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s and solutions to problems. It is a purposive investigation. It is an organized inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplained phenomenon to clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts. The search for facts may be made through either:

Arbitrary (or unscientific) Method: Its a method of seeking answers to question consists of imagination, opinion, blind belief or impression. E.g. it was believed that the shape of the earth was flat; a big snake swallows sun or moon causing solar or lunar eclipse. It is subjective; the finding will vary from person to person depending on his impression or imagination. It is vague and inaccurate. Or Scientific Method: this is a systematic rational approach to seeking facts. It eliminates the drawbacks of the arbitrary method. It is objective, precise and arrives at conclusions on the basis of verifiable evidences.

Therefore, search of facts should be made by scientific method rather than by arbitrary method. Then only we may get verifiable and accurate facts. Hence research is a systematic and logical study of an issue or problem or phenomenon through scientific method. Young defines Research as a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques, aims to: a) Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts, b) Analyze their sequences, interrelationships and causal explanations, c) Develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. d) Kerlinger defines research as a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena. Objectives: After studying this lesson the students should be able to understand:

Research and scientific method Characteristics of Research Purpose of research Different types of Research Research Approaches Significance of research in Social and Business Sciences

Research is a scientific endeavour. It involves scientific method. The scientific method is a systematic step-by-step procedure following the logical processes of reasoning. Scientific method is a means for gaining knowledge of the universe. It does not belong to any particular body of knowledge; it is universal. It does not refer to a field of specific subject of matter, but rather to a procedure or mode of investigation. The scientific method is based on certain articles of faith. These are:

Reliance on Empirical Evidence: Truth is established on the basis of evidence. Conclusion is admitted, only when it is based on evidence. The answer to a question is not decided by intuition or imagination. Relevant data are collected through observation or experimentation. The validity and the reliability of data are checked carefully and the data are analyzed thoroughly, using appropriate methods of analysis. Use of Relevant Concepts: We experience a vast number of facts through our sense. Facts are things which actually exist. In order to deal with them, we use concepts with specific meanings. They are symbols representing the meaning that we hold. We use them in our thinking and communication. Otherwise, clarity and correct understanding cannot be achieved. Commitment of Objectivity: Objectivity is the hallmark of the scientific method. It means forming judgement upon facts unbiased by personal impressions. The conclusion should not vary from person to person. It should be the same for all persons. Ethical Neutrality: Science does not pass normal judgment on facts. It does not say that they are good or bad. According to Schrdinger Science never imposes anything, science states. Science aims at nothing but making true and adequate statements about its object. Generalization: In formulating a generalization, we should avoid the danger of committing the particularistic fallacy, which arises through an inclination to generalize on insufficient or incomplete and unrelated data. This can be avoided by the accumulation of a large body of data and by the employment of comparisons and control groups. Verifiability: The conclusions arrived at by a scientist should be verifiable. He must make known to others how he arrives at his conclusions. He should thus expose his own methods and conclusions to critical scrutiny. When his conclusion is tested by others under the same conditions, then it is accepted as correct. Logical reasoning process: The scientific method involves the logical process of reasoning. This reasoning process is used for drawing inference from the finding of a study or for arriving at conclusion

Characteristics of Research

It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon. It is a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and explaining a phenomenon. It adopts scientific method. It is objective and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and the conclusions reached. It is based upon observable experience or empirical evidence. Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems.

It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism.

Purpose of Research The objectives or purposes of research are varied. They are:

Research extends knowledge of human beings, social life and environment. The search is for answers for various types of questions: What, Where, When, How and Why of various phenomena, and enlighten us. Research brings to light information that might never be discovered fully during the ordinary course of life. Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge. Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory and these help improving our knowledge and ability to handle situations and events. General laws developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen. Research aims to analyze inter-relationships between variables and to derive causal explanations: and thus enables us to have a better understanding of the world in which we live. Applied research aims at finding solutions to problems socio-economic problems, health problems, human relations problems in organizations and so on. Research also aims at developing new tools, concepts and theories for a better study of unknown phenomena. Research aids planning and thus contributes to national development.

Types of Research Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may be classified crudely according to its major intent or the methods. According to the intent, research may be classified as: Pure Research It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice, e.g., Einsteins theory of relativity, Newtons contributions, Galileos contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at extension of knowledge. It may lead to either discovery of a new theory or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find the critical factors in a practical problem. It develops many alternative solutions and thus enables us to choose the best solution. Applied Research It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It seeks an immediate and practical result, e.g., marketing research carried on for developing a news market or for studying the post-purchase

experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of an applied research is to find solutions to a practical problem, it may incidentally contribute to the development of theoretical knowledge by leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o conceptual clarity. It can put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual clarification. It may integrate previously existing theories. Exploratory Research It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. It is ill-structured and much less focused on pre-determined objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The purpose of this research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researchers familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. At the first level is the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the second, the discovery of relationships between variables. Descriptive Study It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the simplest type of research. It is more specific than an exploratory research. It aims at identifying the various characteristics of a community or institution or problem under study and also aims at a classification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter of study. It contributes to the development of a young science and useful in verifying focal concepts through empirical observation. It can highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and interpretation. The information obtained may be useful for prediction about areas of social life outside the boundaries of the research. They are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social action program. Diagnostic Study It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed towards discovering what is happening, why it is happening and what can be done about. It aims at identifying the causes of a problem and the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned with discovering and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of research requires prior knowledge of the problem, its thorough formulation, clear-cut definition of the given population, adequate methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of variables, statistical analysis and test of significance. Evaluation Studies It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for assessing the impact of developmental projects on the development of the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the quality and quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes and conditions required for its success. It is concerned with causal relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis. It is concerned also with change over time.

Action Research It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an action programme launched for solving a problem for improving an exiting situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of diagnostic information, planning, developing change programme, initiation of organizational change, implementation of participation and communication process, and post experimental evaluation. According to the methods of study, research may be classified as: 1. Experimental Research: It is designed to asses the effects of particular variables on a phenomenon by keeping the other variables constant or controlled. It aims at determining whether and in what manner variables are related to each other. 2. Analytical Study: It is a system of procedures and techniques of analysis applied to quantitative data. It may consist of a system of mathematical models or statistical techniques applicable to numerical data. Hence it is also known as the Statistical Method. It aims at testing hypothesis and specifying and interpreting relationships. 3. Historical Research: It is a study of past records and other information sources with a view to reconstructing the origin and development of an institution or a movement or a system and discovering the trends in the past. It is descriptive in nature. It is a difficult task; it must often depend upon inference and logical analysis or recorded data and indirect evidences rather than upon direct observation. 4. Survey: It is a fact-finding study. It is a method of research involving collection of data directly from a population or a sample thereof at particular time. Its purpose is to provide information, explain phenomena, to make comparisons and concerned with cause and effect relationships can be useful for making predications Research Approaches There are two main approaches to research, namely quantitative approach and qualitative approach. The quantitative approach involves the collection of quantitative data, which are put to rigorous quantitative analysis in a formal and rigid manner. This approach further includes experimental, inferential, and simulation approaches to research. Meanwhile, the qualitative approach uses the method of subjective assessment of opinions, behaviour and attitudes. Research in a situation is a function of the researchers impressions and insights. The results generated by this type of research are either in non-quantitative form or in the form which cannot be put to rigorous quantitative analysis. Usually, this approach uses techniques like depth interviews, focus group interviews, and projective techniques. Significance of Research in Social and Business Sciences According to a famous Hudson Maxim, All progress is born of inquiry. Doubt is often better than overconfidence, for it leads to inquiry, and inquiry leads to invention. It brings out the significance of research, increased amounts of which makes progress possible. Research encourages scientific and inductive thinking, besides promoting the development of logical habits of thinking and organization. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. The increasingly complex nature of government and business has

raised the use of research in solving operational problems. Research assumes significant role in formulation of economic policy, for both the government and business. It provides the basis for almost all government policies of an economic system. Government budget formulation, for example, depends particularly on the analysis of needs and desires of the people, and the availability of revenues, which requires research. Research helps to formulate alternative policies, in addition to examining the consequences of these alternatives. Thus, research also facilitates the decision making of policy-makers, although in itself it is not a part of research. In the process, research also helps in the proper allocation of a countrys scare resources. Research is also necessary for collecting information on the social and economic structure of an economy to understand the process of change occurring in the country. Collection of statistical information though not a routine task, involves various research problems. Therefore, large staff of research technicians or experts is engaged by the government these days to undertake this work. Thus, research as a tool of government economic policy formulation involves three distinct stages of operation which are as follows:

Investigation of economic structure through continual compilation of facts Diagnoses of events that are taking place and the analysis of the forces underlying them; and The prognosis, i.e., the prediction of future developments

Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. In several ways, operations research, market research, and motivational research are vital and their results assist in taking business decisions. Market research is refers to the investigation of the structure and development of a market for the formulation of efficient policies relating to purchases, production and sales. Operational research relates to the application of logical, mathematical, and analytical techniques to find solution to business problems such as cost minimization or profit maximization, or the optimization problems. Motivational research helps to determine why people behave in the manner they do with respect to market characteristics. More specifically, it is concerned with the analyzing the motivations underlying consumer behaviour. All these researches are very useful for business and industry, which are responsible for business decision making. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. It gives intellectual satisfaction of knowing things for the sake of knowledge. It also possesses practical utility for the social scientist to gain knowledge so as to be able to do something better or in a more efficient manner. This, research in social sciences is concerned with both knowledge for its own sake, and knowledge for what it can contribute to solve practical problems. Summary Research simply means a search for facts. The search for facts may be made through either arbitrary (or unscientific) method or scientific method. Young defines Research as a scientific undertaking which, by means of logical and systematic techniques, aims to: Discover of new facts or verify and test old facts, analyze their sequences, interrelationships and causal explanations, develop new scientific tools, concepts and theories which would facilitate reliable and valid study of human behaviour. Kerlinger defines research as a systematic, controlled, empirical and critical investigation of hypothetical propositions about the presumed relations among natural phenomena.

The scientific method is based on certain articles of faith. These are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Reliance on empirical evidence: Use of relevant concepts Commitment of objectivity Ethical neutrality Generalization Verifiability Logical reasoning process

Research is directed towards finding answers to pertinent questions and solutions to problems. It emphasizes the development of generalization, principles or theories. The purpose of research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test of criticism. The purpose of research is to extend knowledge of human beings Research establishes generalizations and general laws and contributes to theory building in various fields of knowledge. Research verifies and tests existing facts and theory and these help improving our knowledge and ability to handle situations and events. General laws developed through research may enable us to make reliable predictions of events yet to happen. Research aims to analyze inter-relationships between variables and to derive causal explanations: and thus enables us to have a better understanding of the world in which we live. Applied research aims at finding solutions to problems socio-economic problems, health problems, human relations problems in organizations and so on. Research also aims at developing new tools, concepts and theories for a better study of unknown phenomena. Research aids planning and thus contributes to national development. Pure Research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice. Applied Research is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. Exploratory Research is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of an unfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no knowledge. Descriptive Study is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. Diagnostic Study is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. Evaluation Studies is a type of applied research. Action Research is a type of evaluation study. The role of research in applied economics in the context of an economy or business is greatly increasing in modern times. Research also assumes a significant role in solving various operational and planning problems associated with business and industry. Research is equally important to social scientist for analyzing social relationships and seeking explanations to various social problems. Research Problem Meaning of Research Problem Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty, i.e., a problem demanding a solution within the subject-are of his discipline. This general area of interest, however, defines only the range of subject-matter within which the researcher would see and pose a specific problem for research. Personal values play an important role in the selection of a topic for research. Social conditions do often shape the preference of investigators in a subtle and imperceptible way.

The formulation of the topic into a research problem is, really speaking the first step in a scientific enquiry. A problem in simple words is some difficulty experienced by the researcher in a theoretical or practical situation. Solving this difficulty is the task of research. R.L. Ackoffs analysis affords considerable guidance in identifying problem for research. He visualizes five components of a problem. 1. Research-consumer: There must be an individual or a group which experiences some difficulty. 2. Research-consumers Objectives: The research-consumer must have available, alternative means for achieving the objectives he desires. 3. Alternative Means to Meet the Objectives: The research-consumer must have available, alternative means for achieving the objectives he desires. 4. Doubt in Regard to Selection of Alternatives: The existence of alternative courses of action in not enough; in order to experience a problem, the research consumer must have some doubt as to which alternative to select. 5. There must be One or More Environments to which the Difficulty or Problem Pertains: A change in environment may produce or remove a problem. A researchconsumer may have doubts as to which will be the most efficient means in one environment but would have no such doubt in another. Objectives: After studying this unit you should be able to understand:

The meaning of Research Problem Choosing the problem Review of Literature Criteria for formulating the problem Objective of Formulating the Problem Techniques involved in Formulating the Problem Criteria of Good Research Problem

Choosing the Problem The selection of a problem is the first step in research. The term problem means a question or issue to be examined. The selection of a problem for research is not an easy task; it self is a problem. It is least amenable to formal methodological treatment. Vision, an imaginative insight, plays an important role in this process. One with a critical, curious and imaginative mind and is sensitive to practical problems could easily identify problems for study. The sources from which one may be able to identify research problems or develop problems awareness are:

Review of literature Academic experience Daily experience Exposure to field situations Consultations Brain storming

Research Intuition

Review of literature Frequently, an exploratory study is concerned with an area of subject matter in which explicit hypothesis have not yet been formulated. The researchers task then is to review the available material with an eye on the possibilities of developing hypothesis from it. In some areas of the subject matter, hypothesis may have been stated by previous research workers. The researcher has to take stock of these various hypotheses with a view to evaluating their usefulness for further research and to consider whether they suggest any new hypothesis. Sociological journals, economic reviews, the bulletin of abstracts of current social sciences research, directory of doctoral dissertation accepted by universities etc afford a rich store of valuable clues. In addition to these general sources, some governmental agencies and voluntary organizations publish listings of summaries of research in their special fields of service. Professional organizations, research groups and voluntary organizations are a constant source of information about unpublished works in their special fields. Formulating the problem The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria, which may be grouped into: Internal Criteria Internal Criteria consists of: 1) Researchers interest: The problem should interest the researcher and be a challenge to him. Without interest and curiosity, he may not develop sustained perseverance. Even a small difficulty may become an excuse for discontinuing the study. Interest in a problem depends upon the researchers educational background, experience, outlook and sensitivity. 2) Researchers competence: A mere interest in a problem will not do. The researcher must be competent to plan and carry out a study of the problem. He must have the ability to grasp and deal with int. he must possess adequate knowledge of the subject-matter, relevant methodology and statistical procedures. 3) Researchers own resource: In the case of a research to be done by a researcher on his won, consideration of his own financial resource is pertinent. If it is beyond his means, he will not be able to complete the work, unless he gets some external financial support. Time resource is more important than finance. Research is a time-consuming process; hence it should be properly utilized. External Criteria 1) Research-ability of the problem: The problem should be researchable, i.e., amendable for finding answers to the questions involved in it through scientific method. To be researchable a question must be one for which observation or other data collection in the real world can provide the answer.

2) Importance and urgency: Problems requiring investigation are unlimited, but available research efforts are very much limited. Therefore, in selecting problems for research, their relative importance and significance should be considered. An important and urgent problem should be given priority over an unimportant one. 3) Novelty of the problem: The problem must have novelty. There is no use of wasting ones time and energy on a problem already studied thoroughly by others. This does not mean that replication is always needless. In social sciences in some cases, it is appropriate to replicate (repeat) a study in order to verify the validity of its findings to a different situation. 4) Feasibility: A problem may be a new one and also important, but if research on it is not feasible, it cannot be selected. Hence feasibility is a very important consideration. 5) Facilities: Research requires certain facilities such as well-equipped library facility, suitable and competent guidance, data analysis facility, etc. Hence the availability of the facilities relevant to the problem must be considered. 6) Usefulness and social relevance: Above all, the study of the problem should make significant contribution to the concerned body of knowledge or to the solution of some significant practical problem. It should be socially relevant. This consideration is particularly important in the case of higher level academic research and sponsored research. 7) Research personnel: Research undertaken by professors and by research organizations require the services of investigators and research officers. But in India and other developing countries, research has not yet become a prospective profession. Hence talent persons are not attracted to research projects. Each identified problem must be evaluated in terms of the above internal and external criteria and the most appropriate one may be selected by a research scholar. Objective of Formulating the Problem A problem well put is half-solved. The primary task of research is collection of relevant data and the analysis of data for finding answers to the research questions. The proper performance of this task depends upon the identification of exact data and information required for the study. The formulation serves this purpose. The clear and accurate statement of the problem, the development of the conceptual model, the definition of the objectives of the study, the setting of investigative questions, the formulation of hypothesis to be tested and the operational definition of concepts and the delimitation of the study determine the exact data needs of the study. Once the exact data requirement is known, the researcher can plan and execute the other steps without any waste of time and energy. Thus formulation gives a direction and a specific focus to the research effort. It helps to delimit the field of enquiry by singling out the pertinent facts from a vast ocean of facts and thus saves the researcher from becoming lost in a welter of irrelevancies. It prevents a blind search and indiscriminate gathering of data which may later prove irrelevant to the problem under study. It helps in determining the methods to be adopted for sampling and collection of data Techniques involved in Formulating Problem

The problem selected for research may initially be a vague topic. The question to be studied or the problem to be solved may not be known. Hence the selected problem should be defined and formulated. This is a difficult process. It requires intensive reading of a few selected articles or chapters in books in order to understand the nature of the problem selected. The process of defining a problem includes: 1. Developing title: The title should be carefully worded. It should indicate the core of the study, reflect the real intention of the researcher, and show on what is the focus e.g., Financing small-scale industries by commercial banks. This shows that the focus is on commercial banks and not on small-scale industries. On the other hand, if the title is The Financial Problem of Small-scale industries, the focus is on smallscale industries. 2. Building a conceptual model: On the basis of our theoretical knowledge of the phenomenon under study, the nature of the phenomenon, its properties / elements and their inter-relations should be identified and structured into a framework. This conceptual model gives an exact idea of the research problem and shows its various properties and variables to be studied. It serves as a basis for the formulation of the objectives of the study, on the hypothesis to be tested. In order to workout a conceptual model we must make a careful and critical study of the available literature on the subject-matter of the selected research problem. It is for this reason; a researcher is expected to select a problem for research in his field of specialization. Without adequate background knowledge, a researcher cannot grasp and comprehend the nature of the research problem. 3. Define the Objective of the Study: The objectives refer to the questions to be answered through the study. They indicate what we are trying to get through the study. The objectives are derived from the conceptual model. They state which elements in the conceptual model-which levels of, which kinds of cases, which properties, and which connections among properties are to be investigated, but it is the conceptual model that defines, describes, and states the assumptions underlying these elements. The objectives may aim at description or explanation or analysis of causal relationship between variables, and indicate the expected results or outcome of the study. The objectives may be specified in the form of either the statements or the questions. Criteria of Good research Problem Horton and Hunt have given following characteristics of scientific research: 1. Verifiable evidence: That is factual observations which other observers can see and check. 2. Accuracy: That is describing what really exists. It means truth or correctness of a statement or describing things exactly as they are and avoiding jumping to unwarranted conclusions either by exaggeration or fantasizing. 3. Precision: That is making it as exact as necessary, or giving exact number or measurement. This avoids colourful literature and vague meanings. 4. Systematization: That is attempting to find all the relevant data, or collecting data in a systematic and organized way so that the conclusions drawn are reliable. Data based

5.

6. 7.

8.

on casual recollections are generally incomplete and give unreliable judgments and conclusions. Objectivity: That is free being from all biases and vested interests. It means observation is unaffected by the observers values, beliefs and preferences to the extent possible and he is able to see and accept facts as they are, not as he might wish them to be. Recording: That is jotting down complete details as quickly as possible. Since human memory is fallible, all data collected are recorded. Controlling conditions: That is controlling all variables except one and then attempting to examine what happens when that variable is varied. This is the basic technique in all scientific experimentation allowing one variable to vary while holding all other variables constant. Training investigators: That is imparting necessary knowledge to investigators to make them understand what to look for, how to interpret in and avoid inaccurate data collection.

Summary Research really begins when the researcher experiences some difficulty, i.e., a problem demanding a solution within the subject-are of his discipline. The formulation of the topic into a research problem is, really speaking the first step in a scientific enquiry. The selection of one appropriate researchable problem out of the identified problems requires evaluation of those alternatives against certain criteria, which may be grouped into internal criteria and external criteria. A problem well put is half-solved. The primary task of research is collection of relevant data and the analysis of data for finding answers to the research questions. The problem selected for research may initially be a vague topic. The process of defining a problem includes:

Developing title Building a conceptual model Define the Objective of the Study

Introduction A hypothesis is an assumption about relations between variables. It is a tentative explanation of the research problem or a guess about the research outcome. Before starting the research, the researcher has a rather general, diffused, even confused notion of the problem. It may take long time for the researcher to say what questions he had been seeking answers to. Hence, an adequate statement about the research problem is very important. What is a good problem statement? It is an interrogative statement that asks: what relationship exists between two or

more variables? It then further asks questions like: Is A related to B or not? How are A and B related to C? Is A related to B under conditions X and Y? Proposing a statement pertaining to relationship between A and B is called a hypothesis. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:

Meaning and Examples of Hypothesis Criteria for constructing of hypothesis Nature of Hypothesis the need for having Hypothesis Characteristics of good hypothesis Types of hypothesis Null Hypothesis and alternative hypothesis Concepts of Hypothesis The level of Significance Decision rule of testing hypothesis Type I and Type II Errors Two Tailed and One Tailed Test Procedures for Testing hypothesis Testing of Hypothesis

Meaning and Examples of Hypothesis According to Theodorson and Theodorson, a hypothesis is a tentative statement asserting a relationship between certain facts. Kerlinger describes it as a conjectural statement of the relationship between two or more variables. Black and Champion have described it as a tentative statement about something, the validity of which is usually unknown. This statement is intended to be tested empirically and is either verified or rejected. It the statement is not sufficiently established, it is not considered a scientific law. In other words, a hypothesis carries clear implications for testing the stated relationship, i.e., it contains variables that are measurable and specifying how they are related. A statement that lacks variables or that does not explain how the variables are related to each other is no hypothesis in scientific sense. Criteria for Hypothesis Construction Hypothesis is never formulated in the form of a question. The standards to be met in formulating a hypothesis:

It should be empirically testable, whether it is right or wrong. It should be specific and precise. The statements in the hypothesis should not be contradictory. It should specify variables between which the relationship is to be established. It should describe one issue only.

Nature of Hypothesis A scientifically justified hypothesis must meet the following criteria:

It must accurately reflect the relevant sociological fact. It must not be in contradiction with approved relevant statements of other scientific disciplines. It must consider the experience of other researchers.

A hypothesis gives a definite point to the investigation, and it guides the direction on the study. A hypothesis specifies the sources of data, which shall be studied, and in what context they shall be studied. It determines the data needs. A hypothesis suggests which type of research is likely to be most appropriate. It determines the most appropriate technique of analysis. A hypothesis contributes to the development of theory

Characteristics of Good Hypothesis 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Conceptual Clarity Specificity Testability Availability of Techniques Theoretical relevance Consistency Objectivity Simplicity Types of Hypothesis There are many kinds of hypothesis the researcher has to be working with. One type of hypothesis asserts that something is the case in a given instance; that a particular object, person or situation has particular characteristics. Another type of hypothesis deals with the frequency of occurrence or of association among variables; this type of hypothesis may state that X is associated with Y. A certain Y proportion of items e.g. urbanism tends to be accompanied by mental disease or than something are greater or lesser than some other thing in specific settings. Yet another type of hypothesis asserts that a particular characteristics is one of the factors which determine another characteristic, i.e. X is the producer of Y. hypothesis of this type are called causal hypothesis. Null Hypothesis and Alternative Hypothesis In the context of statistical analysis, we often talk null and alternative hypothesis. If we are to compare method A with method B about its superiority and if we proceed on the assumption that both methods are equally good, then this assumption is termed as null hypothesis. As against this, we may think that the method A is superior, it is alternative hypothesis. Symbolically presented as: Null hypothesis = H0 and Alternative hypothesis = Ha

Suppose we want to test the hypothesis that the population mean is equal to the hypothesis mean ( H0) = 100. Then we would say that the null hypotheses are that the population mean is equal to the hypothesized mean 100 and symbolical we can express as: H0: = H0=100 If our sample results do not support these null hypotheses, we should conclude that something else is true. What we conclude rejecting the null hypothesis is known as alternative hypothesis. If we accept H0, then we are rejecting Ha and if we reject H0, then we are accepting Ha. For H0: = H0=100, we may consider three possible alternative hypotheses as follows: Alternative Hypothesis Ha: H0 Ha: > H0 Ha: < H0 To be read as follows (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is not equal to 100 i.e., it may be more or less 100) (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is greater than 100) (The alternative hypothesis is that the population mean is less than 100)

The null hypothesis and the alternative hypothesis are chosen before the sample is drawn (the researcher must avoid the error of deriving hypothesis from the data he collects and testing the hypothesis from the same data). In the choice of null hypothesis, the following considerations are usually kept in view:

Alternative hypothesis is usually the one which wishes to prove and the null hypothesis are ones that wish to disprove. Thus a null hypothesis represents the hypothesis we are trying to reject, the alternative hypothesis represents all other possibilities. If the rejection of a certain hypothesis when it is actually true involves great risk, it is taken as null hypothesis because then the probability of rejecting it when it is true is (the level of significance) which is chosen very small. Null hypothesis should always be specific hypothesis i.e., it should not state about or approximately a certain value. Generally, in hypothesis testing we proceed on the basis of null hypothesis, keeping the alternative hypothesis in view. Why so? The answer is that on assumption that null hypothesis is true, one can assign the probabilities to different possible sample results, but this cannot be done if we proceed with alternative hypothesis. Hence the use of null hypothesis (at times also known as statistical hypothesis) is quite frequent.

Concepts of Hypothesis Testing Basic concepts in the context of testing of hypothesis need to be explained. The Level of Significance This is a very important concept in the context of hypothesis testing. It is always some percentage (usually 5%) which should be chosen with great care, thought and reason. In case we take the significance level at 5%, then this implies that H0 will be rejected when the

sampling result (i.e., observed evidence) has a less than 0.05 probability of occurring if H0 is true. In other words, the 5% level of significance means that researcher is willing to take as much as 5% risk rejecting the null hypothesis when it (H0) happens to be true. Thus the significance level is the maximum value of the probability of rejecting H0 when it is true and is usually determined in advance before testing the Decision Rule of Test of Hypothesis: Given a hypothesis H0 and an alternative hypothesis H0 we make rule which is known as decision rule according to which we accept H0 (i.e., reject Ha) or reject H0 (i.e., accept a). For instance, if (H0 is that a certain lot is good (there are very few defective items in it) against Ha that the lot is not good (there are many defective items in it), that we must decide the number of items to be tested and the criterion for accepting or rejecting the hypothesis. We might test 10 items in the lot and plan our decision saying that if there are none or only 1 defective item among the 10, we will accept H0 otherwise we will reject H0 (or accept Ha). This sort of basis is known as decision rule. Type I & Type II Errors In the context of testing of hypothesis there are basically two types of errors that researchers make. We may reject H0 when H0 is true & we may accept H0 when it is not true. The former is known as Type I & the later is known as Type II. In other words, Type I error mean rejection of hypothesis which should have been accepted & Type II error means accepting of hypothesis which should have been rejected. Type I error is donated by (alpha), also called as level of significance of test; and Type II error is donated by (beta). Decision Accept H0 Reject H0 H0 (true) Correct decision Type I error ( error) Ho (false) Type II error ( error) Correct decision The probability of Type I error is usually determined in advance and is understood as the level of significance of testing the hypothesis. If type I error is fixed at 5%, it means there are about chances in 100 that we will reject H0 when H0 is true. We can control type I error just by fixing it at a lower level. For instance, if we fix it at 1%, we will say that the maximum probability of committing type I error would only be 0.01. But with a fixed sample size, n when we try to reduce type I error, the probability of committing type II error increases. Both types of errors can not be reduced simultaneously. There is a trade-off in business situations, decision-makers decide the appropriate level of type I error by examining the costs of penalties attached to both types of errors. If type I error involves time & trouble of reworking a batch of chemicals that should have been accepted, where as type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned, then in such a situation one should prefer a type I error to a type II error means taking a chance that an entire group of users of this chemicals compound will be poisoned, then in such a situation one should prefer a type II error. As a result one must set very high level for type I error in ones testing techniques of a given hypothesis. Hence, in testing of hypothesis, one must make all possible effort to strike an adequate balance between Type I & Type II error.

Two Tailed Test & One Tailed Test In the context of hypothesis testing these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if, say, the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean of the population. Such a test inappropriate when we haveH0: = H0 and Ha: H0 which may > H0 or < H0. If significance level is % and the two-tailed test to be applied, the probability of the rejection area will be 0.05 (equally split on both tails of curve as 0.025) and that of the acceptance region will be 0.95. If we take = 100 and if our sample mean deviates significantly from , in that case we shall accept the null hypothesis. But there are situations when only one-tailed test is considered appropriate. A one-tailed test would be used when we are to test, say, whether the population mean in either lower than or higher than some hypothesized value. Procedure for Testing Hypothesis To test a hypothesis means to tell (on the basis of the data researcher has collected) whether or not the hypothesis seems to be valid. In hypothesis testing the main question is: whether the null hypothesis or not to accept the null hypothesis? Procedure for hypothesis testing refers to all those steps that we undertake for making a choice between the two actions i.e., rejection and acceptance of a null hypothesis. The various steps involved in hypothesis testing are stated below: Making a Formal Statement The step consists in making a formal statement of the null hypothesis (Ho) and also of the alternative hypothesis (Ha). This means that hypothesis should clearly state, considering the nature of the research problem. For instance, Mr. Mohan of the Civil Engineering Department wants to test the load bearing capacity of an old bridge which must be more than 10 tons, in that case he can state his hypothesis as under: Null hypothesis HO: =10 tons Alternative hypothesis Ha: >10 tons Take another example. The average score in an aptitude test administered at the national level is 80. To evaluate a states education system, the average score of 100 of the states students selected on the random basis was 75. The state wants to know if there is a significance difference between the local scores and the national scores. In such a situation the hypothesis may be state as under: Null hypothesis HO: =80 Alternative hypothesis Ha: 80 The formulation of hypothesis is an important step which must be accomplished with due care in accordance with the object and nature of the problem under consideration. It also indicates whether we should use a tailed test or a two tailed test. If Ha is of the type greater than, we use alone tailed test, but when Ha is of the type whether greater or smaller then we use a two-tailed test.

Selecting a Significant Level The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. Generally, in practice, either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. The factors that affect the level of significance are:

The magnitude of the difference between sample ; The size of the sample; The variability of measurements within samples; Whether the hypothesis is directional or non directional (A directional hypothesis is one which predicts the direction of the difference between, say, means). In brief, the level of significance must be adequate in the context of the purpose and nature of enquiry.

Deciding the Distribution to Use After deciding the level of significance, the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. The choice generally remains between distribution and the t distribution. The rules for selecting the correct distribution are similar to those which we have stated earlier in the context of estimation. Selecting A Random Sample & Computing An Appropriate Value Another step is to select a random sample(S) and compute an appropriate value from the sample data concerning the test statistic utilizing the relevant distribution. In other words, draw a sample to furnish empirical data. Calculation of the Probability One has then to calculate the probability that the sample result would diverge as widely as it has from expectations, if the null hypothesis were in fact true. Comparing the Probability Yet another step consists in comparing the probability thus calculated with the specified value for , the significance level. If the calculated probability is equal to smaller than value in case of one tailed test (and /2 in case of two-tailed test), then reject the null hypothesis (i.e. accept the alternative hypothesis), but if the probability is greater then accept the null hypothesis. In case we reject H0 we run a risk of (at most level of significance) committing an error of type I, but if we accept H0, then we run some risk of committing error type II. Flow Diagram for Testing Hypothesis

committing type I error committing type II error Testing of Hypothesis The hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as null hypothesis) with a view to choose between the conflicting hypotheses about the value of the population hypothesis about the value of the population of a population parameter. Hypothesis testing helps to secede on the basis of a sample data, whether a hypothesis about the population is likely to be true or false. Statisticians have developed several tests of hypothesis (also known as tests of significance) for the purpose of testing of hypothesis which can be classified as:

Parametric tests or standard tests of hypothesis ; Non Parametric test or distribution free test of the hypothesis.

Parametric tests usually assume certain properties of the parent population from which we draw samples. Assumption like observations come from a normal population, sample size is large, assumptions about the population parameters like mean, variants etc must hold good before parametric test can be used. But there are situation when the researcher cannot or does not want to make assumptions. In such situations we use statistical methods for testing hypothesis which are called non parametric tests because such tests do not depend on any assumption about the parameters of parent population. Besides, most non-parametric test assumes only nominal or original data, where as parametric test require measurement equivalent to at least an interval scale. As a result non-parametric test needs more observation than a parametric test to achieve the same size of Type I & Type II error.

z-test t-test x

2

-test

f-test

All these tests are based on the assumption of normality i.e., the source of data is considered to be normally distributed. In some cases the population may not be normally distributed, yet the test will be applicable on account of the fact that we mostly deal with samples and the sampling distributions closely approach normal distributions. Z-test is based on the normal probability distribution and is used for judging the significance of several statistical measures, particularly the mean. The relevant test statistic is worked out and compared with its probable value (to be read from the table showing area under normal curve) at a specified level of significance for judging the significance of the measure concerned. This is a most frequently used test in research studies. This test is used even when binomial distribution or t-distribution is applicable on the presumption that such a distribution tends to approximate normal distribution as n becomes larger. Z-test is generally used for comparing the mean of a sample to some hypothesis mean for the population in case of large sample, or when population variance is known as z-test is also used for judging the significance of difference between means to of two independent samples in case of large samples or when population variance is known z-test is generally used for comparing the sample proportion to a theoretical value of population proportion or for judging the difference in proportions of two independent samples when happens to be large. Besides, this test may be used for judging the significance of median, mode, co-efficient of correlation and several other measures T-test is based on t-distribution and is considered an appropriate test for judging the significance of sample mean or for judging significance of difference between the two means of the two samples in case of samples when population variance is not known (in which case we use variance of the sample as an estimate the population variance). In case two samples are related, we use paired t-test (difference test) for judging the significance of their mean of difference between the two related samples. It can also be used for judging the significance of co-efficient of simple and partial correlations. The relevant test statistic, t, is calculated from the sample data and then compared with its probable value based on t-distribution at a specified level of significance for concerning degrees of freedom for accepting or rejecting the null hypothesis it may be noted that t-test applies only in case of small sample when population variance is unknown. X2-test is based on chi-square distribution and as a parametric test is used for comparing a sample variance to a theoretical population variance is unknown. F-test is based on f-distribution and is used to compare the variance of the two-independent samples. This test is also used in the context of variance (ANOVA) for judging the

significance of more than two sample means at one and the same time. It is also used for judging the significance of multiple correlation coefficients. Test statistic, f, is calculated and compared with its probable value for accepting or rejecting the H0. Summary A hypothesis is an assumption about relations between variables. It is a tentative explanation of the research problem or a guess about the research outcome. Before starting the research, the researcher has a rather general, diffused, even confused notion of the problem. A hypothesis gives a definite point to the investigation, and it guides the direction on the study. A hypothesis specifies the sources of data, which shall be studied, and in what context they shall be studied. In the context of hypothesis testing these two terms are quite important and must be clearly understood. A two-tailed test rejects the null hypothesis if, say, the sample mean is significantly higher or lower than the hypnotized value of the mean of the population. The hypothesis is tested on a pre-determined level of significance and such the same should have specified. Generally, in practice, either 5% level or 1% level is adopted for the purpose. After deciding the level of significance, the next step in hypothesis testing is to determine the appropriate sampling distribution. The hypothesis testing determines the validity of the assumption (technically described as null hypothesis) with a view to choose between the conflicting hypotheses about the value of the population of a population parameter. Z-test is based on the normal probability distribution and is used for judging the significance of several statistical measures, particularly the mean. The relevant test statistic is worked out and compared with its probable value (to be read from the table showing area under normal curve) at a specified level of significance for judging the significance of the measure concerned. This is a most frequently used test in research studies. T-test is based on tdistribution and is considered an appropriate test for judging the significance of sample mean or for judging significance of difference between the two means of the two samples in case of samples when population variance is not known (in which case we use variance of the sample as an estimate of the population variance). X2-test is based on chi-square distribution and as a parametric test is used for comparing a sample variance to a theoretical population variance is unknown. F-test is based on f-distribution and is used to compare the variance of the twoindependent samples. Unit 4 Research Design Meaning of Research Design The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions in his head. Even if he could, he would have difficulty in understanding how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisions on paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a symbolic construction may be called the research design or model. A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the methodology and techniques to be adopted for achieving the objectives. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement and analysis of data. It is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions. The plan is the overall scheme or program of research. A research design is the program that guides the investigator in the process of collecting, analyzing and interpreting observations. It provides a systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz, Jahoda and Destsch and Cook describe, A research design is the arrangement of conditions

for collection and analysis of data in a manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with economy in procedure. Objectives: After studying this lesson you should be able to understand:

Needs of Research Design Characteristics of a Good Research Design Components of Research Design Experimental and Non-experimental Hypothesis Testing Research Different Research Designs Research Design for Studies in Commerce and Management Research Design in Case of Exploratory Research Studies Research Design in case of Descriptive and Diagnostic Research Studies Research Design in case of Hypothesis testing Research Studies Principles of Experimental Designs Important Experimental Designs Formal Experimental Designs

Needs of Research Design The need for the methodologically designed research: a- In many a research inquiry, the researcher has no idea as to how accurate the results of his study ought to be in order to be useful. Where such is the case, the researcher has to determine how much inaccuracy may be tolerated. In a quite few cases he may be in a position to know how much inaccuracy his method of research will produce. In either case he should design his research if he wants to assure himself of useful results. b- In many research projects, the time consumed in trying to ascertain what the data mean after they have been collected is much greater than the time taken to design a research which yields data whose meaning is known as they are collected. c- The idealized design is concerned with specifying the optimum research procedure that could be followed were there no practical restrictions. Characteristics of a Good Research Design 1. 2. 3. 4. It is a series of guide posts to keep one going in the right direction. It reduces wastage of time and cost. It encourages co-ordination and effective organization. It is a tentative plan which undergoes modifications, as circumstances demand, when the study progresses, new aspects, new conditions and new relationships come to light and insight into the study deepens. 5. It has to be geared to the availability of data and the cooperation of the informants. 6. It has also to be kept within the manageable limits Components of Research Design

It is important to be familiar with the important concepts relating to research design. They are: 1. Dependent and Independent variables: A magnitude that varies is known as a variable. The concept may assume different quantitative values, like height, weight, income, etc. Qualitative variables are not quantifiable in the strictest sense of objectivity. However, the qualitative phenomena may also be quantified in terms of the presence or absence of the attribute considered. Phenomena that assume different values quantitatively even in decimal points are known as continuous variables. But, all variables need not be continuous. Values that can be expressed only in integer values are called non-continuous variables. In statistical term, they are also known as discrete variable. For example, age is a continuous variable; where as the number of children is a non-continuous variable. When changes in one variable depends upon the changes in one or more other variables, it is known as a dependent or endogenous variable, and the variables that cause the changes in the dependent variable are known as the independent or explanatory or exogenous variables. For example, if demand depends upon price, then demand is a dependent variable, while price is the independent variable. And if, more variables determine demand, like income and prices of substitute commodity, then demand also depends upon them in addition to the own price. Then, demand is a dependent variable which is determined by the independent variables like own price, income and price of substitute. 2. Extraneous variable: The independent variables which are not directly related to the purpose of the study but affect the dependent variable are known as extraneous variables. For instance, assume that a researcher wants to test the hypothesis that there is relationship between childrens school performance and their self-concepts, in which case the latter is an independent variable and the former, the dependent variable. In this context, intelligence may also influence the school performance. However, since it is not directly related to the purpose of the study undertaken by the researcher, it would be known as an extraneous variable. The influence caused by the extraneous variable on the dependent variable is technically called as an experimental error. Therefore, a research study should always be framed in such a manner that the dependent variable completely influences the change in the independent variable and any other extraneous variable or variables. 3. Control: One of the most important features of a good research design is to minimize the effect of extraneous variable. Technically, the term control is used when a researcher designs the study in such a manner that it minimizes the effects of extraneous independent variables. The term control is used in experimental research to reflect the restrain in experimental conditions. 4. Confounded relationship: The relationship between dependent and independent variables is said to be confounded by an extraneous variable, when the dependent variable is not free from its effects.

Research hypothesis: When a prediction or a hypothesized relationship is tested by adopting scientific methods, it is known as research hypothesis. The research hypothesis is a predictive statement which relates a dependent variable and an independent variable. Generally, a research hypothesis must consist of at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. Whereas, the relationships that are

assumed but not be tested are predictive statements that are not to be objectively verified are not classified as research hypothesis. Experimental and control groups: When a group is exposed to usual conditions in an experimental hypothesis-testing research, it is known as control group. On the other hand, when the group is exposed to certain new or special condition, it is known as an experimental group. In the afore-mentioned example, the Group A can be called a control group and the Group B an experimental one. If both the groups A and B are exposed to some special feature, then both the groups may be called as experimental groups. A research design may include only the experimental group or the both experimental and control groups together. Treatments: Treatments are referred to the different conditions to which the experimental and control groups are subject to. In the example considered, the two treatments are the parents with regular earnings and those with no regular earnings. Likewise, if a research study attempts to examine through an experiment regarding the comparative impacts of three different types of fertilizers on the yield of rice crop, then the three types of fertilizers would be treated as the three treatments. Experiment: An experiment refers to the process of verifying the truth of a statistical hypothesis relating to a given research problem. For instance, experiment may be conducted to examine the yield of a certain new variety of rice crop developed. Further, Experiments may be categorized into two types namely, absolute experiment and comparative experiment. If a researcher wishes to determine the impact of a chemical fertilizer on the yield of a particular variety of rice crop, then it is known as absolute experiment. Meanwhile, if the researcher wishes to determine the impact of chemical fertilizer as compared to the impact of bio-fertilizer, then the experiment is known as a comparative experiment. Experiment unit: Experimental units refer to the predetermined plots, characteristics or the blocks, to which the different treatments are applied. It is worth mentioning here that such experimental units must be selected with great caution.

Experimental and Non-Experimental Hypothesis Testing Research When the objective of a research is to test a research hypothesis, it is known as a hypothesistesting research. Such research may be in the nature of experimental design or nonexperimental design. A research in which the independent variable is manipulated is known as experimental hypothesis-testing research, where as a research in which the independent variable is not manipulated is termed as non-experimental hypothesis-testing research. E.g., assume that a researcher wants to examine whether family income influences the social attendance of a group of students, by calculating the coefficient of correlation between the two variables. Such an example is known as a non-experimental hypothesis-testing research, because the independent variable family income is not manipulated. Again assume that the researcher randomly selects 150 students from a group of students who pay their school fees regularly and them classifies them into tow sub-groups by randomly including 75 in Group A, whose parents have regular earning, and 75 in group B, whose parents do not have regular earning. And that at the end of the study, the researcher conducts a test on each group in order to examine the effects of regular earnings of the parents on the school attendance of the student. Such a study is an example of experimental hypothesis-testing research, because in this particular study the independent variable regular earnings of the parents have been manipulated Different Research Designs

There are a number of crucial research choices, various writers advance different classification schemes, some of which are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Experimental, historical and inferential designs (American Marketing Association). Exploratory, descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz, Jahoda, Deutsch and Cook). Experimental, and expost fact (Kerlinger) Historical method, and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates) Sample surveys, field studies, experiments in field settings, and laboratory experiments (Festinger and Katz) 6. Exploratory, descriptive and experimental studies (Body and Westfall) 7. Exploratory, descriptive and casual (Green and Tull) 8. Experimental, quasi-experimental designs (Nachmias and Nachmias) 9. True experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental designs (Smith). 10. Experimental, pre-experimental, quasi-experimental designs and Survey Research (Kidder and Judd). These different categorizations exist, because research design is a complex concept. In fact, there are different perspectives from which any given study can be viewed. They are: 1. The degree of formulation of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized) 2. The topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical study) 3. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey, laboratory experiment) 4. The time dimension(one-time or longitudinal) 5. The mode of data collection (observational or survey) 6. The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost facto) 7. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or causal) Research Design for Studies in Commerce and Management The various research designs are: Research design in case of exploratory research studies Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. The major emphasis in such studies is on the discovery of ideas and insights. As such the research design appropriate for such studies must be flexible enough to provide opportunity for considering different aspects of a problem under study. Inbuilt flexibility in research design is needed because the research problem, broadly defined initially, is transformed into one with more precise meaning in exploratory studies, which fact may necessitate changes in the research procedure for gathering relevant data. Generally, the following three methods in the context of research design for such studies are talked about: 1. The survey of concerning literature happens to be the most simple and fruitful method of formulating precisely the research problem or developing hypothesis. Hypothesis stated by earlier workers may be reviewed and their usefulness be evaluated as a basis for further research. It may also be considered whether the already stated hypothesis suggests new hypothesis. In this way the researcher should review and build upon the work already done by others, but in cases where hypothesis

have not yet been formulated, his task is to review the available material for deriving the relevant hypothesis from it. Besides, the bibliographical survey of studies, already made in ones area of interest may as well as made by the researcher for precisely formulating the problem. He should also make an attempt to apply concepts and theories developed in different research contexts to the area in which he is himself working. Sometimes the works of creative writers also provide a fertile ground for hypothesis formulation as such may be looked into by the researcher. 2. Experience survey means the survey of people who have had practical experience with the problem to be studied. The object of such a survey is to obtain insight into the relationships between variables and new ideas relating to the research problem. For such a survey, people who are competent and can contribute new ideas may be carefully selected as respondents to ensure a representation of different types of experience. The respondents so selected may then be interviewed by the investigator. The researcher must prepare an interview schedule for the systematic questioning of informants. But the interview must ensure flexibility in the sense that the respondents should be allowed to raise issues and questions which the investigator has not previously considered. Generally, the experience of collecting interview is likely to be long and may last for few hours. Hence, it is often considered desirable to send a copy of the questions to be discussed to the respondents well in advance. This will also give an opportunity to the respondents for doing some advance thinking over the various issues involved so that, at the time of interview, they may be able to contribute effectively. Thus, an experience survey may enable the researcher to define the problem more concisely and help in the formulation of the research hypothesis. This, survey may as well provide information about the practical possibilities for doing different types of research. 3. Analyses of insight-stimulating examples are also a fruitful method for suggesting hypothesis for research. It is particularly suitable in areas where there is little experience to serve as a guide. This method consists of the intensive study of selected instance of the phenomenon in which one is interested. For this purpose the existing records, if nay, may be examined, the unstructured interviewing may take place, or some other approach may be adopted. Attitude of the investigator, the intensity of the study and the ability of the researcher to draw together diverse information into a unified interpretation are the main features which make this method an appropriate procedure for evoking insights. Now, what sorts of examples are to be selected and studied? There is no clear cut answer to it. Experience indicates that for particular problems certain types of instances are more appropriate than others. One can mention few examples of insight-stimulating cases such as the reactions of strangers, the reactions of marginal individuals, the study of individuals who are in transition from one stage to another, the reactions of individuals from different social strata and the like. In general, cases that provide sharp contrasts or have striking features are considered relatively more useful while adopting this method of hypothesis formulation. Thus, in an exploratory of formulative research study which merely leads to insights or hypothesis, whatever method or research design outlined above is adopted, the only thing essential is that it must continue to remain flexible so that many different facets of a problem may be considered as and when they arise and come to the notice of the researcher. Research design in case of descriptive and diagnostic research studies

Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group, where as diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else. The studies concerning whether certain variables are associated are the example of diagnostic research studies. As against this, studies concerned with specific predictions, with narration of facts and characteristics concerning individual, group of situation are all examples of descriptive research studies. Most of the social research comes under this category. From the point of view of the research design, the descriptive as well as diagnostic studies share common requirements and as such we may group together these two types of research studies. In descriptive as well as in diagnostic studies, the researcher must be able to define clearly, what he wants to measure and must find adequate methods for measuring it along with a clear cut definition of population he wants to study. Since the aim is to obtain complete and accurate information in the said studies, the procedure to be used must be carefully planned. The research design must make enough provision for protection against bias and must maximize reliability. With due concern for the economical completion of the research study, the design in such studies must be rigid and not flexible and must focus attention on the following: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Formulating the objective of the study Designing the methods of data collection Selecting the sample Collecting the data Processing and analyzing the data Reporting the findings.

In a descriptive / diagnostic study the first step is to specify the objectives with sufficient precision to ensure that the data collected are relevant. If this is not done carefully, the study may not provide the desired information. Then comes the question of selecting the methods by which the data are to be obtained. While designing data-collection procedure, adequate safeguards against bias and unreliability must be ensured. Which ever method is selected, questions must be well examined and be made unambiguous; interviewers must be instructed not to express their own opinion; observers must be trained so that they uniformly record a given item of behaviour. More often than not, sample has to be designed. Usually, one or more forms of probability sampling or what is often described as random sampling, are used. To obtain data, free from errors introduced by those responsible for collecting them, it is necessary to supervise closely the staff of field workers as they collect and record information. Checks may be set up to ensure that the data collecting staffs performs their duty honestly and without prejudice. The data collected must be processed and analyzed. This includes steps like coding the interview replies, observations, etc., tabulating the data; and performing several statistical computations. Last of all comes the question of reporting the findings. This is the task of communicating the findings to others and the researcher must do it in an efficient manner. Research Design in case of Hypothesis-Testing Research Studies Hypothesis-testing research studies (generally known as experimental studies) are those where the researcher tests the hypothesis of causal relationships between variables. Such

studies require procedures that will not only reduce bias and increase reliability, but will permit drawing inferences about causality. Usually, experiments meet these requirements. Hence, when we talk of research design in such studies, we often mean the design of experiments. Principles of Experimental Designs Professor Fisher has enumerated three principles of experimental designs: 1. The principle of replication: The experiment should be reaped more than once. Thus, each treatment is applied in many experimental units instead of one. By doing so, the statistical accuracy of the experiments is increased. For example, suppose we are to examine the effect of two varieties of rice. For this purpose we may divide the field into two parts and grow one variety in one part and the other variety in the other part. We can compare the yield of the two parts and draw conclusion on that basis. But if we are to apply the principle of replication to this experiment, then we first divide the field into several parts, grow one variety in half of these parts and the other variety in the remaining parts. We can collect the data yield of the two varieties and draw conclusion by comparing the same. The result so obtained will be more reliable in comparison to the conclusion we draw without applying the principle of replication. The entire experiment can even be repeated several times for better results. Consequently replication does not present any difficulty, but computationally it does. However, it should be remembered that replication is introduced in order to increase the precision of a study; that is to say, to increase the accuracy with which the main effects and interactions can be estimated. 2. The principle of randomization: It provides protection, when we conduct an experiment, against the effect of extraneous factors by randomization. In other words, this principle indicates that we should design or plan the experiment in such a way that the variations caused by extraneous factors can all be combined under the general heading of chance. For instance if we grow one variety of rice say in the first half of the parts of a field and the other variety is grown in the other half, then it is just possible that the soil fertility may be different in the first half in comparison to the other half. If this is so, our results would not be realistic. In such a situation, we may assign the variety of rice to be grown in different parts of the field on the basis of some random sampling technique i.e., we may apply randomization principle and protect ourselves against the effects of extraneous factors. As such, through the application of the principle of randomization, we can have a better estimate of the experimental error. 3. Principle of local control: It is another important principle of experimental designs. Under it the extraneous factors, the known source of variability, is made to vary deliberately over as wide a range as necessary and this needs to be done in such a way that the variability it causes can be measured and hence eliminated from the experimental error. This means that we should plan the experiment in a manner that we can perform a two-way analysis of variance, in which the total variability of the data is divided into three components attributed to treatments, the extraneous factor and experimental error. In other words, according to the principle of local control, we first divide the field into several homogeneous parts, known as blocks, and then each such block is divided into parts equal to the number of treatments. Then the treatments are randomly assigned to these parts of a block. In general, blocks are the levels at which we hold an extraneous factors fixed, so that we can measure its contribution to the variability of the data by

means of a two-way analysis of variance. In brief, through the principle of local control we can eliminate the variability due to extraneous factors from the experimental error. Important Experimental Designs Experimental design refers to the framework or structure of an experiment and as such there are several experimental designs. We can classify experimental designs into two broad categories, viz., informal experimental designs and formal experimental designs. Informal experimental designs are those designs that normally use a less sophisticated form of analysis based on differences in magnitudes, where as formal experimental designs offer relatively more control and use precise statistical procedures for analysis. Informal experimental designs:

Before and after without control design: In such a design, single test group or area is selected and the dependent variable is measured before the introduction of the treatment. The treatment is then introduced and the dependent variable is measured again after the treatment has been introduced. The effect of the treatment would be equal to the level of the phenomenon after the treatment minus the level of the phenomenon before the treatment. After only with control design: In this design, two groups or areas (test and control area) are selected and the treatment is introduced into the test area only. The dependent variable is then measured in both the areas at the same time. Treatment impact is assessed by subtracting the value of the dependent variable in the control area from its value in the test area. Before and after with control design: In this design two areas are selected and the dependent variable is measured in both the areas for an identical time-period before the treatment. The treatment is then introduced into the test area only, and the dependent variable is measured in both for an identical time-period after the introduction of the treatment. The treatment effect is determined by subtracting the change in the dependent variable in the control area from the change in the dependent variable in test area.

Formal Experimental Designs 1. Completely randomized design (CR design): It involves only two principle viz., the principle of replication and randomization. It is generally used when experimental areas happen to be homogenous. Technically, when all the variations due to uncontrolled extraneous factors are included under the heading of chance variation, we refer to the design of experiment as C R Design. 2. Randomized block design (RB design): It is an improvement over the C Research design. In the RB design the principle of local control can be applied along with the other two principles. 3. Latin square design (LS design): It is used in agricultural research. The treatments in a LS design are so allocated among the plots that no treatment occurs more than once in any row or column. 4. Factorial design: It is used in experiments where the effects of varying more than one factor are to be determined. They are especially important in several economic and social phenomena where usually a large number of factors affect a particular problem.

Summary A research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing a research study. In many research projects, the time consumed in trying to ascertain what the data mean after they have been collected is much greater than the time taken to design a research which yields data whose meaning is known as they are collected. Research design is a series of guide posts to keep one going in the right direction. It is a tentative plan which undergoes modifications, as circumstances demand, when the study progresses, new aspects, new conditions and new relationships come to light and insight into the study deepens. Exploratory research studies are also termed as formulative research studies. The main purpose of such studies is that of formulating a problem for more precise investigation or of developing the working hypothesis from an operational point of view. Descriptive research studies are those studies which are concerned with describing the characteristics of a particular individual, or of a group, where as diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or its association with something else

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