Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 56

parsons

ENERGY & CHEMICALS Group

Job Number

Design Guide Number

Rev

Date

Sheet of

DESIGN GUIDE
Project, Client, Location

ECS-DGS-007 (PIP STE05121)


Design Guide Title

2/6/03

COMPANY STANDARD

ANCHOR BOLT DESIGN GUIDE

In-House Review Fabrication

Client Approval Construction

Design
_____________________

Entire Design Guide Attached Revised Sheets Only Attached

Approvals Rev Date By Ck


Section Project Engineer Client

Remarks

2/6/03

DB

DB

Initial Issue

This sheet is a record of each issue or revision to the subject specification. Each time this specification document is changed, only the new or revised sheets must be issued. The exact sheets changed and the nature of the change should be noted in the Remarks column; however, these remarks are not a part of the specification. The revised sheets shall become part of the original specification and shall be complied with in their entirety.

EGE-FRM-008 (2/06/03)

January 2003

Process Industry Practices Structural

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

PURPOSE AND USE OF PROCESS INDUSTRY PRACTICES In an effort to minimize the cost of process industry facilities, this Practice has been prepared from the technical requirements in the existing standards of major industrial users, contractors, or standards organizations. By harmonizing these technical requirements into a single set of Practices, administrative, application, and engineering costs to both the purchaser and the manufacturer should be reduced. While this Practice is expected to incorporate the majority of requirements of most users, individual applications may involve requirements that will be appended to and take precedence over this Practice. Determinations concerning fitness for purpose and particular matters or application of the Practice to particular project or engineering situations should not be made solely on information contained in these materials. The use of trade names from time to time should not be viewed as an expression of preference but rather recognized as normal usage in the trade. Other brands having the same specifications are equally correct and may be substituted for those named. All Practices or guidelines are intended to be consistent with applicable laws and regulations including OSHA requirements. To the extent these Practices or guidelines should conflict with OSHA or other applicable laws or regulations, such laws or regulations must be followed. Consult an appropriate professional before applying or acting on any material contained in or suggested by the Practice.

This Practice is subject to revision at any time by the responsible Function Team and will be reviewed every 5 years. This Practice will be revised, reaffirmed, or withdrawn. Information on whether this Practice has been revised may be found at www.pip.org.

Process Industry Practices (PIP), Construction Industry Institute, The University of Texas at Austin, 3925 West Braker Lane (R4500), Austin, Texas 78759. PIP member companies and subscribers may copy this Practice for their internal use. Changes, overlays, addenda, or modifications of any kind are not permitted within any PIP Practice without the express written authorization of PIP.

PIP will not consider requests for interpretations (inquiries) for this Practice.

Not printed with State funds

January 2003

Process Industry Practices Structural

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide


Table of Contents 1. Introduction .................................. 3
1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Purpose ............................................. 3 Scope................................................. 3 Use of Shall and Should ............... 3 Dimensions ........................................ 3 5.5 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Circular Pattern................................ 11 5.6 Minimum Dimensions ...................... 11

6. Ductile Design .......................... 13


6.1 Ductile Design Philosophy ............... 13 6.2 Critical Areas Requiring Ductile Design.............................................. 13 6.3 Requirements for Ductile Design..... 13 6.4 Means to Achieve Ductile Design .... 14

2. References ................................... 3
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 Process Industry Practices ................ 3 Industry Codes and Standards .......... 3 Government Regulations ................... 4 Other References .............................. 5

7. Reinforcing Design .................. 15 3. Notation ....................................... 5 4. Materials...................................... 7


4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Anchors.............................................. 7 Sleeves .............................................. 8 Washers ............................................ 8 Corrosion ........................................... 9 7.1 General ............................................ 15 7.2 Failure Surface ................................ 15 7.3 Reinforcing Design to Transfer Tensile Forces ................................. 16 7.4 Reinforcing to Transfer Shear Forces ................................... 17

8. Frictional Resistance ............... 17


8.1 General ............................................ 17 8.2 Calculating Resisting Friction Force................................... 18

5. Strength Design........................ 10
5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Loading ............................................ 10 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet..... 10 Anchor Design Considerations ........ 10 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Rectangular Pattern......................... 11

9. Shear Lug Design..................... 18


9.1 Calculating Shear Load Applied to Shear Lug ........................................ 19 9.2 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Plate ............................... 19

Process Industry Practices

Page 1 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

9.3 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Pipe Section....................19

Examples
1. 2. Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet . A-19 Column Plate Connection Supplementary Tensile Reinforcing ................................... A-24 Shear Lug Plate Section Design .. A-25 Shear Lug Pipe Section Design ... A-27

10. Pretensioning............................20
10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 10.7 10.8 10.9 Advantages ......................................21 Disadvantages..................................21 When to Apply Pretensioning ...........21 Concrete Failure...............................21 Stretching Length .............................22 Pretensioning Methods.....................22 Relaxation ........................................23 Tightening Sequence .......................23 Recommended Tightening if Anchor Pretensioning Is Not Required .........23

3. 4.

Figures, Tables, and Examples.....25 Tables


1. 2. 3. 4. Minimum Anchor Dimensions ........ A-1 Reinforcement Tensile Capacity and Development Length .............. A-2 Hairpin Reinforcement Design and Details ............................................ A-3 Pretension Load and Torque Recommendations ......................... A-4

Figures
A. Anchor Details ................................ A-5 B-1. Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear Octagon Weak Anchors............... A-6 B-2. Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear Octagon Strong Anchors ............. A-7 C-1. Tensile Reinforcement Vertical Dowels............................... A-8 C-2 Tensile Reinforcement Vertical Hairpin ............................... A-9 D-1. Shear Reinforcement Horizontal Hairpin......................... A-10 D-2. Shear Reinforcement Closed Ties .................................. A-11 D-3. Shear Reinforcement Anchored Reinforcement ............. A-12 D-4. Shear Reinforcement Shear Angles................................ A-13 D-5. Shear Reinforcement Strut-and-Tie Model...................... A-14 E. Minimum Lateral Reinforcement Pedestal ....................................... A-15 F. Coefficients of Friction.................. A-16 G. Pretensioned Anchors for Turbines and Reciprocating Compressors.. A-17 H. Anchor-Tightening Sequence....... A-18

Page 2 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

1.

Introduction
1.1 Purpose This Practice provides the engineer and designer with guidelines for anchor design for use by the process industry companies and engineering/construction firms. 1.2 Scope This design guide defines the minimum requirements for the design of anchors in process industry facilities at onshore U.S. sites. Included are material selection, strength design, ductile design, reinforcing, shear lugs, and pretensioning. 1.3 Use of Shall and Should Throughout this Practice the word shall is used if the item is required by code, and the word should is used if the item is simply recommended or its use is a good practice. 1.4 Dimensions At the time of issue of this Practice, a metric version of the basic reference for Anchor Bolt Design, ACI 318, had not been developed; therefore this Practice was developed in English units only.

2.

References
When adopted in this Practice, the latest edition of the following applicable codes, standards, specifications, and references in effect on the date of contract award shall be used, except as otherwise specified. Short titles will be used herein when appropriate. 2.1 Process Industry Practices (PIP) PIP REIE686 Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design 2.2 Industry Codes and Standards American Concrete Institute (ACI) ACI 318-02 - Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete and Commentary ACI 349-01 - Code Requirements for Nuclear Safety Related Concrete Structures, Appendix B ACI 355.1R-91 - State-of-the-Art Report on Anchorage to Concrete American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) AISC Manual of Steel Construction - Allowable Stress Design - Ninth Edition [Short title used herein is AISC ASD Manual.]

Process Industry Practices

Page 3 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

AISC Manual of Steel Construction - Load and Resistance Factor Design (LRFD) - Third Edition [Short title used herein is AISC LRFD Manual.] AISC Steel Design Guide Series 1- Column Base Plates, Some Practical Aspects of Column Base Selection, David T. Ricker American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) ASTM A36 - Specification for Carbon Structural Steel ASTM A53 - Specification for Pipe, Steel, Black and Hot-Dipped, ZincCoated, Welded, and Seamless ASTM A193 - Specification for Alloy-Steel and Stainless Steel Bolting Materials for High-Temperature Service ASTM A307 - Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs, 60,000 psi Tensile Strength ASTM A354 - Specification for Quenched and Tempered Alloy Steel Bolts, Studs, and Other Externally Threaded Fasteners ASTM A449 - Specification for Quenched and Tempered Steel Bolts and Studs ASTM A563 - Specification for Carbon Steel and Alloyed Steel Nuts ASTM F436 - Specification for Hardened Steel Washers ASTM F1554 - Specification for Anchor Bolts, Steel, 36, 55, and 105 Ksi Yield Strength American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) Design of Anchor Bolts for Petrochemical Facilities, Task Committee on Anchor Bolt Design, 1997 [Short title used herein is ASCE Anchor Bolt Report.] ASCE 7-2002 - Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures American Welding Society AWS D1.1 - Structural Welding Code - Steel International Code Council (ICC) International Building Code (IBC) 2.3 Government Regulations Federal Standards and Instructions of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), including any additional requirements by state or local agencies that have jurisdiction in the state where the project is to be constructed, shall apply. U.S. Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) OSHA 29 CFR 1910 - Industrial Safety and Regulatory Compliance

Page 4 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

2.4

Other References Blodgett, Omar W., Design of Welded Structures, The James F. Lincoln Arc Welding Foundation, 1966

3.

Notation
Note: Force and stress units shown herein under Notation are lb and psi respectively. At times, it is more convenient to show these units in the text, tables, and examples as kips and ksi, respectively. Where this is done, the units will always be shown. = Projected concrete failure area of an anchor or group of anchors, for calculation of strength in tension, inches2 = Effective cross-sectional area of anchor, inches2 = Reinforcing bar area, inches2 = Required total area of reinforcing bars, inches2

AN Ase Ar Arb

Areq = Required bearing area of shear lug, inches2 AV = Projected concrete failure area of an anchor or group of anchors, for calculation of strength in shear, inches2

AVo = Projected concrete failure area of one anchor, for calculation of strength in shear, when not limited by corner influences, spacing, or member thickness, inches2 AC C c c1 = Anchor circle diameter (Figures B-1 and B-2), inches2 = Clear distance from top of reinforcing bar to finished surface (concrete cover), inches = Distance from the center of the anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete (Figure A), inches = Distance from the center of anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete in one direction, inches. Where shear force is applied to the anchor, c1 is in the direction of the shear force. = Distance from the center of an anchor shaft to the edge of the concrete in the direction orthogonal to c1, inches = Octagonal pedestal diameter (flat to flat), inches = Outside diameter of shear lug pipe section, inches = Anchor diameter, inches = Diameter of reinforcing bar, inches = Anchor sleeve diameter, inches = Compressive strength of concrete (shall not be taken as greater than 10,000 psi), psi = Anchor material minimum specified tensile strength, psi

c2 D D do db ds fc fut

Process Industry Practices

Page 5 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

Fy fy G H ha he hef hs L

= Anchor or shear lug material yield strength, psi = Reinforcing material yield strength, psi = Grout thickness, inches = Height of shear lug plate or pipe, in. = Overall length of anchor under the head or above the base nut (Figure A), inches = Length of anchor below the sleeve (Figure A), inches = Effective anchor embedment depth (Figure A), inches = Length of anchor sleeve (Figure A), inches = Length of shear lug plate or pipe, inches

la, lb = Portions of standard hook development length (Table 3), inches ld ldh lhb Mu Mn n Ncb = Development length of reinforcing bar, inches = Actual development length of standard hook in tension, inches = Basic development length of standard hook in tension, inches = Ultimate moment on shear lug plate or pipe, k-inches or k-inches/inches = Nominal flexural strength of shear lug pipe, k-inches = Number of anchors = Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a single anchor, lb

Ncbg = Nominal concrete breakout strength in tension of a group of anchors, lb Npn Ns Nsb = Nominal pullout strength in tension of a single anchor, lb = Nominal strength of a single anchor in tension as governed by the steel strength, lb = Side-face blowout strength of a single anchor, lb

Nsbg = Side-face blowout strength of a group of anchors, lb P P P1 s S t T = Normal compression force beneficial to resisting friction force, lb = Anchor projection from top of concrete (Figure A), in. = Anchor projection below bottom nut for Type 2 anchors (Figure A), inches = Anchor spacing, center to center, inches = Section modulus of shear lug pipe, inches = Thickness of the shear lug plate or pipe wall, inches = Tensile rebar capacity, lb

Vapp = Applied shear load on shear lug, kip Vcb = Nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of a single anchor or shear lug, lb

Page 6 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

Vcbg = Nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of a group of anchors, lb Vcp Vf Vn Vs Vu W Wh X b v 7 = Nominal concrete pryout strength, lb = Resisting friction force at base plate, lb = Nominal shear strength, lb = Nominal strength in shear of a single anchor as governed by the steel strength, lb = Factored shear load, lb = Width of shear lug plate perpendicular to shear force, inches = Width of anchor head or nut, inches = Clear distance between anchor nut and reinforcing bar, inches = Concrete strength reduction factor (This value varies; refer to text for value.) = Steel resistance factor for flexure = Steel resistance factor for shear = Modification factor, for strength in shear, to account for cracking, as defined in ACI 318-02, paragraph D.6.2.7 = Coefficient of friction

4.

Materials
4.1 Anchors Refer to the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report, chapter 2, for a description of and specifications for common materials for anchors. Unless a special corrosive environment exists, the following should be specified: a. For low- to moderate-strength requirements: ASTM A307 headed bolts, ASTM A36 rods, or ASTM F1554 grade 36 rods b. For higher strength requirements: ASTM A193 grade B7, ASTM F1554 grade 55 or grade 105, or ASTM A354 grade BC or grade BD The following table provides properties for the recommended anchor materials. Suitable nuts by grade may be obtained from ASTM A563. If ASTM F1554 grade 55 rods are specified, add the weldability supplement.

Process Industry Practices

Page 7 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

Properties for Recommended Anchor Materials


Anchor Material Type A307 A36 or F1554 grade 36 F1554 grade 55 F1554 grade 105 A193 grade B7 do 2.5" Based on bolt 2.5" < do diameter (db) 4" (used for high4" < do temperature 7" service) A354 grade BC A354 grade BD A449 Based on bolt diameter (db) 1/4" < do 1" 1" < do 1.5" 1.5" < do 3" Fy ksi Not clearly defined 36 55 105 105 95 75 109 130 92 81 58 fut ksi 60 58 75 125 125 115 100 125 150 120 105 90 Ductile? Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

4.2

Sleeves Anchors should be installed with sleeves when small movement of the bolt is desired after the bolt is set in concrete. The two most common examples follow: a. When precise alignment of anchors is required during installation of structural columns or equipment. In this situation, the sleeve should be filled with grout after installation is complete. b. When anchors will be pretensioned to maintain the bolt under continuous tensile stresses during load reversal. Pretensioning requires the bolt surface to be free; therefore, the top of these sleeves should be sealed or the sleeve should be filled with elastomeric material to prevent grout or water from filling the sleeve. Two types of sleeves are commonly used with anchors. A partial sleeve is primarily used for alignment requirements, whereas the full sleeve is used for alignment as well as for pretensioning. Sleeves do not affect the design of a headed anchor for tensile loading because the tension in the anchor is transferred to the concrete through the head, not the anchorconcrete bond. Sleeved anchors can resist shear forces only when the sleeve is filled with grout. Refer to PIP REIE686 for use of sleeves with anchor bolts in machinery foundations. For concrete cover requirements, refer to section 5.6.4 of this Practice.

4.3

Washers Washers are required for all anchor bolts. If the anchors are to be pretensioned (refer to section 10), a hardened washer conforming to ASTM F436 is required.

Page 8 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

The following table shows the PIP-recommended base plate hole diameter. The hole in the washer should be equal to the bolt diameter plus 1/16 inch.
Recommended Base Plate Hole and Washer Size
Anchor Bolt Dia. (Inches) 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3 1/2
-

PIP-Recommended Base Plate Hole Diameter* 13/16 15/16 1-1/16 1-3/16 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 3 3-1/4 3-1/2 3-3/4 4

Outside Washer Dia. (Inches) 1-5/8 1-3/4 1-7/8 2-1/4 2 5/8 2-7/8 3-1/8 3-3/4 4-1/2 4-3/4 5 5-1/4 5-1/2

* Base plate hole size recommendations are based on AISC ASD Manual, ninth edition. Hole size recommendations in the current AISC LRFD Manual, third edition, have been revised and are larger.

4.4

Corrosion Corrosion of an anchor can seriously affect the strength and design life of the anchor. When deciding which anchor material to use or what precaution to take against corrosion, consider the following: a. Is the anchor encased in concrete or exposed to the elements? b. What elements will the anchor contact? Chemical compounds Saltwater Ground water Caustic gases

c. What limitations are present, affecting anchor size, length, and material, fabrication options, availability, and cost? Galvanizing is a common option for ASTM A307 bolts and for ASTM A36 and ASTM F1554 grade 36 threaded rods. Stainless steel anchors are a costly option but may be required in some environments. Painting or coating the anchor will protect the anchor, but more maintenance may be required.

Process Industry Practices

Page 9 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

To reduce the amount of contact with corrosive substances, pier design and anchor arrangement should consider water collection and anchor environment. If the engineer determines that prolonged contact with a corrosive substance is unavoidable, a metallurgist should be consulted to determine alternate anchor materials or protective options.

5.

Strength Design
Strength design, which utilizes factored loads, shall be in accordance with Appendix D of ACI 318-02. In this Practice, strength design will apply to headed bolts and headed stud anchors, solidly cast in concrete. In accordance with ASCE 7-2002, section A.9.9.1.7, the exclusion for bolts more than 2 inches in diameter or embedded more than 25 inches (shown in ACI 318-02, D.2.2) may be ignored; however only equation D-7 (not equation D-8) shall be used for checking the breakout strength in cracked concrete. ACI 318-02, D.6.2.7, states that for anchors located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates no cracking at service loads, the modification factor, 7, shall be equal to 1.4. The tops of pedestals are normally outside cracked regions; therefore 7 should be 1.4 for most pedestals. For anchors at beams and slabs, follow the guidelines of ACI 318-02, section D.6.2.7. 5.1 Loading Anchors shall be designed for the factored load combinations in accordance with ACI 318-02, section 9.2 or Appendix C. Care shall be taken to assure that the proper strength reduction factor, , is used. That is, if the load combinations in section 9.2 are used, then use the s from section 9.2; if the load combinations from Appendix C are used, then use the s from Appendix C. 5.2 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet (Available to PIP Members Only) The Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet has been developed utilizing Appendix D of ACI 318-02 and this Practice. (The spreadsheet, which is available to PIP Member Companies only, not to PIP Subscribers, can be accessed via http://www.pip.org/members/irc/ under Tools.) The spreadsheet gives shear and tensile capacities of an anchor or anchor group and the concrete around it. The spreadsheet also lets the user know whether or not the anchor configuration is ductile (refer to section 6, this Practice). The user needs to use the spreadsheet in combination with Appendix D of ACI 318-02 and this Practice. The spreadsheet merely saves the user time in laborious calculations but is no substitute for the engineers knowledge and expertise. See Appendix Example 1 (this Practice) for an illustration of the use of the Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet. 5.3 Anchor Design Considerations To accommodate reasonable misalignment in setting the anchor bolts, base plates are usually provided with oversized holes. If the factored shear loads

Page 10 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

exceed the values that can be resisted by friction between the base plate and the grout (see sections 8 and 9), a suitable means must be provided to transfer the shear from the base plate to the foundation. This can be accomplished by the following: a. Either shear lugs are used, or b. A mechanism to transfer load from the base plate to the bolt without slippage is incorporated (such as welding washers in place). If no tensile force is applied to the anchors, the anchors need not be designed for tension. Where the tensile force is adequately transferred to properly designed rebar, there is no requirement to check for concrete breakout strength of the anchor or anchors in tension (Ncb or Ncbg). Refer to section 7.3. 5.4 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Rectangular Pattern In accordance with ACI 318, the concrete design shear strength of a group of anchors in a rectangular pattern shall be taken as the greater of the following: a. The design strength of the row of anchors closest to the edge perpendicular to the direction of force on the anchors b. The design strength of the row of anchors furthest from the edge if the anchors are welded to the attachment so as to distribute the force to all anchors c. Although not specifically accepted in ACI 318, the design strength of the furthest row, if closed shear ties or other mechanisms transfer the load to the row of anchors furthest from the edge. Refer to Figure D-2. 5.5 Shear Strength of Anchors in a Circular Pattern Anchor bolts for tall, vertical vessels are frequently not required to resist shear. The shear is resisted by friction created by the large compressive forces attributable to overturning. However anchor bolts for shorter horizontal vessels may be required to resist shear. Following are two alternative methods for designing the anchors to resist shear: 5.5.1 The design shear strength of an anchor group in a circular pattern can be determined by multiplying the strength of the weakest anchor by the total number of anchors in the circle. Refer to Figure B-1. Alternatively, where closed shear ties or other mechanisms transfer the load from the weak to the strong anchors, the design shear strength of an anchor group in a circular pattern can be determined by calculating the shear capacity of the strong anchors. Refer to Figure B-2.

5.5.2

5.6

Minimum Dimensions Minimum edge distance and anchor spacing shall be in accordance with ACI 318 and should be in accordance with ASCE recommendations. Minimum embedment should be in accordance with the recommendations of the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report. Refer to Table 1 and Figure A of this Practice. (If supplementary reinforcement is added to control splitting or the anchor size is

Process Industry Practices

Page 11 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

larger than required to resist the load, then ACI 318 allows the following edge distances and anchor spacing to be reduced. Refer to ACI 318-02, section D.8. 5.6.1 Edge Distance a. ACI 318 requires cast-in headed anchors that will be torqued to have minimum edge distances of 6do. Otherwise, the only requirement for edge distance is that at least the same cover be present as required for (1) reinforcement cover (normally 2 inches) and (2) to prevent side-face blowout or concrete shear failure. b. For constructability reasons, the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report recommends a minimum edge distance of 4do for ASTM A307 or ASTM A36 bolts or their equivalent and 6do for high-strength bolts. c. According to PIP REIE686, the recommended edge distance for anchor bolts in machinery foundations is 4do, 6 inches minimum. 5.6.2 Embedment Depth No minimum embedment depth is specified in ACI 318 as long as the effective embedment depth is enough to resist uplift forces. If ductility is required, greater embedment may be necessary. The ASCE Anchor Bolt Report recommends a minimum embedment depth of 12 diameters. hef = 12do 5.6.3 Spacing between Anchors ACI 318 requires the minimum spacing between anchors to be at least 4do for untorqued cast-in anchors and 6do for torqued anchors. 5.6.4 Modification for Sleeves Where anchor sleeves are used, the preceding minimum dimensions should be modified as follows: a. Edge distance should be increased by an amount equal to half the sleeve diameter minus half the anchor diameter, 0.5(ds do). b. Embedment length for anchors equal to or greater than 1 inch should not be less than the larger of 12 anchor diameters (12do) or the sleeve length plus 6 anchor diameters (sleeve length + 6do). For anchors less than 1 inch in diameter, the embedment length should not be less than the sleeve length plus 6 inches. c. Spacing between anchors should be increased by an amount equal to the difference between the sleeve diameter and the anchor diameter: s 4do + (ds do) for A307/A36 anchors or their equivalent. 5.6.5 Modification for Anchor Bottom Plate If a plate is used at the bottom of the anchor, similar to that shown in Figure G, the edge distance should be increased by half of the plate

Page 12 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

width or diameter minus 1/2 Wh, and the spacing should be increased by the plate width or diameter minus Wh. 5.6.6 Anchor Projection Anchor bolts should project a minimum of two threads above the fully engaged nut(s).

6.

Ductile Design
6.1 Ductile Design Philosophy A ductile anchorage design can be defined as one in which the yielding of the anchor (or the reinforcement or the attachment to which the anchor attaches) controls the failure of the anchorage system. This will result in large deflections, in redistribution of loads, and in absorption of energy before any sudden loss of capacity of the system resulting from a brittle failure of the concrete (ASCE Anchor Bolt Report). Anchors embedded in concrete and pulled to failure fail either by pullout of the concrete cone or by tensile failure of the anchor itself. The former is a brittle failure and the latter is a ductile failure. A brittle failure occurs suddenly and without warning, possibly causing catastrophic tragedies. In contrast, a ductile failure will cause the steel to yield, elongate gradually, and absorb a significant amount of energy, often preventing structures from collapsing. Consequently, when the design of a structure is based upon ductility or energy absorption, one of the following mechanisms for ductility shall be used. 6.1.1 Anchors shall be designed to be governed by tensile or shear strength of the steel, and the steel shall be a ductile material (refer to section 4.1, this Practice). In lieu of the guideline in section 6.1.1, the attachment connected by the anchor to the structure shall be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a load level no greater than 75 percent of the minimum anchor design strength.

6.1.2

This ductile design philosophy is consistent with that of ACI 318. 6.2 Critical Areas Requiring Ductile Design Anchors designed to resist critical loads, where magnitudes cannot be precisely quantified (e.g., where design is based upon energy absorption), shall be designed using the requirements for ductile design. Examples are anchors in areas of intermediate or high seismicity and anchors used for blast load resistance. 6.3 Requirements for Ductile Design If the mechanism described in section 6.1.1 is used, the ductile design is achieved when the anchoring capacity of the concrete is greater than that of the anchor in tension, in shear, or in a combination of both. This is a strength requirement and is independent of the magnitudes of the applied loads. If it can

Process Industry Practices

Page 13 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

be shown that failure that is due to tensile loads will occur before failure that is due to shear loads, then the anchor need only be ductile for tensile loads. (The reverse would also be true but would not normally be applicable to design.) The first step is to select the anchor size considering only the steel failure modes, that is by using 0.75Ns and 0.75Vs. In addition, make sure that the steel chosen is ductile steel as listed in section 4.1. The engineer will need to do the following calculations manually, using Appendix D of ACI 318-02. Comment: For PIP Member Companies, the loads and size can then be entered into the Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet, described in section 5.2, to check the second and third steps (next two paragraphs). The second step is to ensure that the concrete pullout capacities (concrete breakout strength in tension, pullout strength of anchor in tension, and concrete side-face blowout strength) are greater than the tensile steel capacity of the anchor: Ncb or Ncbg > Ns, Npn > Ns, and Nsb or Nsbg > Ns The third step is to ensure that the concrete shear capacities (concrete breakout strength in shear and concrete pryout strength in shear) are greater than the steel shear capacity of the anchor: Vcb or Vcbg > Vs and Vcp > Vs In lieu of the preceding requirements, the attachment to the structure that is connected by the anchor to the foundation may be designed so that the attachment will undergo ductile yielding at a load level no greater than 75 percent of the minimum anchor design strength. 6.4 Means to Achieve Ductile Design If conditions as specified in section 6.3 cannot be met, the concrete capacity can be increased to achieve a ductile design using the following: 6.4.1 Increased Concrete Tensile Capacity Concrete tensile capacity can be increased by the following: a. Increasing concrete strength b. Increasing embedment depth c. Increasing edge distance (for near edge cases) d. Increasing anchor spacing (for closely spaced anchor group) In situations for which space is limited, such as anchors embedded in pedestals, the preceding methods may not be practical. For these cases, reinforcing bars can be placed close to the anchor to transfer the load. Refer to section 7.3. 6.4.2 Increased Concrete Shear Capacity Concrete shear capacity can be increased by the following:

Page 14 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

a. Increasing concrete strength b. Increasing edge distance (for near edge cases) c. Increasing anchor spacing (for closely spaced anchor group) If the preceding methods are impractical because of space limitations, reinforcing hairpins looped around the anchors can be designed to carry the entire shear. If this method is used, do not consider any contribution from concrete shear strength. Refer to section 7.4. Another alternative is the use of a shear lug. Refer to section 9. If this alternative is chosen, either the following item a or item b must be adhered: a. The shear lug needs to be designed to undergo ductile yielding before failure of the concrete. b. The attachment that the shear lug connects to must undergo ductile yielding at a load level no greater that 75 percent of the minimum shear lug design strength.

7.

Reinforcing Design
7.1 General When anchor embedment or edge distances are not sufficient to prevent concrete failure that is due to factored loads, or for a ductile type connection, if Ncb or Ncbg < Ns or Vcb or Vcbg < Vs, then reinforcing steel may be used to prevent concrete failure. The reinforcing needed to develop the required anchor strength shall be designed in accordance with ACI 318 and the following. 7.2 Failure Surface Reinforcement shall be fully developed for the required load on both sides of the failure surfaces resulting from tensile or shear forces. Development lengths and reinforcement covers shall be in accordance with ACI 318. 7.2.1 The failure surface resulting from the applied tension load shall be one of the following: a. For a single bolt, the failure surface is that of a pyramid, with the depth equal to the embedded depth of the anchor (hef) and the base being a square with each side equal to three times the embedded depth (3hef). (Refer to Figure RD.5.2.1(a) of ACI 318-02.) b. For a group of bolts where the bolts are closer together than 3hef, the failure surface is that of a truncated pyramid. This pyramid is formed by a line radiating at a 1.5-to-1 slope from the bearing edge of the anchor group, edge of nuts, toward the surface from which the anchors protrude. (Refer to Figure RD.5.2.1(b) of ACI 318-02.)

Process Industry Practices

Page 15 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

7.2.2

The failure surface resulting from the applied shear load is defined as a half pyramid radiating at a 1.5-to-1 slope in all directions, originating at the top of the concrete where the anchor protrudes and ending at the free surface in the direction of the shear. (Refer to Figure RD.6.2.1(a) of ACI 318-02.) For multiple anchors closer together than three times the edge distance, c1, the failure surface is from the outermost anchors. (Refer to Figure RD.6.2.1(b) of ACI 318-02.)

7.3

Reinforcing Design to Transfer Tensile Forces (Refer to Figures C-1 and C-2 and Tables 2 and 3.) 7.3.1 The required area of reinforcing bars, Arb, per anchor is as follows: Arb = (Ase * Fy)/fy Obtain hef, the embedment depth of the anchor as follows: (Refer to Figure C-1.) hef = ld + C + (X + db/2)/1.5 a. Calculate ld, the development length of the reinforcing bars resisting the load, using ACI 318. Note that the number of bars can be increased and the size of the reinforcing bars can be decreased to reduce the development length when required. b. Add C, the concrete cover over the top of reinforcing bars to the finished surface. c. Add X, the clear distance from the anchor nut to the reinforcing bars. d. Add db/2, half the diameter of the reinforcing bars. Note that the reinforcing bars were probably sized during pedestal design. If more reinforcement is required by the pedestal design than required by the anchor load transfer, the reinforcing bar development length may be reduced by multiplying by the ratio of the reinforcing bar area required to the reinforcing bar area provided: ld required = ld x [(Arb) required / (Arb) provided] This reduction is in accordance with ACI 318-02, section 12.2.5, and cannot be applied in areas of moderate or high seismic risk. 7.3.2 Direct tensile loads can be transferred effectively by the use of hairpin reinforcement or vertical dowels according to the following guidelines: a. Hairpin legs and vertical dowels shall be located within hef/3 from the edge of the anchor head. b. Hairpin legs and dowels shall extend a minimum of ld, beyond the potential failure plane, or additional rebar area shall be provided to reduce the required embedment length (see section 7.3.1).

Page 16 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

c. Where tension reinforcement is designed, it should be designed to carry the entire tension force, excluding any contribution from the concrete. d. For an example design calculation using hairpins, see Appendix Example 2 (this Practice). 7.4 Reinforcing to Transfer Shear Forces 7.4.1 Several shear reinforcement configurations or assemblies can be considered effective to prevent failure of the concrete. Depending on the particular situation, one of the following types of shear reinforcement can be used: a. Hairpins wrapped around the anchors (Figure D-1) b. Closed ties transferring load to the stronger anchors (Figure D-2) c. Anchored reinforcing intercepting the failure plane (Figure D-3) d. Shear angles welded to anchors (Figure D-4) e. Strut-and-tie model (Refer to Appendix A of ACI 318-02 and Figure D-5 of this Practice.) 7.4.2 Shear reinforcing shall extend a minimum of ld, beyond the potential failure plane. Where excess rebar is provided, ld, may be reduced by the ratio of the reinforcing bar area required divided by the reinforcing bar area provided. See section 7.3.1. Where shear reinforcing is designed, it should be designed to carry the entire shear load, excluding any contribution from the concrete. For pedestals, a minimum of two No. 4 ties or three No. 3 ties is required within 5 inches of the top of each pedestal. Refer to Figure E. Use of three ties is recommended near the top of each pedestal if shear lugs are used or if the pedestals are located in areas of moderate or high seismic risk.

7.4.3 7.4.4

8.

Frictional Resistance
8.1 General Where allowed by code, anchors need not be designed for shear if it can be shown that the factored shear loads are transmitted through friction developed between the bottom of the base plate and the top of the concrete foundation. If there is moment on a base plate, the moment may produce a downward load that will develop friction even when the column or vertical vessel is in uplift. This downward load can be considered in calculating frictional resistance. Care shall be taken to assure that the downward load that produces frictional resistance occurs simultaneously with the shear load. In resisting horizontal loads, the friction resistance attributable to downward force from overturning moment may be used.

Process Industry Practices

Page 17 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

The frictional resistance can also be used in combination with shear lugs to resist the factored shear load. The frictional resistance should not be used in combination with the shear resistance of anchors unless a mechanism exists to keep the base plate from slipping before the anchors can resist the load (such as welding the anchor nut to the base plate). Note: Before planning to weld the anchor nut to the base plate, the engineer should consult a welding specialist to determine whether this is practical. Depending on the metallurgy of the nut, the welding may require a special welding procedure.

8.2

Calculating Resisting Friction Force The resisting friction force, Vf, may be computed as follows: Vf = P P = normal compression force = coefficient of friction

The materials used and the embedment depth of the base plate determine the value of the coefficient of friction. (Refer to Figure F for a pictorial representation.) a. = 0.90 for concrete placed against as-rolled steel with the contact plane a full plate thickness below the concrete surface. b. = 0.70 for concrete or grout placed against as-rolled steel with the contact plate coincidental with the concrete surface. c. = 0.55 for grouted conditions with the contact plane between grout and as-rolled steel above the concrete surface.

9.

Shear Lug Design


Normally, friction and the shear capacity of the anchors used in a foundation adequately resist column base shear forces. In some cases, however, the engineer may find the shear force too great and may be required to transfer the excess shear force to the foundation by another means. If the total factored shear loads are transmitted through shear lugs or friction, the anchor bolts need not be designed for shear. A shear lug (a plate or pipe stub section, welded perpendicularly to the bottom of the base plate) allows for complete transfer of the force through the shear lug, thus taking the shear load off of the anchors. The bearing on the shear lug is applied only on the portion of the lug adjacent to the concrete. Therefore, the engineer should disregard the portion of the lug immersed in the top layer of grout and uniformly distribute the bearing load through the remaining height. The shear lug should be designed for the applied shear portion not resisted by friction between the base plate and concrete foundation. Grout must completely surround the lug plate or pipe section and must entirely fill the slot created in the concrete. When using a pipe section, a hole approximately 2 inches in diameter should be drilled through the

Page 18 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

base plate into the pipe section to allow grout placement and inspection to assure that grout is filling the entire pipe section. 9.1 Calculating Shear Load Applied to Shear Lug The applied shear load, Vapp, used to design the shear lug should be computed as follows: Vapp = Vu - Vf 9.2 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Plate Design of a shear lug plate follows (for an example calculation, see Appendix Example 3, this Practice): a. Calculate the required bearing area for the shear lug: Areq = Vapp / (0.85 * * fc) = 0.65

b. Determine the shear lug dimensions, assuming that bearing occurs only on the portion of the lug below the grout level. Assume a value of W, the lug width, on the basis of the known base plate size to find H, the total height of the lug, including the grout thickness, G: H = (Areq /W) + G c. Calculate the factored cantilever end moment acting on a unit length of the shear lug: Mu = (Vapp/W) * (G + (H-G)/2) d. With the value for the moment, the lug thickness can be found. The shear lug should not be thicker than the base plate: t = [(4 * Mu)/(0.9*Fy)]0.5 e. Design weld between plate section and base plate. f. Calculate the breakout strength of the shear lug in shear. The method shown as follows is from ACI 349-01, Appendix B, section B.11: Vcb = AV*4**[fc]0.5 where AV = the projected area of the failure half-truncated pyramid defined by projecting a 45-degree plane from the bearing edges of the shear lug to the free edge. The bearing area of the shear lug shall be excluded from the projected area. = concrete strength reduction factor = 0.85 9.3 Design Procedure for Shear Lug Pipe Section Design of a shear lug pipe section follows (for an example calculation, see Appendix Example 4, this Practice): a. Calculate the required bearing area for the shear lug:

Process Industry Practices

Page 19 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

Areq = Vapp /(0.85fc)

= 0.60

b. Determine the shear lug dimensions, assuming that bearing occurs only on the portion of the lug below the grout level. Assume the D, diameter of the pipe section, based on the known base plate size to find H, the total height of the pipe, including the grout thickness, G: H = (Areq/D) + G c. Calculate the factored cantilever end moment acting on the shear lug pipe: M = Vapp * (G + (H-G)/2) d. Check the applied shear force and the bending moment for pipe section failure (AISC LRFD Manual, pages 6-113, 6-116). Shear check v Vn Vapp where v = 0.9 and Vn = 0.6 Fy (D2 (D-2t)2)/4 Moment check b Mn Mu where b = 0.9 and Mn = S * [{600/(D/t)} + Fy] e. Design weld between pipe stub section and base plate. f. Check the breakout shear as shown in section 9.2(f).

10.

Pretensioning
Pretensioning induces preset tensile stresses to anchor bolts before actual loads are applied. When properly performed, pretensioning can reduce deflection, avoid stress reversal, and minimize vibration amplitude of dynamic machinery. Pretensioning may be considered for the following: a. b. c. Towers more than 150 feet tall Towers with height-to-width ratios of more than 10 Dynamic machinery such as compressors (PIP REIE686)

However, pretensioning adds cost, and the stress level is difficult to maintain because of creep and relaxation of the bolt material. AISC does not recommend pretensioning anchors. The AISC LRFD Manual paragraph C-A3.4 states, The designer should be aware that pretensioning anchor bolts is not recommended due to relaxation and stress corrosion after pretensioning. AISC Steel Design Guide Series 1, anchor bolt section states, Because of long-term relaxation of concrete, prestressing of anchor bolts is unreliable and hardly ever justified. In practical applications, the engineer should decide whether to pretension the anchor bolt by considering the following advantages and disadvantages:

Page 20 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

10.1

Advantages The advantages of pretensioning are as follows: a. Can prevent stress reversals on anchors susceptible to fatigue weakening b. May increase dampening for pulsating or vibrating equipment c. Will decrease, to some extent, the drift for process towers under wind or seismic load d. Will increase the frictional shear resistance for process towers and other equipment

10.2

Disadvantages The disadvantages of pretensioning are as follows: a. Can be a costly process to install accurately b. No recognized code authority that gives guidance on the design and installation of pretensioned anchors. There is little research in this area. c. Questionable nature about the long-term load on the anchor from creep of concrete under the pretension load d. Possible stress corrosion of the anchors after pretensioning e. Typically, no bearing resistance to shear on the anchor. This is because during pretensioning, the sleeve around the anchor typically is not filled with grout. f. Little assurance that the anchor is properly installed and pretensioned in the field

g. Possible direct damage from pretensioning. The pretensioning itself can damage the concrete if not properly designed or if the pretension load is not properly regulated. 10.3 When to Apply Pretensioning Pretensioning should be considered for vertical vessels that are more than 150 feet tall or for those with height-to-width ratios of more than 10 and if recommended by the equipment manufacturer; pretensioning is required if required for warrantee. When not otherwise specified, anchors for turbines and reciprocating compressors should be torqued to the values shown in Table 4. 10.4 Concrete Failure In certain situations, the use of high-strength anchors in concrete with high pretension forces may exceed the ultimate capacity of the concrete by prematurely breaking out the concrete in the typical failure pyramid. Whether this situation can occur depends on the depth of the anchor and on other factors, such as edge conditions and arrangement of the base plate. To ensure that premature concrete failure does not occur, pretensioned anchors shall be designed so that the breakout strength of the anchor in tension is greater than the maximum pretension force applied to the anchor. In the case of a stiff base plate

Process Industry Practices

Page 21 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

covering the concrete failure pyramid, the stresses induced by external uplift on the concrete are offset by the clamping force and the gravity loads. For this case, the breakout strength needs only to be designed for the amount that the external uplift exceeds the gravity plus pretensioning force loads. 10.5 Stretching Length Prestressing should be implemented only when the stretching (spring) length of the anchor extends down near the anchor head of the anchor. On a typical anchor embedment, where there is no provision for a stretching length, if a prestressing load is applied to the anchor, the anchor starts to shed its load to the concrete through its bond on the anchor. At that time, a high bond stress exists in the first few inches of embedment. This bond will relieve itself over time and thereby reduce the prestress load on the anchor. Therefore it is important to prevent bonding between the anchor and concrete for pretensioned anchors. Refer to Figure G for a suggested detail. 10.6 Pretensioning Methods Methods used to apply preload are as follows: 10.6.1 Hydraulic jacking: Hydraulic jacking is the most accurate method and is recommended if the pretension load is essential to the integrity of the design. The anchor design should accommodate any physical clearance and anchor projections required for the hydraulic equipment. 10.6.2 Torque wrench: Torque wrench pretensioning provides only a rough measure of actual pretension load but can be the method of choice if the amount of pretension load is not critical. Torque values are shown in Table 4. 10.6.3 Turn-of-nut: This method is the easiest to apply, but there are questions as to the accuracy of the pretension load. The pretension load from stretching the anchor can be closely determined, but accounting for the compression of the concrete between the base plate and the nut at the bottom of the anchor is difficult. Per the ASCE Anchor Bolt Report, the required amount of nut rotation from the snug tight condition to produce a desired tensile stress in the bolt (ft) can be determined using the following formula. Nut rotation in degrees = (360 l Ase ft Tlc) / (E Ad) where: l Ase ft Tlc E = = = = = bolt stretch length (the distance between the top and bottom nuts on the bolt) tensile stress area of bolt desired tensile stress bolt threads per unit length elastic modulus of bolt

Page 22 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

Ad

nominal bolt area

If the bolt is to be retightened to compensate for any loss of pre-load, this method requires that nuts be loosened, brought to a snug tight condition, and then turned the number of degrees originally specified. 10.6.4 Load indicator washers: This method is good if the amount of pretension desired is as much as the required load in slip-critical structural steel connections. These loads are typically very high and not normally required for anchors. 10.7 Relaxation According to ACI 355.1 R, section 3.2.2, If headed anchors are pretensioned, the initial force induced in the anchor is reduced with time due to creep of the highly stressed concrete under the anchor head. The final value of the tension force in the anchor depends primarily on the value of bearing stresses under the head, the concrete deformation, and the anchorage depth. In typical cases the value of that final force will approach 40 to 80 percent of the initial preload (40 percent for short anchors, 80 percent for long anchors). Retensioning the anchors about 1 week after the initial tensioning can reduce the loss of preload. According to ACI 355.1R, the reduction of the initial preload can be reduced by about 30 percent by retensioning. 10.8 Tightening Sequence Pretensioned anchors should be tightened in two stages: a. First stage should apply 50 percent of the full pretension load to all anchors. b. Second stage should apply full pretension load to all anchors. Anchors should be tightened in a crisscross pattern. (Refer to Figure H.) 10.9 Recommended Tightening if Anchor Pretensioning Is Not Required Anchors should be brought to a snug, tight condition. This is defined as the tightness that exists after a few impacts from an impact wrench or the full effort of a man using a spud wrench. At this point all surfaces should be in full contact.

Process Industry Practices

Page 23 of 25

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

January 2003

This page is intentionally blank.

Page 24 of 25

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

Appendix
Figures, Tables, and Examples

Process Industry Practices

Page 25 of 25

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

TABLE 1: Minimum Anchor Dimensions


(Refer to Figure A.) ASCE ANCHOR BOLT REPORT MINIMUM DIMENSIONS (Refer to Section 5.6)1 hef EDGE DISTANCE c
2

HEAVY HEX HEAD/ NUT

ANCH. TYPE 2

SLEEVES

SPACING

ANCHOR WIDTH DIA. Wh do

P1 12do do + 1/2"

HIGHA307/A36 STRENGTH F1554 OR Grade 36 TORQUED BOLTS 4do 4.5" 6do 4.5" (in.) 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.3 6.0 6.8 7.5 8.3 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0

SHELL SIZE 4do

he '

Diameter Height 6do 6" ds hs (in.) 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0 (in.) 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 6 6 6 (in.) 5 7 7 7 10 10 10 15 15 15 18 18 24 24 24 (in.) 6 6 6 6 6 7 8 8 9 11 12 14 15 17 18

(in.) 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-3/8 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3
1

(in.) 1.00 1.25 1.44 1.69 1.88 2.06 2.31 2.50 2.75 3.19 3.63 4.06 4.50 4.94 5.31

(in.) 1.00 1.13 1.25 1.38 1.50 1.63 1.75 1.88 2.00 2.25 2.50 2.75 3.00 3.25 3.50

(in.) 6.0 7.5 9.0 10.5 12.0 13.5 15.0 16.5 18.0 21.0 24.0 27.0 30.0 33.0 36.0

(in.) 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0 10.0 11.0 12.0

IF SLEEVES ARE USED, EMBEDMENT SHALL BE THE LARGER OF 12do or (hs + he') INCREASE EDGE DISTANCE BY 0.5(ds - do) INCREASE SPACING BY (ds - do) FOR MACHINERY FOUNDATIONS PIP REIE686 REQUIRES A MINIMUM EDGE DISTANCE OF 6 INCHES.

Process Industry Practices

Page A-1

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

TABLE 2: Reinforcement Tensile Capacity and Tensile Development Length


Reinforcement Yield Strength, fy = 60 ksi Compressive Strength of Concrete, f'c = 3,000 psi Design Tensile Strength Reduction Factor, = 0.90 (ACI 318-02, Section 9.3) Reinforcement Location Factor, = 1.3 (Top Reinforcement), 1.0 (Other Reinforcement) Coating Factor, = 1.0 (Uncoated Reinforcement) Reinforcement Size Factor, = 0.8 ( #6 bar), 1.0 (> #6 bar) Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Factor, = 1.0 (Normal Weight Concrete) Transverse Reinforcement Index, Ktr = 0 (Design Simplification) ACI 318-02 , Section 12.2.3 - Tension Development Length: ld = db (3/40) [fy/(f'c)1/2] ()/[(c + Ktr)/db] [(c + Ktr)/db 2.5] (12-1) where c is the smaller of either the distance from the center of the bar to the nearest concrete surface or one-half the center-to-center spacing of the bars BAR SIZE BAR BAR AREA CAPACITY Ar *Ar*(fy) SPACING 3.0 in. REQUIRED COVER (in.) 1:5/16 1:1/4 1:3/16 1:1/8 1:1/16 1 15/16 7/8 13/16 c = 1.5 in. SPACING 6.0 in. c = 3.0 in.

TENSION DEVELOPMENT TENSION DEVELOPMENT REQUIRED LENGTH, ld LENGTH, ld COVER TOP OTHER TOP OTHER (in.) 13 17 22 32 55 71 91 115 142 (in.) 12 13 17 25 42 55 70 89 109 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 (in.) (in.) (in.) 12 13 17 20 29 33 37 44 55 c = 6.0 in. 12 13 17 20 29 33 37 42 47

(sq. in.) #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11 0.11 0.20 0.31 0.44 0.60 0.79 1.00 1.27 1.56

(Kips) 5.94 10.80 16.74 23.76 32.40 42.66 54.00 68.58 84.24

2:13/16 13 2:3/4 17 2:11/16 22 2:5/8 26 2:9/16 38 2:1/2 43 2:7/16 48 2:3/8 58 2:5/16 71 SPACING 12.0 in. 5:13/16 5:3/4 5:11/16 5:5/8 5:9/16 5:1/2 5:7/16 5:3/8 5:5/16 13 17 22 26 38 43 48 55 61

FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF f'c (Note: ld shall not be less than 12 inches.) DEVELOPMENT f'c LENGTH FACTOR 3,000 1.00 4,000 0.87 5,000 0.77 6,000 0.71

Process Industry Practices

Page A-2

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

TABLE 3: Hairpin Reinforcement Design and Details


Reinforcement Yield Strength, fy = 60 ksi Compressive Strength of Concrete, f' c = 3,000 psi Minimum Reinforcement Cover = 2.5 in. Minimum Reinforcing Spacing = 3.0 in. Coating Factor, = 1.0 (Uncoated Reinforcement) Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Factor, = 1.0 (Normal Weight Concrete) Development Length Reduction Factor (ACI 318-02 , Paragraph 12.5.3a) = 0.70 Design Tensile Strength Reduction (ACI 318-02, Paragraph 9.3.2.1), = 0.90 REINFORCING BAR CAPACITY HAIRPIN AND HOOK DIMENSIONS ACI 12.5.1 & Fig. R12.5.1 ldh 0.7*ldh (in.) 6.0 7.7 9.6 11.5 13.4 15.3 17.3 19.5 21.6 la (in.) 2.0 3.2 4.6 5.5 6.4 7.3 7.1 8.0 8.9 lb (in.) 4.0 4.5 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 10.2 11.4 12.7 (ACI/ CRSI) VERTICAL AND HORIZONTAL HAIRPINS CAPACITY SEE NOTE (4) TOP BARS ld (a) (ACI 12.2.3) (in.) 13 17 22 32 55 71 91 115 142
CAPACITY SEE NOTE (4)

REINFORCEMENT BAR SIZE

180 DEG HOOK DEVELOPMENT LENGTH ldh = (0.02fy/(f'c)0.5)db (ACI 12.5.2 ) (in.) 8.2 11.0 13.7 16.4 19.2 21.9 24.7 27.8 30.9

#3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10 #11

f*Ar*(fy) (kips) 5.94 10.80 16.74 23.76 32.40 42.66 54.00 68.58 84.24

OTHER BARS ld (a) (ACI INSIDE 12.2.3) HOOK (in.) 2.3 3.0 3.8 4.5 5.3 6.0 9.5 10.8 12.0 (a) (in.) 12 13 17 25 42 55 70 89 109

(kips) 6.91 13.40 21.22 29.06 37.36 48.37 59.54 74.83 91.15

(kips) 6.84 12.80 20.19 27.84 36.22 47.06 58.26 73.39 89.56

FACTORS FOR DIFFERENT VALUES OF f'c:

f'c

Development Length Factor (D) 1.00 0.87 0.77 0.71

3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 lb remains the same. T (hairpin ) = T (hook) x (1+l a/ld) HAIRPIN CAPACITY: (1) Standard 180 hook capacity = capacity of straight bar (2) Capacity of la portion of hook = bar capacity X (la/ld) [ld > la] (3) Capacity of lb portion of hook = bar capacity - capacity of la portion (4) Hairpin capacity = bar capacity X (1 + la/ld) where ld = bar development length [ld > la] ldh = ldh*(D) la = ldh-lb

Process Industry Practices

Page A-3

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

TABLE 4: Pretension Load and Torque Recommendations*

Nominal Bolt Diameter (inches) 1/2 5/8 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3

Number of Threads (per inch) 13 11 10 9 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8 8

Torque (foot-pounds) 30 60 100 160 245 355 500 800 1,500 2,200 3,180 4,400 5,920 7,720

Pretension Load (pounds) 3,780 6,060 9,060 12,570 16,530 21,840 27,870 42,150 59,400 79,560 102,690 128,760 157,770 189,720

Note 1: All torque values are based on anchor bolts with threads well lubricated with oil. Note 2: In all cases, the elongation of the bolt will indicate the load on the bolt. Note 3: Based upon 30-ksi internal bolt stress * From PIP REIE686, Recommended Practices for Machinery Installation and Installation Design, Appendix A.

Process Industry Practices

Page A-4

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Design Guide

FIGURE A: Anchor Details

T.O. CONC.

C EDGE DIST.

ha

hef

ds

T.O. CONC.

C EDGE DIST.

ha

hef

ds

TACK WELD NUT

TYPE 2
NOTE: DISTANCE BETWEEN BOTTOM OF SLEEVE AND ANCHOR BEARING SURFACE, he' , SHALL NOT BE LESS THAN 6d o NOR 6-IN. REFER TO TABLE 1 FOR MINIMUM DIMENSIONS

Process Industry Practices

P1

he'

do

hs

PROJECTION

TYPE 1

he'

do

hs

P PROJECTION

Page A-5

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE B-1: Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear Octagon "Weak Anchors"

Approximate solution

c1= Do /2 - AC/2
Calculate D o so that equivalent circle has same area as octagon. Note: Area of octagon = 0.828D
2

For input into PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet, available to PIP Members only. c1 =1.03D/2 - AC/2 c2, c4 = [(1.03D/2)2-(AC/2)2]1/2 Av = 1.5c1D Av (max) = n 4.5c12

Do2/4 = 0.828D2 Do2 = 0.828D2(4) 0.828D2(4) Do = = 1.03D

n = Total number of bolts = 12 Failure planes overlap each other to go clear across pedestal. Av = 1.5c1D (Max. Av = nAvo = n4.5c12)

Pythagorean theorem:

c22 + (AC/2)2 = (Do/2)2 c2 =[(1.03D/2)2 - (AC/2)2] 1/2

Process Industry Practices

Page A-6

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE B-2: Concrete Breakout Strength of Anchors in Shear Octagon "Strong" Anchors

c1 will vary with the number of anchors considred. Only anchors with an edge distance, c1, greater than or equal to the c 1 for the chosen bolt shall be used for resisting shear. For the case shown above, if the dimension marked c1 is chosen, n = 6 bolts. If the dimension marked c1 (ALT) is chosen, n = 4 bolts. For input into PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet , available to PIP Members only. c1 =As shown above c2 = (D-AC)/2 Av = 1.5c1 D Av (max) = n 4.5c12 n=6 Alternate c1 (ALT) =As shown above c2 (ALT) = (D-Cos(45)AC)/2 Av = 1.5c1(ALT) D Av (max) = n 4.5(c1(ALT))2 n=4

Process Industry Practices

Page A-7

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Design Guide

FIGURE C-1: Tensile Reinforcement - Vertical Dowels

(h ef /3 Ma x.) X

VERTICAL DOWELS

c1 or c 2

EDGE DIST. (Centerline of Anchor Bolt to Centerline of Dowel = (W /2 + X + (d /2)) rb h

PLAN
T.O. CONC. db

ha

C
ds do Wh X (hef /3 max.) NOTE: Refer to Section 7.3 1.5 1 DOWEL TO MAT

SECTION
Required Anchor Embedment, hef = l + C + (X + d /2) /1.5 d b

Refer to Table 3 for ld

Process Industry Practices

(min.)

ld

(min.)

hef

ld

Page A-8

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Design Guide

FIGURE C-2: Tensile Reinforcement - Vertical Hairpin

HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT X (hef /3 max.)

PLAN
T.O. CONC.

1.5

h ef

do

X (hef /3 max.) HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT

SECTION

Refer to Table 3 for ldhand ld.

Process Industry Practices

(min.)

Wh

ld

(min.)

l dh

Page A-9

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE D-1: Shear Reinforcement - Horizontal Hairpin

EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.)

ld

FACE OF CONCRETE

ANCHOR HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT

PLAN
SHEAR DIRECTION EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.) ld ANCHOR

HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT

SECTION

Refer to Table 3 for l d .

Process Industry Practices

MINIMUM COVER

180 DEG. STD. HOOK DIMENSION

Page A-10

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE D-2: Shear Reinforcement - Closed Ties


180 DEG. STD. HOOK DIMENSION
WEAK ANCHOR

EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.)

FACE OF CONCRETE

STRONG ANCHOR HAIRPIN REINFORCEMENT

PLAN
180 DEG. STD. HOOK DIMENSION
WEAK ANCHOR

EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.)

FACE OF CONCRETE

STRONG ANCHOR CLOSED TIE REINFORCEMENT

PLAN

EDGE DISTANCE 5 do (min.)

ANCHOR

ANCHOR

CLOSED TIE REINFORCEMENT

SECTION

Process Industry Practices

MINIMUM
Page A-11

SHEAR DIRECTION

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE D-3: Shear Reinforcement - Anchored Reinforcement

SHEAR DIRECTION ANCHOR ld ANCHOR PLATE ANCHOR ANGLE

SHEAR DIRECTION ANCHOR ld

l d

1.5 1

ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT LINE AT SURFACE OF HALF-PYRAMID INTERSECTING HAIRPIN

1.5 1

ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT

SECTION
EDGE DIST. ANCHOR

ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT (ALTERNATE) LINE AT SURFACE OF HALF-PYRAMID INTERSECTING HAIRPIN

SECTION
ld = development length of reinforcement z = vertical hairpin concrete cover + 0.5d b

FACE OF CONCRETE

ld ANCHORED REINFORCEMENT

FAILURE HALF-PYRAMID 1.5 1 LINE AT SURFACE OF HALF-PYRAMID INTERSECTING HAIRPIN

PLAN

Note: 1. See Table 2 for rebar capacities. 2. Anchor plate or anchor angle must be designed for load from anchor. 3. Taking ld from centerline of bolt is conservative.

Process Industry Practices

Z
Page A-12

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE D-4: Shear Reinforcement - Shear Angles

EDGE DISTANCE 5do (min.)

ANCHOR

FACE OF CONCRETE

FAILURE HALF-TRUNCATED PYRAMID

PLAN
SHEAR DIRECTION EDGE DISTANCE 5d (min.) o ANCHOR TACK WELD

FAILURE HALF-TRUNCATED PYRAMID

SECTION
NOTE: DEDUCT AREA OF THE BEARING SURFACE OF SHEAR ANGLE IN CALCULATING A p (THE PROJECTION OF THE FAILURE HALF-TRUNCATED PYRAMID).

Process Industry Practices

Page A-13

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE D-5: Shear Reinforcement - Strut-and-Tie Model

VERTICAL REBAR

TIE T2 C1

T1
25 M I N.

ANCHOR BOLT

T1

C1

25 M I N.

T3

NOTES: 1. C1 AND C2 ARE COMPRESSION FORCES. 2. T , T2, AND T3 ARE TENSION 1 FORCES. 3. ACTUAL FORCES WILL VARY WITH GEOMETRY.

Process Industry Practices

Page A-14

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE E: Minimum Lateral Reinforcement - Pedestal

4"

1 1/2" 2" (OR LESS)

PROVIDE THIS ADDITIONAL TIE IN HIGH-SEISMIC AREAS OR IF SHEAR LUG IS USED

Process Industry Practices

Page A-15

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE F: Coefficients of Friction

CONCRETE SURFACE

GROUT = 0.90

CONCRETE SURFACE

GROUT = 0.70 GROUT CONCRETE SURFACE

= 0.55

Process Industry Practices

Page A-16

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE G: Pretensioned Anchors for Turbines and Reciprocating Compressors

Notes:
T0P OF DUCT TAPE BOTTOM OF GROUT
1/2

1. Materials: Anchor plate: ASTM A36 Anchor rod: ASTM A36 or F1554 GR 36. Nuts: ASTM A563 Grade A heavy hex Washer: ASTM F436 Pipe sleeve: ASTM A53 SCH 40 2. Weld shall be inaccordance with AWS D1.1 . 3. Fabrication Sequence: A. Position anchor rod to obtain the specified projection above the anchor plate. B. Holding nut 1, tighten nut 2 to a snug tight condition. C. Hold nut 2, tighten nut 3 to a snug tight condition. D. Position and weld the pipe sleeve.

GROUT

TOP NUT WASHER

DUCT TAPE ANCHOR ROD PIPE SLEEVE do ANCHOR PLATE NUT 2 NUT 3

BOTTOM OF DUCT TAPE FILL WITH ELASTOMERIC MOLDABLE NON-HARDENING MATERIAL FDN. NUT 1
T

DIMENSIONS ARE IN INCHES

4d o+ T

ANCHOR ROD

NOMINAL PIPE SLEEVE

ANCHOR PLATE DIMENSIONS

ANCHOR PLATE THICKNESS (T)

(in.) 3/4 7/8 1 1-1/8 1-1/4 1-1/2 1-3/4 2 2-1/4 2-1/2 2-3/4 3

(in.) 1-1/2 2 2 2-1/2 2-1/2 3 3-1/2 4 5 5 5 6

(in.) 2 1/2 x 2 1/2 3x3 3x3 3 1/2 x 3 1/2 3 1/2 x 3 1/2 4 1/2 x 4 1/2 5x5 5 1/2 x 5 1/2 6 1/2 x 6 1/2 7x7 7x7 8x8

(in.) 5/8 7/8 7/8 1 1 1 1/4 1 1/2 1 3/4 2 2 1/4 2 1/4 2 1/2

Process Industry Practices

Page A-17

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

FIGURE H: Anchor-Tightening Sequence

1 12 8 5 9

EQUIPMENT

10 TIGHTENING SEQUENCE 6 11 2 EQUIPMENT

Process Industry Practices

Page A-18

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

EXAMPLE 1 - Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Base Plate Connection Data W12 x 45 column Four anchors on 6" x 16" spacing Base plate 1 1/2" x 14" x 1'-10" with vertical stiffener plates Factored base loads (gravity plus wind - maximum uplift condition) Shear (V u) = 17 kips Moment (M u) = 146 kip-feet Tension (N u) = 17 kips Low-seismic area (ductility not required) f'c = 3000 psi, A36 anchor material MP = 0
Nu Mu ANCHOR BOLT Vu 8" T P 11" x TOP OF PED.

T = (146 k-ft x 12 + 17 k x 8.625")/(11 + 8 - 2.67)

T = 116 k for 2 bolts P = 116 - 17 = 99 kips Resisting friction load (Vf) = m P m = 0.55 (PIP STE05121 - Figure F) Vf = 0.55 x 99 = 54 kips > 17 kips Therefore, anchors are not required to resist shear.

X = 2.67 (Refer to Blodgett - Design of Welded Structures - Figure 17 [Similar].) Note: Other theorys for determining "X" are equally valid. By trial and error using the Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet , available to PIP Member Companies only, the following is determined. (This takes only a few minutes.) Nom. Anchor Diameter = 1 3/4" Anchor Embedment = 21" (12 anchor diameters) Pedestal Size = 6' 4" x 5' 2" (c 1 = 30", c2 = 28", c3 = 46", c4 = 28", s2 = 6", s1 = 0") (Because only two bolts resist tension, s 1 must be input as 0".) The Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet input and output sheets are attached for this condition. This is a very large pedestal. If a smaller pedestal is required or desired, supplementary tensile reinforcing can be used to resist the load. See Example 2.

Process Industry Practices

Page A-19

January 03

Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet Input PIP


Project # PIP STE05121

PIP STE05121

Company Project Subject Name Checked by

Example 1 - Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet


Date Check Date

12/12/2002

Sheet Number Total Sheets

1 1

LOADING CONDITIONS Note: Calculations are per ACI 318-02 Appendix D. Nu and Vu were factored using factors from ACI 318-02? Factored tensile load (kips) = N u = Factored shear load (kips) = V u = Is there a built-up grout pad? ANCHOR DATA, EMBEDMENT, AND THICKNESS OF MEMBER Anchor material type = Nominal anchor diameter (in.) =
A36, Fu = 58 1 3/4 perpendicular to edge Section 9.2

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS Ductility required? 116 0


Yes

Tension

No No

Shear 3000

No

Intermediate or high seismic risk? Specified concrete strength (psi) = f' c = Cracking modification factor, 7

1.4 - Located in region where there isn't cracking at service loads (ft < fr)

Adequate supplementary reinf. provided to resist tension loads in anchors? Adequate reinforcement provided to resist shear loads in anchors? 21.00 = hef ECCENTRICITY 60.00 = h Eccentricity of tensile force on group of tensile anchors (in.) 2 eN' = 0 4 Eccentricity of shear force on group of anchors (in.) (Note ev' must be less than s perpendicular to shear) eV'= 0 EDGE DISTANCES AND SPACING

No No

Effective anchor embedment depth (in.) = hef


Thickness of member in which anchor is anchored, (in.) = h Number of anchors in tension = n (tension) = Number of anchors in shear = n (shear) = CONCRETE FAILURE AREAS Do you want to manually input the value of An? Note: Units for An and Av are sq. in. Do you want to manually input the value of Av?
c1 NU 1.5c1 1.5hef 1.5hef 35
o

(0=single anchor)

No no

An = An=
No no

200
3813 2000 2790 c1 = 30.0 c2 = 28.0 c3 = c4 =

TENSION Edge Distance, in. 46.0 28.0 Spacing, in. s1 = s2 = 0.0 6.0 c1 = c2 = c4 = c1 = minimum edge distance c2 = least edge distance perpendicular to c 1
c1 s1 c3 c2 s2 c4 c2 s2 c4

SHEAR Edge Distance, in. 30.0 28.0 28.0 Spacing, in. s2 = 6.0

Av = Av=

VU (perpendicular) VU (parallel)

c1 = edge distance in direction of V n (perp.) c2 = least edge distance perpendicular to c 1


h or 1.5c1 c1 VU VU

35o

1.5c1

hef

c1 c4 s2 c2

Breakout cone for tension SUMMARY OF RESULTS DUCTILITY

Breakout cone for shear

INTERACTION OF TENSILE AND SHEAR FORCES

Nn = 117.3 kips

RESULTS

>=

Nu

= 116.0 kips
ANCHOR OK ! 117.29

Vn = 75.6 kips >= Vu = 0.0 kips Nu/(Nn) + Vu/(Vn) = 0.99 + 0.00 = 0.99 <=1.2

Process Industry Practices

Page A-20

January 2003

Output
Company Project Subject Name Checked by

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet


Sheet

PIP

1 of 1

Project # PIP STE05121

Example 1 - Column Plate Connection Using Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet


Date 12/12/2002 Check Date

BOLT PARAMETERS Grade Size do

A36, Fu = 58 1 3/4 in. 1.750 in.

fy fut Ase Ab

36 ksi hef 58 ksi n(tension) 1.900 sq. in. n(shear) 4.144 sq. in.

21.00 in. 2 4

LOAD CONDITIONS LOAD FACTORS TENSILE LOAD, Nu SHEAR LOAD, Vu

REINFORCEMENT Section 9.2 ADEQUATE REINF NOT PROVIDED TO RESIST TENSION 116.0 kips ADEQUATE REINF NOT PROVIDED TO RESIST SHEAR 0.0 kips

DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS DUCTILITY NOT REQD IN TENSION DUCTILITY NOT REQD FOR SHEAR LOW SEISMIC RISK eN' = 0.00 in. ECCENTRICITIES DESIGN FOR TENSION
STEEL STRENGTH CONCRETE BREAKOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR(S) PULLOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR(S) CONCRETE SIDE-FACE BLOWOUT STRENGTH OF HEADED ANCHOR(S)

CONCRETE STRENGTH, f'c CRACKING MOD FACTOR, 7 GROUT PAD eV' = 0.00 in. DESIGN FOR SHEAR Ns 220.4 kips
STEEL STRENGTH CONCRETE BREAKOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR, Perpendicular to edge CONCRETE PRYOUT STRENGTH OF ANCHOR

3000 psi 1.4

Vs

211.6 kips

Ncb or Ncbg nNpn Nsb or Nsbg (governing)

167.6 kips 278.5 kips

Vcb or Vcbg Vcp

108.0 kips 335.1 kips

NA SUMMARY OF RESULTS TENSION Steel Capacity Concrete Capacity SHEAR Steel Capacity 28.00 in. 6.00 in. Calculated Concrete Capacity 137.5 kips 75.6 kips

EDGE DISTANCES, SPACINGS, FAILURE AREAS TENSION 30.00 in. 28.00 in. 46.00 in. 28.00 in. 0.00 in. 6.00 in. Calculated 3813.0 sq. in. 2790.0 sq. in. SHEAR 30.00 in. 28.00 in.

165.3 kips 117.3 kips

c1 c2 c3 c4 s1 s2 An or Av

117.3 kips

INTERACTION OF TENSILE AND SHEAR FORCES = Nn* >= Nu = 116.0 kips


*

= Vn >= Vu = 0.0 kips 75.6 kips * * Nu/(Nn ) + Vu/(Vn ) = 0.99 + 0.00 <= 1.2 OK *Multiplied by 0.75 if intermediate or high seismic area Page
Page A-21

Process Industry Practices

January 2003

Calculations 1 3/4 in. Ase = 1.900 sq. in. Abrg = 4.144 sq. in. A36, Fu = 58 fy = 36 ksi fut = 58 ksi

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet

Selected Bolt: do = 1.750 in. hef = 21.0 in.

No. of Bolts nt(tension) = 2 nv(shear) = 4

Note: Figures in parenthesis and in red refer to equations or paragraphs in ACI 318-02 , Appendix D. Steel Strength in Tension: Ns = nAsefut (fut < 1.9fy and fut < 125 ksi) = 220.4 kips (D-3)

1. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension: AN(calc) = 3813.0 sq. in. Use AN = 3813.0 sq. in. hef(max) = 20.0 in. 1 = [1/(1 + 2eN'/3hef) <= 1] = 1.00 cmin = 28.0 in. 2 = 0.980 3 = 1.25

ANo = 9hef2 = 3600.0 sq. in. Use hef = 20.0 in. (D-9) (D-10 or D-11) (D-7 or D-8) (D-4 or D-5)

(D-6) (D.5.2.3)

Nb = 129.1 kips (D.5.2.6) Ncb or Ncbg = (AN/ANo)123Nb = 167.6 kips

2. Pullout strength of anchor in tension: 4 = 1.4 Np = Abrg8f'c = 99.5 kips (D.5.3.6) For n bolts, nNpn = n4Np = 278.5 kips 3. Concrete side-face blowout strength of headed anchor in tension: c2 = 28.0 in. c = 30.0 in. Side-face blowout strength does not apply. Nsb = 160c(Abrg)0.5(f'c)0.5 = NA (D-15) Side blowout (group effects) does not apply. Nsbg = (1+so/6c)Nsb = NA (D-16) Nsb or Nsbg (governing) = NA

(D-13) (D-12)

c2/c = 0.93

<=3 Nsb (modified) = NA (D.5.4.1)

Steel Strength of Fastener in Shear: Vs = nAse(0.6 fut)*(0.8 if there is a grout pad) = 211.6 kips 1. Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear: Av(calc) = 2790.0 sq. in. Use Av = 2790.0 sq. in. Avo = 4.5c12 = 4050.0 sq. in. AV (max) = nAVo = 16200.0 sq. in. (D.6.2.1) Use min Av = 2790.0 sq. in. l = min (8do and hef) = 14.0 in. (D.0 - Notation for l) c1 (max) = 40.0 in. Process Industry Practices (D.6.2.4) Use c1 = 30.0 in. Sheet 1 of 2

(D-18 & D.6.1.3) (D-22)

Page A-22

January 2003

Calculations (D-23) (D-26 [Errata] or D-27)

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Spreadsheet

Vb = 7(l/do)0.2(do)0.5(f'c)0.5(c1)1.5 = 126.3 kips 5 = 1/(1 + 2eV'/3c1) <= 1 = 1

(D-25) 6 = [0.7+0.3(c2/(1.5c1) if c2 < 1.5c1, 1.0 if c2 >= 1.5c1] = 0.887 7 = 1.4 (D.6.2.7) (D-20 or D-21) (D-20 or D-21)

Vcb or Vcbg = (AV/AVo)567Vb = 108.0 kips 243.7 kips 2. Concrete pryout strength of anchor in shear: kcp = 2 (D.6.3.1) Vcp = kcpNcb = 335.1 kips

Shear perpendicular to edge Shear parallel to edge

<------- Applies <-------- NA

Ncb = 167.6 kips (D-28)

(D-4)

Summary of Results: for concrete = 0.70 for steel = 0.75 Tension: (D.4.4) Steel capacity = Nn[*0.75 if inter. or high seismic risk] = 165.3 kips (D.3.3) Concrete capacity = Nn[*0.75 if inter. or high seismic risk] = 117.3 kips (D.3.3) Governing mode of concrete failure: Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension
for concrete = 0.70 for steel = 0.65 (D.4.4) Steel capacity = Vn[*0.75 if inter. or high seismic risk] = 137.5 kips Conc. capacity = Vn[*0.75 if inter. or high seismic risk] = 75.6 kips Governing mode of concrete failure: Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear

Ductility? Tension 0

Shear:

(D.3.3) (D.3.3) Shear 0

Interaction of tensile and shear forces: Nn = 117.3 kips 0.2Nn = 23.5 kips Nu = 116.0 kips Nu/(Nn) = 0.99 Applicable equation = (D-1)

(D.7) Vn = 75.6 kips 0.2Vn = 15.1 kips Vu = 0.0 kips Vu/(Vn) = 0.00 117.29 OK

Process Industry Practices

Sheet 2 of 2

Page A-23

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

EXAMPLE 2 - Column Plate Connection - Supplementary Tensile Reinforcing Same data as Example 1. Use supplementary tensile reinforcing to reduce pedestal size. Shear (Vu) = 17 kips Moment (Mu) = 146 kip-feet Tension (Nu) = 17 kips Per Example 1: T = 116 k on two bolts Friction will take shear load. Nom. anchor diameter = 1-3/4"

Assume a 2'-0" x 2'-6" pedestal. Assume anchors are resisted by three hairpins. 116k / 3 = 38.7 kips Per Table 3 of PIP STE05122, one #8 hairpin resists 48.37 kips. OK. ldh (min) = 15.3" per Table 3. Width of hairpin = 6.0" + #8 diam. = 7.0". See Table 3. Space hairpins 3" away from each anchor. 2 2 0.5 Distance from anchor to leg of hairpin = [3 +(7.0/2) ] = 4.61" Required hef = C + ldh + 4.61/1.5. See Figure C-2. Where C = concrete cover = 2" Final Design hef = 2 + 15.3 + 4.61/1.5 = 20.4" min. hef = 12 d0 = 12 x 1.75 = 21" Use h ef = 21"

C = 2" CLEAR

1 3/4" DIA. ANCHOR (TYP.)

ANCHOR (TYP.)

hef = 21"

6" 6"

(TYP.) 1.5 1

HAIRPIN (TYP.)

l or ldh* d

#8 HAIRPIN (TYP.)

1'-4" 2'-6"

ELEVATION
* USE l IF HOOK IS ADDED dh AT BOTTOM OF HAIRPIN

PLAN
(NOTE: OTHER REINF. NOT SHOWN FOR CLARITY)

Process Industry Practices

3" 3"

2'-0"

Page A-24

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

Example 3 - Shear Lug Plate Section Design

PLAN

Vu = 40 K (ULTIMATE)

SECTION

Process Industry Practices

Page A-25

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

EXAMPLE 3 - Shear Lug Plate Section Design Design a shear lug plate for a 14-in. square base plate, subject to a factored axial dead load of 22.5 kips, factored live load of 65 kips, and a factored shear load of 40 kips. The base plate and shear lug have F y = 36 ksi and f' c = 3 ksi. The contact plane between the grout and base plate is assumed to be 1 in. above the concrete. A 2-ft 0-in. square pedestal is assumed. Ductility is not required. Vapp = Vu Vf = 40 (0.55)(22.5) = 27.6 kips Bearing area = Areq = Vapp / (0.85 f f c) = 27.6 kips / (0.85*0.65*3 ksi) = 16.67 in. 2 On the basis of base plate size, assume the plate width, W, will be 12 in. Height of plate = H = A req / W + G = 16.67 in. /12 in. + 1 in. = 2.39 in. Ultimate moment = M u = (Vapp / W) * (G + (H G)/2) = (27.6 kips / 12 in.) * (1 in. + (3 in.-1 in.)/2) = 4.61 k-in. / in. Thickness = t = [(4 * Mu)/(0.9* Fy)] = ((4*4.61 kip-in.)/(0.9*36 ksi)) = 0.754 in. Use 0.75 in. This 12-in. x 3-in. x 0.75-in. plate will be sufficient to carry the applied shear load and resulting moment. Design of the weld between the plate section and the base plate is left to the engineer. Check concrete breakout strength of the shear lug in shear. Distance from shear lug to edge of concrete = (24 - 0.75) / 2 = 11.63 in. AV = 24 * (2+11.63) (12 * 2) = 303 in.
2 2

Use 3 in.

Vcb = AV*4*f*[fc] 0.5 = 303 * 4 * 0.85 * [3000] 0.5 = 56400 lb = 56.4 kips > 27.3 kips

OK

Process Industry Practices

Page A-26

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

Example 4 - Shear Lug Pipe Section Design

PLAN

Vu= 40K (ULTIMATE)

SECTION

Process Industry Practices

Page A-27

January 2003

PIP STE05121 Anchor Bolt Design Guide

EXAMPLE 4 - Shear Lug Pipe Section Design Design a shear lug pipe section for a 14-in. square base plate, subject to a factored axial dead load of 22.5 kips, factored live load of 65 kips, and a factored shear load of 40 kips. The base plate and shear lug have Fy = 36 ksi and f'c = 3 ksi. The contact plane between the grout and base plate is assumed to be 1 in. above the concrete. A 2-ft 0-in. square pedestal is assumed. Ductility is not required. Vapp = Vu Vf = 40 (0.55)(22.5) = 27.6 kips Bearing area = Areq = Vapp / (0.85 f fc) = 27.6 kips / (0.85*0.65*3ksi) = 16.7 in.
2

Based on base plate size, assume the pipe diameter will be 8-in. nominal std. weight pipe. D = 8.625 in., t = 0.322 in., S = 16.81 in.3 Height of pipe = H = Areq / D + G = 16.67 in. / 8.625 in. + 1 in. = 2.93 in. Ultimate moment = M u = Vapp * (G + (H G)/2) = 27.63 kips * (1 in. + (3.5 in. - 1 in.)/2) = 62.17 k-in. Check moment: Mn = S [600/(D/t) + Fy] = 16.81 in.3 *(600/(8.625 in./0.322 in.) + 36 ksi) = 982 k-in. fb = 0.9 fbMn = (0.9)*(982 k-in.) = 884 k-in. > 62.17 k-in. OK
2

Use 3.5 in.

Check Vn = 0.6 Fy p(D2 (D-2t)2)/4 = 0.6* 36 ksi * p* ( 8.6252 (8.625 2*0.322)2 ) in.2 / 4 = 181.4 kips fv = 0.9 fv Vn = (0.9)*(181.4 kips) = 163.2 kips > 27.6 kips OK

This 3.5-in.-long x 8-in.-diameter nominal std. weight pipe will be sufficient to carry the applied shear load and resulting moment. Check failure plane of pedestal: Distance from edge of pipe to edge of concrete = (24 8.625) / 2 = 7.69 in. Av = 24*(2.5 + 7.69) 8.62*2.5 = 223 in.2 Vcb = Av*4*f*[fc]0.5 = 223 * 4 * 0.85 * [3000]0.5 = 41500 lb = 41.5 kips > 27.3 kips OK

Process Industry Practices

Page A-28