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Year 3 & 4 Biology (EOY 2012)

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Year 3 Topics: Chemicals of Life | Plant Nutrition | Respiration | Transport in Plants | Hormones | Homeostasis, Excretion and Temperature Control Year 4 Topics: Nervous System | Sexual Reproduction in Plants | Life Sciences | Immunology | Evolution

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Chemicals of Life

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Chemicals of Life

Carbohydrates 1. CxH2xOx 2. 16 kJ per 1g of carbohydrates 3. Monosaccharaides (glucose, fructose, galactose) 4. Disaccharides (maltose, lactose, sucrose) 5. Polysaccharides (cellulose, glycogen, starch) 6. Sucrose Glucose + Fructose 7. Lactose Glucose + Galactose 8. Maltose Glucose + Glucose 9. Energy storage (Starch, Glycogen) 10. Structural support (Cellulose, Chitin) 11. Formation of nucleic acids (DNA, RNA) 12. Iodine Test (Test for Starch): Add a few drops of iodine solution into the sample. If starch is present, the brown solution will turn dark blue. If starch is absent, the solution will remain brown. 13. Benedicts Test (Test for Reducing Sugars): Add an equal amount of Benedicts solution to the sample in a test tube. Place the test tube in a hot water bath for a few minutes. If reducing sugars are present, a green/orange/brick red precipitate will form. If reducing sugars are absent, the solution will remain blue. 14. Dehydration Synthesis/ Condensation Reaction (remove water) Two monosaccharides form a disaccharide 15. Hydrolysis Reaction (add water) Glycosidic bond broken in disaccharide to form two monosaccharides

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Proteins 1. C, H, O, N 2. 17 kJ of energy per 1g of proteins 3. 4. 5. 6. Amino acids are the primary units of protein Many amino acids linked via peptide bonds to form polypeptides Polypeptides are further modified to form proteins Amino Acids Polypeptides Protein

7. Transport Hemoglobin, Membrane Pumps 8. Structural Collagen, Keratin 9. Immunity Antibody 10. Catalyst for reaction Enzyme 11. Synthesis of protoplasm for growth and repair 12. Synthesis of enzyme and hormone 13. Formation of antibodies 14. Source of energy 15. Biuret Test (Test for Proteins): Add an equal volume of NaOH solution to the sample in a test tube. Add a few drops of 1% of CuSO4 solution. Shake well. If proteins are present, the blue solution will turn violet. If proteins are absent, the solution will remain blue.

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Lipids 1. C, H, O 2. 38 kJ of energy per 1g of fats 3. Made up of a molecule of glycerol and 3 fatty acid moelcules 4. Saturated fats (No double bond in fatty acid chain) (Animal fats) 5. Monounsatured fats (1 double bond) (Olive oil, Peanut oil) 6. Polyunsaturated fats (2 or more double bonds) (Vegetable oil) 7. Source and store energy 8. Constituent of cell membranes 9. Oil on skin restrict water loss from skin surface 10. Excess fat will result in increase in blood levels of chloesterol and the fats will desposit in the inner walls of arteries 11. Ethanol-emulsion Test (Test for Fats): Add an equal volume of ethanol to the sample in a test tube. Mix thoroughly and add an excess of water. If fats are present, a white emulsion is formed and the test tube feels warm. If fats are absent, the contents of the test tube remains clear. 12. Dehydration Synthesis/ Condensation Reaction (remove water) Glycerol + Fatty acid molecule Triglyceride molecule 13. Hydrolysis Reaction (add water) Ester bond in triglyceride molecule broken to form glycerol and fatty acid molecule

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Plant Nutrition

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Plant Nutrition

Autotroph and Heterotroph An autotroph is an organism that makes its own food, from inorganic ingredients, thereby sustaining itself without eating other organisms or molecules. A heterotroph is an organism that cannot make its own food from inorganic ingredients and must obtain them by consuming organisms or their organic products.

Photosynthesis 6 CO2 + 6 H2O C6H12O6 + 6 O2 Carbon dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen gas (in presence of light energy and via photosynthesis) Photosynthesis is the primary source of organic food and food energy (ATP) for all forms of life, either directly or indirectly. It also helps to purify air and maintain a balance of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the ecosystem.

Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis The higher the concentration of carbon dioxide, the higher the rate of photosynthesis. The greater the light intensity, the higher the rate of photosynthesis. At very high light intensity, the rate of photosynthesis slows because the ultra-violet rays damage the pigment of chlorophyll. The higher the temperature, the higher the rate of photosynthesis. At very high temperatures, the rate of photosynthesis slows/stops because the photosynthetic enzymes are denatured. Blue-violet and orange-red wavelengths best drive photosynthesis, while green wavelengths hardly do so. Experiment: Oxygen-seeking bacteria would congregate near regions of algae performing the most photosynthesis.

Limiting Factors A limiting factor constraints the maximum rate of photosynthesis. This factor prevents the rate of photosynthesis from increasing even if other conditions needed for photosynthesis are improved.

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Leaf Structure

Epidermis 1. 2. 3. 4. One cell thick, covering the top and bottom layers of the leaf. Covered by a waterproof waxy layer called the cuticle, preventing water loss. Stomata regulate exchange of gases, found mainly on the lower epidermis. Each stoma is surrounded by two guard cells, which can control the opening and closing of the stoma. 5. Guard cells contain chlorophyll and can photosynthesize, unlike the rest of the epidermal layer. Mesophyll 1. Divided into two layers: palisade and spongy mesophyll. 2. Photosynthetic layer, with palisade mesophyll cels having a higher concentration of chlorophyll than spongy mesophyll. 3. Palisade mesophyll cells look elongated and are packed closely under the uppder epidermis. 4. Spongy mesophyll cells have irregular shapes and are packed loosely under the palisade layer. 5. Air spaces in the spongy layer allow diffusion of carbon dioxide and oxygen within the leaf. Vascular Bundle 1. Consists of xylem and phloem tissues surrounded by bundle sheath cells. 2. Xylem tubes carry water and mineral slats from the roots to the leaves. 3. Phloem tubes carry sucrose from the leaves to other parts of the plant.

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Excess Glucose Excess glucose produced is converted and stored as starch in leaves or converted to sucrose to be transported away through the phloem.

Lack of nitrate and magnesium ions Nitrates are essential for synthesis of proteins, protoplasm, enzymes and nucleic acids. It will result in poor plant growth, fewer and pale green leaves and the seedlings will eventually die. Magnesium is an essential constituent of chlorophyll. It will result in the chlorophyll being unable to synthesize, and a yellow pigment deposited in leaves.

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Transport in Plants

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Transport in Plants

Cross Section of Stem and Root

Xylem 1. Transports water and mineral salts from the roots to the leaves of the plant 2. Provides mechanical support to the stem 3. Made up of dead cells with no cross walls or cytoplasm, resulting in continuously hollow columns, so that it does not hidner the passage of water 4. Thick cellulose cell walls impregnated with lignin 5. Lignin provides additional mechanical support and ensures that water reachs the leaves Phloem 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Transports sucrose from the leaves to other parts of the plant Consists of sieve tube cells and companion cells Sieve tube cells only have a thin layer of cytoplasm with perforated cell walls Transport of substances occurs by diffusion and active transport Companion cells have rich cytoplasm and keeps the sieve tube cells alive

Root Hair Cells 1. Form the epidermal layer of roots 2. Have a long and narrow projection which increases surface area for water absorption 3. Central vacuole contains concentrated cell sap, which helps to draw water into the cell from the soil by osmosis 4. Transport minerals via active transport because they are living cells

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Water Transport Water drawn into the root hair cells by osmosis creates a pushing force called root pressure, pushing the water up the xylem. Narrow xylem vessels allow water to creep upwards via capillary action. Water loss through the stomata of leaves creates a suction force to pull water upwards, resulting in transpiration pull.

How does water leave the leaf? Transpiration is the loss of water vapour from the leaves and other aerial parts of the plant. The water in the xylem enters the mesophyll cells and travel from cell to cell by osmosis. Water evaporates from the water layer on the surface of the mesophyll cells. Water also diffuses through the intercellular air spaces and out of the stomata.

How does water enter the roots? Water is absorbed in the root tips in the region of the root hairs. The water potential of the cell sap in root hair cells is lower than soil water. Therefore, the water enters root hair cells by osmosis through a partially permeable membrane.

How does stomata work? The guard cells are photosynthetic. During the day where there is light, the guard cells photosynthesise to produce glucose. This increases the glucose concentration in the guard cells, and hence it is hypertonic compared to its surroundings. Water enters the guard cells by osmosis. Due to its unequal thickness of the cell wall, the guard cell becomes turgid and changes shape, opening the stomata. This allows more water vapour to evaporate through the widened stomata.

Factors affecting Transpiration Rate of transpiration increases with 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. High light intensity (causes guard cells to become turgid and stomata to open) Decrease in humidity (increase rate of evaporation) Increase in temperature (increase rate of evaporation) Increase in air movement (wind removes saturated air from the stomata) Increase in water supply

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Wilting 1. 2. 3. 4. Occurs due to excessive transpiration resulting in water loss from plant Causes cells of the plant to become flaccid, resulting in wilting Flaccid guard cells close stomata, preventing further water loss from leaves Leaves will tend to fold up to reduce surface area for water loss

Translocation Translocation is the transport of manufactured substances such as sugars and amino acids in the plant. It occurs at the phloem vessels, which are made up of living cells. It involved active transport and diffusion.

The concentration of sugar in the leaf is lower than the concentration of sugar in the upper ends of the sieve tubes. Therefore, water enters the upper ends of the sieve tubes from the leaf, via osmosis. This creates a pressure in the sieve tubes. This pressure moves the sugar solution to all parts of the plant, by means of turgor pressure gradient. The sugar is unloaded at sugar sinks, causing a loss of water. This relieves the pressure.

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Respiration

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Respiration

Cellular Respiration 1. Uses of energy/ATP a. Muscle contraction b. Protein synthesis c. Cell division d. Active transport e. Growth and repair of tissues and cells f. Passage of nerve impulses g. Maintain constant body temperature 2. Energy is stored in ATP molecules 3. Aerobic Respiration (in presence of oxygen) a. C6H12O6 + 6O2 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + A lot of energy b. Glycosis Cytoplasm c. Krebs cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation Mitochondria 4. Anaerobic Respiration (in absence of oxygen) a. C6H12O6 6 CO2 + 2 C2H5OH (Ethanol) + Small amounts of energy b. C6H12O6 6 CO2 + Lactic Acid + Small amounts of energy c. Glycosis Cytoplasm d. Lactic acid is converted into glucose by the liver or oxidized by welloxygenated muscle cells e. Build-up of lactic acid in muscle cells causes fatigue 5. Respiration ATP used/released Photosynthesis ATP stored/produced

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External Respiration 1. Gas exchange in cells occur by diffusion 2. Rate of diffusion affected by a. Surface area b. Concentration gradient c. Length of diffusion path 3. Nasal Cavity Pharynx (Throat) Trachea (Windpipe) Right/Left Bronchus 3/2 Bronchial Tubes or Bronchi Bronchioles Alveoli 4. Air enters of the nose, into the nasal cavity where dust and foreign particles are trapped by hair in the nostrils and mucus on the membrane. The cilia sweep them into the pharynx, which is later ingested by esophagus. 5. Mucus also helps to warm and moisten air before it enters the lungs. 6. Harmful substances detected by the nose via smell 7. Alveoli a. Large surface area for efficient gaseous exchange b. One cell thick to minimize distance for diffusion c. Well supplied with blood capillaries for efficient gaseous exchange d. Surface of alveoli lined with a layer of moisture to allow gases to dissolve and diffuse across 8. Gills a. When water enters the gills, it encounters blood of lower oxygen concentration, maintaining the oxygen diffusion gradient throughout, allowing gas exchange to take place throughout the filament, maximising the oxygen intake in the gills b. One cell thick c. Small surface area to volume ratio d. Dense capillary network 9. Inspiration External Intercostal Muscles Internal Intercostal Muscles Ribs Sternum Diaphragm Contract Relax Upwards and Outwards Up and Further from backbone Contract and Flatten

Volume of thoracic cavity increases Air pressure in thorax decreases Air rushes into the lungs

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Hormones

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Hormones

Definitions 1. Hormone is a chemical substance produced in minute quantities by a ductless gland (endocrine gland). It is carried by the blood and alters the activity of one or more specific target organs. It is destroyed by the liver. 2. Endocrine glands are ductless glands. Unlike exocrine glands, which have ducts to carry their secretion away, endocrine glands are ductless. Secretion carried away by blood. 3. Hormones control growth, metabolism 4. Hormones maintain a constant internal environment (e.g. temperature, blood glucose concentration, blood pH) (homeostasis)

Main endocrine organs and Hormones 1. Anterior Pituitary Gland Produces Somatrotropic hormone (stimulates growth): Too Little Dwarfism; Too Much Gigantism Produces other hormones that control thyroid glands, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands and gonads 2. Posterior Pituitary Gland Produces Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) which controls volume of urine produced by the kidney Produces Oxytocin for milk production and child-birth 3. Thyroid Glands Produces thyoxine which regulates metabolic rate, ensure normal growth and mental development: Too Little Slow and sluggish, feeble-minded; Too Much Irritable, Restless, Nervous, Gland enlarged 4. Gonads Produces hormones that control development of male or female characteristics (testosterone, estrogen, progesterone) 5. Adrenal Gland (medulla) Produces adrenaline under conditions of fear, anger and anxiety

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Insulin Islets of Langerhans in pancreas (beta cells) produces insulin where there is high blood glucose concentration (e.g. after a meal rich in carbohydrates) 1. Encourages liver and muscle cells to take up glucose from the blood and convert them into glycogen (glycogenesis) for storage in liver and muscles. 2. Increases permeability of cell membranes to glucose. Hence, increase uptake of glucose by all body cells. 3. Increases the rate of oxidation of glucose to produce energy in tissue respiration. 4. Causes formation of fats from glucose and storage of fats in the body.

Under secretion of insulin 1. Glucose cannot be stored or utilized by cells, so blood glucose concentration increases. Glucose present in urine (diabetes mellitus). 2. Muscle cells have no reserve of glycogen, so weakness and weight loss occurs. 3. Body oxidizes fat instead of glucose to produce energy. Ketones produce (poisonous) which are excreted in urine. Death can occur. Over secretion of insulin 1. Abnormal decrease in blood sugar 2. Shock results 3. Coma and death may follow

Glucagon Islets of Langerhans in pancreas (alpha cells) produces glucagon where there is low blood glucose concentration (e.g. during fasting period) 1. Breakdown of glycogen in liver and muscle cells into glucose which is released into the blood 2. Decreases rate of respiration

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Diabetes Mellitus Blood glucose levels should be within 90 10mg/l. Diabetes occurs when there is a failure of the pancreas to secrete insulin or respond to insulin, resulting in increased blood glucose levels. Excess glucose in the blood passes through he glomerulus and ends up in the glomerular filtrate. The kidneys are unable to reabsorb the excess glucose, resulting in the presence of glucose in the urine. 1. Type I Insulin-dependent diabetes Early onset diabetes cells not producing insulin Require regular insulin injections and diet modification 2. Type II Non Insulin-dependent diabetes Late onset diabetes (usually over the age of 40) Risk factor is obesity Insulin is produced by body cells cannot respond to insulin Diet modification required Effects of adrenaline (danger, stress, fear) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Increase in metabolic rate Rate of heart beat and blood pressure increases Constriction of blood vessels in skin Blood clotting rate increases Conversion of glycogen to glucose Pupils dilate Hair erector pili muscles in the skin contract causing hairs on skin to stand on end 8. Decrease blood flow to digestive system

Differences between nervous and hormonal control Nervous Control Involves nerve impulses Impulses transmitted by neurons Quick response Response short-live May be voluntary or involuntary Usually localized Hormonal Control Involves hormones (chemicals) Hormones transported by blood Slow response Response may be short-lived or long lived Always involuntary May affect more than one target organ

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Homeostasis, Excretion and Temperature Control

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Homeostasis, Excretion and Temperature Control

Definitions 1. The maintenance of a constant internal environment despite changes in the external environment 2. Receptors detect stimulus (fluctuation in the variable above/below the set point) 3. Messengers/Control Centre to coordinate a corrective mechanism via negative feedback 4. Effectors carry out our responses (return the variable back to set point)

Thermoregulation 1. Process by which mammals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range 2. Thermoreceptors in hypothalamus detect changes in body temperature 3. Sends nerve impulses from the brain to effector organs 4. Sweat galnds, arterioles, hair erector muscles, skeletal muscles etc. 5. Blood temperature rises a. Sweat glands in skins are stimulated to produce more sweat. As more sweat evaporates from surface of skin, more latent heat is removed from body b. Arterioles in skin dilate (vasodilation) to allow more blood to flow through the skin. More heat lost by radiation, conduction and convection. c. Hair erector muscles relax, hair lie close to skin d. Metabolic rate decreases 6. Blood temperature drops a. Hair erector muscles contract, hairs stand on end, forms insulating layer of air between hair b. Involuntary muscle contractions of skeletal muscles to generate heat

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Osmoregulation 1. Regulation of blood osmolarity 2. Controls amount of water available for cells to absorb 3. Prevents dehydration or cell bursting 4. Osmoregulators in hypothalamus detect changes in water potential of blood 5. Hypothalamus stimulates pituitary gland to secrete anti-diutertic hormone (ADH), which targets the collecting duct in the nephron of the kidney 6. If more water is required in the blood stream (i.e. low water potential), high concentrations of ADH is released, causing the collecting duct to become more permeable. Hence, more water is reabsorbed by the kidneys and less urine is produced.

Excretion 1. The process by which metabolic waste products are removed from the body 2. Prevents accumulation and poisoning 3. Carbon dioxide a. Excreted by lungs as a gas in expired air b. Carbon dioxide from cells diffuse into blood and is carried as hydrogen carbonate ion (H+ + HCO3-) in red blood cells and blood plasma 4. Excess water a. Excreted by kidney, skin and lungs b. Constituent of urine, sweat and expired air 5. Urea a. Excreted by kidney and skin b. A constituent of urine and sweat c. Formed during deamination of proteins 6. Uric acid a. Excreted by kidney and skin b. A constituent of urine and sweat c. Formed from breakdown of nuclear materials 7. Bile pigments a. Excreted by liver b. Excreted via the intestines c. Formed from breakdown of hemoglobin 8. Mineral salts a. Excreted by kidney and skin b. A constituent of urine and sweat

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Kidneys 1. 2. 3. 4. Bean shaped structures attached on dorsal wall of abdominal cavity Lies on both sides of vertebral column Left kidney higher than right kidney Function Excretion and Osmoregulation

5. Consists of two major regions: outer cortex and inner medulla 6. Cortex region has granular texture and contains many Malpighian corpuscles 7. Medulla region has striated texture and contains many tubules 8. Each Malpighian corpuscle connected with its tubule and associated blood capillaries forma nephron which is a functional unit of the kidney 9. Each nephron eventually empties into the renal pelvis, where urine is transported to the bladder 10. Renal artery brings blood into the kidney. 11. Renal vein takes blood away from the kidney. Ultrafiltration (Bowmans capsule and glomerulus) Each afferent arteriole branches into a ball of capillaries called the glomerulus. The afferent arteriole has a larger lumen than the efferent arteriole, creating a hydrostatic pressure. Blood enters the glomerulus at high pressure. Small molecules (glucose molecules, amino acid molecules, urea) are filtered into the Bowmans capsule. Large molecules (RBC, WBC, proteins) remain in the renal artery. Filtrate (with urea etc.) passes into Bowmans capsule and travels to another tubule. Filtered blood (with RBC, WBC etc.) leaves the glomerulus by an efferent arteriole.

Selective Reabsorption Glucose, amino acids, mineral salts are reabsorbed by proximal convoluted tubules via active transport. Water is reabsorbed by the ascending loop of Henle via osmosis. Na+, K+ and Cl- ions are reabsorbed by the descending loop via active transport. Excess water, mineral salts and nitrogenous waste are secreted from blood vessels into the distal convoluted tubule. (Secretion); Reabsorption also occurs. Excess water, salts and most of the urea will be retained in the tubules and eventually passed out to the ureter and urinary bladder as urine.

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Functions Ureter transports urine from kidneys to urinary bladder. Urinary bladder stores urine temporarily before it is discharged from body. Urethra transports urine from urinary bladder to exterior. Bowmans capsule Proximal convoluted tubule Descending loop of Henle Ascending loop of Henle Distal convoluted tubule Collecting duct Ureter Bladder Urethra

Hemodialysis Blood is drawn from a vein, which flows through a tubing in the machine, bathed in a specially controlled dialysis fluid, which is an isotonic solution (same concentration). Salts and glucose in the dialysis fluid are in equal concentrations with that of blood. Only urea and unwanted wastes will diffuse across the membrane into the dialysis fluid to be removed. Useful substances, proteins and blood cells (macromolecules) remain in the tubes. Blood and dialysis fluid flow in opposite directions to maintain a high concentration gradient for the diffusion of wastes. Tubing is coiled to increase surface area and speed up the exchange of substances.

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Nervous System

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Nervous System

Nervous System The nervous system serves to coordinate and regulate body function. The Central Nervous System (CNS) is made up of the brain and the spinal cord. The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is made up of the cranial nerves from the brain and the spinal nerves from the spinal cord.

Stimulus/ Response A stimulus is a change that is detected by receptors. A receptor receives stimuli from the environment. Receptors include nerve endings (e.g. temperature and pain receptors in skin) and specialised cells in sense organs (e.g. mechanoreceptors, photoreceptors, chemoreceptors). A response is a reaction of the body towards the stimulus. An effector is a muscle or gland that brings about the response.

Pathway of Nervous Control 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Stimulus detected by receptors Information sent via sensory nerve to CNS CNS receives and processes the information Decides the response Response sent via motor nerves to effectors

Nervous Tissue The basic unit of a nervous tissue is a neuron (nerve cell). Neurons are specialized cells for carrying information in the form of electrical impulses from the receptors to the CNS, and from the CNS to the effectors. They are located in the brain and spinal cord. There are many closely packed neurons in the brain and spinal cord, and they have little intercellular space between them.

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Structure of a Neuron

Cell body (soma) contains the nucleus, cytoplasm and plasma membrane. Axon (nerve fibres) transmits impulses away from the cell body towards other neurons or effectors. It is covered with fatty myelin sheath. Dendron (nerve fibres) conducts impulses towards the cell body. Dendrites connect neuron to receptor, effector or another neuron. Myelin sheath has a thin membrane (neurilemma) that provides nourishment for the cell. They are layers of plasma membranes of the Schwann cells, and hence are mainly made of lipids, forming an insulating layer. It enables action potential to travel more quickly down the neuron via salutatory conduction because depolarization only occurs at the unmyelinated Nodes of Ranvier. Schwann cell forms the myelin sheaths around the axons of neurons. Node of Ranvier speeds up the transmission of impulses. It is the unmyelinated part of the axon/dendron. Synapse is the junction between 2 neurons. Neurotransmitter is a chemical that is released at the synapse to transmit impulse across the synapse (e.g. acetylcholine).

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Differences between axons and dendrons Axons transfer information away from the cell body while dendrons transfer information to the cell body. Axons have smooth surfaces while dendrons have rough surfaces (dendrite spines). Axons can have myelin while dendrons do not have myelin. Axons have no ribosomes while dendrons have ribosomes. Axons branch further from the cell body while dendrons branches nearer to the cell body.

Similarities and Differences between Neurons and Other Cells Both neurons and other cells are surrounded by a cell membrane; contain a nucleus with genes, and carries out basic cellular processes like respiration and protein synthesis. Neurons have dendrons and axons while other cells do not. Neurons can communicate with one another through an electrochemical process while other cells cannot.

Types of Neurons Sensory/Afferent/Receptor neuron carries impulses from receptors or sense organs to central nervous system (CNS). Effector / Efferent / Motor neuron carries impulses from CNS to effectors (muscles/glands). Intermediate / Relay neuron carries impulses from sensory to motor neuron found within the CNS (brain and spinal cord).

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Differences between types of neurons Property Cell Body Length of Neuron Length of Dendron Length of Axon Sensory Neuron At the middle Longer Longer Shorter Relay Neuron At the end Shorter Shorter Longer Motor Neuron At the end Longer Shorter Longer

Sensory neuron has a single, long dendron and a short axon. It conducts impulses from receptors towards CNS. Relay neuron is found between sensory and motor neurons. It transmits impulses either upwards or downwards to the brain. Motor neuron has a single, long axon and several short dendrons projecting from the cell body. It conducts impulses from CNS to effectors.

Resting Potential A resting neuron contains potential energy due to an electrical charge difference across its membrane. The voltage is called the resting potential. The extracellular fluid (inside of the cell) is negative while the cytosol (outside of the cell) is positive. Note: Inside and outside of cell are both negative, but the outside of the cell is positive relative to the inside of the cell. The separation of charges across the membrane, producing the resting potential of 70mV. Concentration gradient of sodium and potassium ions maintains the negative. 1. The Na+ and K+ ion gradients are maintained by the presence of many Na+ and K+ pumps in the membrane. These pumps actively transport 3 Na+ ions out and 2 K+ ions into the cell. 2. The neurons plasma membrane contains more open K+ leak channels and fewer open Na+ leak channels. Leak channels are always open. Hence, there is a greater net outflow of K+ and less net diffusion of Na+ into the cells.

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Action Potential A stimulus strong enough to produce a depolarisation that reaches the membranes threshold voltage will trigger an action potential. An action potential is an all-or-none phenomenon i.e. magnitude independent of the strength of stimulus. Action potentials are the signals that transmit information along neurons. Frequency of action potentials encode information i.e. stronger stimulus, higher frequency.

Depolarisation and Repolarisation

1. At rest a. Inside: Negative (less majority K+) b. Outside: Positive (more majority Na+) 2. Depolarisation (stimulated past threshold) (part of action potential) (only at one specific location) a. Inside: Positive (more majority Na+) b. Outside: Negative (less majority K+) c. Reach threshold potential d. Sodium channels open e. Action potential generated f. The stimulus causes nearby voltage-gated sodium channels to open. Sodium ions rushes into the axon, causing a region of positive charge within the axon. When the membrane potential reaches threshold potential, depolarisation is generated, generating an action potential.

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3. Repolarisation (part of action potential) (only at one specific location) a. Inside: Negative (less majority Na+) b. Outside: Positive (more majority K+) c. Sodium channels close d. Potassium channels open e. The region of positive charge causes nearby voltage gated sodium channels to close. Just after the sodium channels close, the potassium channels open wide, and potassium exits the axon, so the charge across the membrane is brought back to its resting potential. 4. Refractory Period a. Inside: Negative (less majority K+) b. Outside: Positive (more majority Na+) c. The sodium/potassium pump restores the resting concentrations of sodium and potassium ions via active transport. (3 Na+ ions out and 2 K+ ions in) d. Second action potential cannot be generated e. Sodium and potassium channels are closed f. Ensures that no action potential can be generated during their time, ensuring the uni-directional transmission of the impulse 5. Hyperpolarisation (part of refractory period) a. Membrane interior more negative than resting potential b. Prevents action potential from travelling in the opposite direction (action potential travels in one direction, down axon towards synapses)

Factors affecting speed of transmission The larger the diameter of the neuron, the faster the speed of transmission.

Synapses Synapses are junctions between neurons and the receiving cell (another neuron or effector). 1. Electrical synapses a. Current passes directly from one synapse to the next b. Found in heart, digestive tract, where rhythmic, steady muscle contractions are maintained 2. Chemical synapses a. Most other organs

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Neurotransmitters When action potential arrives at synaptic terminal, voltage-gated calcium channels open. Rush of calcium causes vesicles filled with neurotransmitters to migrate towards the presynaptic membrane and fuse with plasma membrane. The presynaptic membrane and vesicle now forms a continuous membrane, so that the neurotransmitter molecules can be released into the synaptic cleft. This process is called exocytosis. The neurotransmitter molecules diffuse across the synaptic cleft and bind with complementary receptor channel membranes in the postsynaptic membrane. The binding causes ligand-gated ion channels to open (due to binding of a ligand) and allows sodium ions to enter the postsynaptic neuron. This causes a depolarization and generates a new action potential (sometimes can inhibit). Neurotransmitter is then destroyed by enzyme (e.g. acetylcholinesterase), reabsorbed by presynaptic neuron and resynthesized into new neurotransmitter molecules (e.g. acetylcholine).

Reflex Actions Reflex action is an immediate and rapid response to a specific stimulus without conscious control.

Reflex Arc Reflex Arc is the shortest pathway by which impulses travel from receptor to effector in reflex action. They comprise the receptor, sensory neurons, relay neurons, motor neurons, spinal cord (reflex center), and effector. Instead of being processed by brain, reflex actions are stimulated straight from sensory neuron.

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Spinal Cord

White matter is on the outside and contains mainly myelinated axons (nerve fibers) of relay neurons that carry impulses to and from the brain. Grey matter is in the shape of a H located in central regions, and contains relay neurons, motor neuron cell bodies and dendrons. Central canal is the narrow canal that runs through the middle of the spinal cord. IT carries cerebrospinal fluid, which brings nutrients to the spinal cord. The dorsal root ganglion contains sensory neuron cell bodies.

Reflex Action Touch receptors (Nerve endings in the skin) sense the stimulus (pain), and generates an action potential in the sensory neuron (nervous impulses). This action potential is transmitted across the synapse to the relay neuron in the grey matter of the spinal cord, in the central nervous system. The impulse is then transmitted across another synapse to the motor neuron. The impulse leaves the spinal cord and travels along the axon of the motor neuron to the effector, which is the arm muscles, causing the arm to withdraw.

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Sexual Reproduction in Plants

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Sexual Reproduction in Plants

Differences between Meiosis and Mitosis Meiosis Occurs in prophase I when homologous chromosomes pair up 2 Different from parents 4 haploid gametes Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction Mitosis Does not occur, homologous chromosomes do not pair up 1 Identical to parents 2 diploid somatic cells General growth and repair of somatic cells Asexual Reproduction

Crossing Over

Number of Divisions Genetic Make up of daughter cells Daughter cells Function Type of Reproduction

What causes genetic differences 1. 2. 3. 4. Independent assortment Random segregation Crossing over Mutation

Asexual Reproduction 1. Occurs when food is readily available (in favourable conditions). 2. Rapid method of reproduction 3. Simple organisms binary fission (e.g. amoeba), spore formation (e.g. fungi), budding (e.g. yeast), fragmentation (e.g. flatworm) 4. Flowering plants vegetative propagation (some flowering plants can undergo both sexual and asexual reporudction) Differences between monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants Monocots Embryo with single cotyledon Pollen with single furrow or pore Flower parts in multiples of three Major leaf veins parallel Stem vascular bundles scattered Dicots Embryo with two cotyledons Pollen with three furrows or pores Flower parts in multiples of four or five Major leaf veins reticulated Stem vascular bundles in a ring

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Artificial Selection Select fruits that are larger. Plant the seeds. New plants that grow are likely to produce larger fruits. Repeat the process until the fruits obtained are suitably large.

Vegetative Propagation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Part of parent plant becomes detached Grows into a new plant Underground storage organs (e.g. rhizomes, tubers, corms, bulbs) Buds produce shoots Obtain nutreints from storage organs

Storage organs act as perennating organs. Food is stored in storage organs during unfavourable conditions. When favourable conditions return, plant uses food stored in storage organs. Therefore, plants can survive from one growing season to another. Choose a branch that bears the fruits of good quality. Either cut and plant it to let it grow into a new plant, or graft it onto a new plant that will be likely to produce fruits of similar quality.

Advantages of Vegetative Propagation 1. Reliability (always same time) 2. Consistency (same quality) 3. Early maturity (grows fast)

Angiosperms 1. Flowering plants 2. Well-developed vascular system or transport of water and food substances 3. Development of flowers for sexual reproduction Flower 1. Contains reproductive structures 2. Bisexual (hermaphrodite) both male and female parts present 3. Unisexual either have the male or female part present

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Structure of Flower

Flower Part Pedicel No pedicel Receptacle Petals

Sepals Stamen Anther

Filament Pollen Grains Carpel Stigma Ovary Ovule

Description Flower Stalk Sessile Flowers Enlarged end of flower stalk Flowers are attached here Brightly coloured, sometimes scented Arranged in circle/cylinder (corolla) Attract insects/agents of pollination Modified leaves, often green Protect flower in bud stage Male reproductive organ Consists of filament with anther on the end Each anther usually made of 2 lobes Each lobe has two pollen sacs In pollen sacs are pollen grains Filament holds up the anther in suitable position to release pollen grain Pollen grains released when anther matures, lobes split Each pollen grain gives 2 male gametes Female reproductive organ Consists of ovary, style and stigma Stigma receive pollen grain Ovary contains one or more ovules Ovary will become fruit Ovule contains female gamete called ovum Ovule will become seed Region where ovule attaches to ovary is placenta

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Flower Part and Post-Fertilisation Changes Flower Part Ovule Zygote Endosperm Nucleus (Central Cell) Integuments (Outer layer of ovule) Ovule Stalk Ovary Ovary Wall Stigma/Style Stamens/Petals Sepals Post-Fertilisation Changes Seed (Mitosis) Embryo consisting of plumule, radicle and cotyledons (Mitosis) Endosperm, stores food for plant Testa Funicle Fruit Fruit wall or Pericarp (Dry or Fleshy) Wither, but may persist and be modified to help in fruit dispersal Wither and fall off May persist, or be enlarged/modified to help in seed dispersal

Pollination 1. 2. 3. 4. Transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma Anther split open, exposes pollen grain Pollen grains carried away by either wind or bodies of insects Flowers are adapted for different modes of pollination

Wind Pollinated vs. Insect Pollinated Wind Small, dull or absent Absent Absent Large and feathery, protrudes out of flower Long and pendulous filaments with protruding anthers More abundant, tiny and light with smooth surfaces Insect Large, brightly-coloured Present (nectar guides may be present on petals) Present Small and compact, does not protrude out of flower Not pendulous, does not protrude out of flower Fairly abundant, larger with rough surfaces

Petals Nectar Scent Stigma Stamen Pollen

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Self-pollination 1. Transfer of pollen grain from anther to stifma of same flower 2. Transfer of pollen grain from anther to atigma of another flower in same plant 1. Bisexual flower 2. Same maturation times of anthers and stigmas 3. Anthers situated just above stigmas on same flower Advantages Only 1 parent plant needed Beneficial qualities likely to be inherited by offspring Does not depend on external factors Less pollen needed, less energy wasted Disadvantages Offspring has less genetic variation, less adapted to environmental changes Weaker, smaller, less resistant offsprings

Cross-pollination 1. Transfer of pollen grain from anther to stigma of flowers from different plants (same species) 2. Dioecious plants (one plant, one gender) 3. Different maturation times of anthers and stigmas 4. Anthers and stigmas on the same flower situated far apart Advantages Can inherit beneficial qualities from both parents Greater genetic variation, better adapted to changes in environment More viable seeds, longer dormancy possible Disadvantages 2 parent plants needed Depend on external factors (e.g. wind, insects) More pollen needed, more energy needed to improve chances of pollination

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Double Fertilisation The ploidy of the eight nuclei in the multinucleate embryo sac is haploid, and is formed by meiosis. Therefore, the megaspores produced are not genetically identical.

When the pollen grain lands on the stigma, it produces a sugary fluid (e.g. sucrose). This fluid stimulates the pollen grain to germinate to form a pollen tube. There are 2 nuclei in each pollen grain, namely the vegetative nucleus (in front) and the generative nucleus (behind). The generative nucleus (n) divides by mitosis into 2 haploid sperm cells when the pollen tube forms. The tip of the pollen tube grows towards the micropyle (pore of ovule wall). The vegetative nucleus secretes digestive enzymes to digest part of the tissue of the style and ovary, and soften the tissues. On entering the ovule via the micropyle, the vegetative nucleus degenerates. The tip of the pollen tube absorbs saps and burst to release the 2 male gametes. 1 male gamete (n) will fuse with the ovum (n) to form the zygote (2n). 1 male gamete (n) will fuse with 2 polar nuclei (n each, 2n total) to form the endosperm nucleus (3n). The zygote will develop into an embryo via mitosis, which consists of the plumule, radicle and cotyledons The endosperm nucleus will develop into an endosperm, which serves as the embryos food supply.

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Superior and Inferior Ovaries 1. Superior ovary is when the ovary rests above the receptacle. 2. Inferior ovary is when ovary embedded within the receptacle.

The Fruit 1. Protects the seeds and mebryo inside the seeds 2. Disperse seeds to new habitats 3. 4. 5. 6. Remains of style Scars present left behind from attachment to receptacle Funicle (seed stalk) attaches seed to placenta; presence of vascular tissues Fruit chambers (loculus or loculi) may be filled with juicy pulp (e.g. tomatoes); may remian as empty spaces (e.g. peas)

Locules The arrangement of the ovules in the chambers (locules) of the ovary determines how the seeds are arranged in the fruit. Different arrangements of ovules and locules within ovary of different flower types.

The Seed 1. Testa (seed coat) 2. Embryo (radicle, plumule and cotyledons) 3. Micropyle (por where pollen tube enters and for water and air to enter for germination) 4. Hilum/Hilus (Scar indicates original postion of seed stalk) Cotyledons Some seeds store food in cotyledons. They contain the immature plant (embryo) plus food reserves in large cotyledons, surrounded by a seed coat (testa). These seeds usually have two cotyledons (dicot plants) (e.g. peanut, bean) Some seeds store food in endosperm. These seeds usually have one cotyledon (monocot plant) (e.g. rice, maize)

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Post-dispersal of Fruits When fruits get dispersed into a suitable habitat, 1. Perciarp (fruit wall) breaks down 2. Seed(s) released 3. In favourable conditions, seeds germinate 4. Embryo grow and develop into new plants Function of Dispersal 1. Avoids overcrowding, competition for resources (e.g. light, food) with parent plants 2. Enable plants to colonise new favourable habitats, enhances chance of survival 3. Reduce spread of diseases Explosive Mechanism Fruit has a dry pericarp. During drying process, pericarp contracts, twists suddenly and split open with great force to throw out seeds (e.g. Balsam)

Wind Wing, hairs may develop from style, calyx, fruits, and seed coats. These enlarge surface area. Fruit and seed can stay afloat longer; drift further away from parent plant. They have small and light seeds. (e.g. Angsana).

Animals Usually edible, sweet smelling, scented to attract animals. They have tough seed coats to withstand action of digestive enzymes because the seeds are passed out in animal droppings. They have attachments like hooks or hairs on seed coats or wall of fruit to enables fruits and seeds to cling on to animal bodies (e.g. Papaya, Mango)

Water They have a waterproof fruit surface. They are light and spongy parts filled with air in seeds or fruit wall, to enable fruits or seeds to stay afloat (e.g. coconut, lotus seed)

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Germinating Seed 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Seed consits of embryo Embryo consists of plumule (shoot) and radicle (root) Two leaves (cotyledons) are attached to shoot Cotyledons store food Embryo and cotyledons enclosed in seed coat (testa)

1. Digested food translocated to plumule and radicle 2. Digested food used to provide energy, synthesie cell wall, protoplasm and enzymes 3. Radicle grows out of split testa, and grows downwards to absorb water 4. Plumule emerges from between cotyledons, and grows upwards 5. Food tissue (endosperm/cotyledons) shrink as food store is used up 6. Dry mass decreases as food is used up by respiration 7. Growing plumule produces green leaves (shoot) 8. Shoot continues to grow upwards, producing more leaves (seedling) 9. Photosynthesis begins, dry mass of plant starts to increase Germination 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Seed absorbs water through micropyle and swells Ruptures testa Process of hydration activates enzymes in cotyledons Enzymes digest stored food (amylase digest strach, protease digest protein) Requires water, oxygen, warmth

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Life Sciences

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Life Sciences

Cloning Cloning is creating an organism that is an exact genetic copy of another. Every bit of DNA is same between the two.

Types of Cloning 1. Artificial Embryo Twinning 2. Somatic Cellular Nuclear Transfer a. Therapeutic Cloning b. Reproductive Cloning 3. Vegetative Propagation (descendants of single plant) 4. DNA/Molecular Cloning Recombinant DNA Technology

Artificial Embryo Twinning 1. Zygote divides into two-celled embryo, and the two cells separate. 2. Each cell continues dividing on its own, developing into separate individuals. 1. Manually separates early embryo into individual cells. 2. Plated in Petri dishes. 3. Resulting embryos placed in surrogate mother, where they are carried to term and delivered. 4. All the embryos came from the same zygote, and hence they are genetically identical.

Somatic Cellular Nuclear Transfer 1. 2. 3. 4. Nucleus of somatic cell (diploids) removed Inserted into unfertilisted and enucleated egg cell (nucleus removed) Egg with donated nucleus divides, to form an embryo Embryo placed inside surrogate and develops

Reproductive Cloning The blastocyst is placed into a surrogate mother. Therapeutic Cloning The embryonic stem cells are separated for tissue culture. Dolly the Sheep Created by Somatic Cellular Nuclear Transfer

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Not truly an identical clone of donor animal because only chromosomal or nuclear DNA is the same as the donor Some genetic materials come from mitochondria in the cytoplasm of the enucleated egg

DNA/Molecular Cloning Recombinant DNA Technology 1. Identify and isolate a gene associated with a phenotype (location, DNA sequence) 2. Replicate to form many copies of the gene, using restriction enzymes to remove sections of DNA at a target sequence 3. Gene inserted into plasmids, which are structures that form from bacterial DNA, using DNA ligase to seal the DNA fragments 4. Plasmids are inserted into bacterial cells and then cultured

Cloning an Organism vs. Gene Cloning an organism is making an exact genetic copy of that organism. Cloning a gene is isolating an exact copy of a single gene from the entire genome of an organism. Used to study the function of the individual gene in the laboratory.

Risks of Cloning 1. High failure rate a. Success rate 0.1 3.0% b. Enucleated egg and transferred nucleus may not be compatible c. Egg with newly transferred nucleus may not begin to divide or develop properly d. Implantation of the embryo into the surrogate mother might fail e. The pregnancy itself might fail 2. Problems during later development a. Large Offspring Syndrome (LOS) b. Cloned animals that survive tend to be much bigger at birth than their natural counterparts, and have abnormally large organs c. Lead to breathing, blood flow and other problems d. LOS doesnt always occur; scientists cannot reliably predict its occurrence e. Some clones without LOS have developed kidney or brain malformations and impaired immune systems 3. Abnormal gene expression patterns a. Clones may not express the right genes at the right time

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b. Re-programming the transferred nucleus to behave like in an early embryonic cell, and for subsequent differentiation, is difficult 4. Telomeric differences a. As cells divide, their chromosomes get shorter. DNA sequences at both ends of a chromosome, called telomeres, shrink in length every time the DNA is copied. b. The older the animal, the shorter its telomeres. c. Transferred nucleus is already old shortened telomeres may affect its development or lifespan]

Frozen Ark 1. Scientists take small tissue samples from animals, so life is not endangered 2. Tissue may be frozen for safe-keeping 3. DNA extracted from tissue sample straight after it was obtained or after freezing 4. DNA can be used for research, which may one day lead to resurrection of extinct species 5. Some DNA samples are sent to other labs as an insurance against damage or loss 6. Unused DNA can be frozen, potentially for thousands of years

Ethical Considerations 1. 2. 3. 4. What is the moral status of the organisms created by cloning? Is it permissible to create a developing human entity only to destroy it? Is it right to seek human eggs for scientific research? What are the ethical issues relating to the person whose cells are being cloned? 5. Will therapeutic cloning facilitate reproductive cloning, the birth of a cloned baby?

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Stem Cells The body is made up of over 200 different types of cells. All these cell types come from a pool of cells, named the embryonic stem cells (ESCs), totipotent stem cells, in the early embryo from the inner cell mass in the blastocyst. Stem cell is a single cell that can replicate itself and has the potential to differentiate into many cell types.

Properties of Stem Cells 1. Unspecialised 2. Capable of dividing themselves for long periods to produce more stem cells 3. Can differentiate into specialized cell types under appropriate conditions Unspecialised stem cells Long term self-proliferation (under appropriate conditions) Differentiate into many cell types

Types of Stem Cells 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Early Embryonic Stem Cells (Totipotent) Blastocyst Embryonic Stem Cells (Pluripotent) Fetal Stem Cells (Pluripotent) Umbilical Cord Stem Cells (Multipotent) Adult Stem Cells (Unipotent)

Stem Cell Potency Totipotent means that it can differentiate into all cell types. Pluripotent means that it can differentiate into cells derived from any of the three germ layers. Multipotent means that it can differentiate into a number of cells, but only those of a closely related family of cells. Unipotent means that it can produce only one cell type, their own.

Uses of Stem Cells 1. Human Development (how cells differentiate and function) 2. Drug Development (test for effects of drugs)

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3. Stem Cell Therapy (replace damaged tissue, e.g. heart failure, diabetes, Parkinsons)

Stem Cell Therapy 1. Define the Problem 2. Finding the Right Type of Stem Cell 3. Match Stem Cells with Recipient a. Immune system attacks foreign material including stem cells and tissues b. Transplanted stem cells must match recipient closely c. Tissue typing test performed using blood samples from both individuals d. However, immune responses are typically muted in the brain compared to other areas of the body e. Fetal tissues should not trigger an intense immune response in recipient 4. Put Stem Cells in Right Place 5. Make the Transplanted Stem Cells Perform

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Model Organisms Characteristics 1. Rapid devlelopment with short life cycle 2. Small adult size 3. Ready availability (cost) 4. Tractability (ease of manipulation) Acts as a simpler and idealized system, which is accessible and easily manipulated. Insights gained to help cure human diseases and improve understanding of life.

Example traits of model organisms Yeast single-celled, rapid growth, inexpensive nutrients Thale Cress small, easy to grow, short life cycle, self-fertile, produce many seeds (for genetic studies), easy to screen for mutants Zebrafish eggs are transparent and easy to study changes (study embryology) Fugu fish model genome and little junk DNA (DNA that does not code for protein) Mouse physiology similar to human Caenorhabditis Elegans self-fertilising, hermaphrodite, genome mapped

Apoptosis Defined as programmed cell death Nucleus condenses, cell shrinks and small blebs form. Nucleus fragments and disintegrates. Organelles also located in the blebs. Cell breaks into many apoptotic bodies, with their cell membrane in tact. Organelles still functional. Phagocytes engulf apoptotic bodies.

Telomeres Telomeres are the protective ends of DNA, and are the ends of chromosomes. With each cell division, the telomeres become shorter. Most adult cells are unable to activate telomerase to lengthen their telomeres. When telomeres reach a critical length, these cells stop proliferating. In immortal cancer cells, telomeres cease shortening with each cell division. Certain cells (e.g. egg, sperm) use telomerase to restore telomeres to the ends of their chromosomes to ensure continual reproduction.

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Genetic Engineering Genetic engineering is the technique to transfer genes from one organism to another. Transformation is when a desired foreign gene is transferred from one organism to another. Recombinant DNA is DNA containing a foreign gene. Restriction enzymes (scissors) are used for removing sections of DNA at a target sequence. Ligase (glue) is used to join up DNA fragments. Plasmids are used in bacterial transformation because they are vectors for transformation. They have a circular DNA in bacteria. Organism acquiring the foreign gene is called the transgenic organism.

1. Extract human insulin genes with restriction enzyme. a. Makes straight cuts and forms blunt ends b. Makes staggered cuts and forms sticky ends 2. Isolate plasmids from bacteria and cut DNA with some restriction enzyme. 3. Insulin genes inserted into plasmids by complementary base pairings of sticky ends and use of DNA ligase (join). 4. Recombinant plasmids inserted into bacteria via transformation. 5. Plasmids serve as vectors to carry human insulin gene into bacteria for insulin production. Select transformed bacteria and grow out in culture cloning.

Ideal conditions for reproduction of bacteria Moisture, Dark Conditions, Abundant Nutrients, Optimum pH, Optimum Temperature. The advantages of using bacteria for genetic engineering are: 1. They can replicate at a faster rate, therefore producing more yield. 2. They are single cell and have a smaller genome; hence easier to work with. 3. They have a circular chromosome/plasmid. This is a useful vector to carry the inserted gene into bacteria.

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microRNA Role Process of RNA interference in modulating the expression of DNA Revolutionize personalized disease therapy Bacterial Transformation

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Immunology

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Immunology

Artificial, Natural, Passive, Active 1. 2. 3. 4. Artificial Human intervention Natural No human intervention Passive Antibiotics/WBCs donated (antigens degrade after a few weeks) Active Self-generated (Lasts a lifetime)

Definitions Antigen is anything causing an immune response, usually foreign material. Pathogen is any disease-causing microorganism. Tolerance refers to non-reactivity of the immune system, usually refers to self but may include foreign tissue in organ transplants. Autoimmunity refers to a failure of tolerance, the immune system reacts to self. Innate immunity is protection that is always present. Includes phagocytic macrophages and dendritic cells. Adaptive immunity is protection that arises by an immune response, including humoral immunity producing antibodies and cellular immunity. Diseases are caused by inorganic toxins, microorganisms (e.g. bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, proteins) and genetic disorders. Nave B/T cells means that the cells have not been activated/matured.

Immune System Tolerance Immune system does not mount an immune response against self. Autoimmunity Immune system mounts an immune response against self, and tolerance to self is lost. (e.g. asthma, lupus, arthritis) Allergies Hypersensitivity of the bodys defense system responding to certain environmental antigens called allergens (both beneficial and harmful).

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First Line Defence 1. Non-specific and innate 2. Responds to anything other than recognised self-cells 3. Physical Barriers and Secretion 4. Skin and mucous membranes Mechanical a. Intact skin: Forms a physical barrier to the entrance of microbes. b. Mucous membranes: Inhibit the entrance of many microbes, but not as effective as intact skin. c. Mucus: Traps microbes in respiratory and digestive tracts. d. Hairs: Filter microbes and dust in nose. e. Cilia: Together with mucus, trap and remove microbes and dust from upper respiratory tract. f. Tear ducts: Tears dilute and wash away irritating substances and microbes. g. Saliva: Washes microbes from surfaces of teeth and mucous membranes of mouth. h. Epiglottis: Prevents microbes and dust from entering trachea. i. Urine: Washes microbes from urethra.

5. Skin and mucous membranes Chemical a. Gastric juice: Destroys bacteria and most toxins in stomach. b. Acid pH of skin: Discourages growth of many microbes. c. Unsaturated fatty acids: Antibacterial substance in sebum. d. Lysozyme: Antimicrobial substance in perspiration, tears, saliva, nasal secretions, and tissue fluids. 6. Normal flora Microbiological a. Normal flora: Compete with pathogens for nutrients b. Normal flora: Produce antibacterial substances to kill pathogens

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Second Line Defence 1. Non-specific and innate 2. Responds to anything other than recognised self-cells 3. Inflammatory Response, Phagocytes, Natural Killer Cells 4. Inflammatory Response a. Creates a local response to the damaged tissue or pathogen entry b. When there is a tissue injury, chemokines are released by infected cell to attract cells of the immune system. c. Stimulate mast cells to release histamines. d. Histamine causes vasodilation. There is an increase in blood flow, causing faster accumulation of phagocytes and delivery of antimicrobial proteins or clotting elements to the infection site. e. Histamine causes an increase in capillary permeability. It allows immune cells to gain entry from the blood to the infection site. f. Causes redness, swelling and heat (fever). 5. Phagocytes a. Phagocytosis is the ingestion and destruction of foreign particles by phagocytosis. b. Macrophage Antigen-presenting cells c. Dendrite Cells Antigen-presenting cells d. Neutrophils Secrete cytokines/anti-microbials e. Eosinophils 6. Natural Killer Cells a. Attacks tumour cells, virus-infected cells and transplant cells b. Bind to specific receptors, causing the cell to under lysis or apoptosis 7. Tissue Repair a. Platelets form a plug to seal off the site of injury. b. Clotting elements trigger the coagulation cascade, which strengthens the platelet plug. c. Remodelling occurs. If repair is imperfect, a scar results.

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Third Line Defence 1. Specific and Adaptive 2. Responds against a known foreign invader (previous recognised pathogen) 3. T Lymphocytes, B Lymphocytes 4. T Lymphocytes a. Immunocompetency (maturation) occurs at thymus b. Cell mediated immunity c. Recognise small fragments of antigens presented on a cell membrane after phagocytosis i. Release cytokines in response to the antigen ii. Activates other cells d. Cytotoxic T Cells i. Kills infected and cancer cells ii. When it recognises an antigen of an infected cell, 1. Send perforin molecules to perforate its cell membrane, causing the cell to burst via lysis whereby water enters through the perforated membrane 2. Send granzymes, stimulating the infected cell to undergo apoptosis e. Helper T Cells i. When it recognises the antigen of an infected cell, 1. Self proliferate into effector and memory T cells 2. Effector T cells secrete cytokines to attract and activate cytotoxic T cells and B cells to destroy the infected cell ii. HIV destroys helper T cells 1. Other immune cells not activated 2. Humoral response cannot be launched f. Memory T Cells i. Remain in circulation and can respond quickly when same pathogen enters body again

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5. B Lymphocytes a. Immunocompetency (maturation) occurs at bone marrow b. Humoral immunity c. Antigen binds to specific fragment antigen-binding site of B cell i. Presents antigen and MHC II on its surface ii. Attracts mature matching helper T cell iii. Helper T cell secretes cytokines to help B cell to proliferate and mature into plasma B cells and memory B cells d. Plasma B Cells i. Produce large amounts of antibodies which circulate as soluble proteins in the blood ii. Binding of antibodies to antigens inactivates antigens by 1. Enhances Phagocytosis a. Neutralisation, by blocking viral binding sites b. Neutralisation, by coating bacterial toxins c. Agglutination of particulate antigens d. Precipitation of soluble antigens 2. Leads to Cell Lysis a. Activation of complement e. Memory B Cells i. Exposure of same antigen causes activation of memory B cells ii. Immediate recognition and distraction faster and large response usually more effective and prevents harm iii. Antibodies are produced more rapidly and in larger amounts

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Blood antibodies and antigens Blood Group A B AB O Antigen on RBC Antigen A Antigen B Antigens A and B No antigen Antibody in Plasma Antibody b Antibody a No antibodies Antibodies a and b

Antibody a reacts with antigen A causes agglutination. Antibody b reacts with antigen B causes agglutination. No antibody reacting with antigen, or vice versa will not cause agglutination.

Features of Immune System Specificity to recognise and eliminate particular pathogen and foreign molecules, via specific antigen and antibody binding. Diversity to respond to millions of kinds of invaders via their antigenic markers. Memory to remember antigens it has encountered and to react to them more promptly and effectively on subsequent exposure. Self/Non-self Recognition to distinguish the bodys own molecules from foreign molecules.

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Evolution

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Evolution

Natural Selection The differences in environment create a selection pressure towards a certain kind of trait in the species, which is formed through genetic variation. As such, those that have favourable traits are selected for in that particular environment.

Theory of Creation and Evolution The theory of creation believes that each species was created as it is now, and has never changed and will never change. The theory of evolution believes that species change over a long period of time, and that those that exist now have evolved from earlier times.

Lamarcks hypothesis of evolution Use and disuse Parts of the body that are used extensively become larger and stronger; those that are not used deteriorate. Inheritance of acquired characteristics Organisms could pass these modified body parts to their offspring (i.e. if I run everyday and my legs become stronger, then my offspring will also have strong legs)

Germplasm Theory Inheritance only takes place by means of gametes such as ovum and sperm (other cells are not agents of heredity). Gametes are not affected by anything other cells acquired/develop/learn during its lifetime. Germplasm Theory disproved Lamarcks hypothesis of evolution.

Genetic Variation Sexual reproduction reshuffles genes 1. Meiosis a. Recombination b. Random fertilisation 2. Mutation produces new genes a. Mutations (random) b. Some may be advantageous

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Charles Darwins Theory of Natural Selection Observations during explorations led him to argue that all species descended over time from common ancestors through natural selection. He proposed the theory of natural selection in order to explain his observed patterns of evolution.

6 Features of Natural Selection 1. Overproduction of offspring Successful species produce more offspring per generation than are needed to replace the adults 2. Constancy in numbers The site of a population will remain steady in a stable environment 3. Struggle for existence Members of the same species constantly compete with each other to survive due to environmental/physical factors (climate, disease, predators) 4. Variation among offspring Individuals in a species are not identical in body form, physiology or behaviour and variations resulting from genes can be inherited and passed onto the next generation 5. Survival of better adapted by natural selection Some individuals with certain variations are more likely to survive than others with their selective advantage towards their traits 6. Like produces like Fitter individuals survive and pass on genetic information (directional selection), causing the number of individuals with advantageous gene/adaption to increase Reproductive Isolation Reproductive isolation allows two populations to collect unique changes to their DNA as they evolve independently. Over time, their genetic differences will be too distinct. For example, if an environment is split into 2 by a barrier (e.g. geographical barrier), the populations could be come different, due to selection pressure. The difference in form or behaviour prevent further interbreeding, forming a new species.

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The End Year 3 & 4 Biology (EOY 2012)


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Last updated: 29 May 2012, 9:30PM

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