 1 20 US ton 0.001 102 1.102 31 0.000 5 0.056 1.12 0.05 1

Table 6 Volume and capacity


From - To cm m litre (dm) in ft yd UK pint UK gall US pint US gall cm 1 1 000 16.387 1 28 316.8 764 555 568.261 4 546.09 473.176 3 785.41 m 1 0.001 0.028 317 0.764 555 0.000 568 3 0.004 546 1 0.000 473 2 0.003 785 4 litre (dm) 0.001 1 000 1 0.016 387 28.316 8 764.555 0.568 261 4.546 09 0.473 176 3.785 411 in ft 0.061 024 0.000 035 3 61 023.7 35.314 7 61.0237 0.035 315 1 0.000 578 7 1 728 1 46 656 27 34.677 4 0.020 068 277.42 0.160 544 28.875 0.016 71 231 0.133 681 yd 1.307 95 0.001 308 0.000 0214 0.0370 37 1 0.000 743 0.005 946 0.000 619 0.004 951 UK pint 0.001 760 1 759.75 1.759 75 0.028 837 49.830 7 1 345.429 1 8 0.8326 74 6.661 392 UK gall 0.000 22 219.969 0.219 969 0.003 605 6.228 83 168.178 4 0.125 1 0.104 084 0.832 674 US pint 0.002 113 2 113.38 2.113 38 0.034 632 59.844 2 1 615.793 1.200 95 9.607 6 1 8 US gall 0.000 264 264.172 0.264 172 0.004 329 7.480 52 201.974 0.150 119 1.200 95 0.125 1

60

Table 7 Pressure
From - To atmos mm Hg m bar bar pascal in H20 in Hg psi atmos 1 0.001 315 8 0.000 986 9 0.986 9 0.000 009 9 0.002 458 3 0.033 421 0.068 046 mm Hg 760 1 0.750 062 750.062 0.007 501 1.868 32 25.4 51.714 9 m bar 1 013.25 1.333 22 1 1 000 0.01 2.490 89 33.863 9 68.947 6 bar 1.0132 0.001 333 0.001 1 0.000 01 0.002 491 0.033 863 9 0.068 948 pascal 101 325 133.322 100 100 000 1 249.089 3 386.39 6 894.76 in H2O 406.781 0.535 24 0.401 463 401.463 0.004 015 1 13.595 1 27.679 9 in Hg 29.921 3 0.039 37 0.029 53 29.53 0.000 295 3 0.073 556 1 2.036 02 psi 14.695 9 0.019 337 0.014 504 14.504 0.000 145 0.036 127 0.491 154 1 Pascal = 1Nm US gall / h 951.019 0.264 172 951 019 264.171 8 448.831 7.480 517 72.057 1.200 95 60 1

Table 8 Volume rate of flow


From - To l / s (dm/s) l/h m / s m / h cfm ft / h UK gall / m UK gall / h US gall / m US gall / h l / s (dm/s) l/h m / s m / h 1 3600 0.001 3.6 0.000 278 1 0.001 1 000 3 600 000 1 3 600 0.277 778 1 000 0.000 278 1 0.471 947 1 699.017 0.000 472 1.699 017 0.007 866 28.316 8 0.028 317 0.075 768 272.766 0.000 075 8 0.272 766 0.001 263 4.546 09 0.004 546 0.063 09 227.125 0.000 063 1 0.227 125 0.001 052 3.785 411 0.003 785 cfm 2.118 882 0.000 588 2 118.88 0.588 578 1 0.016 667 0.160 544 0.002 676 0.133 681 0.002 228 ft / h UK gall / m 127.133 13.198 14 0.035 315 0.003 666 127 133 13 198.1 35.314 7 3.666 15 60 6.228 833 1 0.103 814 9.632 62 1 0.160 544 0.016 667 8.020 832 0.832 674 0.133 681 0.013 878 UK gall / h 791.888 4 0.219 969 791 889 219.969 373.73 6.228 833 60 1 49.960 45 0.832 674 US gall / m 15.850 32 0.004 403 15 850.3 4.402 863 7.480 517 0.124 675 1.200 95 0.020 016 1 0.016 667

Table 9 Power
From - To Btu / h W kcal / h kW Btu / h 1 3.412 14 3.968 32 3 412.14 W 0.293 071 1 1.163 1 000 kcal / h 0.251 996 0.859 845 1 859.845 kW 0.000 293 0.001 0.001 163 1

Table 10 Energy
From - To Btu / h Therm J kJ Cal Btu / h 1 100 000 0.000 94 0.947 8 0.003 968 3 Therm 0.000 01 1 0.000 009 478 0.003 968 3 x 10- 5 J 1 055.06 1 1 000 4.186 8 kJ 1.055 105 500 0.001 1 Cal 251.996 25 199 600 0.238 8 238.85 1

Table 11 Specific heat capacity


From - To Btu / lbF J / kgC BTU / lbF 1 0.000 23 J / kgC 4 186.8 1

61

Table 12 Heat flowrate


From - To Btu / fth W / m kcal / mh Btu / fth 1 0.316 9 0.368 W / m 3.154 1 1.163 kcal / mh 2.712 0.859 1

Table 13 Thermal conductance


From - To Btu / fth F W / m C kcal / mh C Btu / fth F 1 0.176 110 0.204 816 W / m C 5.678 26 1 1.163 kcal / mh C 4.882 43 0.859 845 1

Table 14 Heat per unit mass


From - To Btu / lb kJ / kg BTU / lb 1 0.429 9 kJ / kg 2.326 1

Table 15 Linear velocity


From - To ft / min ft / s m/s ft / min 1 60 198.850 ft / s 0.016 666 1 3.280 84 m/s 0.005 08 0.304 8 1

Temperature conversion Can be achieved by using the following formulae: F = (C x 1.8) + 32 C = (F - 32) 1.8

62

63

64

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Copyright 1999 Spirax Sarco is a registered trademark of Spirax-Sarco Limited

TR-GCM-03

CM Issue 2