Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 7

The project VARIABLE REGULATED POWER SUPPLY plays a very important role in the laboratory functions and that

is mainly to the electronics labs. As in electronics all the instruments, components work on a particular regulated dc supply ,so a project which can provide this supply by converting the alternating current to direct current that too into a great range of regulated power keep its own preference. As it can produce a range of 0-30 v direct current by regulating and converting alternating current is has a vast application too. Such converters are also known as Switch Mode Power Supply (SMPS). AC to DC converters generally comprise a rectifier bridge to rectify the AC current of the input line and a regulating device supplying on output of one or more regulated DC voltages. Just the simple ac current is applied and through potentiometer you get the desired regulated dc power supply.

Following is the list of parts or the components required to design this circuit: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. BR1 = Bridge Rectifier, 100V 3A C1 = 2200 F, 63V IC1 = LM317, adjustable regulator C2 = 0.1 F V = Meter, 30V, Ri = 85 ohm C3 = 1F, 40V TR1 = Transformer, 25V, 2A Plug = 3-wire plug & cord R1 = 18K, 5%

10. S1 = On-Off toggle switch 11. R2 = 220 ohm, 5%

12. D1 = 1N4001 13. R3 = 27K, 5% 14. Fuse = 110V, 500mA, slow-blow 15. P1 = 5K, potentiometer 16. P2 = 10K, 10-turn trim-pot 17. Fuse Holder, wire, solder, case, knob for P1 18. Red & Black Banana Jacks WORKING:The 110V-AC coming from the powercord is fed to the transformer TR1 via the on-off switch and the 500mA fuse. The 30v ac output (approximately) from the transformer is presented to the BR1, the bridge-rectifier, and here rectified from AC (Alternating Current) to DC (Direct Current). If you dont want to spend the money for a Bridge Rectifier, you can easily use four general purpose 1N4004 diodes. The pulsating DC output is filtered via the 2200F capacitor (to make it more manageable for the regulator) and fed to IN-put of the adjustable LM317 regulator (IC1). The output of this regulator is your adjustable voltage of 1.2 to 30 volts varied via the Adj pin and the 5K pot meter P1. The large value of C1 makes for a good, low ripple output voltage. Why exactly 1.2V and not 0-volt? Very basic, the job of the regulator is two-fold; first, it compares the output voltage to an internal reference and controls the output voltage so that it remains constant, and second, it provides a method for adjusting the output voltage to the level you want by using a potentiometer. Internally the regulator uses a zener diode to provide a fixed reference voltage of 1.2 volt across the external resistor R2. (This resistor is usually around 240 ohms, but 220 ohms will work fine without any problems). Because of this the voltage at the output can never decrease below 1.2 volts, but as the potentiometer (P1) increases in resistance the voltage across it, due to current from the regulator plus current from R2, its voltage increases. This increases the output voltage. D1 is a general purpose 1N4001 diode, used as a feedback blocker. It steers any current that might be coming from the device under power around the regulator to prevent the regulator from being damaged. Such reverse currents usually occur when devices are powered down. The ON Led will be lit via the 18K resistor R1. The current through the led will be between 12 20mA @ 2V depending on the type and color Led you are using. C2 is a 0.1F (100nF) decoupler capacitor to filter out the transient noise which can be induced into the supply by stray magnetic fields. Under normal conditions this capacitor is only required if the regulator is far away from the filter cap, but I added it anyway. C3 improves transient response. This means that while the regulator may perform perfectly at DC and at low frequencies, (regulating the voltage regardless of the load current), at higher frequencies it may be less effective. Adding this 1 F capacitor should improve the response at those frequencies. R3 and the trimmer pot (P2) allows you to zero your meter to a set voltage. The meter is a 30Volt

type with an internal resistance of 85 ohms. I you have or obtained a meter with a different Ri (internal resistance) you will have to adjust R3 to keep the current of meter to 1mA. Just another note in regards this meter, use the reading as a guideline. The reading may or may not be off by about 0.75volts at full scale, meaning if your meter indicates 30 volts it may be in reality almost 31 volts or 29 volts. If you need a more precise voltage, then use your multimeter.

GAS LEAkAGE ALARM


SANI THEO

LPG gas is supplied in pressurised steel cylinders. As this gas is heavier than air, when it
leaks from a cylinder it flows along floor and tends to settle in low spots such as a basement. This can cause fire or suffocation if not dealt with. Here is a circuit that detects the leakage of LPG gas and alerts the user through audio-visual indications. Fig. 1 shows the circuit of the gas leakage alarm. The circuit operates off a 9V PP3 battery. Zener diode ZD1 is used to convert 9V into 5V DC to drive the gas sensor module. The SEN-1327 gas sensor module from RhydoLABZ is used in this circuit. Its output goes high when the gas level reaches or exceeds certain point. A preset in the module is used to set the threshold. Interfacing with the sensor module is done through a 4-pin SIP header.

Fig. 1: Circuit for gas leakage alarm

Pin details of the gas sensor module are shown in Fig. 2. An MQ-6 gas sensor is used in the gas sensor module. As per its datasheet, it has high sensitivity to propane, butane, isobutene, LPG and natural gas. The sensor can also be used to detect combustible gases, especially methane. This circuit has been tested with LPG gas and was found to work satisfactorily.

Fig. 2: Pin details of gas sensor module Whenever there is LPG concentration of 1000 ppm (parts per million) in the area, the OUT pin of the sensor module goes high. This signal drives timer IC 555, which is wired as an astable multivibrator. The multivibrator basically works as a tone generator. Output pin 3 of IC 555 is connected to LED1 and speaker-driver transistor SL100 through current-limiting resistors R5 and R4, respectively. LED1 glows and the alarm sounds to alert the user of gas leakage. The pitch of the tone can be changed by varying preset VR1. Use a suitable heat-sink for transistor SL100.

Temperature alarm circuit


Posted by P. Marian in Alarm, Measure | 4 comments More projects with: 4093 CA3130 Add to favorites This temperature alarm circuit continuosly monitors the room temperature and beeps when the temperature drops below 20 degrees centigrade. This capability to constantly monitor the room temperature can help lower your air-conditioning costs by reminding you to turn off your airconditioner. An optical display like a thermometer has a limited effectivity since it can be easily overlooked. A tone signal on the other hand is not easy to ignore. Let us look at the temperature alarm schematic. R4 is the temperature sensor KTY10. Other temperature dependent resistor types can also be used in tis place. This sensor is connected to a resistance-bridge circuit and supplied with 5 volts. The IC1 CA3130 works as a bridge amplifier. As long as the temperature is higher than the value preset by P1 and P2, the output of IC1 is 0 volt. Once the temperature drops below the preset value, the plus input of IC1 receives more current and its output level swings to 5 volts, thus switching the oscillator gate U1 on. This gate creates a pulse of aroung 0.2 seconds. This pulse in turn switches on the oscillator gate U3. The tone signal is generated by a piezo-electric crystal which is driven by gate U4. Thre frequency of the tone signal is aroung 5 kHz. The current consumption is 2 mA which allows the circuit to be powered by a simple power supply. The sensor must be installed outside the housing so that is will not be falsely triggered by the heat of the transformer. To align the circuit, points A and B must be shorten temporarily so that the alarm beeps. Potentiometer P3 controls the volume of the beep. The chosen room temperature can be roughly tuned by P1. P2 is used as a fine tuner. In normal operation, remove the short between points A and B.

Temperature alarm circuit diagram

IC 4093
The CD4093B consists of four Schmitt-trigger circuits. Each circuit functions as a 2-input NAND gate with Schmitt-trigger action on both inputs. The gate switches at different points for positive and negative-going signals. The difference between the positive (VTa) and the negative voltage (VTb) isdefined as hysteresis voltage (VH). All outputs have equal source and sink currents and conform to standard B-series output

IC CA3130 datasheet
CA3130A and CA3130 are op amps that combine the advantage of both CMOS and bipolar transistors. Gate-protected P-Channel MOSFET (PMOS) transistors are used in the input circuit to provide very-high-input impedance, very-low-input current, and exceptional speed performance. The use of PMOS transistors in the input stage results in common-mode input-voltage capability down to 0.5V below the negative-supply terminal, an important attribute in single-supply applications. The CA3130 Series circuits operate at supply voltages ranging from 5V to 16V, (2.5V to 8V). They can be phase compensated with a single external capacitor, and have terminals for adjustment of offset voltage for applications requiring offset-null capability. Terminal provisions are also made to permit strobing of the output stage. The CA3130A offers superior input characteristics over those of the CA3130.