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Entrepreneurship Education in India A Perspective

Piya Bahadur
April 2012

2012 WCED All rights reserved Indian School of Business Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh India - 500032 W: http://www.isb.edu/wced E: wced@isb.edu T: +91-40-23187275/23187323

This report is a product of the staff of the Wadhwani Centre for Entrepreneurship Development (WCED), Indian School of Business. The WCED does not guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The material in this publication is copyrighted. Copying and/or transmitting portions or all of this work without permission may be a violation of applicable law. The WCED encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission to reproduce portions of the work promptly. This report is a work in progress and not meant for wider circulation.

PREFACE

Entrepreneurship has become a key driver of equitable economic growth, and has immense potential as a generator of employment opportunities. Developing a culture of entrepreneurial thinking within the communities in which we live and work has, therefore, become a focus for governments and societies worldwide. What does it take to nurture entrepreneurship? Can it be nurtured at all, or does it only emerge spontaneously? Can the conditions required to encourage entrepreneurship be created by careful design, in a planned manner? This report asserts that entrepreneurship can indeed be fostered. It is to be noted that while the protagonist of this unfolding economic drama is indeed the entrepreneur, the onus of entrepreneurship does not rest on the entrepreneur alone. The community and other stakeholders associated with the enterprise contribute to the success of a venture, and play a major role in the encouragement and advocacy of entrepreneurship. The symbiotic relationship between an entrepreneur, the community and the various stakeholders forms the entrepreneurial ecosystem. Nurturing entrepreneurship therefore means building the capacities of stakeholders across the ecosystem, so that they can in turn support the entrepreneur at the various stages of enterprise creation. As entrepreneurship's role in economic growth increases, fostering the entrepreneurial ecosystem has therefore become the policy goal of many governments. These policy goals are achieved in a number

Preface of ways: by integrating entrepreneurship into education systems, legislating to encourage risk-taking, and national campaigns. The role of education, in particular, has long been recognized as the cornerstone of any such policy. Academia has played a key role in nurturing the growth of new and emerging businesses and assisting enterprises navigate the road ahead. Of late, the field of higher learning has seen the burgeoning of training programs, business seminars and business networking opportunities, institutional incubators, plan writing support and other end-to-end solutions for getting the enterprise off the ground.

An entrepreneur is someone who starts or accelerates a business but entrepreneurs contribute more than just that to an economy. The economist Joseph Schumpeter saw the role of the entrepreneur as central to capitalist development, by providing new products, new production methods, new markets and new forms of organization, thereby acting as an agent of change. Indeed, the entrepreneur is someone who drives forward several factors that together stimulate economic growth thereby helping to address governments fiscal challenges.
Entrepreneurs Speak Out The Nice Cte d'Azur 2011 Entrepreneurship Barometer

However, new research reveals that the role of education should begin not at the enterprise creation stage alone but well before that, as a source of inspiration to sow the notion of entrepreneurship itself in the pool of potential entrepreneurs. The UNCTAD, in its note titled Key Components of Entrepreneurship and Innovation Policy Frameworks, highlighted education and skill development as one of the key policy areas in the entrepreneurship policy framework. In particular, that document states that the final objective of such policies should be to facilitate the creation of an entrepreneurial culture, which in turn, will help potential entrepreneurs to identify and pursue opportunities. Today, a number of schools, colleges, science and technology institutions and management schools have included entrepreneurship inputs in their curricula. Expert agencies have been nominated to develop curricula on entrepreneurship, to share resources and to organize training programs. All of these efforts are based on the same underlying principle nurturing entrepreneurship is vital to the economic development of a region. This report presents the evolution of entrepreneurship education in India. It then discusses the current and emerging ideas, and challenges, in India vis--vis the role of educational programs and the

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Preface delivery systems for disseminating these entrepreneurship education programs (EEPs). A framework for developing EEPs is presented, along with case studies of EEPs from India and abroad. The report is not meant to be a catalogue of all the entrepreneurship education initiatives from around India; rather, it is meant to give a flavor of the types of activities that exist and to serve as a basis for further discussion and research. The report is intended to provide the foundation and starting point for a series of further discussions, and the development of relevant action plans.

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CONTENTS
SIGNIFICANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP.............................................................................................1
Entrepreneurship and the Economy ....................................................................................................................2 Fostering Entrepreneurship .....................................................................................................................................4 Entrepreneurship Education ....................................................................................................................................7 Scope...................................................................................................................................................................................9 Fringe Benefits ............................................................................................................................................................. 10 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................ 11

ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN INDIA ................................................................................. 13


Disseminators............................................................................................................................................................... 18 Content ........................................................................................................................................................................... 19 Focus ................................................................................................................................................................................ 21 Concerns and Challenges ...................................................................................................................................... 22 Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................ 23

DESIGNING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION PROGRAMS ................................................ 25


Challenges of Designing an EEP ......................................................................................................................... 25 Design Methodology ............................................................................................................................................... 28
Gap Analysis .................................................................................................................................................................................... 29 Identifying the Impact Pathway............................................................................................................................................ 31 Implementation Plan .................................................................................................................................................................. 32

Summary ........................................................................................................................................................................ 33

CASE STUDIES ............................................................................................................................................... 35


Kenya ................................................................................................................................................................................ 35
Status of Entrepreneurship Education .............................................................................................................................. 37

Nigeria ............................................................................................................................................................................. 38
Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 39

United Kingdom ......................................................................................................................................................... 40


Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 40

Israel.................................................................................................................................................................................. 41

Contents The Israeli Entrepreneurial Ecosystem .............................................................................................................................. 41 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 43

United States ................................................................................................................................................................ 43


Youth K-12 Programs............................................................................................................................................................. 43 Community Colleges .................................................................................................................................................................. 44 Higher Education and Entrepreneurship Courses ...................................................................................................... 44 Centers for Entrepreneurship ................................................................................................................................................ 44 MBA and Entrepreneurship .................................................................................................................................................... 45 Ph.D. Programs in Entrepreneurship ................................................................................................................................. 45 Business Plan Competitions ................................................................................................................................................... 45 Foundation Support for Education in Entrepreneurship and Other Non-Profits ...................................... 45 Conclusions ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 46

CONCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................................................. 47
Insights ............................................................................................................................................................................ 48
Overarching, National-Level Plan ........................................................................................................................................ 48 Identifying Entrepreneur Needs........................................................................................................................................... 49 Short-Term Focus ........................................................................................................................................................................ 49 Sustainable, Replicable and Broad Reach ....................................................................................................................... 50 Lack of Program Evaluation.................................................................................................................................................... 50

Next Steps ..................................................................................................................................................................... 50

APPENDIX ....................................................................................................................................................... 53
EEPs by the Indian Government ......................................................................................................................... 53
National Institute for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development (NIESBUD) ......................... 53 National Institute for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (NI-MSME) ..................................................... 54 RUDSETI ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 57

EEPs by NGOs and Non-Profits .......................................................................................................................... 57


National Entrepreneurship Network (NEN) ................................................................................................................... 57 EDII ....................................................................................................................................................................................................... 58 BharatiyaYuva Shakti Trust (BYST)....................................................................................................................................... 60 Marketplace Literacy .................................................................................................................................................................. 62 Unltd India ....................................................................................................................................................................................... 62 Junior Achievement .................................................................................................................................................................... 63 CSIM .................................................................................................................................................................................................... 64

Contents

EEPs by Academic Institutions ............................................................................................................................. 64


10,000 Women Entrepreneurs .............................................................................................................................................. 64

EEPs by Industry Associations.............................................................................................................................. 65


NASSCOM ........................................................................................................................................................................................ 65 Confederation of Indian Industry (CII) .............................................................................................................................. 66 Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM) ................................................... 67 Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) ................................................................ 67

BIBLIOGRAPHY ............................................................................................................................................. 68

FIGURES
FIGURE 1. FOUNDATIONS FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND PILLARS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP......................................................... 4 FIGURE 2.RESULTS OF SURVEY ABOUT THE NEED FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION .............................................................. 6 FIGURE 3. ASPECTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION ..................................................................................................................... 8 FIGURE 4. MSMEDEVELOPMENT FROM INDEPENDENCE THROUGH THE 1970S ......................................................................... 14 FIGURE 5.MSME DEVELOPMENTIN THE 1980S AND 90S ................................................................................................................. 16 FIGURE 6. MSME DEVELOPMENTINTHE NEW MILLENIUM................................................................................................................ 18 FIGURE 7. COURSES TARGETING DIFFERENT PHASES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA ................................. 21 FIGURE 8. TYPE OF TRAINING UNDERGONE BY WORKING-AGE ADULTS IN INDIA....................................................................... 22 FIGURE 9. THE DICHOTOMY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS (ADAPTED FROM MANIMALA, M. J.).......................................... 26 FIGURE 10.IDENTIFYING ENTREPRENEUR NEEDS................................................................................................................................... 27 FIGURE 11.CONCEPTUAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION LANDSCAPE........................................................................................ 28 FIGURE 12. CHARACTERISTICS OF A WELL-DESIGNED EEP ................................................................................................................ 30

SIGNIFICANCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

The world is experiencing one of the most extraordinary periods in history. The power equation continues shifting across countries and regions, while rapid changes unfold in the marketplace, reshaping both the political landscape and the interactions between governments and businesses. The financial crisis, combined with rising inflation and the consequent slowdown in global demand, has engendered significant insecurity about the outlook of the world economy, and increased anxiety about its potential implications on the accomplishment of the Millennium Development Goals by 2015 . On the other hand, India has been one of the fastest growing economies of the past decade . Indian economic growth has been characterized by multifaceted development increases in production have been consistent and robust, and the economy has displayed clear indicators of shifting from an agrarian one to one in which services like business services, banking, communications, etc. play a major part . Growth has been fueled, in part, by rising exports exports grew by more than 180% over the last decade, and exports of manufactured goods, in particular, now account for more than half of
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Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs, World Economic Forum List of Countries by Real GDP Growth Rate, International Monetary Fund 3 Source: International Monetary Fund

Significance of Entrepreneurship the foreign trade . More encouragingly, a strong rise in domestic demand has played a major role in this growth.
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Entrepreneurship is driving growth everywhere from Israel to Ireland, Taiwan to Turkey, and, of course, in India and China. Even the mature economies of the Old World long enamored of central planning and tight coordination between big business and big government are getting into the act
Carl J. Schramm, The Kauffman Foundation

Entrepreneurship and the Economy


Accompanying economic growth is a consistent rise of entrepreneurship in India. The last decade saw the level of entrepreneurial activity rise. Liberalization, economic reforms, globalization and demographic trends have all played a part in this trend . A study conducted by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) in 2009 found that the MIT Alumni established companies numbering more than 25000, employed 3.3 million people and generated annual worldwide sales of $2 trillion (by comparison, Indias Gross Domestic Product in 2009-10 was $1.31 trillion, at current market prices) .
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Ending poverty, the aspiration of the Millennium Development Goals, is the overriding developmental objective of the 21st century. Despite great progress in the past 50 years, 1.2 billion people one-fifth of the people on Earth live on less than US $1 a day, without access to many of the social services basic to a decent human life. Their plight requires a global response making full use of all the financial, intellectual and organizational resources that we can muster.
Unleashing Entrepreneurship UNDP report to the Secretary-General of the UN, 2004

Entrepreneurs who started small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) with less than 250 employees represented, on average, two-thirds of total employment in the OECD countries in 2007 . The European Commission showed in its SME Performance Review that the number of jobs in SMEs had
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Source: Reserve Bank of India Entrepreneurial India: Sculpting the Landscape, KPMG, 2009 6 Entrepreneurial Impact : The Role of MIT, Edward B. Roberts and Charles Eesley, 2009 7 Entrepreneurship at a Glance, OECD Publishing, 2011

Significance of Entrepreneurship increased at an average annual rate of 1.9%, while the number of jobs in large enterprises increased by only 0.8% between 2002 and 2008 .
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FIGURE 1. CONTRIBUTIONS OF MSMES TO GDP IN INDIA

These facts make abundantly clear the pivotal role entrepreneurship plays in any economy. They also make obvious that, in India, entrepreneurship is yet to reach its potential not only as a major contributor to economic growth, but also as a source of employment generation. Given that nearly two-thirds of all new ventures perish within the first five years, it is equally clear that entrepreneurs need help. Key Features delineating the MSME Sector: The MSME Sector accounts for about 45% of the manufacturing output of the country The MSME Sector accounts for about 40% per cent of the total exports of the country The sector is projected to employ about 69 mn persons in over 26 mn units throughout the country The MSME Sector manufactures over 6,000 products ranging from traditional to high-tech items The MSMEs constitute over 90% of total enterprises in most of the economies http://www.dnb.co.in/SME_cluster_series2012.../MSMEs_in_India.pdf
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European SMEs under Pressure: Annual Report on European Union Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises, European Commission, 2009 9 http://www.dnb.co.in/SME_cluster_series2012.../MSMEs_in_India.pdf

Significance of Entrepreneurship

Fostering Entrepreneurship

FIGURE 2. FOUNDATIONS FOR THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND PILLARS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP

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What does it take to nurture entrepreneurship? Can it be nurtured at all, or does it only emerge spontaneously? Can the conditions required to encourage entrepreneurship be created by careful design, in a planned manner? The United Nations Development Program emphasizes that global and domestic macro environments, physical and social infrastructure and rule of law are all foundational to the growth of private enterprise. Once these perquisites are satisfied, however, education (improving skills and knowledge) is one of the most important requirements for robust entrepreneurial growth. This concept is represented pictorially in figure 2 above, which is reproduced here from the 2004 UNDP report on Entrepreneurship .
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Unleashing Entrepreneurship, UNDP report to the Secretary-General of the UN, 2004 Ibid

Significance of Entrepreneurship Empirical and statistical studies have repeatedly demonstrated that entrepreneurship can indeed be actively fostered. Kuratko
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believes that entrepreneurship, or certain facets of it, can be taught

and business educators and professionals have evolved beyond the myth that entrepreneurs are born, not made.

Entrepreneurship education plays an essential role in shaping attitudes, skills and culture from the primary level up. We believe entrepreneurial skills, attitudes and behaviors can be learned, and that exposure to entrepreneurship education throughout an individuals lifelong learning path, starting from youth and continuing through adulthood into higher education as well as reaching out to those economically or socially excluded is imperative.
Global Education Initiative World Economic Forum, 2009

According to a study by Professor Ed Roberts of the MIT Sloan School of Management, MIT students and alumni launch approximately 900 new ventures each year, and over half of all MIT-related companies are established within 10 years of the time the founder graduates. These numbers indicate a very powerful correlation, that people are learning how to be entrepreneurs in this institute of higher learning. Fostering entrepreneurship is a complex goal, and requires a multifaceted solution approach, involving actors as diverse as governments, academic bodies, NGOs, financial institutions, etc. Several entrepreneurship policy frameworks have been developed for this purpose. Entrepreneurship education is one of the most important components of any such entrepreneurship policy framework . To complement entrepreneurship education, certain targeted start-up and early growth support needs to be provided, such as finance and training. Universities are key actors in both areas, and there is a clear role for public policy and local governance in supporting them in these tasks
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Experts were asked to make recommendations to improve the environment for entrepreneurship in their country. On average, 49% of the recommendations across the 30 countries were about entrepreneurship education and trainingmore than any other EFC(Entrepreneurial Framework Conditions).

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Entrepreneurship Education: Emerging Trends and Challenges for the 21 Century, D. Kuratko, 2003 Entrepreneurship Education Policies, UNCTAD Secretariat, 2010 14 University Entrepreneurship Support: Policy Issues, Good Practices and Recommendations, OECD, 2010

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Significance of Entrepreneurship

Special Report: A Global Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education and Training GEM, 2008
Aspiring and current entrepreneurs confirm the need for entrepreneurship education as well. Delegates, gathered in Toronto for the G20 Young Entrepreneur Summit in 2010, affirmed that our education systems have an essential role in enabling young entrepreneurs to acquire the knowledge and skills that they will need to succeed. Governments should encourage entrepreneurial education in our schools, colleges and universities and through non-traditional, community-based means that value real-life experiences.

Do you think students need to follow specific training to become entrepreneurs?


Can't say 2% No 29%

Yes 69%

FIGURE 1.RESULTS OF SURVEY ABOUT THE NEED FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION

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The Nice Cte d'Azur 2011 Entrepreneurship Barometer report finds the appetite for more targeted entrepreneurship education and training most striking. This appetite is particularly strong in rapidgrowth markets, where 80% of entrepreneurs think that students need to follow specific training to become entrepreneurs (compared with an average of 70% across the G20 nations).

Entrepreneurship is as much about technical skills as it is about acquiring a holistic understanding of the social and business environment.
Entrepreneurship in India National Knowledge Commission, 2008

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Nice Cte d'Azur 2011 Entrepreneurship Barometer

Significance of Entrepreneurship Conversely, a recent study, the Global Competitiveness Report , cites the lack of entrepreneurship education and training as one of the major impediments to entrepreneurship development and growth. Along similar lines, a 2005 poll from Junior Achievement (JA) found that 68.6 percent of the teenagers interviewed wanted to become entrepreneurs, even though they knew that it would not be an easy path. In spite of this overwhelming interest, however, youth rarely receive any information about entrepreneurship as a career option. The sections to follow explore the role of education in the development of entrepreneurship.
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Entrepreneurship Education
The process of cultivating enterprises has distinct phases, like recognizing opportunity, formulating business plans, financing and management. Also, there are different players within the entrepreneurial ecosystem at different stages of enterprise creation. Entrepreneurship education would therefore mean building the capacities of all the stakeholders, so that they can in turn support the entrepreneur at the various stages of enterprise creation. In fact, education should begin not at the enterprise creation stage, but well before as a source of inspiration, to sow seeds of the notion of entrepreneurship itself in the pool of potential entrepreneurs. Consequently, entrepreneurship education comprises not only of training the entrepreneur and the would-be entrepreneur, but also all of the stakeholders in the entrepreneurial ecosystem.

Indeed, the events that explain why entrepreneurship becomes effective are probably not in themselves economic events. The causes are likely to lie in changes in values, perception, and attitude, changes perhaps in demographics, in institutions perhaps in education as well.
Innovation and Entrepreneurship Peter Drucker, 1993

An environment where entrepreneurship can prosper and where entrepreneurs can try new ideas and empower others needs to be ensured. Education needs to address the development of skills required to generate an entrepreneurial mindset and to prepare future leaders for solving more complex, interlinked and fast-changing problems. Education needs to come back to the top of the priorities of governments and the private sector and be seen as the fundamental mechanism for attaining sustainable economic development and societal progress.
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Global Competitiveness Report, World Economic Forum, 2010

Significance of Entrepreneurship The graphic below provides a rough summary of the various aspects of entrepreneurship education.

FIGURE 2.ASPECTS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION

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Entrepreneurship education should provide a mix of experiential learning, skill building and, most importantly, mindset shift , while developing attitudes, behaviors and capacities at the individual level. It is also about the application of those skills and attitudes that can take many forms during an individuals career, creating a range of long-term benefits to society and the economy. The challenge to educators subsequently will be to craft courses, programs and major fields of study that meet the rigors of academia while keeping a reality-based focus and entrepreneurial climate in the learning experience environment. Entrepreneurship is an ongoing process that requires a myriad talents, skills and knowledge leading to unique pedagogies capable of stimulating and imparting knowledge simultaneously. Educators will have to be mindful of these aspects and many more while formulating courses that will both ignite as well as nurture entrepreneurial ambitions.
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Adapted from: Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs, World Economic Forum, 2009 Entrepreneurship Education in Europe, OECD, 2008

Significance of Entrepreneurship Of the many inputs and circumstances contributing to the success of an entrepreneurial venture, having the right skills and competences is of particular importance. Which are the skills and competencies that are most useful? The set of competencies most relevant to entrepreneurial success, as suggested by Man etal ,are shown in the table below.
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Competency area
Opportunity Relationship

Behavioral focus
Skills and competencies related to recognizing and developing market opportunities through various means. Skills and competencies related to person-to-person or individual-to-groupbased interactions.For example, building a context of cooperation and trust, using contacts and connections, persuasive ability, communication and interpersonal skill. Skills and competencies related to different conceptual abilities, which are reflected in the behaviors of the entrepreneur. For e.g., decision skills, absorbing and understanding complex information, and risk-taking, and innovativeness. Skills and competencies related to the organization of different internal and external human, physical, financial and technological resources, including teambuilding, leading employees, training, and controlling. Skills and competencies related to setting, evaluating and implementing the strategies of the firm. Skills and competencies that drive the entrepreneur to move ahead with the business.

Conceptual

Organizing

Strategic Commitment

Scope
It is important for entrepreneurship educators to note that not all of the competencies relevant to entrepreneurship listed in the previous section can be taught in their entirety. Explicit knowledge , which comprises of the know-what (facts), know-why (science), and know-who (networking), can indeed be codified, articulated and disseminated. However, there also exists knowledge that is difficult to verbalize, write down or teach. This type of knowledge the know-how is known as tacit knowledge. In the field of knowledge management, tacit knowledge is information possessed by an individual that is difficult to communicate to others via words or symbols. For example, the knowledge that riding bicycle requires the rider to balance by steering to the left if the bicycle starts leaning to the left is explicit knowledge. However, knowing this fact is almost no use
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Conceptualization of SMEs Competitiveness: A Focus on Entrepreneurial Competencies, Thomas Man, Theresa Lau and F. K. Chan, 1998 20 Tacit Knowledge, Wikipedia,

Significance of Entrepreneurship in actually riding a bicycle and very few riders are even aware of it. The tacit knowledge of bicycle riding comes from the experience of repeated trials and practice.

Core-competency is more than 'know-what' explicit knowledge which may be shared by several. A core competency requires the more elusive 'know-how' the particular ability to put know-what into practice.
Organizing Knowledge J. Seely Brown P. Duguid, California Management Review, 1998

Tacit knowledge of entrepreneurship often plays a very important role in embarking on or succeeding at a venture in many Indian business families, such knowledge is transferred by extensive personal contact, trust and observation. Transferring tacit knowledge is difficult because it involves habits and culture that practitioners often do not recognize in themselves. Educators need to recognize this duality of knowledge
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and that both perspectives are needed. An

entrepreneurship education program, however well-designed and developed in terms of content and delivery, provides explicit knowledge in most cases. This therefore implies that a student who excels at an entrepreneurship education program need not necessarily be able to initiate or sustain successful ventures. This report mainly deals with education aimed at providing the explicit knowledge of entrepreneurship.

Fringe Benefits
Entrepreneur education tends to benefit recipients, especially young adults, in areas other than entrepreneurship as well. This is because such an education often involves learning organizational skills, time management, leadership, interpersonal abilities, etc., all of which tend to be highly transferable to other fields of endeavor, and often prized by employers for the value they bring to the workplace.

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The duality of knowledge, Paul M. Hildreth and Chris Kimble, Information Research, 2002

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Significance of Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship education can be a societal change agent, a great enabler in all sectors. Not everyone needs to become an entrepreneur to benefit from entrepreneurship education, but all members of society need to be more entrepreneurial. The public sector, private sector, academia and non-profit sectors all have roles to play in facilitating the development of effective ecosystems that encourage and support the creation of innovative new ventures. We need to create the types of environments that are conducive to encouraging entrepreneurial ways of thinking and behaving.
Educating the Next Wave of Entrepreneurs A Report of the Global Education Initiative World Economic Forum

According to Logic Models and Outcomes for Youth Entrepreneurship Programs (2001), a report by the D.C. Children and Youth Investment Corporation, other positive outcomes include: Improved academic performance, school attendance, and educational attainment Increased problem-solving and decision-making abilities Improved interpersonal relationships, teamwork, money management, and public speaking skills Enhanced social and psychological development (self-esteem, ego development, self-efficacy) Job readiness

At a general level, the multi-dimensional nature of the required entrepreneurial skills originates in education and involves a combination of critical (objective, analytical and logical) as well as creative and empathetic (lateral, imaginative and emotional) thinking.
Entrepreneurship David Kirby, 2003

In other words, entrepreneur education not only enables individuals to start enterprises, but it also provides the skills required to support existing ones as valuable employees. The knowledge gained from entrepreneur education ends up being valuable to the recipient in any field of endeavor.

Summary
This chapter presented the importance of entrepreneurship to an economy. It was posited that there exists a duality within the knowledge required for creating and sustaining enterprises and that while the implicit aspect of entrepreneurship can be taught, the tacit knowledge that is also crucial to the 11

Significance of Entrepreneurship success of enterprises is not so easily imparted. The chapter also discusses the notion of entrepreneurship education as a key component of any entrepreneurship policy framework. Finally, the components of entrepreneurship education were outlined, along with the overall benefits and limitations of such an education. The next chapter discusses the state of entrepreneurship education in India.

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ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION IN INDIA

India could be the worlds fastest growing economy by 2050.


The World in 2050 Price Waterhouse Coopers, 2006

India has a pioneering status among developing countries for its early start on a variety of entrepreneurship education programs. For the most part, entrepreneurship education in postindependence India has been focused on measures designed to encourage self-employment and founding of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs). The Industrial Policy Resolution of 1956 has, for instance, a very strong emphasis on the SME sector .
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India has the potential to be among the worlds leading economies. By 2050, India could have a GDP of $37.66 trillion, just marginally less than USAs estimated $38.51 trillion.
Growth of Entrepreneurship in India Goldman Sachs

As the economy transitioned from being primarily agrarian into one that has significant contribution from other sectors, it was felt that the most pressing requirement was education that would enable need-based entrepreneurs to make forays into these emerging sectors. Consequently, in the 1960s

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Growth of Entrepreneurship in India

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Entrepreneurship Education in India and 70s, entrepreneurship education was almost exclusively delivered in the form of training programs, offered by institutions under the aegis of State and Central Governments, and by financial institutions receiving support from the Government . Some of the institutions delivering such programs were: Industrial estates and in common service facilities (like tool rooms) Training and counseling institutions (NISIET, SISI, TCOs, EDI) Financial institutions like SBI, IDBI, TDICI, RCTC, etc. Development boards (STEPs, EDCs, TBIs) The table below shows the development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (MSME) during the first few post-independence decades.
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FIGURE 3. MSME DEVELOPMENT FROM INDEPENDENCE THROUGH THE 1970S

In the 80s, entrepreneurship education continued to focus primarily on entrepreneur training aimed at creating self-employment ventures. Like in the 70s, such programs were mostly under the umbrella of
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Entrepreneurship in India, National Knowledge Commission, 2008

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Entrepreneurship Education in India Entrepreneurship Education Programs (EEPs) offered by Government agencies, financial institutions and banks. However, recognition of the requirement for a more holistic entrepreneurship education, which included the ecosystem partners, was beginning to grow. Fuelled by seminal research work by the likes of David McClelland, the need to inculcate an entrepreneurial mindset and to impart basic entrepreneurship skills gained vogue among the policy makers. The 80s also saw the entry of entrepreneurship education into technology and management institutions. At the IIM Ahmedabad, for example, faculty members started offering Achievement Motivation Training. Other management institutions also began offering similar courses, driven mainly by faculty interest. However, none of these institutions took on a pioneering role to emerge as a thought-leader. Governmental effort oversaw the founding of an initiative to set up Science and Technology Parks (STEPs) and incubation centers at a few reputed technical institutions With the advent of liberalization in the 90s, the country saw the potential of entrepreneurship not only as an entry-level employment generator, but also as a means of wealth creation. Success stories, especially in the IT sector, were viewed by entrepreneurs as rolemodels. The country as a whole saw a growing interest in entrepreneurship, fuelled by factors such as: Growth potential of economy Changing social and cultural milieu Global success of several Indian firms Emerging opportunities in different sectors Lower capital requirement in IT and service sectors

Indias economy has the potential to gain significantly from the countrys characteristic features a democratic open society, a strong technology base (with capacity for leapfrogging), unparalleled diversity, vibrant capital markets (including growing private equity and venture capital markets), an increasingly youthful population (50% of India is 25 years and younger), a sizeable market of a large number of customers with vast unmet needs as well as an environment of full and free competition in the private sector.
Outlook Business Vijay Govindarajan, 2007

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Entrepreneurship Education in India The past two decades have witnessed the entry of industry associations, NGOs, consultants and voluntary organizations into the entrepreneurship education space. In general, this time period saw the strengthening of the entrepreneurial ecosystem, with the establishment of modes of education that were not training based. Examples of such modes include: Mentoring pools like TiE, and networking events Entrepreneurship Development Cells (NSTEDB, AICTE, UGC) Incubators at various institutions: o o o Technology Business Incubators (NSTEDB, at over 30 educational institutions) Engineering colleges (IITs, NITs, leading private colleges) Management schools (ISB, IIMs, leading private schools)

Support for entrepreneurship teaching

FIGURE 4.MSME DEVELOPMENT IN THE 1980S AND 90S

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Entrepreneurship Education in India The most recent trend in entrepreneurship education is towards awareness camps, business plan competitions and student clubs at the university and college level. A host of new programs that are not in the traditional training program format are being introduced at various levels, with multiple curricula . These institutions are also playing an increasing role in encouraging interaction between entrepreneurs.
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Entrepreneurship in India occurs in far more encompassing and far reaching ways than in developed countries, and could therefore be far more complex, for there is so much more that needs to be done.
Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India are Reshaping their Future -- and Yours TarunKhanna, 2008

The latest surveys of the trends of entrepreneurship education in India indicate that 44,500 students are currently enrolled in entrepreneurship programs across the country. This number is expected to grow at a CAGR of 20.4% to reach 54,700 by 2012 . The liberalization of the Indian economy in the 1990s has encouraged entrepreneurship in the country by facilitating the reducing of barriers of entry to start businesses, making financing more easily available and the setting up of institutions for the development of entrepreneurial talent. Revenues from Entrepreneurship Education Programs reached INR7.9 billion in 2010 and are estimated to grow at a CAGR of 13.7% to INR10.7 billion by 2012 .
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Entrepreneurship Knowledge Dissemination A Case for new models in India, Santosh Srinivas, 2011 Entrepreneurship Education in India: Trend and Factors Assessment Survey, Research and Markets, 2011 26 Entrepreneurship Education in India: Trend and Factors Assessment Survey, Research and Markets, 2011

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Entrepreneurship Education in India

FIGURE 5. MSME DEVELOPMENTINTHE NEW MILLENIUM

Disseminators
Based on the type of organization, disseminators of entrepreneurship education in India can be categorized as follows: Government institutions Academic and training institutes Banks and financial institutions Industry associations NGOs Of all the types of knowledge disseminators above, the public sector is indisputably the most important one in India, with the broadest reach, ranging from national-level institutions all the way down to grass-roots organizations.

18

Entrepreneurship Education in India The Appendix contains more details about some of the disseminators like EDII, Ni-MSME, RUDSETI, NEN, CSIM etc in the Indian entrepreneurship education space.

Content
Entrepreneurship education is defined in broad terms as the building of knowledge and skills about or for the purpose of entrepreneurship generally, as part of recognized education programs at primary, secondary or tertiary-level educational institutions. Entrepreneurship training is defined as the building of knowledge and skills in preparation for starting a business. Thus, the purpose of entrepreneurship training is very specific, unlike the purpose of entrepreneurship education, which can be much broader.
Special Report: A Global Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education and Training GEM, 2008

The education imparted by the institutions above range the entire gamut of pedagogical choices: Training and diploma programs (both long and short duration) Term-based courses and electives Conceptual and introductory lectures Idea and business plan competitions Research and consulting projects Incubation, networking and mentoring facilities Conferences, seminars and workshops Journals, newsletters and publications However, Liyan
27

finds that entrepreneurship education imparted by many Indian institutions is not

holistic enough. Liyan recommends that entrepreneurship education not only provides training, but also that it is selective about choosing the right audience, provides motivation and support. Indian EEPs, he finds, offer training and coursework, but not these other components. Even when support frameworks exist, they are often not coordinated with the other components of the EEP for instance, almost every IIM has its own incubator, but these incubators are mainly designed for outside entrepreneurs, and are not synchronized with the EEPs offered by the IIMs.
27

Entrepreneurship Education within Indias Higher Education System, Zhang Liyan, 2003

19

Entrepreneurship Education in India Another issue is that entrepreneurship education is often conflated with business management education as a result, negotiation, leadership, new product development, creative thinking, exposure to technology innovation, etc. do not often receive the attention they deserve. This issue is brought into sharp focus by the mismatch that has already crept into the Indian entrepreneurship education system, between what knowledge disseminators are offering, and what entrepreneurs really need. Professor Manimala, of the Indian Institute of Management at Bangalore, in his work titled Entrepreneurship Education and Training in India: An Assessment of SME Training Needs against Current Practices, points out key differences between the requirements and what is being delivered in the name of entrepreneurship education.

University/B-School learning focus


Critical judgment after analyzing large amounts of information Understanding and recalling the information itself Assuming commonality of goals Seeking (impersonally) to verify the absolute truth by study of information Seeking the correct answer, with (enough) time to do it Learning in the classroom Gleaning information from experts and authoritative sources for the sake of its genuineness Evaluation through written assessments Success in learning measured by passing of knowledge-based examination

Entrepreneur learning needs


Gut feel decision making with limited information Understanding the values transmit/filter information of those who

Recognizing the widely varied goals of different stakeholders Making decisions on the basis of judgment of trust and competence of people. Developing the most appropriate solution, often under time pressure Learning while and through doing Gleaning information from any and everywhere and assessing its practical usefulness Evaluation through judgment of people and events through direct feedback Success in learning measured by solving problems and learning from failures and as well as providing useful products and services to society
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TABLE 1.A MISMATCH OF LEARNING NEEDS AND EXISTING DELIVERY MODELS

28

Entrepreneurship Education and Training in India, Jay Mitra and Mathew J. Manimala, 2006

20

Entrepreneurship Education in India

Focus
Though the EEPs presented do target the general population, emerging and established entrepreneurs, the focus seems to be skewed primarily towards developing the emerging entrepreneur .
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Distribution of Courses
Pre start-up 7% Across the life-cycle 48% Emerging 45%

FIGURE 6. COURSES TARGETING DIFFERENT PHASES OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA

30

Indian entrepreneurship education is mainly geared towards the need-driven entrepreneur. This is in line with the recommendations of Porter and Schwab, who argue that in factor-driven countries with mainly extractive type economic activity, government attention is best focused on providing a basic foundation for enabling this activity, rather than, for example, providing sophisticated training in opportunity-driven entrepreneurship . In India, roughly 13% of the adult working-age population (between the ages of 18 and 64) has received some form of training in starting a business. The chart below shows the percentages of these recipients who undergo this training voluntarily versus compulsorily .
32 31

29 30

Entrepreneurship Education and Training in India, Jay Mitra and Mathew J. Manimala, 2006 ibid 31 Global Competitiveness Report, World Economic Forum (Michael Porter and Klaus Schwab), 2008 32 Special Report: A Global Perspective on Entrepreneurship Education and Training, GEM, 2008

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Entrepreneurship Education in India

Type of training
Not classified 12%

Only compulsory 23%

Only voluntary 54%

Both voluntary and compusory 11%


FIGURE 7. TYPE OF TRAINING UNDERGONE BY WORKING-AGE ADULTS IN INDIA

The following section discusses some of the key challenges faced by entrepreneurship education in India.

Concerns and Challenges


The data presented in the preceding sections clearly demonstrates that entrepreneurship education in India has had a reasonably long history, mindshare of policy makers, and has a very wide range of institutions disseminating a variety of content to both entrepreneurs and potential entrepreneurs. However, there are important systemic issues that need to be overcome, as well as localized scope for improvement. At a macro level, some of the main challenges are: Entrepreneurship education is widely spread, has diverse forms and has a large number of stakeholders. But the overall state of affairs is a confused one, one that lacks broad vision, goals, and systematic planning (akin to the 5-year plans for the economy) Missing culture of educating for long-term impact. Preponderance of small business and needbased entrepreneurial training, but not enough entrepreneurship education (which includes not only training in specific skills, but also aspects of ethics, risk taking, social responsibilities, etc.)

22

Entrepreneurship Education in India High degree of state dependence. Insufficient private-sector participation and sustainable business models in the entrepreneurship education space Early stage education in entrepreneurial attitudes is being neglected. Education targeting the entrepreneurial ecosystem partners (policy makers, leaders in financial institutions, etc.) is almost non-existent More specific concerns include: Entrepreneurship education is prevalent only at higher levels of education Entrepreneurship education is not sufficiently differentiated from business management education in many institutions, and is not holistic enough No degree-awarding programs at academia. Limited focus on research and publications Difficulty with finding talented faculty. Issues with faculty awareness, opportunities, and interest Linkages of university and R&D centers with entrepreneurs is still weak Policies need to be more responsive to emerging trends, both local and international Absence of a mentor pool for entrepreneurs at all stages Shift in societal attitude towards failure is required

Summary
This chapter outlined the history of entrepreneurship education in India. It also presented details of the various organizations involved in the entrepreneurship education space in India, and the pedagogies that they have adopted. The section on the areas of focus highlights some of the key unaddressed or underserved aspects of entrepreneurship education. Finally, the shortcomings of existing Indian EEPs are presented. The gaps, combined with the concerns and shortcomings in existing EEPs, can form the basis for designing new EEPs or for improving existing ones. This aspect, of designing EEPs, forms the basis of the next chapter.

23

DESIGNING ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION PROGRAMS

As awareness grows regarding the requirement for educational programs, Entrepreneurship Education Programs (EEPs) in India have evolved into more sophisticated avatars of their former selves. Today, there is an increasing appreciation of the fact that entrepreneurship can be taught through a set of skills. New programs have been developed to address issues that were earlier not even considered. Chief among these are the integration of entrepreneurship education at the elementary and secondary level, and the inclusion of academic journals, publications, conferences, seminars and workshops into the set of channels used to disseminate knowledge. There is now a more conscious grouping of target audiences and subsequently more targeted content creation in terms of entrepreneurship education. However, as the previous chapter illustrates, even though entrepreneurship education in India is well established, this field continues to have many unaddressed concerns and shortcomings.

Challenges of Designing an EEP


Approaches to teaching entrepreneurship pose several challenges for educational systems, the foremost of which is the development of a process for turning the idea of entrepreneurship into an educational concept. This process, namely, the process of designing an EEP, entails making the right choices for a large number of criteria. Some of these criteria are presented below, in order to illustrate the complexity involved in the EEP design process.

25

Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs There exists a range of tools, traits, motives and attitudes that are required for both the creation and the success of entrepreneurs. Some of the skills required for entrepreneurship to take root, and to develop the knowledge-base for enterprise creation and growth are illustrated in the diagram below. Which of these skills should an EEP include in its curriculum?

FIGURE 8. THE DICHOTOMY OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP SKILLS (ADAPTED FROM MANIMALA, M. J. )

33

Who are the intended targets of the EEP? The recipients of entrepreneurship education are not a homogenous set and there is considerable variation in the knowledge needs of entrepreneurs in the different phases of the entrepreneurship lifecycle, as shown below. A clear understanding of the needs of the entrepreneur is required in order for an EEP to be deemed successful by its recipients.

33

Adapted from Manimala, M, Entrepreneurship education in India

26

Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs

FIGURE 9.IDENTIFYING ENTREPRENEUR NEEDS

Similarly, among other considerations, the design of an EEP must also be cognizant of: The type of disseminator(s) that will deliver the EEP. For example, a course designed for delivery by a high school is likely to have different constraints that one designed for dissemination by a corporate entity. The pedagogy best suited for the EEP under consideration (training program, journal article, seminar, etc.). The delivery mechanism (classroom atmosphere, television broadcast, reading material, etc.). Existing models and success stories from India and abroad. Case studies can serve as springboards for new programs, and avoid having to rediscover well established approaches. Success metrics or ways of measuring effectiveness. In addition, an EEP must also be aware of how it might fit into the curriculum at primary, secondary and higher educational levels, of how to incorporate best practices from previous programs, deciding whether it is necessary to assess and accredit entrepreneurship education, the implications of the linkages between business and education, etc. 27

Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs Some of these factors, which play a key role in the success of an EEP, are shown in the diagram below. Clearly, in order to navigate this variegated network of ideologies, attitudes, skills, teaching methods and assessment tools, etc. there is a pressing need for a framework that would allow the practitioner design an educational program to provide maximum value to both the entrepreneur and to the society in which s/he thrives. Such an EEP design methodology is the topic of the following section.

FIGURE 10. CONCEPTUAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION LANDSCAPE

Design Methodology
The preceding section presented the various factors that must be considered in the design of an EEP. However, how does one combine and balance these various parameters to come up with an EEP that not only meets the goals for the program, but also satisfies the numerous constraints? The following is a methodology proposed for designing an EEP that helps maximize the probability of success.

28

Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs A key point to note is that evaluation should be built into each of the steps below each step raises different questions to be answered, and correspondingly different evaluation approaches are needed .
34

Gap Analysis
One of the most important and foremost steps of EEP design is accurately identifying the need for the EEP. In other words, in this step, the problem that should be solved is clearly identified. This step is also known as gap analysis, because this step involves clearly identifying the current situation and the desired outcome, and the difference (or gap) between the two. This gap is the problem that needs to be solved by the EEP. For example, the current situation could be that there are a lot of unemployed graduates in Andhra Pradesh. The desired outcome could be that 25% of todays unemployed graduates in Andhra Pradesh are self-employed in two years. This step is vital for two reasons. First, without identifying the shortcomings of status quo, it will be difficult to justify the EEP to stakeholders. Second, if the outcomes of the EEP are not clearly identified, it will be hard to evaluate the success of the EEP stakeholders will want to know if the programs they are funding are actually having the intended effect or not, and this cannot be determined if the intended effect (in other words, the outcome) is not clearly defined. In addition to identifying the need to be filled by the EEP, it is also very important, at an early stage, to quantify the priority of the need. This will help make the decision if other, more pressing needs should be addressed first instead. For example, it may be determined that using resources to provide entrepreneurship awareness education to high school students in Andhra Pradesh is more important than funding self-employment schemes for unemployed graduates.

Implicit Goals of a Well-Designed EEP


Of particular relevance in the context of EEPs in India are the notions of sustainability, reach and being replicable. Sustainability is the capacity for an EEP to endure and continue to solve problems. An EEP that tries to help graduates find self-employment that has a budget to run only for two years is clearly not sustainable, as students graduate every year, and helping them find employment is an ongoing problem.

34

Evaluation: A systematic approach, Rossi, Lipsey and Freeman,2004

29

Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs Reach is the potential of an EEP to impact a large number of people. An EEP design that finds employment for graduates in Hyderabad, but which cannot be extended to cover the state of Andhra Pradesh, is one which has limited reach or scalability. An EEP is replicable if its design and its processes can be applied to fill a different gap in the entrepreneurship education space as well. For example, an EEP for helping unemployed graduates find self-employment, which is supported by state-specific fund, may not be replicable because it doesnt have a financing model as part of its design that will also work in other states. On the other hand, a similar EEP that is fully financed by fees paid by the participants, may work equally well in any state, and is thereby more replicable. Given Indias context and scale, an EEP should consider sustainability, reach and being replicable as implicit goals. In other words, an EEP should not only be effective in achieving its primarily outcomes, but it should also lend itself to being sustainable and replicable, and to reach/impact the most number of recipients. In the absence of these implicit goals, an EEP will risk being a one-shot effort, with little possibility of making a real impact on the state- and national-level problems that need to be solved.

Reach

Sustainable

Replicable

FIGURE 11. CHARACTERISTICS OF A WELL-DESIGNED EEP

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Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs

Identifying the Impact Pathway


The impact pathway is the sequence of actions of the EEP that are supposed to lead to the desired outcome. Traditionally, the impact pathway has been arrived at in an ad-hoc manner, or has used modeling techniques that fall under the broad category of Logic Models . A Logic Model is a systematic and visual way to present and share understanding of the relationships among the resources available, the activities, and the changes or results that are hoped to be achieved. A graphic representation of a program showing the intended relationships between investments and results would engender better understanding of the ebb and flows between the factors that contribute to the success of a program. The factors that contribute to a Logic Model are: Situation Assumptions Inputs Outputs Outcomes External Factors A statement of the problem, the target audience and the stakeholders The set of beliefs about the program, the context and the way the program is supposed to work Resources, contributions, investments that go into the program Activities, services, events and products that reach people who participate or who are targeted Results or changes intended or unintended for individuals, groups, communities, organizations, communities, or systems The environment in which the program exists includes a variety of external factors that interact with and influence the program action
TABLE 2.LOGIC MODEL FACTORS
35

To design an EEP using the Logic Model process, the situation is analyzed, followed by an examination of the inputs that are on hand. Given this starting point, the set of outputs that can be generated is examined. The outputs that help achieve the desired outcome, or parts thereof, are chosen. These steps form the EEP. While the design process outlined above does work, Millar et al
36

argue that Logic Models that begin

with the inputs and work through to the desired outcomes may reflect a natural tendency to limit ones thinking to existing activities, programs, and research questions. Starting with the inputs tends to foster a defense of the status quo rather than create a forum for new ideas or concepts .
37

35 36

Providing Leadership for Program Evaluation, E. Taylor-Powell, 1999 Logic Models: A Systems Tool for Performance Management, A. Millar, R.S. Simeone and J.T. Carnevale, 2001 37 The Logic Model for Program Planning and Evaluation, Paul F. McCawley

31

Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs To help avoid slipping into a rut during the design of an EEP, Millar suggests that outside the box thinking can be achieved by inverting the planning sequence of the Logic Model as described above. In other words, he suggests focusing on the outcomes to be achieved. In such a reversed process, the question to ask is what needs to be done? rather than what is being done?EEP design using such an inverted Logic Model involves working through the following sequence of questions : What is the current situation that we intend to impact? What will it look like when we achieve the desired situation or outcome? What behaviors need to change for that outcome to be achieved? What knowledge or skills do people need before the behavior will change? What activities need to be performed to cause the necessary learning? What resources will be required to achieve the desired outcome? EEPs designed using such an inverted Logic Model are more likely to consider the entire gamut of resources that can brought to bear to achieve the desired results.
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Implementation Plan
The implementation plan lays out the timelines, resources and cost of running the EEP. In other words, the plan contains the details of how the expected outcomes will be achieved. One of the most important components of the implementation plan will be a plan for measuring effectiveness. In the absence of an effectiveness measure, it will be difficult to evaluate if the intended outcome was reached or not, and stakeholder commitment to the EEP can wane. However, measuring effectiveness of an EEP is often not easy, as it may be difficult to determine whether the EEP itself is causing the changes that are observed in the population it was aimed at, or if events or processes outside of the EEP may be the real cause of the observed outcome. There primary social research techniques (quantitative and qualitative methods) are often employed in measuring effectiveness. Another important component of the implementation plan is the determination of the acceptable efficiency of the EEP the efficiency of a plan is the detailing of the cost-benefit analysis for the program. An efficient plan will have a low cost-benefit ratio.

38

Ibid

32

Designing Entrepreneurship Education Programs Effectiveness and efficiency can be measured using pilot programs, before implementing the plan at full scale. These measures can also be carried out while the EEP is in progress. Results from such measurements can be used to make plan corrections as required.

Summary
This chapter discussed the various factors that need to be considered in the design of an EEP. A design methodology was also outlined. The following chapter presents case studies of existing EEPs from various countries the learning that can be gleaned from them form an invaluable set of inputs for the design and evaluation of EEPs in India.

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CASE STUDIES

Entrepreneurship education has had a long history in both developing and developed countries around the world. Studying existing programs helps in understanding the relative merits of various approaches to entrepreneurship education. It enables the gleaning of best practices by examining the strengths and shortcomings of past experiences. Such inputs form a valuable component of the overall understanding of the landscape, and can help guide the design of future efforts.

Kenya39
For the past decade, small enterprise development has been considered the key area for encouraging overall growth. Recently, there have been considerable interventions aimed at the development of the small enterprise sector by most of the international agencies. Small enterprises are now considered one of the most important factors for economic development, poverty alleviation and equitable growth. International donor agencies such as the World Bank, UNDP and the African Development Bank have identified the small enterprise sector as a key to development in African countries and have financed a number of projects to encourage this sector to grow.

39

Enterprise Education as a Strategic Approach to Economic Growth in Kenya, R. E. Nelson, 1997

35

Case Studies Kenya, like many developing African nations, faces substantial unemployment issues accompanied by declining standard of living, increasing rural-urban disparities and inadequate supply of infrastructure and social amenities. As a result of the accelerating creation of small enterprises in the sectors of agribusiness, construction, maintenance and repair and other services, the informal sector has grown to include approximately 60% of the labor force in Africa . Earlier, the establishment of large industrial complexes was expected to take care of the unemployment issues. However, since the failure of such an approach, formal development efforts are now directed towards the creation of small enterprises in the informal sector. However, while there is indeed job growth potential in the creation of small enterprises, their impact is lessened due to the reasons enumerated below: 1. Growth of private enterprise in the informal sector has been sporadic, rather than as a result of deliberate, planned strategies within a government policy network. 2. Although there are a large number of small enterprises created, their prospects of growth into medium-sized businesses is limited. 3. Most of these enterprises are owned by first generation entrepreneurs who have limited experience. 4. Limited impact of technology due to political conflicts, economic restrictions, limited educational capabilities and lack of technological infrastructure. An approach to enhancing entrepreneurial activity and enterprise growth in developing countries is to create an enterprise culture among the youth of the country . In order to find a long term solution to this problem of job growth, a widespread enterprise culture needs to be created by focusing on the youth of the country. The Presidential Working Party on Education and Manpower Training for the Next Decade and Beyond (1988) also recommended the same. A properly designed and implemented education program needs to significantly reduce the following concerns for developing countries: 1. 2. 3. Unemployment: Especially among the youth is a critical problem. Rural-Urban balance: Inequitable distribution of opportunities and amenities. Industrialization: Move from agrarian economy to industrial society would necessitate the training/educating of entrepreneurs in new sectors.
40 41

40

41

Informal Sector in Africa, International Labor Organization, 1985 Exporting Entrepreneurship, R. E. Nelson and J. B. Mburugu, 1991

36

Case Studies 4. Capital formation: Ensure that capital reaches the hands of the competent and prepared entrepreneurs. 5. Labor utilization: Entrepreneurship education should be used to either motivate trainees to become employers or become skilled employees.

Status of Entrepreneurship Education


One of the first efforts to move in the new direction to entrepreneurial development in Kenya involved introducing entrepreneurship education into all technical training institutions in the country. A fouryear project to implement a new policy requiring all vocational and technical training students to complete a course in entrepreneurship education was initiated in 1990. The UNDP provided the funding, and the ILO executed the project. The following outcomes were achieved by this project: A Department of Entrepreneurship Education has been initiated in most technical training institutions in Kenya. In addition, each institute was encouraged to develop a Small Business Center (SBC), whose mission was to facilitate the development of small and Jua Kali enterprises (small artisan-run manufacturing and service enterprises). An entrepreneurship education curriculum framework was created and syllabi were prepared for the artisan, craft and technician levels of training. All students in technical training institutes at these levels were required to complete a 154-hour course in entrepreneurship education to develop positive attitudes towards self-employment and entrepreneurship. Pre-service and in-service teacher training was introduced. With the new emphasis on selfemployment and entrepreneurship, the necessary programs for preparing teachers to teach curricula regarding entrepreneurship education were designed. A required methods course was purposefully designed to help future teachers instill entrepreneurial skills and attitudes in both male and female trainees in an attempt to break gender stereotyping regarding entrepreneurship and to diversify technical training fields for women as future entrepreneurs. At the graduate level, thirty four vocational educators completed a Masters Degree program that was offered by the University of Illinois through Kenya Technical Teachers College in Nairobi. This group has become a cadre of national experts who are positioned to provide leadership for the development of entrepreneurship education in Kenya over the next 20 years.

37

Case Studies

Nigeria42
Prior to the 1980s, unemployment and poverty were not a national concern. However, the overwhelming unemployment and the economic collapse of Nigeria due to the political instabilities and ineffective policies made for unsustainable youth and graduate unemployment. In the face of such a scenario, entrepreneurship might have provided some relief, but the tertiary education which did not include a philosophy of self-reliance such as creating a new cultural and productive environment that will promote pride in primitive work and self-discipline. Among the other factors that rendered self-reliance amongst the Nigerian youth unachievable, like inadequate capital, a fear of failure and unstable political climate, Ayodele also identifies irrelevant education that is bookish, theoretic and white-collar job oriented.
43

As a result of this background, the following objectives of entrepreneurship education were formulated: 1. To offer functional education for the youth that will enable them to be self-employed and self-reliant. 2. Provide the youth graduates with adequate training that will enable them to be creative and innovative in identifying novel business opportunities. 3. 4. To serve as a catalyst for economic growth and development. Offer tertiary institution graduates with adequate training in risk management, to make certain bearing feasible. 5. 6. 7. 8. To reduce the rule of poverty. Encourage employment generation. Reduction in rural-urban migration. Provide the young graduates with enough training and support that will enable them to establish a career in small and medium sized businesses. 9. To inculcate the spirit of perseverance in the youths and adults which will enable them to persist in any business venture they embark on. 10. Create smooth transition from traditional to a modern industrial economy.
42

Entrepreneurship Education: An Imperative for Sustainable Development in Nigeria, Arogundade, BabatopeBukola, 2011 43 Obstacles to Entrepreneurship Development in Nigeria, J. B. Ayodele, 2006

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Case Studies The Nigerian model for entrepreneurship education leans heavily towards nascent or uninitiated audiences, and intends to introduce to them the mindset and skill set required for successful entrepreneurship. It believes that it is necessary and possible to position Nigerian universities to stimulate economic growth through a deliberate agenda of production of entrepreneurial graduates. In many countries, including US, high schools offer entrepreneurship education for life-long trade. And many of them offer courses that enable students to meet their general academic requirement while learning a trade. In Nigeria, graduates of vocational and technical institutions are highly skilled entrepreneurs, but the society does not seem to encourage the youth to take this role. Unfortunately, those who influence education policy in the society (legislators, educators, the media, etc.) appear to feel that graduates of technical vocational institutions are not equal to university graduates; hence there is need for effective strategies for educating the entrepreneurial ecosystem education in Nigeria as well.

Conclusions
There is a definite need for entrepreneur and entrepreneurial ecosystem education in Nigeria. There is also a need for government intervention and support. Some of the strategies for effective entrepreneurial education are: 1. There should be some form of genuine schoolwork-based learning incorporated in into studies as part of the national economic development strategies. The development of apprenticeship schemes would give new graduates some work skills and experience. 2. 3. Pool local public and private funds to create a small venture capital fund. School-based enterprises where students identify potential business, plan, create and operate small business using the school as mini-incubators. 4. Provide small business schools where interested students and community members can participate. 5. Develop entrepreneur internship programs matching students with locally successful entrepreneurs, as part of clearly established education programs. 6. Establishing an enterprise college aimed at fostering the specific skill sets required for entrepreneurship to serve as skill acquisition centers for the youth. 7. Creating an economy-friendly political environment. 39

Case Studies 8. Improving on the government taxation on small-scale businesses.

United Kingdom44
In 2007, a study was conducted by Matlay and Carey to critically evaluate contemporary entrepreneurship education initiatives in the UK. They performed an in-depth analysis of qualitative data from a 10-year period (1995-2004) relating to the development and implementation of various approaches to entrepreneurship education, in 40 new and established universities in the UK. The study presents an understanding of the pertinent aspects of entrepreneurship education, specifically with respect to stakeholder needs and contributions. The thrust of the study is that there is no convincing research that shows that entrepreneurship education at the graduate level is increasing entrepreneurship by graduates. In other words, the study finds that entrepreneurship research, by and large, has not substantiated the claim that completion of formal courses in entrepreneurship and small business management increases the likelihood that an individual will start a business. Even when research does exist, it is not widely accepted. This is because such research seems to focus upon samples of students with existing predisposition towards entrepreneurship. By not employing a relevant control group of students without previous experience of entrepreneurship education or a nascent predilection, researchers seem to be rendering their results as biased and unrepresentative of the student body as a whole. The study also suggests that snapshot research is not a very good method for evaluating effectiveness of entrepreneurship education, as the passage of time and interceding events can confuse issues and render causal link between entrepreneurship education and new venture formation difficult to establish and analyze. Also, the huge diversity in course design, content, delivery mechanisms and student assessment makes the task of evaluating the performance and relevance of entrepreneurship education programs, as well as cross border comparisons, difficult and highly subjective. Instead, the study recommends, longitudinal research, which measures effects over time, might prove more suitable for the analysis of the impact that entrepreneurship education.

Conclusions
One of the key takeaways from this study is that effective evaluation is integral to the long-term viability of an entrepreneurship education program. Without such measurement techniques,
44

Entrepreneurship Education in the UK: A Longitudinal Perspective, Harry Matlay and Charlotte Carey, 2007

40

Case Studies stakeholder commitment wanes as the causal relationship between investments and results is not evident. The definition of success metrics and detailed evaluation methodologies must therefore be an integral part of the design of any EEP.

Israel45
Israel has an unusually large number of high-technology entrepreneurs and companies. It is among the world leaders in hi-tech startups. About 4,000 hi-tech companies make Israel the largest concentration of hi-tech companies in the world outside of California. Of these, 1,500 are start-ups. On the cutting edge of technological development in software, telecommunications, biotechnology and information technology, Israeli hi-tech and start-up companies are known for their creativity, innovation and ingenuity. Hi-tech is the Israeli economys primary engine of growth. In 2000, hi-tech exports reached $9.172 billion, compared to $5.796 billion in 1999, $5.223 billion in 1998, and $4.637 billion in 1997. In 2004, Ayala Malach-Pines and DovDvir from the Ben-Gurion University, along with ArikSadeh from the Holon Academic Institute of Technology, Israel, attempted to get to its root cause using in-depth interviews with twenty-five Israeli high-technology entrepreneurs, focusing on their personal as well as professional backgrounds. The study found that the entrepreneurial ecosystem in Israel combined with certain traits of the Israeli entrepreneur himself/herself contributed to the unusual degree of entrepreneurship prevalent in Israeli society.

The Israeli Entrepreneurial Ecosystem


Israel has one of the most educated workforces in the world, with 20 percent of Israelis aged twentyfive to sixty-four holding academic degrees. Many professionals in Israel spend several years in the military where they gain experience in advanced military-generated technologies. Israel today has the worlds highest number of engineers in its workforce twice as high as the US and Japan. The percentage of engineering students out of the whole students population was 11.9 per cent in 1998

45

The Making of Israeli High-technology Entrepreneurs: An Exploratory Study, Malach-Pines, Dvir And Sadeh, 2004

41

Case Studies and the percentage of students in natural sciences and mathematics during the same period was 14.8 per cent. Israels civilian R&D spending is among the worlds highest, and when military R&D is included, it tops the list. Israeli start-ups have drawn a steady inflow of foreign capital and analysts expect this trend to continue. Venture capital investments in Israel are rising constantly. Many of the worlds most prominent financial institutions have taken an active role in the Israeli venture capital industry, as have large international corporate investors. Israels governmental policies and programs are also supportive of hi-tech entrepreneurship. The attractive investment benefits, government support and grants, tax incentives and support for R&D in foreign businesses have caused a slew of mammoth M&A (merger and acquisition) deals involving Israeli companies. Most of the venture capital investments were directed to the communications, software and life science industries. Israeli society too seems to be very conducive to the entrepreneurial climate. According to a report published in 1999 by the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), about 5.4 per cent of the adult population in Israel is involved in new businesses. This places Israel third (following the US and Canada) among the ten GEM countries on the basis of its level of entrepreneurial activity. The ratio of women to men attempting to start businesses in Israel is as high as 0.64. This high rate of women participating in new ventures places Israel first among the GEM countries. In addition, about 6.4 per cent of the adult population in Israel makes personal investments in the ventures started by others (excluding stock purchases or investment in venture capital funds). This places Israel first, ahead of Canada and the US, among the ten GEM countries on the scale of personal investment. Personal investors (angels) invest about 1.5 billion NIS annually in new ventures. Not surprisingly, Israel ranks second, following the US, with respect to the level of entrepreneurial motivation, and third, together with Canada, with respect to the entrepreneurial capacity to be found among its population. Regarding the perception of entrepreneurial opportunities, Israel is rated after the US and Canada. Around 28 per cent of the interviewees in an adult population survey were convinced that good business opportunities will materialize within the next six months. GEM findings suggest that Israeli social norms stress values such as individualism, materialism and independence. In tandem, acceptance of entrepreneurship as a driving force in Israelis personal lives and in market development is gaining strength. The entrepreneur has become Israels newest cultural hero and role model, a figure to be respected and emulated by a large number of the younger generation. 42

Case Studies Today, Israel is in first place among the GEM countries in the perception of importance of government investment in all levels of education that encourage entrepreneurship.

Conclusions
The key learning from the study is the recognition of the contribution of the highlighted traits to successful entrepreneurship. EEPs should therefore be cognizant of the need to develop these traits, either by using traditional delivery mechanisms and pedagogies, or by adopting new, out of the box approaches as appropriate (such as internships, public speaking and leadership courses, or indeed military training, etc.).

United States
The United States has an almost overwhelming variety of educational programs and activities that are designed to promote entrepreneurship. With a view, that the diversity of institutional types and educational missions of American colleges and universities make a single approach to entrepreneurship both unrealistic and inauthentic, there are eight useful categories to describe entrepreneurship education in the United States: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Youth or K-12 programs, Community colleges, Higher education programs, Centers for Entrepreneurship, MBA programs and course offerings, Ph.D. programs, Business Plan Competitions, and Non-profit Foundations that promote entrepreneurship.

Youth K-12 Programs


Programs that promote an understanding of entrepreneurship among young students are relatively new. These programs have not been designed to lure children out of education into the workplace, but to them develop personal habits that enforce healthy self-esteem and goal setting to include acquiring additional education. These entrepreneurship programs are aimed at narrowing the gap in academic abilities among elementary through high school students. 43

Case Studies

Community Colleges
Community colleges are different from traditional four year institutions in two basic ways. First, they obtain most of their funding from local property taxes levied by community college districts like the public K-12 schools in the United States, and second, that community colleges are not limited to academic programs and could be providing vocational training to aid local economic development as well.

Higher Education and Entrepreneurship Courses


Until 1970, only a few universities offered courses or degrees in entrepreneurship. Probably the best known and earliest course was offered by Harvard University in 1945. By 1970, there were some 16 universities with courses in entrepreneurship. Currently, there are over 400 institutions of higher education that offer either a major or minor in entrepreneurship.

Centers for Entrepreneurship


Many universities have created centers for entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship centers represent a bridge between academia and the business community. These centers mostly provide a common menu of activities. Centers provide an infrastructure to enable potential entrepreneurs to network with potential advisers and investors. They provide seminars or forums for prospective entrepreneurs and investors. Many centers organize business plan competitions. Some centers operate business incubators which offer low or free rent and consulting services to promising new ventures in exchange for a percentage of ownership or in the hope of gaining future gifts. Others sponsor non degree educational programs or provide consulting services to aspiring entrepreneurs. Some centers maintain a library of resources, including but not limited to, books and videotapes. Some centers fund faculty efforts to write entrepreneurial case studies for use in courses while others promote academic research by publishing academic journals.

44

Case Studies

MBA and Entrepreneurship


At the graduate level, entrepreneurship has become an area of concentration or minor within the MBA degree. There are 90 MBA programs in the United States that offer entrepreneurship courses. Some of these are described below. The Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Sloan School of Management boasts: The study and practice of entrepreneurship are central to Sloans culture, and have been a part of the Sloan curriculum for more than 40 years. Two of our MBA Program management trackse-Business and New Product and Venture Developmentare devoted to it. This pervasive vision also influences countless other aspects of life at Sloan.

Ph.D. Programs in Entrepreneurship


It is now possible to earn a Ph.D. in entrepreneurship. According to a 1998 study by Dr. Jerome Katz of St. Louis University, the following institutions offer doctoral programs specifically in entrepreneurship: University of Georgia, University of Indiana, and Wharton. Other institutions offer Ph.Ds. in conventional areas of business but provide concentrations or research areas in entrepreneurship.

Business Plan Competitions


Business plan competitions fuel interest in entrepreneurship. The basic aim of business plan competitions is to stimulate students and local citizens into putting their ideas into concrete plans for new businesses. Usually, a panel of university business professors and professionals including bankers, lawyers and accountants, and local successful business owners agree to evaluate the business plans. Judges select the best plan on the basis of the likelihood the business would be successful, the amount of research presented in the plan, and the overall organization of the plan.

Foundation Support for Education in Entrepreneurship and Other Non-Profits


The largest foundation in the world dedicated to promoting entrepreneurship is the Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation. The foundation was created in1986 but was fully funded after Ewing Kauffman died in 1993.90 The Foundations web page states: In 1950, following service in the Navy during World War II and several years as a pharmaceutical salesman, Ewing Kauffman founded Marion Laboratories Inc. By 1989, the company was sold to Merrell Dow and it had become a global diversified pharmaceutical giant with annual sales of nearly $1 billion.

45

Case Studies By the end of 2000, the value of the foundation exceeded $2 billion. The foundation only gives grants for use in the United States. It is divided into two divisions: Youth Development and Entrepreneurial Leadership.

Conclusions
The comprehensive listing of the various types of entrepreneurship education available in the United States is indeed a testament to the countrys commitment to entrepreneurship and its complete belief in the fact that entrepreneurship is the answer to continued economic development. It is also worth observing that the existence of all these varied levels and approaches to entrepreneurship education emphasize the difference in educational needs of the differing categories of entrepreneurs. The presence of the availability of Doctoral degrees and highly specialized organizations like the Kauffman Foundation also underlines the emerging idea of entrepreneurship becoming a notion to be explored academically rather than an unstructured commercial venture.

46

CONCLUSIONS

The report attempted to provide the reader with a broad brief overview of entrepreneurship in general, and on entrepreneurship education in particular. The first section presented the importance of entrepreneurship as a key factor in driving growth, and of the impact entrepreneurship has on economies of countries. Additionally, it also emphasized that entrepreneurship education has indeed a vital role in shaping attitudes, skills and culture required to foster entrepreneurship. This section introduced the idea of the entrepreneurial ecosystem and the fact that holistic entrepreneurship education comprises of training not only the entrepreneur himself/herself, but also all the stakeholders in the ecosystem. Finally, the positive effect entrepreneurship education has in developing traits like organizational skills, time management, leadership, interpersonal abilities, etc., which tend to be highly transferable and valuable to other fields of endeavor, was demonstrated. The next section concentrated on entrepreneurship education in the Indian context. India has a long record of investing in entrepreneurship education, starting from very soon after Independence. This section traces the timeline of efforts made by government and non-governmental players in this area, and presented an overview of the disseminators, the type of content delivered by programs and the focus areas of various programs. Some of the concern and challenges were also outlined. The fact that the focus was mainly on small business and need-based training, but not on the other aspects like

47

Conclusions ethics, risk taking, etc. was highlighted. In particular, it was found that there was a marked paucity of early stage education in entrepreneurial attitudes. The emphasis of the third section was on the methodology for designing an effective entrepreneurship education program (EEP). This section highlighted the challenges of designing an EEP, particularly because of the vast and varied nature of the entrepreneurship education landscape. Of particular interest is the realization that the recipients of entrepreneurship education are not a homogenous set there are significant differences between the needs of the uninitiated audience, an aspiring need- or opportunity-based entrepreneur, a start-up phase entrepreneur, or a wellestablished one. This heterogeneity must be borne in mind while designing an EEP. Finally, the methodology for designing EEPs was introduced. This methodology involves identifying the gaps, arriving at a viable impact pathway and coming up with a good implementation plan, with evaluation of effectiveness and efficiency built into each and every step of this process. One of the key takeaways from this section was that being sustainable and replicable, and having the ability to reach a large number of people, should be implicit goals of every EEP. Case studies from around the world were then presented, as a means of learning the best practices and shortcomings. The experiences in Kenya show, among other things, the importance of educating for long-term impact. Unlike in India, Nigeria has invested considerably in the early-stage entrepreneurship education, and is reaping the dividends. An important learning from a study of entrepreneurship education in the UK reveals that effective evaluation is integral to the long-term viability of an entrepreneurship education program. Some of the key traits that EEPs must develop in entrepreneurs were called out by a study of Israels notable successes in entrepreneurship. Finally, a glimpse of the vast entrepreneurship education landscape extant in the United States was presented.

Insights
This report, thus far, presented a baseline study, an overview of status quo. The broad overview contained in this report, of the entrepreneurship landscape in general, and of Indian situation in India, allows us to draw a few key conclusions. These conclusions are presented below.

Overarching, National-Level Plan


One of the most important shortcomings in the current entrepreneurship education landscape in India is the lack of an apex body for entrepreneurship education, which drives and coordinates the goals, 48

Conclusions investments and plans at a national level. When compared to the experience of countries like Kenya and Nigeria, India is yet to launch entrepreneurship education as a planned, top-down, state-driven subject. In the absence of such a body, entrepreneurship education efforts in India remain at best, an ad-hoc collection of efforts by mutually uncoordinated institutions. Such a lack of coordination shows up as gaps in the entrepreneurship education landscape. For example, there is a preponderance of training programs for need-based entrepreneurs, but as demonstrated by this report, there is a distinct lack of effort directed at cultivating entrepreneurial mindset among the young. Such a gap at a national-level may or may not be visible to an individual EEP provider, but may be obvious to an apex body that is taking a holistic view. The need for an apex body is also visible in the way many of the EEPs seem to fall into the same pitfalls most seem to lack an evaluation structure that would measure their effectiveness and efficiency. An apex body would have helped disseminate best practices and successful EEP design methodologies at a national level.

Identifying Entrepreneur Needs


The educational needs of entrepreneurs in different phases of entrepreneurship are significantly different. Indian EEPs should ensure that the needs of each of the five categories of entrepreneurs (uninitiated audience, aspiring need- and opportunity-based entrepreneurs, start-up entrepreneurs and well-established entrepreneurs) are sufficiently met, from an education perspective. Currently, EEPs in India are predominantly focused on the need-based and start-up entrepreneur, to the neglect of the other categories.

Short-Term Focus
Greater clarity is needed regarding the purpose and goals of entrepreneurship education. Entrepreneurship education should provide a mix of experiential learning, skill building and, most importantly, mindset shift while developing attitudes, behaviors and capacities at the individual level. The application of those skills and attitudes can take many forms during an individuals career, creating a range of long-term benefits to society and the economy. This focus on the long-term is markedly missing from the Indian entrepreneurial education scene.

49

Conclusions

Sustainable, Replicable and Broad Reach


As shown by this report, most of the entrepreneurship education in India today is either statefunded or grant funded. Very few, perhaps only NI-MSME, are self-sustaining. On the other hand, the experience of UK and US bring to light, the high cost associated with not having sustainable EEPs is ultimately borne by the entrepreneur. In order to deliver entrepreneurship education to the many categories of entrepreneurs and individuals in India with effective impact, there is a pressing need to adopt different models of delivery that are at once sustainable, replicable and scalable in scope.

Lack of Program Evaluation


As indicated by the UK experience, evaluation of EEPs effectiveness and efficiency is contributes significantly to its sustainability. However, very few Indian EEPs have effectiveness metrics built into them. As a result, it has become extremely difficult to determine if the vast investments that the nation is making in entrepreneurship education are having their intended effects or not. As discussed earlier, unless the evaluation cycle is embedded into the design of the EEP, a measure of effectiveness cannot be arrived at conclusively. An alternative way of measuring effectiveness would be to conduct a primary survey of the recipients, faculty and other participants in the EEP. But such surveys are costly and difficult to conduct in a comprehensive manner. This belief is also supported by the literature surveyed during the course of writing this report several papers that have attempted to evaluate the effectiveness of EEPs have employed some sort of primary survey tool in order to do so.

Next Steps
As mentioned before, this report is meant to serve as a basis for further discussion, and is merely the first step in this research into entrepreneurship education. What then, are the next steps? The crux of the next phase of this research will be on arriving at recommendations for delivering better EEPs in the Indian context, with an emphasis on overcoming the shortcomings of existing offerings and incorporating the key insights from this report. The second phase of the report will consist of a systematic qualitative and quantitative study, using primary survey methods, in order to understand and examine entrepreneurship education programs. The study will explore, in detail, the needs of the various categories of entrepreneurs, the content of the curriculum targeted at them, the pedagogy to be adopted, the various barriers to the success of

50

Conclusions EEPs and also, importantly, a means to evaluate their impact. The report will eventually make a set of recommendations that will be used as inputs for the design of efficient EEPs. The guiding principles for preparing survey questionnaires in the second phase will be to examine: The perception of individuals, policy makers, experts of the current quality and availability of entrepreneurship education and training, The differences in the nature of entrepreneurs and non-entrepreneurs who have received training in starting a business, The impact of training on entrepreneurial awareness, attitudes, intentions and activity, and To identify implications for policy makers, educators and practitioners.

51

APPENDIX

EEPs by the Indian Government


National Institute for Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development (NIESBUD)
NIESBUD is an apex body under the Ministry of Micro, Small & Medium Enterprises of the Government of India. It coordinates and oversees the activities of various institutions and agencies engaged in entrepreneurship development, particularly in the area of small industry and small business. The Institute, which is registered as a Society under Societies Registration Act of 1860, started functioning from the 6 of July, 1983. One of the most important objectives of this organization is to sustain entrepreneurship in the MSME sector. Sustaining existing entrepreneurs is an activity that is as important as, and possibly more important than, creating new entrepreneurs. Towards this end, NIESBUD organizes Continuing Education Programs for SSI Entrepreneurs, and also provides counseling and consultancy. Short duration training programs on Working Capital Management, Marketing, Project Identification, Accounting, etc. are conducted on campus, while counseling and consultancy is provided on and off campus
th

53

Appendix The Institute is dedicated to the promotion and development of micro, small and medium enterprises, and to the enhancement of their competitiveness. With this goal in mind, some of the activities carried out by NIESBUD are: Formulation and development of standardized course content, reading material and training aids Undertaking research, identification and selection of potential entrepreneurs Training of trainers and promoters Research and publications Creation and capacity-building of EEP institutions National/International forum for exchange of ideas and experiences Services to affiliate members Developing entrepreneurial culture

National Institute for Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (NI-MSME)


NI-MSME came into being in 1960, following the Kakinada Experiment conducted by McClelland in association with the Ford Foundation. It was originally set up as Central Industrial Extension Training Institute (CIETI) in New Delhi as a department under the Ministry of Industry and Commerce, Government of India. The main objective of this institute was to provide training to the personnel of the Central Small Industries Organization as well as of the Department of Industries of the State Government. In the current hierarchy of government initiatives in entrepreneurship development in India, NI-MSME is one the four national-level organizations, the others being EDII, EDI and NIESBUD. There are also several EDIs at the state level. Its core activities include: Training Research Consultancy Information Education Extension 54

Appendix

NI-MSME boasts that its core competency lies in the following areas: Enabling enterprise creation Capacity building for enterprise growth and sustainability Enhancing competitiveness under globalization Creation, development and dissemination of enterprise knowledge Diagnostic and development studies for policy formulation Evaluation and impact studies for enterprise promotion Empowering the underprivileged through enterprises It uses strategies like cluster development, entrepreneurship, microfinance, business development services, subsector development, etc. in order to run a spectrum of programs that include: National announced and sponsored programs International announced and sponsored programs P.G. diploma programs Customized & collaborative programs Management development programs IT programs NI-MSME comprises of four theme-focused schools. Each one of them pursues facet-centered activities through customized and collaborative programs for the benefit of the client organizations such as: entrepreneurship leaders, government bureaucrats, public-private partnership, company executives, and trainers of trainers. The list of its schools along with their centers and cells follows: School of Enterprise Development (SED) o o o C-IPD: Centre for Industrial Planning and Development C-PR: Centre for Policy Research NRCD: National Resource Centre for Cluster Development

55

Appendix EISC: Economic Investigation and Statistical Cell n-Cube: NI-MSME NGO - Network

School of Enterprise Management (SEM) o o o o o C-PAMP: Centre for Promotion of Advanced Management Practices C-ICFS: Centre for Industrial Credit and Financial Services C-IPR: Centre for Intellectual Property Rights

C-LAIMS: Centre for Logistics and Integrated Materials Systems C-ECO: Centre for Environment Concerns

School of Entrepreneurship & Extension (SEE) o o o o C-EIE: Centre for Entrepreneurship and Industrial Extension C-CC: Centre for Consultancy and Counseling WSC: Womens Studies Cell EAC: Employee Assistance Cell

School of Enterprise Information & Communication (SEIC) o o o C-CIT: Centre for Communication and Information Technology SENDOC: Small Enterprises National Documentation Centre LPC: Live Projects Cell

The last decade has been a financially viable one for the Centre owing to its ability to provide a number of entrepreneurship supporting services as also due to their ability to customize their various programs for varied audiences. One of the most successful programs called Training Young Engineers (TYE), which was initiated during the early years of NI-MSME has laid the foundation for their continuing success. Among some of the related work that NI-MSME does is also in the area of Handloom Manufacturing. They established some of the Intellectual Property Facilitation Centers under GOI for various States. NI-MSME also runs a Research Centre for Traditional Paintings where they provide both training and consultancy services for traditional artisans.

56

Appendix

RUDSETI46
RUDSETI is an initiative developed by the government of India, by the rural development ministry to combat both rural and semi-urban youth (18-45 years) unemployment. the primary focus of the program are the educated, but unemployed youth of the country who are unable to access higher education but are unfit for blue collared work. RUDSETI works at providing free entrepreneurship training for this disenfranchised group. Instituted in 1982, RUDSETI now has 24 units in 14 States and has so far trained 2.41 lakhs youth of which 1.69 lakhs trainees have settled with their self-employment ventures, contributing to a 70% settlement rate. RUDSETI collaborates with developmental agencies, institutions, voluntary organizations and government departments like NABARD, SIDBI, DICs, DRDAs, NBCFDC etc. to run its programs in the different parts of the country. RUDSET Institute's training is considered to be successful due to the training methodology it adopts. The training provided at RUDSET is through structured psychological exercises, besides lecture sessions, behavior simulation games, exercises, field visits, hands on experience, interface with supporting system, group discussions, case study etc. Most importantly all the training sessions are conducted in vernacular languages only and the Centre provides this training free of cost and also supplements it with free food and accommodation.

EEPs by NGOs and Non-Profits


National Entrepreneurship Network (NEN)47
The nonprofit National Entrepreneurship Network was established in 2003 with a mission to create and support high-growth entrepreneurs, driving job-creation and economic growth in India. NEN represents Indias largest and most dynamic community of new and future high-growth entrepreneurs, with over 70,000 members in 30 cities. It provides critical support to start-ups and early-stage entrepreneurs through high-impact entrepreneurship education; access to mentors and experts; fast-track access to incubation and funding; and learning tools and materials. It partners with over 470 top-tier academic institutes in India to help them develop vibrant entrepreneurship ecosystems on campus, which develop and support new and future entrepreneurs. In addition, it runs
46

http://rudsetitraining.org/ http://www.nenonline.org/

47

57

Appendix

Entrepreneurship Week India, the countrys largest entrepreneurship-awareness campaign. In 2009, E Week India featured over 3500 events with more than 350,000 participants. NEN was co-founded by IIT Bombay; IIM Ahmedabad; BITS, Pilani; SP Jain Institute of Management & Research, Mumbai; Institute of Bioinformatics and Applied Biotechnology, Bangalore. It is primarily supported by the Wadhwani Foundation, a philanthropic initiative of Dr. RameshWadhwani, Chairman of the Symphony Technology Group, and has offices in Bangalore and Mumbai.

EDII48
The Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDI), an autonomous body and not-for-profit institution, set up in 1983, is sponsored by apex financial institutions, namely the IDBI Bank Ltd, IFCI Ltd. ICICI Ltd and State Bank of India (SBI). The 'Technician Scheme' launched in the year 1969 by two state-level agencies of Gujarat was the first attempt at entrepreneurship development in the State. The scheme visualized 100% finance without collaterals. A large number of people took advantage of this scheme. The real gain of the scheme was the realization that there is vast entrepreneurial potential available in the country that could be tapped and developed through appropriate training intervention. This led the Gujarat Industrial Investment Corporation (GIIC), along with other state-level agencies to conceptualize, mount and develop, in 1970, a 3-month long training program known as Entrepreneurship Education Program (EEP). However, with the number of program increasing, the need for having a separate state-level organization to look into selection, training and development of first-generation entrepreneurs was strongly felt. Thus, the Gujarat Centre for Entrepreneurship (CED), the first of its kind in the country, came into existence in 1979 with the support of Government of Gujarat and the industrial promotion and assistance agencies in the state. By this time, the success story of Gujarat experiment spread far and wide and the Ford Foundation encouraged the Gujarat team to test out EEP strategy in a few less developed states like Rajasthan, Assam, etc. Several development agencies in other parts of the country mounted their own EEPs and Gujarat CED provided professional support to a few of these. With increasing number of organizations seeking such support from Gujarat CED, it was felt necessary to set up a National Resource Organizationcommitted to entrepreneurship education, training and research.

48

http://www.ediindia.org/

58

Appendix The idea took a concrete shape when the Industrial Development Bank of India, the apex financial institution which had evinced keen interest in the Gujarat experiment joined hands with Industrial Credit and Investment Corporation of India (ICICI), Industrial Finance Corporation of India (IFCI), State Bank of India (SBI) and sponsored this national-level institution. The Government of Gujarat also expressed its willingness to support it. Thus the Entrepreneurship Development Institute of India (EDI) came into existence in the year 1983. EDI aims at: creating a multiplier effect on opportunities for self-employment, augmenting the supply of competent entrepreneurs through training, augmenting the supply of entrepreneur trainer-motivators, participating in institution building efforts, inculcating the spirit of 'Entrepreneurship' in youth, promoting micro enterprises at rural level, developing and disseminating new knowledge and insights in entrepreneurial theory and practice through research, facilitating corporate excellence through creating intrapreneurs (entrepreneurial managers), improving managerial capabilities of small scale industries, sensitizing the support system to facilitate potential and existing entrepreneurs establish and manage their enterprises, Collaborating with similar organizations in India and other developing countries to accomplish the above objectives. The EDI has been selected as a member of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) network of Centers of Excellence for HRD Research and Training. As a member of the network: EDI has interactive access to information on other member institutions via Internet

it is invited to collaborate with ESCAP in the development and delivery of a series of ESCAP HRD courses to train social development personnel working to alleviate poverty in the region

59

Appendix It is also invited to nominate their personnel to participate in a series of ESCAP HRD courses for poverty alleviation EDI is running Education, Training and Research programs to augment the supply of new entrepreneurs Two-year, AICTE-approved, PG Diploma in Management-Business Entrepreneurship & 1year PG Diploma in Management of NGOs Open Learning Program in Entrepreneurship (OLPE) Capacity building of educational institutions to initiate ED (Entrepreneurship Development) activities Summer camps on Entrepreneurial spirit for children and youth Support for research in Entrepreneurship EDI is aiding in Enterprise creation, Employment generation and poverty alleviation at grassroots level through the following developmental interventions: Capacity building of NGOs in Micro Enterprise Development Training rural poor as Entrepreneurs Strengthening of rural artisans/rural industries in Handloom, Handicrafts and Khadi and Village Industries Clusters EDI is also making its contribution towards increasing competitiveness of Indian SMEs in HRD: Creating a cadre of 385 Business Counselors in order to support enterprise growth Grooming young graduates as Management Assistants Inculcating Intrapreneurial skills in managers from SMEs

BharatiyaYuva Shakti Trust (BYST)49


BYST is a non-profit organization that was launched in 1992 with Mr. J. R. D. Tata as its founding chairman. Its primary goal is to nurture entrepreneurship at the grassroots level by helping disadvantaged Indian youth develop their business ideas into viable micro, small and medium
49

http://www.bystonline.org/

60

Appendix enterprises. It also aims to be a role model, nationally and internationally, for mentoring and nurturing small start-up businesses through the active involvement of the corporate sector. BYST has aided a diverse set of young people (women, people from ethnic minorities, rural and urban entrepreneurs, etc.) from all over India (Delhi, rural Haryana, Chennai, Pune, Hyderabad and rural Maharashtra). It has counseled 65,000 entrepreneurs, generated almost 25,000 jobs and provided almost $3 million in funding to more than 1700 entrepreneurs. BYST extends its support not only in the form of financial assistance, but by providing professional advice and mentoring, training, education and guidance until the venture takes off. BYST has a five-year goal of counseling 130,000 entrepreneurs, creating 100,000 jobs and Rs.16, 250 million in wealth, along with 650 millionaires. In the long term, BYST plans to: Be in the forefront of entrepreneurship development for the underprivileged youth, create employment opportunities for others and thus contribute to national development Develop and nurture qualities of initiative, motivation and enterprise among young entrepreneurs of India Support self-employment in the manufacturing and service sectors that develop entrepreneurial skills and create employment opportunities, thereby converting job seekers into job creators Provide high quality human resource inputs to the development of small enterprises through mentors/volunteers who can provide timely advice and enterprise specific information Its immediate objectives are to: Create awareness among young people and businesspersons regarding opportunities in entrepreneurship as a means to achieving sustainable national development Finance and support young entrepreneurs Mentoring is one of the cornerstones of BYSTs entrepreneurship education program. Founding trustee of this not-for-profit organisation, Ms Lakshmi Venkatesan, daughter of Indias former President R. Venkataraman, says this of the ethos of BYST: BYST has supported the entrepreneurial dreams of the underprivileged youth of India and is modelled along the lines of the age-old gurushishya (teacher-student) tradition. each entrepreneur is guided from day 1 of counselling, to firm up his/her business plans, attend an expert workshop, get loans sanctioned and finally be assigned a business guide who guides him/her on effectively running the business. Several senior business professionals have volunteered their mentoring services towards this end.

61

Appendix BYST also provides training for mentors in the form of a self-paced, interactive Mentor-Online (MOL) training tool. Mentors who complete MOL courseware and provide on-the-ground mentoring to entrepreneurs (10 hours in a year) become eligible for an international accreditation by City and Guild, UKs largest vocational training body. This accreditation ensures consistent training standards across the country. BYST has created a pool of 3000 volunteer business mentors across the country and has established 21 mentor chapters. Mentor chapters encourage formal grouping of business mentors and effective networking and exchange of ideas between them.

Marketplace Literacy50
An effort spearheaded by MadhuViswanath, Marketplace literacy, as the name suggests makes a formidable attempt to educate the disadvantaged and marginalized Indian poor about the know why of business. The program is a unique undertaking, based on research understanding life circumstances and marketplaces in subsistence contexts in urban and rural parts of South India to educate the low-literate and low income on how to be an informed consumer leading to becoming a successful entrepreneur. The privately run program has so far extended to encompass 200 villages in Andhra Pradesh as well women groups in Tamil Nadu and school children in Uttar Pradesh. The marketplace Literacy program, while supported by the University of Illinois, uses the audio-visual media developed in local languages to spread awareness about consumerism and to encourage local participants to employ entrepreneurship in order to adapt to changing life circumstances. The program also places emphasis on customer focus and lifelong learning. The delivery model of the Literacy Project engages with organizations and governments in an attempt to penetrate deeper into the larger audience of the South Indian hinterland.

Unltd India51
UnLtd India is an incubator for social entrepreneurs. We work with early-stage social entrepreneurs to help them: Accelerate their progress

50

http://marketplaceliteracy.org/ http://www.unltdindia.org/

51

62

Appendix Develop as leaders Prepare their high-impact organizations for scaling and further investment We have four key programs: Incubation support seed funding and support Bootcamp an intensive accelerator Bombay Hub a laboratory and co-working space for social change Social Mashup a national conference for early-stage social entrepreneurs

Junior Achievement52
JA Worldwide (Junior Achievement) is the worlds largest organization dedicated to educating students about work readiness, financial literacy and entrepreneurship, through experiential, hands-on programs. The organization is dedicated to inspiring and preparing young people to succeed in a global economy. Since its founding in 1919, JA has contributed to the business and economic education of 79 million young people around the world. JA Worldwide reaches to approximately 7.5 million students per year in 305,000 classrooms and afterschool locations. JA programs are taught by volunteers in more than 113 countries around the world. Some of the worlds best known organizations that support JA Worldwide include Microsoft, Deloitte, HP, KPMG, Dell, Accenture, GE International, Hewitt Associates and many others. In partnership with businesses and educators, JA brings the real world to students, opening their minds to their potential and providing a proven bridge between education and business. Through age-appropriate curricula, JA programs teach students how they can impact the world around them as individuals, workers and consumers. JA Worldwide appreciates the commitment shown by its volunteers and teachers to make this program a success JA India is a member of Junior Achievement Worldwide. Making its beginning in September 2006, JA India commenced classroom operations in January 2007. Since then, it is growing stronger each day, and is already present in more than 200 institutions reaching out to more than 30,000 students in Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and Chandigarh.

52

http://www.jaindia.net/

63

Appendix

CSIM53
CSIM is a pioneer in offering social entrepreneurship training programs in India that ensures, and enhances the quality of delivery in social change agents. CSIM pursues this mission by offering a wide range of training programs that advocates the principles and practices of social entrepreneurship. Thus, CSIM steps in with Social Entrepreneurship to: Enroll, discover, and shape Social Entrepreneurs early in their life cycle Support the process of Social Entrepreneurship in small and medium NGOs Provide a Volunteer Constituency to Social Entrepreneurs and NGOs

EEPs by Academic Institutions


10,000 Women Entrepreneurs54
Launched by Goldman Sachs, 10,000 Women is a global initiative that will increase the number of under-served women receiving a business and management education. This initiative is built on the premise that partnerships between education, development, and business experts can help bring about significant change through improved business education for women. The Indian School of Business (ISB), Hyderabad is an academic partner for the 10,000 Women initiative in India. Through this initiative, Goldman Sachs and the ISB will be able to provide world class education that helps the participants unleash their full potential, think big, and grow their businesses. Over the last three years, more than 300 women entrepreneurs have successfully completed the 16 week program across Bengaluru, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai and Pune covering topics such as: Entrepreneurship Understanding trends in Economic and Competitive Environment. Establish Business Network Basics of Accounting, Finance, Strategy Capital Management

53

http://csim.in/ http://www.isb.edu/10000women/

54

64

Appendix People Management Managing Execution Budgeting, Marketing and Leadership Skills. Sustaining Success and Building Lasting Organizations

EEPs by Industry Associations


NASSCOM55
NASSCOM is the industry association for the IT-BPO sector in India. A not-for-profit organization funded by the industry, its objective is to build a growth-led and sustainable technology and business services sector in the country. In addition to its mission of deepening the IT-BPO industrys footprint in India, NASSCOM also strives to expand the countrys pool of relevant and skilled talent, and harness the benefits of ICT to drive inclusive, balanced growth. Towards this end, NASSCOM drives a forum called Emerge, whose goal is to be a catalyst for growth of emerging companies and start-ups. NASSCOM-Emerge provides informal entrepreneurship education via its popular mentoring program. The focus of the program is to equip the leadership of a nascent company to take their enterprise to the next level of growth. The NASSCOM Mentor Panel of eminent industry experts works with six selected companies in each iteration, making available many years of collective learning and experience over a 6 month period. The program promises to: Diagnose the challenge areas of participant companies

Identify gaps and possible solutions Equip leaders to start working on solutions through their own initiative Preparing companies for appropriate type and level of funding, if required Be actively considered for the Emerging Stars to be showcased by NASSCOM at relevant online and offline forums

55

http://www.nasscom.in/

65

Appendix

Confederation of Indian Industry (CII)56


CII is a non-government, not-for-profit, industry-led and industry-managed organization. It was founded over 117 years ago and is one of India's premier business associations, with a direct membership of over 7000 organizations from the private and public sectors, including both SMEs and MNCs. CII works closely with government on policy issues, enhancing efficiency, competitiveness and expanding business opportunities for industry through a range of specialized services and global linkages. CII runs several Centers of Excellence, each targeting different aspects of enterprise creation and growth. For instance, the Naoroji Godrej Center deals with manufacturing excellence, and the Suresh Neotia Center deals with excellence in leadership. Of particular relevance to entrepreneurship education is the CII-Avantha Center for Competitiveness of SMEs. The goal of this center is to provide training and consultancy that can help SMEs stay competitive and viable. The various components of competitiveness addressed by this center include energy management, quality management, cost management, human resource management, etc. Though the center provides services to individual companies also, most often, its approach has been to form a cluster of SMEs and then help them grow together with a learning through sharing attitude. The clusters could be based on sector, location or relationship (OEM and vendor, for example). Thus, the cluster approach aims at improving competitiveness in an associated group rather than in discreet companies. This approach takes the momentum of group-dynamics and multiplicity of ideas as an added advantage. In addition to the Centers of Excellence, CII also routinely organizes symposia on various aspects of entrepreneurship. For instance, the Andhra Pradesh chapter of CII recently conducted a session on entrepreneurship at Tirupati. The objective of the session was to motivate students towards entrepreneurship and brief them about the opportunities. CEOs and Managing Directors with vast experience in different sectors shared their experiences with the students and entrepreneurs. CII has also been instrumental in the success of BharatiyaYuva Shakti Trust (BYST), an organization to empower young entrepreneurs from disadvantaged backgrounds. In conjunction with ASSOCHAM, it also partners with enterprise development institutes such as SIDBI and NABARD to promote the creation of entrepreneurs from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.

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http://www.cii.in/

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Appendix

Associated Chambers of Commerce and Industry of India (ASSOCHAM)57


ASSOCHAM was founded in 1920 and has today more than 200 Chambers of Commerce and Trade Associations under its wings. Its vision is to empower Indian enterprise by disseminating knowledge that will be a catalyst for enterprise growth and for competitive advantage. Its mission is to be the knowledge architect of corporate India. While ASSOCHAM does not by itself conduct entrepreneurship education programs, it contains within its folds a dedicated national council for entrepreneurship development. This council works closely with several organizations to promote entrepreneurship. Some instances of ASSOCHAMs efforts in this regard include: Working with large companies to mentor and create entrepreneurs from disadvantaged sections of the society Organizing training programs for candidates from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes in association with Chambers of Commerce situated across the country Working with CII to partner with enterprise development institutes such as SIDBI and NABARD, in order to create of entrepreneurs from Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Sponsoring entrepreneurship education programs and training sessions in Madhya Pradesh to help the rural folk, emerging entrepreneurs to familiarize with modern agricultural practices

Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI)58


Established in 1927, FICCI is one of the largest and oldest apex business organizations in India. Its history is closely interwoven with India's struggle for independence and its subsequent emergence as one of the most rapidly growing economies globally. FICCI plays a leading role in policy debates that are at the forefront of social, economic and political change. FICCIs goal is to function as the voice of the Indian industry by working closely with the Indian government and policy makers, and to forge global partnerships. While FICCI does not conduct formal entrepreneurship education programs, it does conduct regular workshops designed to foster entrepreneurship. The Entrepreneurship Workshop conducted in 2011 by the Lockheed Martin India Innovation Growth Program under the auspices of FICCI and the 2011 Seminar on Innovation and Entrepreneurship are examples of such efforts.

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http://www.assocham.org/ http://ficci.com/

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