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Comparatives and superlatives


Utilizamos los comparativos para hacer comparaciones sobre dos o ms cosas, mientras que con los superlativos destacamos una cosa de un grupo de la misma clase.

Patterns
Las estructuras que siguen los adjetivos y los adverbios para hacer comparaciones son las siguientes: A = B as + (adjective/adverb) + as A B not as/so + (adjective/adverb) + as A>B A<B A > B+C D > ever Never < E (Subject) + (perfect verb) + such [a] (Subject) + (verb) + (adjective/adverb) + E that that

She is as intelligent as her sister.


He doesn't run as fast as the other players. A is bigger than B. A is not as big as C. A is the biggest letter in the group. D is the biggest letter Ive ever seen. I have never seen such a big letter. It was such a big letter that

Utilizamos el presente perfecto para hablar de experiencias pasadas del hablante.

Form
old brave 1 or 2 syllables +er / +est sad happy useful interesting More than 3 syllables + more / + the most carefully quietly older braver sadder happier more useful more interesting more carefully more quietly oldest bravest saddest happiest the most useful the most interesting the most carefully the most quietly

Recuerda las formas irregulares de los siguientes adjetivos y adverbios:

Adjective
good bad

Adverb
well badly

Comparative

Superlative

little many/much much far

better best worse worst less least more most further/farther furthest/farthest

Modifications
La mayora de oraciones pueden convertirse de un tipo a otra segn cmo empecemos a escribirla.

Mary is taller than Judy. Judy is shorter than Mary. Mary isnt as short as Judy. Judy isnt as tall as Mary. This book is more interesting than the other book. The other book is less interesting than this book.

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Contrast clauses
Las oraciones subordinadas concesivas expresan contraste y oposicin entre ideas.

but, yet, although


Podemos utilizar yet y although para mostrar contraste. Although es ms tpico de textos formales. Podemos enfatizarlos con still y anyway. Adems, but puede sustituirse por yet en el escrito.

Maria felt ill, but she went to school. Although she was ill, Maria went to school. Maria went to school although she was ill.

even though, though


Utilizamos even though al igual que although para dar ms nfasis, y though a la mitad y al final de oracin en escrito y habla informal.

Even though she felt very ill, Maria went to school. Maria went to school. She was ill, though. Maria went to school though she was ill.

while, whereas
While y whereas pueden utilizarse en escrito y habla formal para comparar dos hechos y enfatizar las diferencias entre ellos.

While/Whereas some experts expect the Government to win the election, most believe that the opposition will win.

despite, in spite of
Ambos se utilizan para contrastar, pero van seguidos de un sustantivo o un verbo en gerundio. Podemos usar la misma estructura que although aadiendo the fact that.

Despite/In spite of being ill, Maria went to school. In spite of her illness, Maria went to school. Despite the fact that Maria was ill, she went to school.

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Modal verbs
Caractersticas
Son un grupo de verbos que, adems de auxiliar, muestran la actitud o sentimientos del hablante ante una situacin. Por ejemplo, expresan la probabilidad o necesidad de algo, o si el hablante pide o se ofrece a hacer algo. El mismo verbo modal puede utilizarse de forma diferente, y por tanto, tiene distintos significados. Son verbos incompletos, es decir, les faltan los tiempos verbales. No tienen participio ni infinitivo, por lo que no tienen pasiva ni tiempos perfectos. Por este motivo utilizan otros verbos para completar su conjugacin.

Reglas ortogrficas
Afirmativa
Tienen una forma nica, ni aaden s en la 3 persona del singular. I can He can She can

Negativa
Se forma aadiendo not al verbo auxiliar. I should I should not

Interrogativa
Se forma invirtiendo el orden entre sujeto y verbo. Should I? Can we?

Nunca pueden ponerse dos verbos modales juntos. Los modales van seguidos de la base del infinitivo sin to. Do you can meet me tomorrow? He can will meet you tomorrow. He must go. You should buy a new car.

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can / could / be able to


Can se utiliza para el presente, y could para el pasado, y presente como forma de cortesa. Be able to tiene el mismo significado que can, pero es necesario conjugar el verbo to be. Significados

Habilidad y capacidad
He can speak English very well. He was able to win a medal.

Peticin
Can I use your phone? Could I talk with you?

Posibilidad y sugerencia
You can get the bus from here. She could come here to have lunch.

Pedir o dar permiso


Can I go out tonight? Yes, you can go out tonight.

Ofrecimiento
Can I help you? Could I serve you a cup of tea?

Prohibicin
You cant smoke here.

Was/Were able to se utiliza para hablar de un logro en una ocasin del pasado, es decir, tiene el significado de managed to. Could + have + Participio de pasado lo utilizamos para indicar que tenamos la posibilidad de hacer algo en el pasado, y de hecho, no lo hicimos.

may / might
Significados

Pedir permiso
May I go out tonight? Might I play with Tom?

Prohibicin
You may not smoke here.

Posibilidad
You may go out later. It might rain tomorrow.

Ofrecimiento
May I help you? May I serve you a cup of tea?

must
Significados

rdenes y obligaciones externas


I must visit my mum now, shes in hospital. You must save the princess!

Prohibicin
You mustnt smoke here.

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have to
Se conjuga como un verbo normal, por tanto, emplea todos los tiempos verbales y necesita el auxiliar do/does/did para hacer la negativa e interrogativa.

Afirmativa
I have to write. He has to write. I had to write. Significados:

Negativa
I dont have to write. He doesnt have to write. I didnt have to write.

Interrogativa
Do I have to write? Does he have to write? Did you have to write?

Obligacin
He has to start school next year.

Ausencia de necesidad
They dont have to do it now.

need
Need puede utilizarse como un verbo normal en todos los tiempos, pero tambin puede utilizarse como modal en las formas negativa e interrogativa.

Afirmativa
I need to buy some food. She needs to find a solution. Significados:

Negativa
I dont need to buy any food. I neednt buy any food.

Interrogativa
Need I come with you? Do I need to come with you?

Necesidad +
I need to buy some food.

Ausencia de necesidad
He didnt need to buy any food. 1 He neednt have bought any food. 2

En este caso, need en negativo tiene dos significados diferentes segn el uso. En el caso 1, no necesitaba comprar comida, y por tanto, no lo hizo; mientras que en el caso 2, no necesitaba haber comprado comida, es decir, la compr sin haber sido necesario. Por tanto, utilizaremos didnt + verbo en hechos no necesarios en el pasado, y neednt + have + Participio de pasado cuando hagamos referencia a algo que no tena por qu haberse hecho.

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should / ought to
Significados

Consejo
You ought to go to a dentist. He shouldnt be rude to everybody.

Prediccin
He should be home by ten.

Sugerencia
Should I open the window?

Para referirnos al pasado, utilizamos should/ought to + have + Participio de pasado.

will
Significados

Ofrecimiento
Its very cold here. Ill switch the heat on.

Peticin educada
Will you do it for me?

shall
Significados

Ofrecimiento
Shall I open the window?

Sugerencia
Shall we go to the disco?

would
Significado

Ofrecimiento
Would you like some more cake?

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Oraciones de imposibilidad
Utilizaremos el verbo modal cant para expresar algo que es imposible.

Presente
Youve just had lunch. You cant be hungry!

Pasado
Cant/couldnt + have + Participio de pasado

She left home at 10:00. She couldnt have caught the 10:05 train.

Oraciones de seguridad
Utilizaremos el verbo modal must para expresar algo de lo que estamos completamente seguros.

Presente
Mary has an exam soon. She must be studying hard.

Pasado
Must + have + Participio de pasado

Futuro
Certainly / Probably

Nobody answers the phone. They must have already gone.

Well probably be arriving at 12.

Oraciones de probabilidad
Aqu se utilizan varios verbos modales, y cada uno tiene un cierto grado de probabilidad, desde el 0% hasta el 100%. Estudia esta tabla de probabilidades:

100 % 80 % 60 % 30 % 0%
Presente y futuro

Certeza Deduccin Expectacin Duda Certeza

will must; cant should may; might; could wont

Pasado
Modal (duda) + have + Participio de pasado

Whos knocking at the door? It must be my brother. It could rain tomorrow.

I cant find my keys anywhere. You might have left them in your office.

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Relacin de verbos modales


Pedir permiso Can I? May I? can('t) Dar/denegar permiso may/may not can('t) Presente be allowed to Hablar sobre permiso could(n't) Pasado be allowed to Autoridad del hablante Afirmativa Objetivo have to needn't Autoridad Ausencia Externa don't need don't have to can('t) Presente be able to must

Permiso

Obligacin

Habilidad
Pasado

could(n't) be able to managed to

Prohibicin

musn't

can't
should ought to had better shouldn't Negativo oughtn't to may; might; could Certeza Imposibilidad must

Afirmativo

Consejo

Posibilidad Deduccin

can't

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La voz pasiva
Caractersticas
La voz pasiva se utiliza frecuentemente como matiz impersonal, y por tanto se utiliza muy a menudo en el estilo periodstico, cientfico La diferencia entre la voz activa y la pasiva es externa, ya que en el fondo significan lo mismo.

Estructura
Sujeto
El objeto directo de la oracin anterior pasa a ser el nuevo sujeto.

to be
Conjugado en el mismo tiempo que en el verbo de la oracin activa.

Participio de pasado
Verbo de la oracin activa en participio de pasado.

Complementos
Complemento agente (si es necesario), circunstanciales

The Town Hall is going to be rebuilt. Complemento agente En las oraciones pasivas, el sujeto activo se suele convertir como Complemento agente (acompaado de la preposicin by). Se utiliza en los siguientes casos: Cuando el agente es necesario o es alguien conocido. Para introducir informacin nueva. Como Complemento circunstancial de modo (+ gerundio) by paiting En el resto de casos, aadir el Complemento agente no sera incorrecto, pero quedara redundante. Someone/A painter/My sister is painting the house. The house is being painted. The house is being painted by a painter. The house is being painted by my sister.

Conversin
Activa
Suj by + C. agente Vb to be + part. Obj Suj

The porter carries the bags. The bags are carried by the porter.
to do do did will do would do am/is/are doing was/were doing will be doing would be doing has done had done will have done would have done have been doing had been doing would have been doing to be is was will be would be is being was been will be being would be being has been had been will have been would have been has been being had been being would have been being

Pasiva

Ejemplo de conversin Activa Pasiva utilizando el verbo do

done

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I was given
En ingls existe una construccin pasiva consistente en el complemento indirecto de la oracin activa convertido en sujeto de la pasiva. The Queen gave a medal to the pilot A medal was given to the pilot. Something was given to someone. The Queen gave the pilot a medal The pilot was given a medal. Someone was given something.

Los verbos ms comunes que responden a esta estructura son: give, send, pay, lend, hand, sell, promise, show, offer, teach, owe, award, grant, allow, leave, feed

It is said
Tambin podemos utilizar otra estructura utilizando verbos del estilo indirecto cuando no necesitamos saber quin es el que habla. People say the bridge is unsafe. It is said that the bridge is unsafe.

It (passive verb) that (active clause). Los verbos ms comunes que responden a esta estructura son: say, report, mention, announce, think, believe, understand, agree, decide, know, find, expect, hope, regret, fear, intend, arrange

He is said to
La construccin anterior tambin puede construirse con un infinitivo. People say the bridge is unsafe. The bridge is said to be unsafe.

(Subject) + (passive verb) + (to-infinitive) Los verbos ms comunes que responden a esta estructura son: say, report, think, believe, understand, know, find, expect, intend, suppose, mention, announce, agree, decide, hope, regret, fear, arrange

Have something done


Esta estructura se refiere a servicios realizados por una persona o un profesional y a hechos sufridos, normalmente no agradables. The technician repaired our video recorder. We had our video recorder repaired by a technician.

(Subject) + (have) + (something) + (verb) by (someone) A burglar has stolen our passports. We have had our passports stolen by a burglar.

(Subject) + (have) + (something) + (verb) by (someone) Cualquier verbo puede responder a esta estructura, pero los ms comunes son aquellos que pueden referirse a servicios o a hechos negativos.

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Reported speech
A menudo contamos a la gente lo que otras personas han dicho. Para ello, empleamos el estilo indirecto reported or indirect speech. Casi nunca informamos de las palabras exactas, sino que damos un resumen general de lo dicho.

Sandra speaking to Petra:

Bye, Petra, its been great seeing you again. Ill call you sometime next week when I get a chance.

Petra reporting the I saw Sandra yesterday. She said shed call me next week. conversation to Roberta:
Normalmente cambiamos los tiempos verbales y las referencias, como puede ser la gente, los lugares y el tiempo.

Changes
Verbs Adverbs

Directo
Presente simple1 Presente continuo Pasado simple2 Pasado continuo Presente perfecto simple Presente perfecto continuo Pasado perfecto simple/continuo Futuro can may must 3 shall

Indirecto
Pasado simple Pasado continuo Pasado perfecto simple Pasado perfecto continuo Pasado perfecto simple Pasado perfecto continuo Pasado perfecto simple/continuo Condicional could might had to should here now this these tonight today

Directo

there then that those

Indirecto

that night that day the following day the next day the day before the previous day the after before

tomorrow yesterday next/last ago

Los dems verbos modales no cambian.

Reported speech speakers


En el estilo directo podemos mencionar al hablante al principio o al final de la oracin. Ten en cuenta la posicin de la coma o el punto en relacin a las comillas.

Jack said, Were going to miss the train. Were going to miss the train, said Jack.

Si se habla de algo que siempre es cierto, no es necesario cambiar los tiempos. Ten en cuenta que si hay varios verbos en pasado en la oracin, el estilo indirecto a veces puede cambiarse o no, dependiendo de si da lugar a malentendidos. 3 must no cambia a had to en estilo indirecto cuando es negativo o verbo modal de deduccin.
1 2

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Resumir
Normalmente se tiende a resumir lo que dice la gente al hacer el estilo indirecto.

Look, actually, tell him Ill give him a call or email him next week, OK? She said that shed get in touch next week.

Oraciones enunciativas
Las oraciones enunciativas se unen a la oracin introductoria mediante el nexo that, sumndole los cambios anteriores.

Directo Mary said: I like music. He said to me: I havent been to this place before. He saw her yesterday, said Mary.

Indirecto Mary said that she liked music. He told me that he hadnt been to that place before. Mary said that he had seen her the day before.

Oraciones interrogativas
Informamos las preguntas con los verbos ask, wonder y want to know. Los cambios son los mismos que los anteriores.

Directo Where do you live he asked. Do you live in Athens? he asked.

Indirecto He asked me where I lived. He wanted to know if I lived in Athens.

Yes/No questions Se unen a la oracin introductoria mediante el nexo if o whether.

Directo Will you do it?, she asked Do you want one? I wanted to know.
Wh- questions

Indirecto She asked if he would do it. I wanted to know whether she wanted one.

Directo He asked me: Why are you so happy? They wondered: How many children do they have?

Indirecto He asked me why I was so happy. They wondered how many children they had.

Recuerda que al pasar de interrogativa a afirmativa, cambiamos el orden de las palabras auxiliar + sujeto + verbo a sujeto + verbo.

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rdenes y peticiones
Una orden directa suelen darse en imperativo. En este tipo de oraciones se puede utilizar tell, pero nunca say. Para las peticiones utilizamos ask. Tambin suelen utilizarse otros reported verbs que puedes ver ms adelante. Este tipo de oraciones se unen a la oracin introductora mediante to + infinitivo. Para negarlo, ponemos not delante del to.

tell
subj. + tell + object (+ not) to

ask
subj. + ask + object (+ not) to subj. + ask + object + for (something)

Paul told his son not to touch that button. I told him to wait for me. Directo Study hard! mum told me. Can you pass me the salt, please? Lisa said.

Ann asked her sister for the salt. Indirecto My mum ordered me to study hard. Lisa asked me for the salt.

Reporting verbs
Hay ciertos verbos que pueden indicar la intencin del hablante: una sugerencia, una disculpa, un ofrecimiento, una promesa, un rechazo

say vs. tell


Say y tell rigen estructuras diferentes. Normalmente, utilizamos say cuando no existe objeto y queremos enfatizar en el propio mensaje, mientras que tell lo usamos cuando es importante mencionar el objeto. Sin embargo, es posible utilizar say con objeto indirecto aadiendo to delante.

say
subj. + say (+ to + object) (+ that)

tell
subj. + tell + object (+ that)

She said (that) it was worm. She told me (that) it was worm. She said to me (that) she comes from Slovenia. She told me (that) she comes from Slovenia.
say hello/goodbye say a name say something/anything/nothing say a prayer say a word/a phrase/a sentence tell (someone) a story/stories tell (someone) a lie/lies tell (someone) a joke/jokes tell (someone) the truth tell the difference tell the future/fortunes tell (someone) the time

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verb (+ that)
say, tell, speak; admit, advise, agree, recommend, suggest

verb + toinfinitive
agree, decide, offer, promise, refuse, threaten

verb + object + toinfinitive


advise, ask, encourage, invite, remind, warn

verb + gerund
deny, recommend, suggest

verb (+ object) + preposition + gerund


accuse of, apologize for, blame for, complain about, congratulate on, insist on,

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Conditional sentences
Las oraciones condicionales son aquellas que nos indican una condicin y su consecuencia. Los tiempos verbales que utilizaremos dependen de si las condiciones y sus consecuencias son reales o imaginarias, o si son hechos verdicos y estn enlazadas con un evento en particular. Normalmente, la condicin viene siempre antes que la consecuencia, en ese caso usaremos una coma; pero en caso que sea la consecuencia lo que venga antes no usaremos comas.

Type 0
En los ejercicios de tipo 0 se hablar de hechos cientficos y cosas que siempre suceden (como hervir o congelar agua, mezclar pintura, etc.). If + (Present simple) , + (Present simple): (Present simple) + if + (Present simple):

If you mix blue and yellow, you get green. Water boils if you heat it.

Other ifclauses when in case in case of as long as providing that

Water boils when you heat it. Take an umbrella in case it rains. In case of fire, break the glass. You can go out tonight as long as you come back by midnight. Providing that you come back by midnight, you can go out tonight.

Type 1
En las oraciones condicionales de tipo 1 se habla de cosas que son muy probables de que sucedan, por ejemplo imperativos, predicciones, condiciones... siempre en presente y futuro. If + (Present simple) , + (Future simple) (Future simple) + if + (Present simple) (Imperative) + and + (Future simple)

If you dont take the exam, youll fail the subject. Youll fail the subject if you dont take the exam. Buy me a diamond ring and Ill love you forever.

Other ifclauses unless Otherwise Modal verbs

We will go out unless it rains. Youd better hurry. Otherwise, youll be late. If you carry too many bags, you might drop the eggs.

Type 2
Las oraciones de tipo 2 hablan de condiciones imaginarias, es decir, aquellas que en el momento de hablar son muy poco probables. Los hablantes utilizan oraciones en presente, normalmente consejos. If + (Past simple) , + (Conditional simple): (Conditional simple) + if + (Past simple):

If I knew her address, I would send her a postcard. I would buy a new car if I had more money.

Other ifclauses If I were you Modal verbs

If I were you, Id call the police. I could buy a new car if I had more money.

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Type 3 En este tipo de condicionales hablamos sobre hechos pasados que no pueden cambiarse, por tanto, la condicin es imposible de realizar y su consecuencia es imaginaria. Los ejercicios siempre estn en pasado. If + (Past perfect) , + (Conditional perfect): (Conditional perfect) + if + (Past perfect):

If I had studied, I wouldnt have failed the exam. I wouldnt have failed the exam if I had studied.

Other ifclauses Modal verbs I wish/If only + (Past simple) I wish/If only + (Past perfect) I wish/If only + (Cond. simple)

If I had brought some more money, I could have taken a taxi. I wish I had more money. I wish I had met her before. If only he would stop laughing!

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Relative clauses
Las oraciones de relativo son frases cortas que comienzan con unas palabras denominadas pronombres relativos, que definen o describen cosas. Los hay de dos clases:

Especificativas defining
Las utilizaremos para identificar exactamente a qu persona, cosa o lugar nos estamos refiriendo. La informacin siempre es necesaria para que la oracin tenga sentido.

The doctor who treated me told me not to worry.


Podemos pensar que existe ms de un doctor y que slo nos referimos al que nos ha tratado.

Explicativas non-defining
Las usaremos para aadir informacin adicional a la oracin. No es necesaria, por tanto, al eliminarla, no pierde el sentido de la oracin. Siempre van entre comas.

Pablo Picasso, who died in 1973, was a painter and sculptor.


En este ejemplo podemos pensar que existe ms de un doctor y que slo nos referimos al que nos ha tratado utilizando un pronombre relativo.

Pronombres relativos
Sujeto1
Persona Objeto Lugar Tiempo who / that which / that

Objeto
who / whom / that which / that where / in which when

Posesin
whose whose / of which

Omitir el pronombre relativo


Debes diferenciar si la proposicin hace referencia al sujeto o al objeto de la oracin: Sujeto The doctor treated me. He told me not to worry. The doctor who treated me told me not to worry. Objeto I spoke to the doctor. He told me not to worry. The doctor that I spoke to told me not to worry. Podemos omitir el pronombre en una especificativa que se refiere al objeto. Sin embargo, no podemos omitirlo en una que se refiera al sujeto. En las oraciones explicativas, siempre debemos mantener el pronombre. Tambin podemos omitir el pronombre despus de un superlativo. The doctor I spoke to told me not to worry. The doctor who treated me told me not to worry. Pablo Picasso, who died in 1973, was a painter and sculptor. That was the best meal Ive ever eaten!

Who y which no se pueden sustituir por that en las non-defining.

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Combinar oraciones
Los rephrasing de las oraciones de relativo consisten en combinar dos o ms oraciones mediante pronombres relativos. A bus goes to Cairo. It leaves from here. A woman teaches us music. She also plays in an orchestra. We took a road. It led to an ancient temple. We spoke to a woman. She gave us directions. Hay que tener cuidado con los cambios en las oraciones. A girls case was stolen. She went to the police. A doctor treated me. She told me not to worry. I spoke to a doctor. She told me not to worry. El error ms frecuente es el siguiente: The girl whose case was stolen went to the police. The doctor who treated me told me not to worry. The doctor I spoke to told me not to worry. The bus that goes to Cairo leaves from here. The woman who teaches us music also plays in an orchestra. The road (that) we took led to an ancient temple. The woman (that) we spoke to gave us directions.

The bus that goes to Cairo it leaves from here.


Al combinar oraciones, no repetimos el sujeto aadiendo otro pronombre. (The bus it)

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Conditional sentences
Las oraciones condicionales son aquellas que nos indican una condicin y su consecuencia. Los tiempos verbales que utilizaremos dependen de si las condiciones y sus consecuencias son reales o imaginarias, o si son hechos verdicos y estn enlazadas con un evento en particular. Normalmente, la condicin viene siempre antes que la consecuencia, en ese caso usaremos una coma; pero en caso que sea la consecuencia lo que venga antes, no usaremos comas. Type 0 El condicional de tipo 0 se utiliza frecuentemente en verdades generales, hechos o resultados habituales.

Estructura
If + Presente simple, + Presente simple Presente simple + if + Presente simple

Ice melts if we heat it. Type 1 Utilizamos los condicionales de tipo 1 cuando ocurren condiciones que pueden ser posibles. Tambin podemos utilizar el imperativo para expresar esta clase de condicin.

Estructura
If + Presente simple, + Futuro simple Futuro simple + if + Presente simple Imperativo + and + Futuro simple

If you buy me a diamond ring, Ill love you forever. Type 2 Lo utilizamos en las condiciones imaginarias, es decir, aquellas que en este momento son prcticamente imposibles o muy poco probables. El tiempo utilizado es el Pasado simple, aunque el hablante est pensando en el presente o el futuro.

Estructura
If + Pasado simple, + Condicional simple Condicional simple + if + Pasado simple

I would buy a new car if I had more money. If I were you, I wouldnt talk to her anymore. Adems, podemos utilizar was/were para dar consejos.

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Type 3 En este tipo de condicionales hablamos sobre hechos pasados que ya no pueden cambiarse, por tanto, la condicin es imposible de realizar y su consecuencia es imaginaria.

Estructura
If + Pasado perfecto, + Condicional perfecto Condicional perfecto + if + Pasado perfecto

If I had studied harder, I wouldnt have failed the exam. Modal verbs with conditional sentences Podemos utilizar los verbos modales can, could, may, might, must y should en vez de will/wont o would/wouldnt. If you carry too many bags, you might drop the eggs. If I had brought some more money, I could have taken a taxi.

Other if-clause words


Unless
Tiene la misma funcin que if, pero en sentido negativo. Lo utilizamos en el tipo 1. We will go out unless it rains.

As long as; Provided/Providing (that)


Usamos estas expresiones para expresar una idea muy fuerte de limitacin. Siguen la norma del resto de condicionales. You can go out tonight as long as you come back by midnight.

In case
No tiene el mismo significado que if, sino que expresa una idea de precaucin. Es decir, la accin del verbo an no se ha realizado. Take an umbrella in case it rains.

In case of
No tiene el mismo significado que in case, sino que el hecho a ocurrir slo se realiza cuando la condicin se activa. In case of fire, break the glass.

Otherwise
A veces una condicin puede sobreentenderse aunque no se manifieste. Youd better hurry. Otherwise, youll be late.

I wish; If only
Utilizado con el Pasado simple, expresa un deseo en el momento de hablar. Junto al Pasado perfecto, expresa un lamento en el pasado que no puede cambiarse. Junto al Condicional simple, expresa el deseo de que ocurriera algo para cambiar algo que molesta al sujeto. I wish I had more money. I wish I had met him before. If only he would stop laughing!

Id rather
Suelen ir seguidas de un verbo en Pasado simple, y tienen un sentido de presente. Para negarlo, se escribe not despus de rather. Indicando a un objeto indirecto, se utiliza para expresar consejo. Id rather you didnt bring cameras. Id rather not go to the match, if you dont mind.

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Text organisers
There are many features of texts which help the reader understand how the information in the text is organised. This term covers a wide range of linking words and phrases which make texts easier to understand. By connector is meant any word or phrase that can stand alone at the front of a sentence, often followed by a comma.

Adding a point
Also is used to add a point within a sentence. It is not normally used as a connector at the beginning of a sentence in formal speech and writing.

Cars use up valuable energy resources and also pollute the environment.
As well as + noun/-ing can be used in an introductory clause.

Cars use up valuable energy resources as well as polluting the environment. As well as polluting the environment, cars use up valuable energy resources.
In addition can be used as a connector

Cars use up valuable energy resources and also pollute the environment. In addition, they make life unpleasant in big cities.

Contrast or concession
However can be used as a connector at the beginning or end of the sentence. Note that there is always punctuation on both sides of it (full stop or comma). It cannot be sued to connect two clauses.

Wind turbines are another source of renewable energy. However, they have their draw backs. Wind turbines are another source of renewable energy. They have their drawbacks, however.
Despite, in spite of + noun/-ing/the fact that + Subj. + Verb introduces a point which contrasts with a previous statement.

Wind turbines are another source of renewable energy. Despite being easy to build, they do have some drawbacks.
But joins two contrasting ideas. The but-clause always comes second.

Wind turbines are another source of renewable energy but they do have some drawbacks.
While, whereas, whilst

I prefer city life whereas John prefers countrylife.


Although contrasts two sentences.

Although we paid an enormous amount of money for the meal, the food was disappointing.
Though has the same meaning as although. Its more common in informal speech or writing. It can be placed before or after the main clause and sometimes at the end. It requires a subject and a verb.

We paid an enormous amount of money for the meal. The food was disappointing, though.
Even though gives extra emphasis between two contrasting ideas within a sentence. It can be placed before or after the main clause.

Comparing and contrasting


On the one hand, ... (but/while) on the other hand introduce contrasting points.

On the one hand, nuclear power does not add carbon to the atmosphere, but on the other hand it presents other more serious pollution risks.
On the other hand on its own introduces a new contrasting paragraph.

The job was interesting, but, on the other hand, it was also not very well paid.

Alejandro English Teacher

Results and reasons


Consequently, as a result (of)

As a result of this neglect, it is now in a poor condition.


Due to is a preposition with the same meaning as owing to, but which can follow be.

Maria had to retire from professional tennis due to a foot injury.

Exceptions and alternatives


Except (for), apart from

Except for Helen, who was still reading her old one, everyone chose a new book. Everyone chose a new book, apart from Helen, who was still reading the old one.

Sequences
Writers often signal that they are going to make a list of points.

There are a number of ways in which this can be done. There are several ways of looking at this matter.
First of all, secondly, thirdly next, finally are often used to number points in a sequence.

Except for Helen, who was still reading her old one, everyone chose a new book.
Words such as point, issue, problem, advantage can also be numbered.

The first problem facing the government is...


In an argument, there is often a conclusion which can be introduced by in conclusion.

In conclusion, we could say that

Summarizing
To sum up can be used to introduce a summarizing comment at the end of an argument.

To sum up, it seems clear that

Giving examples
For example, examples include, to take an example need punctuation before and after.

To take an example, swans fly several thousand kilometres


e.g. is an abbreviation from Latin exempli gratia.

To take an example, swans fly several thousand kilometres


Such as introduces an example.

Many birds, such as swans, migrate over long distances.

Replacing words
In other words, to put it in another way are used to introduce a point we want to make clearer by repeating it in a different way.

Describing types
A kind of, a sort of can describe a type of something.

An okapi is a kind of small giraffe.

Making clear
In other words, to put it in another way are used to introduce a point we want to make clearer by repeating it in a different way.

I think you should go out more with friends, or perhaps take a part-time job. In other words, make more of an effort to be sociable.