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The Changes to electronics found in cars over the last 100 years Automobiles have come a long way

since their beginning in the late 19th century. One of the major things that has helped automobiles to provide more safety and convenience, though, is electronics. With the advances in technology and electronics, car ma nufacturers have been able to offer a wide variety of services and conveniences that many new automobile owners appreciate. From the creation of the Electronic Fuel Injection to the popular Global Positioning System found standard in many c ars today, the auto industry has revolutionized the way people travel from place to place. Electronic Fuel Injection, or EFI One of the best innovations that electronics have created in the performance of automobiles is the Electronic Fuel Injection, or EFI for short. This device take s the place of the normal carburetor that has been the normal until recently. Th e job of the carburetor was typically the part of the engine that helps to evapo rate fuel so that it mixes with the air for combustion. This provides power to t he cylinders which helps the engine operate. A floating device within the carbur etor is used to regulate the amount of fuel that the engine receives. The EFI, on the other hand, uses a completely different technology to supply pow er to the engine. Instead of a floater that regulates the fuel to the engine, th e EFI system electronically meters the fuel so that the exact amount needed is p rovided to the engine. In short, the EFI uses to fuel to power the engine by pum ping it forcibly by using high pressure through a small nozzle or valve. This is how the EFI supplies the proper amount of fuel to the combustion process. The E FI system provides a great deal of benefits over the carburetor, too. Not only d oes this new technology prevent the engine from flooding by allowing too much fu el into the engine, but it is also more efficient and emission-friendly. The EFI system is also compatible with alternative fuels and it is more reliable than t he traditional carburetor. You will also notice a smoother ride and more engine power with an EFI system. Computer Diagnostics The field of computer diagnostics has also helped to shape the way that automobi le owners use their cars. The cars manufactured in the last couple decades have been built with a computer on-board to help owners realize engine problems or ot her problems before any damage is done. Before the computer diagnostics technolo gy, most car owners did not know something was wrong with the engine until somet hing drastic happened, such as overheating or running out of gas. Mechanics gene rally had to endure a trial-and-error method to find out what was the problem in many cases. Now, however, computers in the cars constantly check the engine and its componen ts to make sure it is always up to its optimum performance. When a problem arise s, a corresponding light in the dashboard comes on so you know to take it to the mechanic as soon as possible. The computers use many sensors to detect temperat ure, fluid levels and many other aspects of an engines performance. Many times, t he computers in the car will provide a code that mechanics can read so they know exactly what has malfunctioned. They have state-of-the-art equipment that they can attach to the car and find out the reason for the malfunction. While this is a very convenient solution to many engine problems, it does require very expens ive equipment, such as oscilloscopes, a digital volt-ohm meter, sensor stimulato rs and high-tech computers to determine problems. It also requires extensive kno wledge about how to use the technology. Mechanics often need to go through train ing to use this method.

All-Wheel Drive / AWD Another great innovation all-wheel drive (AWD) has been a great addition to auto mobiles. This is commonly referred to as four-wheel drive or even 4x4. It means that all four wheels on the vehicle are receiving power from the engine rather t han just two of them. This is a popular feature for sport utility vehicles, but it is becoming quite common among sports cars and other smaller vehicles because of its safety capabilities. With AWD technology, cars get better traction on ic e and wet roads and it also gives the driver more control over the car. The technology for AWD was first thought of in 1900 by the Porsche manufacturer, but it did not become popular until World War II. The idea was great for milita ry vehicles that needed to travel over many different terrains and fields. After that, the idea was eventually implemented into civilian vehicles. The American Motors Company created the first complete line of all-wheel drive passenger vehi cles in 1980. The Eagle was the most popular model in this line. Now, there are several different types of AWD technology that differs among the different car m odels, including the center differential with mechanical lock, torsen center dif ferential, multiple clutch systems and several others. It also includes electron ic traction control devices as well as an electronic transfer case that shifts c ontrol between the front and the rear axles. Airbags Another improvement in safety that electronics have provided is the airbags that are now standard in cars. Technically known as a Supplementary Restraint System (SRS), Air Cushion Restraint System (ACRS), or a Supplemental Inflatable Restra int (SIR), these provide a great deal of safety for the driver and passengers in a car. Created in 1952, the air bag technology is based on electronic sensors t hat measure the amount of quick deceleration through an accelerometer. This is a small electronic chip that moves as a result of fast deceleration and, as a res ult, signals the rapid ejection of the airbags. Car manufacturers are currently working on new airbag calculations to make them more effective and to help preve nt unnecessary deployments. The new calculations will take into account the posi tion of the seats, the use of a seat belt and the weight of the occupants to hel p determine when (and if) the airbag should be deployed. Global Positioning System (GPS) The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a popular device that has made a splash i n automobile electronics in recent years, too. These are basically electronic na vigation devices that use satellites to monitor many aspects of an automobile. B y using satellites, the GPS company can find the location of your car, the direc tion it is moving and the speed at which it is moving. As a result, your car can easily be found if it is stolen. The idea for this technology was first created in 1978 and used as an experimental device for the United States Department of Defense. Like most automobile technology, though, the idea quickly made its way into the civilian vehicles due to popular demand. A GPS will also give you stepby-step voice directions to your destinations, which tends to be the most popula r feature of this electronic device. It can also come in handy if you lock your keys in your car. With a simple call to the GPS service provider, a representati ve can send a satellite signal to your car and unlock the doors. These devices a re also great in a wide variety of emergencies, so they provide peace of mind in addition to safety and convenience. Hybrid Cars

This section would not be complet without talking about the electronics that is required to drive a Hybrid vehicle and one of the best examples is the Toyota Pr ius. This car uses the computer and digital electronics to manage the change bet ween the differing combinations of power sources and due to electronics is prett y seamless if it werent for the energy consumption screen located in the Prius cen ter console the driver would have little indication the complexity of it all thi s technology is called Hybrid Synergy Drive (HSD). The Future With brilliant minds working in the auto industry, there are limitless possibili ties to what the manufacturers will include in their products in the coming year s. In fact, the Lexus company now has a vehicle that will automatically parallel park your vehicle without the driver even needing to touch the wheel. If we loo k to the technology and electronics that are being used in the military vehicles , we can often predict the services that will be in civilian vehicles in the nea r future. This tends to be a trend in the automobile industry and will likely co ntinue as people always want and expect more from their cars. Dramatic changes to the automobile have occurred over the last 35 years, includi ng the addition of emission control systems, more fuel-efficient and,cleaner-bur ning engines, and lighter body weight. In addition to being lighter than body-ov er-frame vehicles, uni bodies offer better occupant protection by distributing i mpact forces throughout the vehicle. Today s computerized engine control systems regulate such things as air and fuel delivery ignition timing, and emissions. The result is an increase in overall e fficiency. All automobile engines are classified as internal combustion, because the burning of the fuel and air occurs inside the engine. Diesel engines share the same major parts as gasoline engines, but they do not use a spark to ignite the air/fuel mixture. The cooling system maintains proper engine temperatures. L iquid cooling is more efficient than air cooling and more commonly used. The lub rication system distributes motor oil throughout the engine. This system also co ntains the oil filter necessary to remove dirt and other foreign matter from the oil. The fuel system is responsible not only for fuel storage and delivery but also for atomizing and mixing it with the air in the correct proportion. The exh aust system has three primary purposes: to channel toxic exhaust away from the p assenger compartment, to quiet the exhaust pulses, and to burn the emissions in the exhaust. The electrical system of an automobile includes the ignition, start ing, charging, and lighting systems. Electronic engine controls regulate these s ystems very accurately through the use of microcomputers. Modern automatic trans missions use a computer to match the demand for acceleration with engine speed, wheel speed, and load conditions. It then chooses the proper gear ratio and, if necessary initiates a gear change. The running gear is critical to controlling t he vehicle. It consists of the suspension system, braking system, steering syste m, and wheels and tires. Preventive maintenance involves regularly scheduled ser vice on a vehicle to keep it operating efficiently and safely. Professional tech nicians should stress the importance of PM to their customers. 12"> The automotive industry technological The automotive industry technological leaps and over is constantly making big a century the automobile has been transformed from mere, transport to a technologi cal marvel. Here s looking at the top technologies that have revolutionized the motoring world. Microchip Although few people realised it at the time, in the late 6os the microchip lift ed motoring into the electronic ,age. That sliver of silicon, with its incredibl y fine thatch of circuits and umpteen transistors, unquestionably stands as the single most influential development in the past 50 years. if not in the car s en tire history. The way cars work changed forever, with ongoing realizations made progeny: by the microchip s progeny: the on-board computer and electronic contro

l module. A computer manages the engine- continuously Checking its temperature, speed, diet, and spark - while also administering the cruise control, traction c ontrol, rev limiter and drive-by-wire throttle. Other sides of the electronic br ain oversee the automatic transmission, trip computer, sound system, and climate control, not to mention the anti-tock brakes, dynamic stability system, brake-f orce distribution, airbag deployment and more. The body computer that locks the doors soon after the car is mobile may know to unlock them, switch off the engin e and notify emergency services in the event of a serious crash. White the seatb elt has played an important role, the microchip has truly revolutionised the aut omobile industry. 50 TOP TECHNOLOGIES COLLAPSIBLE STEERING COLUMN Although the very real dangers presented by rigid steering columns were Known fo r many decades, it wasn t until the late 19150s that collapsible steering column s began appearing. All modern cars now feature a collapsible steering column whi ch will collapse in the event of a heavy frontal impact to avoid excessive injur ies to the driver. This safety feature became mandatory after activist Ralph Nad er, in 1965, released Unsafe at Any Speed , a study that revealed the unsafe en gineering of many American cars. Delphi s active energy- absorbing steering colu mn absorbs various levels of energy based on occupant mass, seat belt usage, spe ed, and crash severity, helping to minimize driver injury in the event of an acc ident. THREE-POINT SEATBELT Volvo had the first safety belts in 1941 and it was their inventor Nils Bohlin w ho devised the three-point seatbelt. Volvo introduced the safety measure in 1959 , standardising it in all its cars. Not only did the three- pointer afford unriv alled restraint, but its use was a quick, easy, one-handed operation. lt is now a standard safety device in all vehicles, with most countries making it mandator y for the front passengers to wear them. Although many improvements have been ma de to the webbing, mountings, latches and inertia reels, and belts have got smar ter in relating to accident severity and occupant weight, the principle is as va lid and valued as ever. CATALYTIC CONVERTER The biggest advance in the fight against noxious exhaust emissions, cats were developed in the US in the 196os. Fully effective only when scorching hot, conve rters catalytic-coated interior scours the outgoing gas to neutralise harmful i ngredients. Early two-way converters were filled with small pebbles coated wit h precious-metal catalysers: platinium. rhodium and platinium. But these convert ers were heavy, restrictive to gas flow, and acted only on carbon dioxide and hy drocarbons, Subsequent closed-loop systems have three-way converters. Here the g as passes through a finely perforated block of coated substrate, which acts on t he villainous oxides of nitrogen as well as CO2 and hydrocarbons, Since 1975, De lphi has produced more than 100 million catalytic converters. UNLEADED PETROL Leaded petrol was discovered in 1921by General Motors.GM researchers had been : testing fuel blends since 1916, trying to stop engine knock . Knock was a probl em that was preventing the development of higher efficiency, higher. Compression engines. It had to be phased out by government order, starting in the 1970s, fo r public health- reasons, due to expelled lead having an adverse impact on the e nvironment and human health and also its incompatibility with catalytic converte rs. Most countries are now phasing out leaded fuel; different additives have rep laced the lead compounds, giving rise to unleaded fuel oxygen lambada sensor An automotive oxygen sensor, also known as an o2 sensor, lambda probe, lambda se nsor, is a small sensor inserted into the exhaust system of, a petrol engine to measure the concentration of oxygen remaining in the exhaust gas to control the efficiency of the combustion process in the engine, In most modern cars, these s ensors are attached to the engine s exhaust manifold to determine whether the mi xture of air and PetroI going into the engine is rich (too much fuel) or lean (t oo little fuel). This reading converts to an Electrical signal, via which the en

gine ECU leans or richens the mixture to maintain the optimum stoichiometric (ak a Lambda) air-fuel ratio, for the best possible fuel economy and lowest possible exhaust emissions. The Delphi Wide Range Oxygen sensor measures the air/ fuel r atio of exhaust gases over a wide lambda range. AIRBAGS lnvented in 1952 by John W Hetrick, the airbag is an inflatable, flexible membra ne or envelope that fills up with air or gas. Triggered by sensors, it takes a s plit second to inflate and cushion the occupants from hitting the insides of the car, in the event of an accident. It is also known as a Supplementary/ Secondar y Restraint System (SRS), and was first offered in the 1973 model Oldsmobile Tor onado. Many modern cars have multiple airbags on the doors, known as Airbag Curt ains, to protect from side collisions. Many advanced technologies are being deve loped to tailor airbag deployment to the severity of the crash, the size and pos ture of the vehicle occupant, belt usage and how close that person is to the air bag module. Many of these systems will use multistage inflators that deploy less forcefully in stages in moderate crashes than in very severe crashes. SEATBELT PRE-TENSIONERS A pretensioner system pre-emptively tightens the seatbelt to prevent the passeng er from jerking forward in a crash, First introduced by Mercedes- Benz in the 19 81 S-Class, it, in the event of a crash, will tighten the belt almost instantane ously. This reduces the load on the occupant in a violent crash. Pretensioners a re triggered by sensors in the car s body, and most use explosively expanding ga s to drive a piston that retracts the belt. They also lower the risk of submarin ing, which is when a passenger slides forward under a loosely worn seatbelt. SEATBELT LOAD LIMITER Load Limiters help minimise the peak force that an occupant will undergo when re strained by the seatbelt in a severe frontal collision. Load limiters are integr ated into the seatbelt retractor system and will at low seatbelt webbing to rele ase in a controlled manner, This allows the body to move forward into the airbag and balance the absorption of the energy of the crash. The end result is a more controlled amount of force being exerted on the occupant s body and the reducti on of belt- inflicted injury . Disc Brakes Experiments with disc-style brakes began in England in the 189os, with the first ever automobile disc brakes patented in 1902. But it was only in 1949 that they made their commercial appearance in a low-volume. Crosley Hotshot. Disc brakes offered greater stopping performance than drum brakes, including resistance to b rake fade caused by overheating, and quicker recovery from immersion. They have now become common in most passenger vehicles, although rear wheels to keep coast and weight down. A recent advance is lightweight ceramic disc brakes which are highly heat and fade- resistant. LAMINATED WINDSCREEN After the outlawing of murderous plate-glass windows, the windscreen world was d ominated until the 1960s by toughened glass, which shattered in relatively harml ess granules when fractured. Although shatter-proof laminated windscreens were a valiable as a costly option on many vehicles, it was the Japanese who were the f irst to standardise triple-layer glass. This Left the rest to follow, many after several governments made them mandatory. content="Microsoft Word 12"> Automotive Servicing today s Servicing todays cars and trucks is much different than it was just a few years a go. Demands on the automotive industry to build more reliable, cleaner, safer, a nd mare fuel-efficient vehicles has greatly changed the way products are built, operated, and serviced. Today s automotive technicians must keep up with these c hanges. Electronic controls are part of nearly every system, from the engine and the ignition system to brakes and transmissions. Automobile mechanics who have not kept up with these changes have left or been forced out of the industry. Thi s has resulted in a shortage of qualified technicians. This shortage comes at a time when more cars are on the road and, therefore, more cars need to be service d. As a result, there are more excellent career opportunities for skilled and ce

rtified service technicians than ever before. Why todays automotive industry is considered a global industry. When the first automobile rolled down a street over one hundred years ago, life changed. Only the elite owned one of these early horseless carriages, which were a sign of wealth and status. Today, an automobile is a necessity. Most American s would have a difficult time surviving without a car. We need our cars and we n eed the automotive industry. Each year millions of new cars and light trucks are produced and sold in North America . The automotive industrys part in the total economy of the United States is second only to the food Industry. Manufacturing, selling, and servicing these vehicles is an incredibly large, diverse, and expa nding industry. Nearly thirty years ago, Americas big three automakers-General Moto rs, Ford Motor Company, and Chrysler Corporation-dominated the auto industry. Th at is no longer true. The industry is now a global industry. Auto makers from Ja pan, Korea, Germany, Sweden, and other European and Asian countries compete with U.S. companies for domestic and foreign sales.Several foreign manufacturers, su ch as Honda, operate assembly plants in the United States and Canada. Chrysler C orporation has merged with Mercedes-Benz to form a new company-DaimlerChrysler. No longer is Chrysler only a domestic car company; this merger has made it a glo bal company. Many more mergers and acquisitions in the future will continue to c reate global automobile manufacturers. A number of car models are built jointly by the United States and foreign manufacturers. These vehicles are built in Nort h America to be sold here or exported to other countries. Some of these joint ve ntures manufacture automobiles overseas and import the vehicles into North Ameri ca. This cooperation between manufacturers and the public acceptance of imported vehicles has resulted in an extremely wide selection of vehicles from which cus tomers may choose. This has also created new challenges for automotive technicia ns that are based on one simple fact: along with the different models come diffe rent systems. The Technology Boom The automobile started out as a simple mechanical beast. It moved people and thi ngs with little regard to the environment, safety, and comfort. Through the year s these concerns have been the impetus for design changes. A technical area that has aff ected automobile design the most is the same one that has greatly influenced the rest of our lives--electronics. Today s automobiles are sophisticated, electron ically controlled machines. To provide comfort and safety, while still being fri endly to the environment, these new machines use the latest developments of many different technologies-mechanical and chemical engineering, hydraulics, refrige ration, pneumatics, physics, and, of course, electronics. Because electronics pl ay an important part in the operation of all automotive systems, an understandin g of electronics is a must for all automotive technicians. The needed level of u nderstanding is not that of an engineer; instead, technicians need a practical u nderstanding of electronics. In addition to mastering the mechanical skills need ed to remove, repair, and replace faulty or damaged components, todays technician also must be able to diagnose and service electronic systems. Computers and ele ctronic devices are used to control the engine and its support systems. Because of these controls, cars of today use less fuel, perform better, and run cleaner than those in the past. Electronic controls also are used to activate shifting in transmissions, elimina te brake lockup in antilock braking systems (ABS), improve handling by controlli ng steering and suspension systems, and provide passenger protection and comfort . The amount of electronics used on cars and trucks is increasing with each mode l year. Consider these facts:

About 80% of all functions on new cars will be controlled by electronics. 1) Antilock braking systems, now an option on many vehicles, will become standar d equipment on nearly all cars. Some vehicles already use and others will use th ree or more different computers to control different systems on the car. Separat e computers are used to control the engine, the transmission/transaxle, instrume ntation and climate control, the suspension system, steering system, and antiloc k brakes. Vehicle diagnostic systems will anticipate break-downs, contact emerge ncy road service, and guide technicians through the repair process. Brake lights will vary in size and brightness according to the pressure put on the brake ped al. Headlights will have moveable reflectors that will allow the lights to follo w the curves in the road. In the near future, some model vehicles will have mult iple video cameras to view the area all around the car eliminating blind spots, and an infrared system to provide good vision at night and in bad weather. Compl ex electronic circuitry is and will be used to control engine systems so that th e engines exhaust will contain very low amounts or zero pollutants. Intelligent c ruise control devices will combine speed control with braking. The vehicle brakes will be applied automatically to maintain safe distances between moving cars. T he distance will be monitored by radar. Global navigation and satellite tracking systems allow the driver to avoid adverse traffic and road conditions by giving detailed travel routing. Hands-free driving will be made possible through contr ols embedded into highways. 2) There are many reasons for the increasing incorporation of electronics into a utomobiles. Electronics are based on electricity and electricity moves at the sp eed of light. This means systems can be monitored and their. mode of operation c hanged very quickly. Because they have no moving parts, electronic components do not wear. This means they last a long time and dont require periodic adjustments . Electronic components are also very light. Reducing vehicle weight means impro ved performance and fuel mileage. 3) Right now, only the creativity of the designers limits the future use of elec tronics in the automotive industry. That creativity will shape the vehicles of t he future. However, other factors will also influence the shape of the future an d the use of electronics. One of the main factors has been and will be legislati on. Throughout recent history, car manufacturers have responded to laws designed to make automobiles safer and run cleaner. These laws have pretty much dictated the way cars run and look. They have also changed the world of work for automot ive technicians. As the manufacturers respond to legislation, new systems and co mponents are introduced. With these come new learning requirements for technicia ns. Anyone desiring to be a good technician must update his or her skills to kee p up with the technology A recently passed law, called On-Board Diagnostics II ( OBD-II), has made life easier for technician. It gives all technicians a chance to repair the computer controls of all makes and models of cars. It does this by ordering the manufacturers to use a common system and common terms to describe it. This is a big change! For many years, each manufacturer took its own approac h to computer controls. The result was nearly as many different systems as there were car models. In the near future, a third edition of OBD, OBD-III, will be p assed which should further simplify a technician s life. The Need for Quality Service Vehicles will continue to become more complex; therefore, the need for good tech nicians will continue to grow. Currently there is a great shortage of qualified automotive technicians. This means there are, and will be, excellent career oppo rtunities for good technicians. Good technicians are able to diagnose problems i n both the simple and the complex systems of today s automobiles. Of course, aft

er the cause of a problem has been identified, the system must be properly servi ced or repaired .With the increase in the price of new cars came increased publi c demand for very reliable vehicles. The public also demands that when things do go wrong, they should be corrected the first time they take the vehicle back to the dealership-they expect the problem to be "fixed right the first time." This feeling also carries through to older vehicles, those out of warranty and servi ced by someone other than the dealership. Paying for repairs and parts that dont fix the problem is not something consumers want, nor should we expect them to. I t is also not something that helps the reputation of technicians or the manufact urer of the vehicle. After all, who wants a vehicle that cant be fixed or a techn ician that cant fix problems. The primary reason some technicians are unable to f ix a particular problem is simply that they cant find the cause of the problem. T odays vehicles are complex, which means that a great amount of knowledge and unde rstanding is required to diagnose them. Todays technicians must have good diagnos tic skills. Individuals who can identify and solve problems the first time the v ehicle is brought into the shop are those who are wanted by the industry. For th em, there are many excellent opportunities .The high cost of electronic componen ts and many mechanical parts has made the hit-and-miss method of repair too expens ive. Too often, mechanics who do not understand how to properly troubleshoot an electronic system automatically replace its most expansive component-the compute r. This often results in a very expensive wrong guess. Computers are very reliab le. Normally, the cause of a problem in a computer system is the failure of an i nexpensive switch or sensor, a poor electrical connection, or a bad mechanical p art within the system. Proper diagnostic techniques are also important for findi ng what caused a vehicle to fail an exhaust gas test, especially an I/M-240 test . Technicians must be able to find the reason why the vehicle failed and correct the problem. The Need for Ongoing Service The use of electronic controls has not eliminated the need for routine service a nd scheduled maintenance. In fact, it has made it more important than ever. Alth ough the computer systems can make adjustments to cover up some problems, a comp uter cannot replace parts that wear. A computer cannot tighten loose belts, chan ge weak or dirty coolant, or change dirty engine oil. Simple problems such as th ese can set off a chain of unwanted events in an engine control system. Electron ic controls are designed to help a well-maintained vehicle operate efficiently. They are not designed to repair systems. The computer, through its control devic es, may attempt to compensate for a problem by making adjustments to the engines systems. As a result, the engine will run reasonably well, but its overall perfo rmance and efficiency will be lowered. Various maintenance procedures usually ar e performed according to a schedule recommended by the vehicles manufacturer. The se maintenance procedures are referred to as preventive maintenance (PM) because they are designed to prevent problems. Scheduled preventive maintenance normall y includes oil and filter changes, coolant and lubrication services, replacement of belts and hoses, and replacement of spark plugs, filters, and worn electrica l parts . If a car owner fails to follow the recommended maintenance schedule, t he cars warranty might not cover problems that result. For example, if the cars e ngine fails during the period of time covered by the warranty, the warranty may not cover the engine if the owner does not have proof that the engines oil was ch anged according to the recommended schedule. Recently, many manufacturers have i ntroduced 100,000-mile (160,000 km) engines. There are many misconceptions about what this term means. It doesnt mean the engines will last 100,000 miles (160,00 0 km). Hopefully they will last much longer than that. It doesnt mean these engin es will not need maintenance for 100,000 miles (160,000 km). These engines still need to have their oil and filter changed on a regular basis. The basic premise behind calling an engine a 100,000 mile (160,000 km) engine is simply that the en gine does not require a tune-up during that time frame. This is only true if the engine is not abused and is properly maintained.