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Introduction to Pattern Recognition

Meeting 01
Dewi Yanti Liliana, S.Kom, M.Kom Computer Science UB

What is Pattern Recognition?


The study of how machines can observe the environment,
learn to distinguish patterns of interest from their background, and make sound and reasonable decisions about the categories of the patterns.

What is a pattern? What kinds of category we have?

What is pattern recognition?


The assignment of a physical object or event to one of several pre-specified categories -- Duda & Hart

A pattern is an object, process or event that can be given a name. A pattern class (or category) is a set of patterns sharing common attributes and usually originating from the same source. During recognition (or classification) given objects are assigned to prescribed classes. A classifier is a machine which performs classification.

For example, a pattern could be


A A A A fingerprint images handwritten cursive word human face speech signal

Categories (Classes)
Supervised Classification
Discriminant Analysis

Unsupervised Classification
Clustering

Examples of applications
Handwritten: sorting letters by postal code, input device for PDAs.
Optical Character Recognition (OCR) Biometrics Diagnostic systems Military applications

Printed texts: reading machines for blind people, digitalization of text documents. Face recognition, verification, retrieval. Finger prints recognition. Speech recognition. Medical diagnosis: X-Ray, EKG analysis. Machine diagnostics, waster detection. Automated Target Recognition (ATR). Image segmentation and analysis (recognition from aerial or satelite photographs).

Applications of Pattern Recognition

The Design
The design of a pattern recognition system essentially involves the following three aspects:
data acquisition data representation decision making

PR Approaches
Statistical PR: based on underlying statistical model of patterns and pattern classes. Structural (or syntactic) PR: pattern classes represented by means of formal structures as grammars, automata, strings, etc. Neural networks: classifier is represented as a network of cells modeling neurons of the human brain (connectionist approach). Template Matching: based on template

Pattern Recognition Models

Basic concepts
Pattern

y
Hidden state

x1 x2 xn

Feature vector

- A vector of observations (measurements). - x is a point in feature space X

x X

- Cannot be directly measured. - Patterns with equal hidden state belong to the same class.
Task

y Y

- To design a classifer (decision rule) : X q Y which decides about a hidden state based on an onbservation.

Example
height Task: jockey-hoopster recognition.

x1
weight

x2

The set of hidden stateY is The feature space is X


2

{H , J }

Linear classifier:

Training examples

{( x1 , y1 ), , (x l , yl )}

x2

q(x)

H if (w x) b 0 J if (w x) b 0
y J
( w x) b 0

x1

Components of PR system
Patter n Sensors and preprocessing Feature extraction Classifier Class assignment

Teacher

Learning algorithm

Sensors and preprocessing. A feature extraction aims to create discriminative features good for classification. A classifier. A teacher provides information about hidden state -- supervised learning. A learning algorithm sets PR from training examples.