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1 (15), 2009

9 771857 268509



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Omecrnennax acconnannx Pyct, 2009
HAVuHOE H3AHHE
Peaxnnonnan xonnernn:
oormop ucmopuu C. Cv.r (Mo.oaeu),
e.aeui peoarmop
oormop ucmopuu H. Lopuuroe (Mo.oaeu),
sa+ecmume.i e.aeuoeo peoarmopa
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr P. auu.e (Vrpauua)
M. A.+auu (Vrpauua)
M. Iopur (Cepou)
oormop ucmopu:ecrux uavr M. Ivooe.o (Poccu)
M. pouoe (Poccu)
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr B. Meprv.oe (Poccu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr B. Haor (Vrpauua)
oormop qu.ocoquu A. H.uuroea (C.oearu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr . Hon (Vrpauua)
oormop .uueeucmu:ecrux uavr npoqeccop P. Pa+a: (Cepou)
oormop xaou.umam ucmopuu H. Pvccee (Mo.oaeu)
M. Cu.aou (Cepou)
oormop ucmopuu H. Te.iuoe (Mo.oaeu)
npomouepe o.Huro.a 4.opuucru (Mo.oaeu)
P. Lanra (Kauaoa)
Apec peaxnnn: Pecnynnxa Monona, MD 2001, r. Knmnnen,
yn. M. Kor+nnnuany, 24/1. Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx .
Ten.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, ]axc: 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Editor's address: Association "Rus'". M. Kogalniceanu Street, 24/1, Kishinev,
MD 2001, Moldova.
Tel.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, fax 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
COEPAHHE / CONTENTS
HCTOPHR PYCHHOB / HISTORY OF THE RUSINS
Cepren CYARK
Monannx n Pyccxn mnp: ncropnx n conpemennocrt (x 650-nernm monancxo
rocyapcrnennocrn) ......................................................................................................... 7-24
Sergei SULEAK
Moldavia and the Russian World: History and the Present (in Commemoration of the 650th
Anniversary of Moldavian Statehood)
Maxcnu HX
K nponeme panne ncropnn cnanxn Hpnxapnarcxoro pernona (cepenna nropax
nononnna I rtc. n. +.) .................................................................................................... 25-44
Maksim ZHIKH
Concerning the Problem of the Early History of the Slavs of the Carpathian Region (middle
second half of the 1st Millenium)
Kpin AHHAEHL
3 ncropi xinouoro cxnry Pisna-Foroponni n c. Isa Xycrctxoro paony ............. 45-52
Iurii DANILETS
From the History of the Convent of the Nativity of the Theotokos in the village of Iza in the
district of Khust
Pouan mAHKA
Omnnt, ocnonannte rneptmn pycnnamn n Kanae ........................................ 53-65
Roman SHAPKA
Communities founded by "die-hard" Rusins in Canada
3HAMEHHTLE PYCHHL / FAMOUS RUSINS
un1po AHHAKK
A. Faunnctxn (1732-1809) nepmn npocnirnrent 3axapnarrx .......................... 66-75
Dmytro DANYLIUK
A. Bachynskyi (1732-1809) the First Enlightener of Transcarpathia
nnxon Onexcanp MOHHH
ixntnicrt ocranntoro npanocnannoro cnncxona ocn]ex (ueooponnua) Vrontctxoro
(1648-1733) .................................................................................................................... 76-89
Deacon Alexander MONICH
The Work of the Last Orthodox Bishop of Ugol Dosifei (Feodorovich) 1648-1733
Pouan MHPOBHH
Anonorer npanocnannx nepe Ancrpncxnm noenntm cyom. K 100-nernm co nx pox-
ennx mnrpo]opnoro nporonepex -pa Kaccnxna mnr. Forartpna (1868-1968) ..... 90-94
Roman MIROVICH
Apologist of Orthodoxy before an Austrian Court Martial. In Commemoration of the 100th
Anniversary of the birth of Mitred Archpriest Dr. Kassian Dmit. Bogatyrets
Poman ennconnu Mnponnu (1892-1971) ....................................................................... 95
Roman Denisovich Mirovich (1892-1971)
Cepren HOAP
3namennrt perenr n xomnosnrop ns poa eccapacxnx pycnnon ..................... 96-100
Sergei POZHAR
A Famous Choirmaster and Composer from a Family of Bessarabian Rusins
R3LKO3HAHHE / LINGUISTICS
Mnxanno mEHCA
Tenennn posnom nopmonanx pycxoro xsnxa nonoxncxnx pycnanox ............. 101-109
Mikhailo FEISA
Tendencies in the Development of the Standardization of the Rusin language of the Voevodian
Rusins
3ACEAHHE KPYIAOIO CTOAA PYCCKHHHAPO, PYCCKHHMHP H PYCCKAR HHBHAH3AHHR:
HCTOPHR HCOBPEMEHHOCTL /
A ROUND-TABLE CONFERENCE "RUSSIAN NATION, RUSSIAN WORLD AND RUSSIAN CIVILIZATION:
HISTORYANDTHE PRESENT"
Pyccxn napo, Pyccxn mnp n pyccxax nnnnnnsannx: ncropnx n conpemennocrt
....................................................................................................................................... 110-114
Russian Nation, Russian World and Russian Civilization: History and the Present
Anexcanp KA3HH
Kpyrn pyccxo ncropnn ..................................................................................... 115-124
Aleksander KAZIN
Spheres of Russian History
naxon Bnanunp BACHAHK
Pyccxn napo. Pyccxn mnp. Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx .......................................... 125-140
Deacon Vladimir VASILIK
Russian Nation. Russian World. Russian Civilization.
Anexcanp KAHAHH
Pyccxax nex n xonrexcre ncropnn pyccxoro napoa (XIX nauano XXI n.) ...... 141-144
Aleksander KAPLIN
The Russian Idea in the Context of the History of the Russian Nation (19th beginning of the
20th C.)
Hnxonan PYCCEB
Pyccxn mnp n pyccxax epxannocrt ................................................................... 145-154
Nikolai RUSSEV
The Russian World and Russian Statehood
Bn1annn APEHCKHH
Onpnunocrt n pyccxo ncropnn n conpemennocrn: ynnnepcantnax crparernx
ntxnnannx ................................................................................................................... 155-157
Vitalii DARENSKII
"Oprichnost"* in Russian History and in the Present: a Universal Strategy of Survival
Cepren CYARK
Pycnnt xapnarcxoro pernona n pyccxax nnnnnnsannx ..................................... 158-162
Sergei SULEAK
Rusins of the Carpathian region and Russian Civilization
APXHB / ARCHIVES
Anexcanp KOHYBHHCKHH
uacrnte monancxne nsannx nx pyccxo mxont (Fnnnorpa]nuecxne samerxn)
....................................................................................................................................... 163-187
Aleksandr KOCHUBINSKII
Unofficial Moldavian Publications for the Russian School (Bibliographical notes)
Hpannna nynnxannn n xypnane Pycnn ................................................................... 188
Rules of Publication in the Journal "Rusin"
Cneennx o anropax ........................................................................................................ 189
Information about the Authors
Summary .................................................................................................................... 190-191
* Oprichnina a period in the history of Russia, approximately 1565 to the death of Ivan
the Terrible, signifying state terror and a system of extraordinary measures. The word
"oprichnina" is derived from Old Russian "oprich" meaning special, "besides".
Vnaxaemte unrarenn!
B +rom nomepe xypnana, nomnmo marepnanon no ncropnn Kapnaro-
necrponcxnx sement, xopennoro nacenennx annoro pernona pycnnon
(pycnaxon), norpa]nuecxnx anntx nsnecrntx pycnnon, nomement ma-
repnant saceannx xpyrnoro crona Pyccxn napo, Pyccxn mnp n pyc-
cxax nnnnnnsannx: ncropnx n conpemennocrt, xoropoe npomno n Canxr-
Herepypre 20 mapra 2009 r. Onnm ns nnnnnaropon nponeennx anno-
ro meponpnxrnx ntcrynnn mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Py-
cnn. B xoe saceannx cocroxncx pasronop o cytax pyccxo nnnnnn-
sannn, pyccxo epxannocrn, pyccxoro napoa.
20 max 2009 r. unent pexonnernn xypnana Pycnn H.. Pyccen,
H.M. Bopnnxon n C.I. Cynxx npnnxnn yuacrne n mexynapono nayu-
no-npaxrnuecxo xon]epennnn 650-nerne opasonannx Monancxoro
rocyapcrna, xoropax npomna n r. uepnonnt. Oprannsaropamn mepon-
pnxrnx ntcrynnnn mexpaonnoe Omecrno monancxo xyntrypt Fy-
xonnnt n ncropnuecxn ]axyntrer uepnonnnxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynn-
nepcnrera nm. R. uetxonnua. annoe meponpnxrne cnococrnonano
antnememy yxpennennm nayuntx xonraxron c nccneonarenxmn Fy-
xonnnt.
29 max 2009 r. n ropocxo nnnorexe nm. M. Homonocona (r. Knmn-
nen) cocroxnact ncrpeua unenon pexonnernn mexynaponoro ncro-
pnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn (C.I. Cynxx, H.M. Bopnnxon, H.. Pyc-
cen) c unrarenxmn. Bcrpeua noxasana, uro nonpoct, nonnmaemte na
crpannnax xypnana, ntstnamr xnno nnrepec unrarene.
B +ror xe ent cocroxnoct narpaxenne cepepxntm snaxom noue-
ra Anrnox Kanremnp npesnenra Omecrnenno acconnannn Pyct,
rnannoro peaxropa mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn
C.I. Cynxxa. Pemenne o +rom tno npnnxro Conerom Mexynapo-
no acconnannn pyxt n corpynnuecrna Monona n Poccnx n xn-
nxercx eme onnm noxasarenem onenxn exrentnocrn name acconna-
nnn n xypnana, nnecmnx cno nxna n paspaorxy ncropnn name crpa-
nt n ncropnn pycnnon - xopennoro nacenennx Kapnaro-necrponcxnx
sement.
Cepren CYARK,
rnannt peaxrop
mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn
7

Cepren CYARK
MOAABHR H PYCCKHH MHP:
HCTOPHR H COBPEMEHHOCTL
(x 650-ne1nm uonancxon rocyapc1nennoc1n)
Monancxoe npanocnannoe xnxxecrno nosnnxno no nropo nononnne
XIV n. na reppnropnn mexy Bocrountmn Kapnaramn, necrpom n
uepntm mopem, na semnxx, ontmnncrno xoroptx o rarapo-monront-
cxoro namecrnnx nxonnn n cocran pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna, a sa-
rem Iannnxoro xnxxecrna. 3rn reppnropnn nacenxnn neronncnte nne-
mena rnnepnen, ynnue n xopnaron. Hocne cmeprn npxmtx nacnennxon
annnna Iannnxoro Iannnxo-Bontncxoe xnxxecrno no nropo nononnne
XIV n. crano apeno optt mexy Hontme, Hnrno n Benrpne. K
xonny XIV n. semnn Rro-3anano Pycn oxasannct n cocrane Hontcxo-
ro xoponencrna (Iannunna) n Hnrnt (Bontnt). Hoxapnarcxax Pyct
nomna n cocran Benrepcxoro xoponencrna pantme n XIII n. Cenepnoe
Hpnuepnomopte tno no nnatuecrnom 3onoro Opt.
Monancxoe npanocnannoe xnxxecrno tno cosano mecrntm pen-
nepyccxnm nacenennem pycnnamn (pvcuu ca+ouaseauue uace.e-
uu peeue Pvcu, npouseoouoe om Pvci, ocma.oci uuporo pac-
npocmpaueuui+ cpeou uace.euu Kapnamcro Pvcu; emopo, oo-
.ee nosouu omuouu+ pvcuar C.C.) n nonoxamn. Hocnenne n xaue-
crne xomnaxrno +rnnuecxo rpynnt noxnnxmrcx sect n cepenne XIV
n. no npemx rax nastnaemo nonomcxo xononnsannn (romopvm npa-
eu.iuee oi.o oi uaseami eo.oucro-pvcuucro C.C.) nocrountx
cxnonon Kapnar. B +rom nepecenenuecxom nponecce napxy c nonoxamn
(ea.axu, e.axu e oauuo+ c.v:ae omuouu+i uoeumu:ui C.C.)
npnnxnn yuacrne n pycnnt Mapamopoma. Mapamopom (Mapamypem) -
xomnrar (xyna) n cenepo-nocrouno uacrn Benrepcxoro xoponencrna.
Ceronx 3/5 reppnropnn naxonrcx n 3axapnarcxo onacrn Vxpannt,
2/5 n Pymtnnn).
Honn+rnnunocrt Bocrounoro Hoxapnartx namna orpaxenne n nero-
nncnom paccxase XV n. o ocnonannn Monancxoro xnxxecrna, n xoro-
pom ncropnuecxne ]axrt nepenneramrcx c nereno. B npnmeuannn
monancxoro xnnxnnxa Cnmnona acxana (XVII n.) x nonecrnonannm
monancxoro neronncna Ipnropnx Vpexe (ox. 1592-1647) ronopnrcx o
rom, uro nacryxn ns Mapamypema npemx oxort oxasannct n onnne
pexn Monont, n paone ntnemnero ropoa Cyuana, re namnn nacexy
8
2009, N 1 (15)
pycnna Enxo, xoropt coomnn nm, uro mecra nycrtnnte... sect nna-
crnymr nnmt snepn n nrnnt... n npocrnpamrcx nnns o ynax, a nnepx
o necrpa, re rpannuar co crpano nxxon... Honxn +rn cnona, oxornn-
xn nocnemnnn n Mapamypem, orxya ntnenn cnonx nme n +ry crpany
n pyrnx noynnn, oocnonannct nnauane y rop n pacnpocrpannnnct no
Monone nnns. A Enxo-naceunnx, xax ysnan o nocenennn mapamypem-
nen, cpasy xe ymen n on n crpany nxxon, npnnen mnoxecrno pycon n
nocennn nx no Cyuane nnepx n no Cnpery x Foromanam. H anee: Cpen
nacryxon, nonanmnx n +rn mecra, tn parom, npnmemn ns Mapamy-
pema, nanonee ynaxaemt ns nnx. H onn nocrannnn ero crapmnm cpe-
n nnx [1. C. 33].
Bonoxn no npenonrentcrnom Forana nnn paroma xnnnnct na
eperax Hpyra, namnn ram eme mnornx poccnxn n nocennnnct mexy
31nnuecxan cn1yannn x noc1oxy o1 Kapna1. XII-XVII nn.:
1 - pacnpoc1panenne 1ononnuon, cnnsannmx c nueneu paroma;
2 - nynx1m, re sanncanm nerenm o parome;
3 - ny1t nepecenennn nonoxon n Monony;
4 - rpannna Mononm;
5 - ropoa, ynounny1me n nerene.
Hcmo:uur: Cmenaumr B. Iocvoapcmeeuuocmi +o.oaecroeo uapooa. Hcmo-
pu:ecrue, no.umu:ecrue u npaeoeie acnermi. Kuuuuee, 2006. C. 24.
9

nnmn na pexe Monane, cooman H.M. Kapamsnn [2. C. 174]. Ionopx o
nerenapnom ocnonarene Monannn, .u. Iononanxn nastnaer ero
onn ns nauantnnxon mapamopomcxnx pymtn n pyccxnx, noenoa For-
an parom [3. C. 380]. Hocxontxy naceunnx ornpannncx na cenep,
orxya npnnen n paccennn pyccxnx n onnnax pex Monona n Cnper,
nxo, noono paromy, cxopee ncero, tn xnxsem nnn noxem pycnnon
[4. C. 62].
O rom, uro parom noenoa npnmen, oxorxct na rypa, or Vropcxo
semnn, or Mapamypema n nero 6867 (1359 r.), ynomnnamr Ftcrpnnxax
(nauarax n monancxom Fncrpnnxom monacrtpe n nauane XV n.) n Hyr-
nxncxax (cocrannennax n monancxom monacrtpe Hyrna n 1517-
1527 rr.) neronncn [5. C. 24, 62, 68]. O +rom xe nonecrnyer Cxasanne
nxparne o Monancxtx rocyapex, orxone nauacx Monancxaa semnx
Bocxpecencxo neronncn [6. C. 256].
C. acxan n npeocnonnn x monancxo neronncn I. Vpexe yxast-
nan, uro cosana crpana ns nyx xstxon, ns pymtn (u+emmc e euov
eocmo:uie po+aui, m.r. o ua:a.e qop+upoeauu pv+iucroeo om-
uoca +oruo eoeopumi mo.iro noc.e ooeouueuu Mo.oaeuu u Ba-
.axuu e eouuoe eocvoapcmeo (Pv+iucroe rurecmeo) e 1862 e.
C.C.) n pyccxnx, n o cero nx nononnna crpant cocronr ns pyccxnx n
nononnna ns pymtn [7. C. 28].
Bnauane Monannx pasenxnact na Hnxnmm Crpany (Hapa oe oc,
me rurecmea) n Bepxnmm Crpany (Hapa oe Cvc, pvcuucru ceeep
rurecmea). B XV n. yupexamrcx oxpcxne onxnocrn nennxoro nop-
nnxa (eicueeo cvoiu eocvoapcmea) Hnxne semnn n nennxoro nopnn-
xa Bepxne semnn.
Mnorne ropoa Kapnaro-necrponcxnx sement xonna XIV - nauana
XV n., nomemne n cocran Monancxoro xnxxecrna, nepeuncnent n
Honropocxo n Bocxpecencxo neronncxx xax pyccxne, rax xax n nnx
npeonaano pyccxoe nacenenne. Cpen nnx Fenropo, Couana, Ceper,
Fanx, ccxn ropr, Pomanon ropr, Xornn n pyrne [6. C. 240; 8. C. 475].
B nepno Hcropnn Monannn, ntnymenno n 1951 r. , nouepxnna-
ercx, uro monancxn napo nonyunn marepnantnoe n xyntrypnoe na-
cnecrno or Knencxo n Iannnxo Pycn. B rom uncne onee nana-
rn ropoon c pasnnrtm pemecnom, ropronne, orartmn marepnantnt-
mn n xyntrypntmn nennocrxmn [9. C. 92].
Hepnte noenot Monannn Foran I Ocnonarent (1359-1365), Hanxo
(1365-1374) tnn pycnnamn no nponcxoxennm. Pymtncxn ncropnx
H. Hopra cunran, uro npexenpemennax cmeprt Hanxo nomemana oc-
nonart pyccxym nnacrnm n Monannn [10. C. 358].
Vcnnennm Monancxoro xnxxecrna cnococrnonana noea nennxoro
xnxsx Hnroncxoro n Pyccxoro (e pvccro-.umoecro+ eocvoapcmee 9/10
10
2009, N 1 (15)
meppumopuu cocmae..u sanaouopvccrue se+.u u oo.iuuucmeo ua-
ce.euu oi.o pvccru+) Ontrepa na rarapcxnmn xnxstxmn Kyrnyy-
ro, Xaxneem n mnrpeem n Hoonnn, na eperax pexn Cnnne not
(Cnnmxn) n 1362 r. B pesyntrare nnroncxo-pyccxne xnxstx pacnpocrpa-
nnnn cnom nnacrt o uepnoro mopx n na npant eper necrpa, rem
camtm ocnann rarapcxoe npncyrcrnne n pernone.
O npnnanexnocrn Hpyro-necrponcxoro mexypeutx Monancxomy
xnxxecrny nsnecrno ns rpamort rocnoapx Pomana I, nasnanmero cex
n 1392 r. Bennxn camoepxanntn, mnnocrn oxn rocnonn, Ho Poman,
onaax 3emnem Monancxom or nnannnt (ropnte nacrnma n Kapna-
rax) o mopx [11. C. 3].
Taxnm opasom, pacnpocrpannrt cnom nnacrt na ncm reppnropnm or
Kapnar o necrpa monancxomy rocnoapm yanoct n xonne XIV n., n
momenr ycnnennx arpeccnn Hontmn npornn Iannnxoro xnxxecrna. Co-
nnaenne no npemenn +rnx nyx cotrn aer ocnonannx npenonoxnrt,
uro pyccxoe nacenenne, recnnmoe c sanaa xaronnxamn nonxxamn n
matxpamn, namno comsnnxon n npanocnanntx nonoxax, n no nropo
nononnne XIV n. nponsomno macconoe nepememenne nacenennx n Kap-
naro-necrponcxne semnn, yxpennnmee emorpa]nuecxn norennnan n
ooponocnoconocrt Monannn.
Hecmorpx na mnorouncnennocrt pycnnon n nonom rocyapcrne (40% n
cepenne XIV n.), ocnonntmn paonamn nx paccenennx n n antnemem
ocrannct cenep n cenepo-nocrox Monancxoro xnxxecrna: Fyxonnna,
Hoxyrte, Xornncxn, Copoxcxn, Opreencxn n ccxn nnnyrt.
B XVIII n. M. Kocrnn nncan, uro pyrxne (pyccxne, pycnnt) sacenxnn
uepnonnnxn n Xornncxn yest n nect paon necrpa, Copoxcxn n
Opreencxn yest n no Hpyry nononnny ccxoro yesa n nononnny
Cyuancxoro yesa [12. C. 233].
Hpnuem px paonon, nacenenntx pycnnamn, onroe npemx onaan
anronomne. O +rom, n uacrnocrn, ynomnnaer . Kanremnp, ronopx o
Pyccxom onrononte (pvmeucra npoeuuu Ki+nv.vue e Cv:aec-
ro+ vesoe), re xnrenn nxrnanarn epenent nontsymrcx cnonmn saxo-
namn n cyamn. Hnora onn npnnnmamr nyx nopnnxon (npeocmaeu-
me.e vesouo ao+uuucmpauu), nocrannenntx rocnoapem. Ho ne-
pexo nporonxmr nx, ecnn re nosyxamr neonontcrno xnrene.
Onn ynnaunnamr exeront nanor, no ne raxo, xaxo noxenaer rocno-
apt, a raxo, xaxo onn nnarnnn npexnnm rocnoapxm, - npoonxaer
. Kanremnp. Ecnn rocnoapt saxouer nocrynnrt c nnmn onee crporo
n noxenaer nanoxnrt nonte noarn, ro onn es onrnx cnopon nonce
orxastnamrcx nnarnrt nanorn n yxoxr n rpynoocrynnte ropt. Hnor-
a xnrenn rop ornarannct or nnacrn rocnoapx n npnnnmann noxponn-
rentcrno nonxxon [13. C. 151-152].
11

Hcmo:uur: Documenta romaniae historica. A. Moldova.Volumul I (1384 -448).
Bucureti, 1975.
12
2009, N 1 (15)
Monancxax rocyapcrnennocrt cosananact no opasny pennepyc-
cxo. Kpynnte semnennaentnt nastnannct onpe, enexnax cnc-
rema n xnxxecrne c]opmnponanact no opasny rannnxo [14. C. 126].
Camo nasnanne, rnponnm n rononnm Monona nponcxonr or pen-
necnanxncxoro uonn, uon (ent) [15. C. 57]. Hpannrenn Mon-
ancxoro xnxxecrn nastnannct rocnoapxmn, noenoamn. Hpannrent
oxpyra ntpxana n nexoroptx norpannuntx oxpyrax n XV n. nastnancx
na pyccxn na nocannxou. Camn oxpyra nmenonannct epaanaun
(or cnona epaa1t), n monancxnx oxymenrax - nnny1aun (cnono
tno opasonano or monancxoro a nnne (epxart) [16. C. 27].
B XIV-XV nn. oennennx centcxnx omnn nastnannct noenoa1m.
Inant xpecrtxncxnx omnn nastnannct xnes, aye nnn na1auan.
B XV n. amnnncrparnnnax ennnna, ynpannxemax ypxnnxom nnn nop-
nnxom, nastnanact oxon. Bopnnx (or cnona nopnnx) - oxpcxn
rnryn nnn npecrannrent yesno amnnncrpannn n cene. Cnona xy1,
noeno, aynan, raxxe ornocxmnecx x connantno xnsnn nonoxon,
roxe nocrounocnanxncxoro nponcxoxennx, xax n rocyapcrnennte on-
xnocrn oxp: noc1entnnx saornncx o noxoxx rocyapx, c1ontnnx
nean xyxne n cronom, xnyuep ynpannxn rocnoapcxnmn norpea-
mn n xnaontmn, uamnnx nannnan na npnemax rocnoapm nepnt
oxan nnna, ncnpannnx ynpannrent nnnyra (yesa), nennxnn xa1-
uan (rerman) xomanymmn nocxamn [17. C. 60; 18. C. 32].
Bnnxnne pyccxo xyntrypt npocnexnnaercx no mnornx c]epax xnsnn
Monancxoro xnxxecrna. stx nam, - nncan H.M. Kapamsnn, - o ca-
moro XVII nexa tn ne rontxo nepxonntm, no n cyentm, xax ro cnn-
erentcrnymr nonnnnte rpamort monancxnx rocnoape [2. C. 174.].
enonax oxymenrannx n rocyapcrnennte axrt nncannct na penne-
pyccxom xstxe, xax n n penne Pycn. Kax ormeuan cnanncr, npo]ec-
cop Honopoccncxoro ynnnepcnrera eccapaen A.A. Kouynncxn,
o]nnnantnt xstx Monancxoro xnxxecrna XIV-XVII cronern na-
cxnost nponnsan manopyccxnmn (nnora xnno nocrounorannnxnmn, ry-
nyntcxnmn) +nemenramn [19. C. 396]. B ocnonnom ]one conpemennoro
monancxoro xstxa nacunrtnaercx oxono 2 rtcxu nocrounocnanxnc-
xnx sanmcrnonann. 3ro nonxrnx, oosnauammne semneentuecxne opy-
nx, npemert tra, omamnmm yrnapt, oexy, nnmy, mystxantnte
nncrpymenrt [20. C. 236].
Pycnncxo-monancxn +rnoxyntrypnt cnnres ycxopxna nnrerpnpym-
max pont npanocnanno nepxnn, re orocnyxenne nenoct na nepxonno-
cnanxncxom xstxe. Hpn nocpennuecrne npanocnanno nepxnn, cunra-
na pymtncxax nccneonarentnnna Maprapera Bre]+necxy, pyccxo-
pyrencxne +nemenrt cnococrnonann xonconnannn rocyapcrna [21.
C. 67].
13

M. Bre]+necxy npnnonr annte no rononnmnxe Monannn: nocrou-
nte cnanxne ocrannnn na reppnropnn crapo Monannn n ome cnox-
nocrn 548 nasnann c uncro cnanxncxnmn xopnxmn n 321 nasnanne c
cnanxncxnm cy]]nxcom -onnn, xoropte nmenn ocoenno mnpoxoe pac-
npocrpanenne n Fyxonnne (174 nasnannx), n Cenepno Monone n Ce-
nepno Feccapann (Xornncxn, Copoxcxn, Opreencxn yest). Hpn-
uem n reorpa]nuecxne oexrt - ropt, pexn, onnnt, xonmt n +rnx
mecrax uacro nocxr nocrounocnanxncxne nasnannx. B ocrantntx uac-
rxx axo-pomancxo reppnropnn nocrounocnanxncxne nasnannx ncrpe-
uamrcx n ennnuntx cnyuaxx. B oxymenrax cnanxncxne nasnannx
ncrpeuamrcx yxe c XV n., r.e. c momenra ocnonannx Monancxoro xnx-
xecrna. Ha ocnonannn +rnx ]axron pymtncxax nccneonarentnnna cun-
rana nosmoxntm ronopnrt o nannunn nocrountx cnanxn n +rnx mecrax
c IV n., r.e. saonro o npnxoa nonoxon [22. C. 335-336].
Fontmax uacrt pycnnon co npemenem nomna n cocran opasonanme-
cx monancxo naponocrn. O rom, uro nonoxn crann npnoperart mon-
ancxne ueprt c XIII n. naroapx cmemennm n npoxnnannm c pycnnc-
xnm +nemenrom, nncan n 1929 r. pymtncxn nccneonarent H. F+py-
necxy [23. C. 81].
Hmenno pycnncxax cocrannxmmax npnnena x noxnnennm y monanan
+rnoxyntrypntx n anrpononornuecxnx ornnun or pyrnx rpynn nocrou-
ntx pomannen, n r.u. n nanaxon. Tax, anrpononornuecxn onnx mona-
nan (xnrene Pecnynnxn Monona n Pymtncxo Monont) nmeer xnno
ntpaxennym nocrounocnanxncxym nanpannennocrt. Pymtncxn nccne-
onarent C. Hymxapny yxasan n nauane XX n. , uro pymtnt Rxno
Banaxnn ornnuamrcx or monanan ontme, uem or onrap [24. C. 91].
Vunrtnax cmemannt cocran nacenennx n +rnoxyntrypnym cnryannm
n cpenenexono Monannn, Monancxoe xnxxecrno nnonne moxno na-
snart nonomcxo-pyccxnm (pycnncxnm). Pyccxoe nacenenne (pycnnt (pyc-
naxn)) xomnaxrno sacenxno cenepnte n cenepo-nocrounte semnn xnx-
xecrna. nnrentnoe npemx ono coxpanxno pyccxym +rnoxyntrypnym
nenrnunocrt. 3naunrentnax ero uacrt rax n ne tna accnmnnnpona-
na. C momenra nosnnxnonennx o nauana XVIII n. Monannx ocrana-
nact nyxstuntm rocyapcrnom.
C nauana XVI n. xnxxecrno nonano n sanncnmocrt or Typnnn, npoon-
xanmymcx onee 300 ner. Monancxne rocnoapn nocroxnno ntrannct
ocnoonrtcx or ocmancxoro nra. Bre]an Bennxn, camt nsnecrnt
monancxn rocnoapt, mnoro ner ycnemno npornnocroxn rypenxo ar-
peccnn. Haunnax c 1656 r. Monannx neonoxparno npocnnact n pyc-
cxoe noancrno. Cnnxenne c Poccne xnnnoct xypcom ntcmero y-
xonencrna n snaunrentno uacrn nonnrnuecxo +nnrt crpant. Fontmoe
xonnuecrno nocnrene cnanxncxnx nmen n ]amnnn cpen npecrann-
14
2009, N 1 (15)
rene Monancxoro xnxxecrna, ynomnnaemtx npn onncannn pyccxo-
monancxnx xonraxron, aer ocnonanne yrnepxart, uro nonnrnuecxax
+nnra pycnncxoro nponcxoxennx axrnnno ntcrynana sa coms Mona-
nnn c Mocxno. Monancxn rocnoapt mnrpn Kanremnp ntrancx
cpocnrt rypenxoe nro c nomomtm Herpa I n 1711 r.
B 1711-1821 rr. Monancxoe xnxxecrno ynpannxnoct nasnauanmnmncx
rypenxnm cynranom rocnoapxmn ns rpexon-]anapnoron (eixooee us
reapma.a Cma+ov.a 4auapa, no.isoeaeuuxc e Oc+aucro u+-
nepuu sua:ume.iui+u npueu.eeu+u). B 1774 r. no Kmuyx-Kanap-
xncxomy mnpy cenepnax uacrt Monancxoro xnxxecrna ontmax
uacrt Fyxonnnt (xpome Xornncxoro yesa) - tna oxxynnponana ancr-
pnnamn. Ho Fyxapecrcxomy mnpnomy oronopy 1812 r. n cocran Poc-
cnn nomna Feccapanx (reppnropnx mexy Hpyrom n necrpom). Oc-
rantnte semnn Monannn n 1859 r. oennnnnct c Banaxne n ono
rocyapcrno (c 1862 r. Pymtnnx, c 1881 r. xoponencrno).
Hponecc opasonannx Pymtncxoro rocyapcrna, x coxanennm, neo-
crarouno ocnemen n ncropnorpa]nn. Hsnecrno, uro ynnonncrcxax nex
ne tna nonynxpna n Monancxom xnxxecrne. Cnepxenne 11 (23) ]en-
panx 1866 r. n pesyntrare nopnonoro nepenopora rnant Oennenntx
xnxxecrn A. Kyst n ntnnxenne na npecron nnocrpannen unnnnna
unanpcxoro, sarem Kapna Iorennonnepna npnnenn x ntcrynnennm mon-
anan npornn oennennx c Banaxne. Bosrnannn anrnynnonncron ox-
pnn Hnxonae Posnonany, ero noepxan mnrpononnr Kannnnx Mnxnec-
xy. 3 (15) anpenx 1866 r. n ccax mynrxncxn nonx npnmennn opyxne
npornn mnpno nponeccnn no rnane c mnrpononnrom Kannnnxom. Ftn
panen mnrpononnr [25. C. 289-290].
Hpncoennennax x Poccnn Feccapanx npecrannxna coo pasopen-
nt rypxamn n rarapamn xpa. uncnennocrt nacenennx, no pasnnuntm
ncrounnxam, cocrannxna or 275 rtc. o 334 rtc. uenonex. B Feccapa-
nn tno 17 ropoon, 683 cenennx, 51 121 cemtx [15. C. 9]. B 1816-
1817 rr. pycnnt cocrannxnn 42,6% xnrene Xornncxoro nnnyra 23 925
uen. [20. C. 150].
Kax nncan Xypnan mnnncrepcrna nnyrpennnx en n 1846 r., Fecca-
panx n reuenne nocnenero 20-nernx cenana ncnonnncxne marn na
nonpnme cnoero rpaxancxoro opasonannx, Knmnnen ns ropcrn semnx-
nox npenparnncx n onn ns xpacnnemnx ropoon nmnepnn,cemena rpx-
ymero narococroxnnx Feccapann neyctnno nacaxamrcx n npnno-
cxr yxe nnot cnon [26. C. 443].
Vnyumenne connantno-+xonomnuecxoro nonoxennx onacrn cxasanoct
na uncnennocrn nacenennx. Hpnpocr nacenennx n Feccapann n nepno
nononnne XIX n. tn ntme, uem n 3anpyrcxo Monannn. B ro npemx
xax c 1810 no 1831 r. nacenenne xnxxecrna nospocno n 1,7 pasa, uncnen-
15

nocrt xnrene Feccapann ynennunnact onee uem n 2 pasa [27. C. 58].
3a 60 ner XIX n. nacenenne Poccnn nospocno n nenom n 2 pasa, n Fecca-
pann sa 50 ner sa cuer nepecenennen n ecrecrnennoro npnpocra c 1812
no 1861 rr. n 4 pasa [28. C. 58].
Ocoenno nacenenntm tn Xornncxn yes. B 1812 r. sect npoxnna-
no 15,4 rtc. uenonex, n 1827 r. 114, 3 rtc. C 1812 no 1858 r. uncnen-
nocrt nacenennx yesa nospocna n 11,5 pas [20. C. 100]. Fontmnncrno
xnrene yesa tnn pycnnt (pycnaxn). Onn xomnaxrno npoxnnann rax-
xe n ccxom n Copoxcxom yesax. Konnuecrno pycnnon ynennunnanoct
sa cuer mnrpanron ns ancrpncxo uacrn Fyxonnnt n Iannunnt. Fyxo-
nnncxne pycnnt maccono npnxonnn na cesonnte paort n Feccapa-
nm, mnorne ns nnx sarem ocranannct n xpae. B 1859 r. uncnennocrt
pycnnon n Feccapann nacunrtnana 130 rtc. uenonex (1/7 uacrt nace-
nennx xpax), n nauane XX n. cntme 250 rtc. uenonex (1/8 nacenennx
ryepnnn) [29. C. 97].
Hexnarxa sementntx yron ntnyxana pycnnon cenepa Feccapann
nepecenxrtcx n nenrpantnym n mxnym uacrn xpax. B uacrnocrn, xo-
rnncxne pycnnt sacennnn unmnmnnm (tnmee rarapcxoe cenenne)
Fenepcxoro yesa, na mre Feccapann ocnonann Crenanonxy n Pa-
nxnxy* [19. C. 12; 30. C. 498].
Centcxoe nacenenne raxxe nepecenxnoct n ropoa Feccapann. Ho
ntcoxomy nponenry ropocxnx xnrene n ome macce nacenennx Fec-
capanx sannmana nxroe mecro nocne Herepyprcxo, Mocxoncxo, Tan-
pnuecxo n Acrpaxancxo ryepnn. Iopoxan, cornacno noctmo
(1843 r.) n enxro (1851 r.) pennsnxm, tno 24% ncero nacenennx. Py-
cnnt cocrannxnn snaunrentnym uacrt nacenennx ne rontxo ropoon
cenepa Feccapann. Hemano nx npoxnnano n pyrnx ropoax ryepnnn,
n rom uncne n Knmnnene, re nacenenne c 1811 no 1861 r. nospocno n 16
pas. Bo nropo nononnne XIX n. Knmnnen cranonnrcx onnm ns rycro-
nacenenntx ropoon Poccncxo nmnepnn [31. C. 57]. B 1856 r. no uncny
xnrene (63 rtc. uen.) on sannmaer nxroe mecro nocne Herepypra,
Mocxnt, Oecct, Pnrn [31. C. 113]. o nauana XX n. n Knmnnene co-
xpanxnoct npemecrte Iynynenxa, nacenennoe ntxonamn ns Iannun-
nt rynynamn [20. C. 265].
Poccncxne nnacrn orenxnn pycnnon (pycnaxon) or manopoccon, npn-
snanax nx ocoym +rnoxyntrypnym nenrnunocrt, cunrax nx, xax n ma-
nopoccon, uacrtm pyccxoro napoa. Onaxo o]nnnantno nx npnnnctna-
nn x manopoccam ns-sa nexoropo cxoxecrn nx ronopa c manopoccnc-
xnm. Xorx npnsnananoct, uro npnuncnxrt pycnnon x manopoccam ne-
npannntno [32. C. XX]. 3a nce npemx n xannenxpnn eccapacxoro noen-
noro ryepnaropa tno saneeno rontxo ono eno, xacammnecx pycn-
non: O ancrpncxonoanntx, npetnammnx n Feccapacxym onacrt
16
2009, N 1 (15)
n ontmom xonnuecrne (1867 r.). Ftno ormeueno, uro ner nnxaxnx cne-
enn, ammnx nono saxnmunrt o nenaronaexnocrn anntx nnn.
B ro xe npemx nocroxnnoe nanmenne nenoct sa npoxnnammnmn n
Feccapann craponepamn, anrncramn, monoxanamn, nonxxamn [29.
C. 91-92].
Hpncoennenne Feccapann x Poccnn, - cunran monancxn nncarent
n omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxoro exrent A. Mareennu, - oxasanoct cna-
cnrentntm axrom xax nx monancxoro xstxa, rax n nx monancxoro
orocnyxennx. Feccapacxne monanane coxpannnn xstx cnonx npe-
xon, xoropt nsanna tn n nx nepxonntm xstxom. Ha +rom xstxe,
cnanxncxnmn yxnamn, nanncant pennne monancxne xponnxn, rpamo-
rt n yxast monancxnx rocnoape. Onn, cnana Fory, nsernn ona-
rtnnnannx n o]pannyxnnannx [33. C. 12, 14]. A. Kouynncxn, raxxe
orpnnarentno ornocnnmecx x uncrxe nnreparypnoro xstxa or cnanxn-
cxnx cnon n nacaxennm narnnnsmon n Pymtnnn, cunran, uro na-
crynnr npemx, xora yuente sa nacroxmnm monancxnm xstxom yyr
nanpannxrtcx nmenno n Feccapanm [34. C. 403].
3a 106 ner npetnannx n cocrane Poccncxo nmnepnn eccapant (n
rom uncne n monanane) npnopenn, no cnonam nroporo npesnenra
Pecnynnxn Monona H.K. Hyunncxoro, nmnepcxoe cosnanne [35.
C. 110].
B 1918 r., nocne pacnaa Poccncxo nmnepnn n penonmnnn 1917 r.,
Pymtnnx annexcnponana Feccapanm. Fontmnncrno nacenennx ntcry-
nnno npornn oxxynanron. Onnm ns xpxnx npoxnnenn optt sa ocno-
oxenne Feccapann xnnnoct Xornncxoe noccranne, xoropoe nauanoct
na cenepe Feccapann, n pernone xomnaxrnoro npoxnnannx pycnnon, n
nout na 19 xnnapx 1919 r. B noccrannn npnnnmann yuacrne npecrann-
renn pasntx nannonantnocre. uncno noccranmnx ocrnrano 30 rtc.
uen. Pymtncxne nocxa noannnn noccranne. 1 ]enpanx tn ocrannen
Xornn. Ha npant eper necrpa nepemno cntme 50 rtc. rpaxanc-
xnx nnn, n ocnonnom pycnnon. Hosxe mnorne ns eccapanen ncrynnnn
n noncranuecxne orpxt, oponmnecx c nernmponnamn, sarem n Kpac-
nym Apmnm.
Fyxapecrcxax rasera Taranismul nncana n xonne 1926 r.: Pymtnc-
xne nnacrn xasnnnn n Feccapann n 1918 r. 3000 rpaxancxnx nnn, n
1919 r. 11 000 (Xornncxoe noccranne), n 1920 r. 80 rpaxancxnx nnn
(ns nnx 17 yunrene), n 1921 r. 55, n 1922 r. 49 (ns nnx 3 yunrenx ns
Copox), n 1924 r. -1300 (noccranne n Tarapynapax), n 1925 r. 28 uen..
B 1924 r. 29 enyraron, npecrannxnmnx Feccapanm n pymtncxom
napnamenre (oo.iuuucmeo us uux oieuue .uoepi Cqamv. Ho-
pu), n rom uncne H. Xannnna, H. Kasaxy, H. Fysyran, K. Crepe n
pyrne, nanncann pymtncxomy xoponm nocnanne, n xoropom, n uacrno-
17

crn, ormeuanoct, uro n reuenne mecrn ner Feccapanx ynpannxercx
raxnmn meroamn, xaxnmn ceronx ne moryr trt ynpannxemt axe
uepnte xononnn n A]pnxe [36. C. 251-252, 258].
Hecmorpx na npononmym nontmn nnacrxmn nonnrnxy reppopa n py-
mtnnsannn, npo]eccop ccxoro ynnnepcnrera O. Iny n oxnae na nmx
mnnncrpa npocnemennx Pymtnnn n 1936 r. npnsnan: Ho yxy cnoemy
Feccapanx renept necpannenno onee pyccxax, uem n 1918 r H ce-
uac n ropoax nourn nce oxornee ronopxr no-pyccxn n unramr uame
ncero pyccxym npeccy, ncxuecxn npenxrcrnymmym yrnepxennm py-
mtnnsma [36. C. 276]. He nomor n ene pymtnnsannn n nneennt n
xnnape 1938 r. sanper ronopnrt n npncyrcrnenntx mecrax na pyccxom
xstxe (napymenne pacnennnanoct xax ocxonenne pymtncxo nannn
n npeycmarpnnano mrpa] o 20 000 neen nnn saxnmuenne or onoro
mecxna o nyx ner) [36. C. 275].
B 1924 r. ns nonnrnuecxnx coopaxenn tna cosana Monancxax
Anronomnax Conercxax Connanncrnuecxax Pecnynnxa (MACCP) n
cocrane Vxpanncxo CCP. 26 nmnx 1940 r. conercxoe npannrentcrno
oparnnoct c noro x pymtncxomy npannrentcrny, n xoropo npenara-
no nosnparnrt Conercxomy Comsy Feccapanm n Cenepnym Fyxonnny.
Pymtncxoe xoponencxoe npannrentcrno n nore or 28 nmnx 1940 r. npn-
nxno npenoxenne conercxoro npannrentcrna. Feccapanx n Cenepnax
Fyxonnna nomnn n cocran CCCP.
2 anrycra 1940 r. na VII ceccnn Bepxonnoro Conera CCCP tn npnnxr
3axon o opasonannn comsno Monancxo Conercxo Connanncrnuec-
xo Pecnynnxn. B cocran MCCP tnn nxnmuent r. Knmnnen n 6 yes-
on Feccapann: Fentnxn, Fenepcxn, Karyntcxn, Knmnnencxn,
Opreencxn n Copoxcxn. Axxepmancxn n uacrt Hsmanntcxoro n Xo-
rnncxoro yeson, n xoroptx npeonaano manopoccxoe n pycnncxoe na-
cenenne, tnn nepeant Vxpanncxo CCP. Taxxe x MCCP tnn npn-
coennent r. Tnpacnont n 6 paonon MACCP: yoccapcxn, Kamenc-
xn, Ptnnnxn, Ipnropnonontcxn, Cnoosecxn n Tnpacnontcxn.
Bo npemx Bropo mnpono nont c 1941 no 1944 rr. MCCP tna npe-
menno oxxynnponana Pymtnne, noenanme n ro npemx na cropone Iep-
mannn.
Hentsx ne cornacnrtcx c mnennem B. Crenanmxa, uro 2 anrycra
1940 r. tna noccranonnena monancxax nannonantnax rocyapcrnen-
nocrt, nropax Monancxax pecnynnxa. Hepnax Monancxax emox-
parnuecxax Pecnynnxa (2.12.1917 27.11.1918) tna nnxnnnponana
Pymtnne [37. C. 352, 343, 349].
Iot nxoxennx Monannn n cocran CCCP n xauecrne comsno pec-
nynnxn xapaxrepnsymrcx xax +ran nonnnnoro nporpecca n nponnera-
nnx. B 80-e rot pecnynnxa nponsnonna npomtmnenntx ronapon
18
2009, N 1 (15)
na 27-30% ontme, uem norpenxna, +xcnoprnpyx nx n 60 crpan. Hnme-
nax npomtmnennocrt oennxna 213 npenpnxrn n acconnann, npo-
nsnox 435,8 rtc. ronn caxapa, 125,6 rtc. ronn pacrnrentnoro macna,
oxono 18 mnn. ycnonntx xoncepnntx anox, 1,2-1,6 mnn. ronn nnnorpaa
n ron r.. Konnuecrno yuennxon n cryenron n 1989 r. npentcnno 860
rtc. uen., na 10 rtc. xnrene npnxonncx 81 mennnncxn paornnx.
[37. C. 377-378].
Kax ormeuaer H. Hyunncxn, sa rot npetnannx n cocrane Poccn-
cxo nmnepnn n CCCP nacenenne pecnynnxn npnopeno menrannrer,
ornnunt or pymtn [35. C. 211].
27 anrycra 1991 r. napnamenr pecnynnxn nponosrnacnn Monannm
cynepenntm nesanncnmtm n emoxparnuecxnm rocyapcrnom - Pec-
nynnxo Monona.
Pecnynnxa Monona nonn+rnnunoe rocyapcrno. Ha ero reppnro-
pnn, cornacno anntm nepenncn 2004 r., npoxnnamr monanane (75,8%),
yxpannnt (8,4%), pyccxne (5,9%), rarayst (4,4%), pymtnt (2,2%), on-
rapt (1,9%) n npecrannrenn pyrnx nannonantnocre [38. C. 19].
Ho ynnxantnocrt name crpant ne n ee mnoronannonantnocrn, a n rom,
uro c nepntx ne nponosrnamennx nesanncnmocrn n 1991 r. mentmax
uacrt omecrna nacaxaer cnom nenrnunocrt ontmnncrny, napymax
npn +rom ecrnymmee saxonoarentcrno crpant.
nnxenne sa nannonantnoe nospoxenne monanan nauanoct n xonne
ropauencxo nepecrpoxn n Conercxom Comse n 1989 r. Hmenno rora
nosnnxnn nepnte oprannsannn Kny A. Mareennua, Monancxoe
emoxparnuecxoe nnxenne, emoxparnuecxax nnra cryenron,
Acconnannx ncropnxon n pyrne, xoropte nnocnecrnnn oennn-
nnct n Hapont ]ponr Monont. 3rn oprannsannn nnauane paronann
sa npnanne o]nnnantnoro craryca monancxomy xstxy, sa nepexo na
narnncxym rpa]nxy, sa npnnxrne n xauecrne rocyapcrnennoro ]nara
rpnxonopa n r.. Ho ouent cxopo ns monancxoro nannonantnoro +ro
nnxenne npenparnnoct n npopymtncxoe. B 90-x rr. Hapont ]ponr
Monont conpan mnorortcxunte mnrnnrn, na xoroptx orxptro sny-
uann npnstnt, pasxnrammne mexnannonantnax posnt. Onn ns nony-
nxpntx nosynron rex ner npnmennrentno x pyccxoxstunomy nacenennm
Monannn snyuan: uemoan-noxsan-Poccnx. B 1992 r. npopymtncxn
nacrpoenntmn cnnamn tn cnpononnponan noopyxennt xon]nnxr c
nenoepexntmn paonamn Monannn (Hpnnecrpontem), nocne uero
tna nponosrnamena Hpnnecrponcxax Monancxax Pecnynnxa.
Hmenno n ro npemx no ncex yuentx saneennxx Pecnynnxn Mono-
na tnn nneent xypct Pymtncxn xstx nmecro Monancxn xstx
n Hcropnx pymtn nmecro Hcropnn Monannn. Kypc Hcropnx py-
mtn, xoropt nectma renennnosno paccmarpnnan ncropnm Mona-
19

nnn, xax uacrt ncropnn pymtncxoro npocrpancrna, npenoanancx n
reuenne 17 ner. Monannx, nanepnoe, enncrnennax crpana Enpont, re
nsyuanact ncropnx ne cocrnennoro rocyapcrna, a onoro ns manounc-
nenntx nannonantntx mentmnncrn crpant. B 2002 r. Mnnncrepcrno
opasonannx Pecnynnxn Monona nontranoct nnecrn n yuentx sa-
neennxx crpant xypc Hcropnx Monont nmecro Hcropnn pymtn.
Ho npanopanxantnax npopymtncxax Xpncrnancxo-emoxparnuecxax
naponax naprnx (tnmn Hapont ]ponr Monont) oprannsonana
macconte axnnn nporecra n Knmnnene, ntnynn npannrentcrno orxa-
sartcx or +roro namepennx. Mnorne nonnronorn ne es ocnonannx cun-
rann, uro annax axnnx tna nponnauena cocennm rocyapcrnom.
B 2006 r. xypc Hcropnx pymtn cmennn nnrerpnponannt xypc ncro-
pnn. Onaxo xapaxrep nsnoxennx ncropnuecxnx cotrn ocrancx ror
xe. Kpome roro, ocnonnte nonoxennx xypca Hcropnx pymtn nsnoxe-
nt n n pyrnx yuennxax: Hosnanne mnpa n r.. B yuennxax rnrynt-
nym nannm crpant no-npexnemy nastnamr eccapacxnmn pymtna-
mn.
Hsanne xnnr no ncropnn pymtn, nponeenne nccneonann n xon]e-
pennn mnorne rot ]nnancnpymrcx enapramenrom no cnxsxm c sa-
pyexntmn pymtnam Mnnncrepcrna nnocrpanntx en Pymtnnn. 3ra
nnreparypa pacnpocrpanxrcx sarem no yuentm saneennxm.
Ha yxpennenne nen pymtnnsma n Monannn ntenxmrcx xpynnte
cpecrna. B reuenne 16 ner Hpannrentcrno Pymtnnn oxastnano ]n-
nanconym noepxxy noctmn monancxnm nepnonuecxnm nsannxm (ra-
sert Timpul de dimineata, Democratia, Ziarul de gard, Literatura
si arta, Flux continuu, Jornal de Chisinu, Glasul natiunii, xypnan
Limba Romn), xoropte n 2006 r. nonyunnn nomomt na cymmy cnt-
me 360 rtc. onnapon CBA.
Taxxe oxastnaercx rocyapcrnennax ]nnanconax nomomt n crponrent-
crne nepxne n monacrtpe, naxoxmnxcx no mpncnxnne Feccapa-
cxo mnrpononnn Pymtncxo npanocnanno nepxnn. B xonne oxrxpx
2007 r. tno cosano rpn pymtncxnx enncxonara n Kanremnpe, Fentnax
n yoccapax, nxoxmnx n cocran Feccapacxo mnrpononnn, xoropax
xanonnuecxn nounnxercx Fyxapecrcxomy narpnapxary. Hpana, ncxo-
pe nocne nporecra Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara tno npnnxro pemenne o
npnocranonnennn exrentnocrn anntx enapxn.
Hecmorpx na mnorouncnennte cxanantnte nynnxannn n monanc-
xo npecce, ]nnanconax nomomt cocenero rocyapcrna c xaxtm
room rontxo nospacraer.
Taxxe npannrentcrno Pymtnnn npeocrannxer xnrenxm Monannn
pymtncxoe rpaxancrno. nx +roro nyxno rontxo nornepnrt, uro
ponrenn nnn ponrenn nx ponrene o 1940 r. tnn pymtncxnmn rpax-
20
2009, N 1 (15)
anamn (r.e. xnnn n Feccapann). B anpene 2009 r. no npenoxennm
npesnenra Tpaxna F+cecxy pymtncxoe npannrentcrno ynpocrnno npo-
neypy npeocrannennx rpaxancrna nx 4 mnnnnonon pymtn sa Hpy-
rom.
Monancxne nnacrn ne es ocnonannx ycmarpnnamr n +rnx ecrnnxx
yrposy nannonantno esonacnocrn crpant, uro npnneno x oxnaxennm
ornomenn c Pymtnne. He cnococrnyer nopmannsannn ornomenn n
nocroxnnoe ynorpenenne o]nnnantntmn xpyramn Pymtnnn onpeene-
nnx nropoe pymtncxoe rocyapcrno n ornomennn Monannn n ec-
capacxne pymtnt n ornomennn monanan, a raxxe saxnnenn T. F+-
cecxy, uro Pymtnnx ocraercx enncrnenno pasenenno crpano En-
pont. Cotrnx 7 anpenx 2009 r. (neyanmncx rocyapcrnennt nepe-
nopor), xora monoext no pyxonocrnom nnepon npopymtncxn na-
crpoenno onnosnnnn, pasmaxnnax cnmnonnxo cocenero rocyapcrna,
mrypmonana npesnenrypy n napnamenr, ne oomnnct es yuacrnx Fy-
xapecra.
B cnom ouepet, nonnrnuecxne nponemt ocnoxnxmrcx +xonomnuec-
xnmn. Ho o]nnnantntm anntm, sa nocnenne rot Monannm noxn-
nynn oxono 300 rtcxu rpaxan, 90% ns xoroptx ntexann sa rpannny n
noncxax paort. Fonee 56% yexanmnx na sapaorxn rpyxrcx n Poc-
cnn. Ho neo]nnnantntm anntm, uncno monancxnx racraparepon,
xax mnnnmym, nnoe ontme - oxono 750 rtcxu, a mexynaponax opra-
nnsannx no mnrpannn nacunrana onee mnnnnona monancxnx rpaxan,
ntnyxenntx n noncxax paort noxnnyrt pecnynnxy. Tax naxny non-
nornncx nosynr npopymtncxnx mnrnnron 90-x rr.: uemoan-noxsan-Poc-
cnx. Hpana, n necxontxo nno ]opme: ontmnncrno rpyontx mnr-
panron cocrannxmr monanane.
Ceronx Monannx sannmaer nepnoe mecro n Enpone no oemy o]n-
nnantntx enexntx nepenoon or corpaxan, paorammnx sa rpann-
ne, n coornomennn x BBH. B 1999-2006 rr. monancxne racraparept
nepenenn n Monony oxono 3,9 mnp. onnapon CBA. B 2007 r. monan-
cxne rpaxane, paorammne sa npeenamn crpant, nepenenn na ponny
uepes xommepuecxne anxn onee 1 mnp. 218 mnn. onnapon. 3a 8 me-
cxnen 2008 r. monancxne racraparept nepenenn na ponny 1 mnp.
108 mnn. onnapon. Ho anntm Hannonantnoro Fanxa Monont, onx
+rnx nepenoon n BBH ntpocna c 14% n 2000 r. o 35% n 2008 r. Han-
ontmne cymmt ntctnamr na ponny monancxne rpaxane, paora-
mmne n Poccncxo ueepannn. Onaxo n nauane +roro roa oem
nepenoon or racraparepon ns-sa pyexa ymentmnncx onee uem na
30%.
C pyro cropont, noxoxe, n n camo Pymtnnn c onpeenennem nen-
rnunocrn ne nce n nopxxe. B 3anpyrcxo Monone neonoxparno npe-
21

npnnnmamrcx nontrxn cosannx monancxnx +rnoxyntrypntx oprann-
sann, xoropte noxnpymrcx pymtncxnmn nnacrxmn. B anpene 2007 r.
cy r. cct npnnxn pemenne pac]opmnponart Acconnannm Omnna
monanan Pymtnnn, saperncrpnponannym necxontxnmn mecxnamn pa-
nee. 3ro ano ocnonanne npesnenry Pecnynnxn Monona Bnanmnpy
Boponnny saxnnrt: B conpemenno Pymtnnn o neannero npemenn
tno onontno nenpocro orxptro saxnnxrt o cnoe monancxo nen-
rnunocrn. Xorx raxne nontrxn tnn ncera. H n crapom xoponencrne, n
no npemena connanncrnuecxo Pymtnnn, n n 90-e rot. Ftn t mox,
ecnn t sa nocnenne 150 ner monanane Pymtnnn satnn o cnoem
rocyapcrne, o nonnnnom nmenn cnoero xstxa, o nonnrax cnonx repo-
en. Ho onn ne satnn.
B ro xe npemx nentsx ne ormernrt nenocneonarentnocrt monanc-
xnx nnacre n nonpocax yxpennennx monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn.
B nepnym ouepet, orcyrcrnne omenannonantno nporpammt, cnoco-
no xonconnnponart nce cnon monancxoro omecrna. Memaer xonco-
nnannn omecrna n nonnrnxa n ornomennn nannonantntx mentmnncrn,
xoropte, noxoxe, nyxnt nnacrxm n nonnrnuecxnm naprnxm rontxo n
nepno mnorouncnenntx nsnparentntx xamnann. A net nnrennnren-
nnx nannonantntx mentmnncrn Monannn, n ornnune or monancxo,
nanonee nocneonarentno orcrannaer monancxym rocyapcrnennocrt,
nonnmax, uro n cocrane Bennxo Pymtnnn nannonantnte mentmnn-
crna xer nonnax accnmnnxnnx.
pyro ]axrop coxpanennx monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn coxpa-
nenne pyccxo-monancxoro nnnnrnnsma, xoropt cnoxnncx ncropnuec-
xn. Hecmorpx na nenaronpnxrnym cnryannm c ]ynxnnonnponannem n
nsyuennem pyccxoro xstxa n Monannn, no pesyntraram nepenncn
2004 r., ns 3 383 332 xnrene pecnynnxn 380 796 rpaxan name pec-
nynnxn npnsnann ero cnonm pontm xstxom, 540 990 xstxom, na
xoropom otuno pasronapnnamr. C pyro cropont, ns 2 564 849 uen.,
nenrn]nnnpymmnx cex xax monanane, 481 593 uen. npnsnann cno-
nm pontm xstxom pymtncxn, n ro xe npemx ns 73 276 rpaxan,
sanncanmnxcx pymtnamn, 1 139 nasnann cnonm pontm xstxom mon-
ancxn [38. C. 301]. Hocnenee cnnerentcrnyer o npoonxammem-
cx nponecce pasmtrnx +rnnuecxoro cosnannx monanan.
B nocnenee npemx n Monannn axrnnnsnpymr cnom exrentnocrt
npomonancxne cnnt. B xonne npomnoro roa omecrnennte oprannsa-
nnn Pro Moldova, Meleag Natal (Pono xpa) cosann Ome-
crnenno-nonnrnuecxoe nnxenne Harpnort Monont. Ero nentm
tnn nponosrnament yxpennenne monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn, xon-
connannx monancxoro mnoronannonantnoro omecrna n cnere xonnen-
nnn: Pecnynnxa Monona - +ro ennax n neennmax Ponna ncex ee
22
2009, N 1 (15)
rpaxan; neonymenne, n coornercrnnn c 3axonom, enannonannsannn
nopacrammnx noxonenn, erpaxannsannn crpant - ecrnn, ]nnan-
cnpyemtx n npnxnpyemtx nsnne, c nentm paspymennx ocnon Monan-
cxoro rocyapcrna n r.. Crana ntxonrt rasera Moldova Mare (Be-
nnxax Monona).
Onaxo es mnpoxo rocyapcrnenno noepxxn n crpororo conm-
ennx ecrnymmero saxonoarentcrna Pecnynnxn Monona, ntme-
nsnoxennoe ocranercx nnmt narnm namepennem. 3ro nonnmamr n nn-
ept monanenncron. Kax cxasan onn ns nnepon nnxennx Harpno-
rt Monont oxrop xannnrar ncropnuecxnx nayx Bacnnn Crarn:
Henepoxrno, no "3axon o yrnepxennn Konnennnn nannonantno no-
nnrnxn Pecnynnxn Monona", npnnxrt n exape 2003 r., xoropt on-
peennn rnannte nanpannennx rocyapcrnenno noepxxn pasnnrnx n
cnoonoro ntpaxennx +rnnuecxo, xyntrypno, pennrnosno n xstxo-
no camotrnocrn ncex +rnnuecxnx coomecrn, npoxnnammnx n Mon-
one, o cnx nop ne ntnonnxercx n ornomennn monanan, xoropte xnnx-
ercx, cornacno ntmeyxasannomy saxony, rocyapcrnoopasymme na-
nne [39. C. 2-7].
Ceronx n Pecnynnxe Monona, necmorpx na mnrpannn n accnmnnx-
nnonnte nponecct, npoxnnaer ne menee 500 rtc. noromxon pycnnon,
utn npexn nmecre c nonoxamn cosann Monancxym rocyapcrnen-
nocrt. Fontmnncrno ns nnx nomnnr o cnoem nponcxoxennn. B conerc-
xne npemena +rnonnmt pycnn, pycnax naxonnnct no neonorn-
uecxnm sanperom. Cunranoct, uro annoe ocroxrentcrno morno oc-
noxnnrt nponecc ]opmnponannx yxpanncxo connanncrnuecxo nannn.
Hpexparnnact ne rontxo paspaorxa ncropnn pycnnon, no n ynomnnanne
o nnx na crpannnax yuennxon ncropnn crpan Kapnarcxoro pernona, re
pycnnt npoxnnann ncxonno. Hocne pacnaa CCCP n opasonannx no-
ntx nenrpantnoenponecxnx rocyapcrn nauanoct nonoe pycnncxoe Bos-
poxenne. B 2003 r. B Monannn tna cosana Omecrnennax oprann-
sannx Pyct (c xonna 2007 r. Omecrnennax acconnannx Pyct). Ee
nent antnemax paspaorxa ncropnn pycnnon, xoropax no neonorn-
uecxnm mornnam tna npexpamena n CCCP. Fnaroapx exrentnocrn
Omecrnenno acconnannn Pyct n nayunt n maccont oopor nos-
npamen +rnonnm pycnn, axrnnnsnponanact paspaorxa ncropnn pycn-
non. C 2005 r. OA Pyct nsaer mexynapont ncropnuecxn xyp-
nan Pycnn, n cocran pexonnernn xoroporo nxoxr nsnecrnte yuente
n omecrnennte exrenn ns Poccnn, Vxpannt (3axapnarte), Cepnn,
Cnonaxnn, Kanat. Ha nsanne enncrnennoro n mnpe xypnana no nc-
ropnn pycnnon Kapnarcxoro pernona an narocnonenne nepnonepapx
Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn sa rpannne mnrpononnr Hanp, poom
pycnn ns Cnonaxnn:
23

Cnm xouy noxenart Bam Foxte nomomn n cem naxnom ene. Ham
pycnncxn napo nperepnenan ncxuecxne nensrot, n, xoneuno, ntxcne-
nne ncropnuecxoro nonoxennx +roro nonpoca ouent naxno.
Iocnot a narocnonnr Bac n a nomoxer Bam n Bamnm corpynn-
xam nocnyxnrt namemy mnorocrpaantnomy napoy.
For Bam n nomomt!.
* Xnrene Xornncxoro yesa, tnmero ono npemx rypenxo nponnnnne
pae, nastnann panxnamn, paxamn. Ceronx na reppnropnn Monannn npo-
xnnamr nocnrenn ]amnnn Panxn (2230 uen.), Panxny (241), P+nxny (1998
uen.), P+nxn (2937 uen.), Paxy (378 uen.), Paxo (175 uen.). uamnnnm Pycnax
nocnr 4696 uen, Pycnn 22 (Cynxx C.I. Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnnuecxo
ncropnn pycnaxon Monannn. Knmnnen: Hsarentcxn om Tartxna, 2004.
C. 131-132).
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Ho.eeo H.H. Ouepxn ncropnuecxo reorpa]nn Monannn XIII-XV nn. Knmn-
nen: Brnnnna, 1979.
2. Kapa+suu H.M. Hcropnx rocyapcrna Poccncxoro. T.IV. M.: Hayxa, 1992.
3. Io.oearu B.4. Kapnarcxax Pyct (Hcropnxo-+rnorpa]nuecxn ouepx) //
Xypnan Mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx. uacrt CLXXIX. 1875. Hmnt.
4. Te.iuoe H., Cmenauoe B., Pvccee H., Paouuoeu: P. H... pasomnnct cnanxne
no semne. Hs ncropnn Kapnaro-necrponcxnx sement VI-XIII nn. Knmnnen: Btc-
max anrpononornuecxax mxona, 2002.
5. Cnanxno-monancxne neronncn XV-XVI nn. Cocrannrent u.A. Ipexyn. M.: Ha-
yxa, 1978.
6. HCPH. T. VII. Heronnct no Bocxpecencxomy cnncxy. CH., 1856.
7. Letopisetul Trii Moldovei. Chisinu: Hyperion, 1990.
8. Honropocxax nepnax neronnct crapmero n mnamero nsnoon. M.-H.: Hs-no
Axaemnn nayx CCCP, 1950.
9. Hcropnx Monannn. T. 1. Or pennemnx npemen o Bennxo Oxrxptcxo
connanncrnuecxo penonmnnn. Ho pe. A.. Vantnona n H.B. uepennnna. Kn-
mnnen; Bxoana conernx+, 1951.
10. Iorga Nicolae. Histoire des relations russo-roumaines // Histoires des relationes
roumaines. Anthologie et edition augmentee par Florin Rotaru. Bucarest: Imprimerie
Semne, 1995.
11. Documenta romaniae historica. A. Moldova.Vol. I (1384-1448). Bucuresti, 1975.
12. Costin M. Opere. Bucuresti, 1958.
13. Kaume+up +umpu. Onncanne Monannn. Knmnnen: Kaprx Mononenxc-
x+, 1973.
14. Pvcauoea H.H., Tu+ouvr B.A. pennepyccxoe Honecrponte. Vxropo: Kap-
narn, 1981.
15. 3e.eu:vr B.C. Hacenenne Monannn. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1973.
16. Moxoe H.A. Opasonanne Monancxoro ]eoantnoro rocyapcrna // Mona-
nane. Ouepxn ncropnn, +rnorpa]nn, ncxyccrnoneennx. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1977.
24
2009, N 1 (15)
17. Cmamu B. Hcropnx Monont. Knmnnen, 2003.
18. Cv.r C.I. Ctn camoepxna ncex Pycn // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn
xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2005. N 2 (2).
19. Ko:vouucru A.A. Typa (Tnpac) - Fenropo - Axxepman n ero nonax nannap-
nax nannct or 1454 roa. Oecca, 1901.
20. 3e.eu:vr B.C. Hacenenne Feccapann n Honecrpontx n XIX n. Knmnnen:
Brnnnna, 1979.
21. Lopuuroe H.M. Monancxax camotrnocrt. Tnpacnont: Hs-no Hpnnecr-
poncxoro ynnnepcnrera, 2007.
22. Cepeueecru M.B. Tononnmnx Feccapann n ee cnnerentcrno o nponecce
sacenennx reppnropnn // Hsnecrnx Axaemnn nayx CCCP. Orenenne nnreparypt
n xstxa. T. V. Btnycx 4. M., 1946.
23. Brbulescu I. Individualitatea limbii romne si elementele slave. Bucuresti, 1929.
24. Moxoe H.A. Ouepxn ncropnn ]opmnponannx monancxoro napoa. Knmn-
nen: Kaprx Mononenxcx+, 1978.
25. Istoria unirii romnilor de I. Lupas. Bucuresti: Fundatia cultural regal Principele
Carol, 1938.
26. Hcropnuecxoe nneenne n crarncrnuecxoe onncanne Feccapacxo onacrn
// Xypnan Mnnncrepcrna nnyrpennnx en. 1846. uacrt 13.
27. Ipocv. B.C. Kpecrtxne Feccapann (1812-1861 rr.). Knmnnen: Iocyapcrnen-
noe nsarentcrno Monannn, 1956.
28. Ipocv. B.C., Bvoar H.I. Ouepxn ncropnn naponoro xosxcrna Feccapann
(1812-1861). Knmnnen: Kaprx Mononenxcx+, 1967.
29. Cv.r C.I. Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnnuecxo ncropnn pycnaxon
Monannn. Knmnnen: Hsarentcxn om Tartxna, 2004.
30. Pcuneuro Broe, ceueuuur. Panxnxa, ceno Axxepmancxoro yesa. Knmn-
nencxne enapxnantnte neomocrn. N 13. 1-15 nmnx 1879.
31. Hcropnuecxoe snauenne npncoennennx Feccapann n Henoepexnoro Ho-
necrpontx x Poccnn. Orn. pe. B.H. Xyxon. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1987.
32. Cnncox nacenenntx mecr Poccncxo nmnepnn. Feccapacxax onacrt. CH.,
1861. C. XX.
33. Mameeeu: A. Momenrt nepxonnoro nnnxnnx n nponcxoxennn n ncropn-
uecxnm pasnnrnn monancxoro xstxa // Mateevici A. Opere. Vol. 2. Chisinu: Stiinta,
1993.
34. Ko:vouucru A. A. uacrnte monancxne nsannx nx pyccxo mxont (Fn-
nnorpa]nuecxne samerxn) // Xypnan Mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx.
uacrt CCCXXXXVII. 1903. Hmnt.
35. Hv:uucru H. Monona n monanane.Knmnnen: Cartea Moldovei, 2007.
36. Hasapee A.M. Monancxax conercxax rocyapcrnennocrt n eccapacxn
nonpoc. Knmnnen: Kaprx Mononenxcx+, 1974.
37. Cmenaumr B. Iocyapcrnennocrt monancxoro napoa. Hcropnuecxne, no-
nnrnuecxne n npanonte acnexrt. Knmnnen, 2006.
38. Recensmntul populatiei / Hepennct nacenennx 2004. Culegere statistic.
Vol. 1. Chisinu, 2006.
39. Suljak Sergej. Eine Frage der identitat: Die Moldavier am ethnischen Scheideweg
// Wostok. Informationen aus dem Osten fur den Westen [Berlin]. N 1. Fruhjahr
2008.
25

Maxcnu HX
K HPOBAEME PAHHEH HCTOPHH
CAABRH HPHKAPHATCKOIO PEIHOHA
(cepenna n1opan nononnna I 1mc. n. +.)
Hepnoe xpynnoe cnanxncxoe +rnononnrnuecxoe oennenne n Hpn-
xapnarte, na reppnropnn yyme Iannnxo semnn, tno cosano xop-
eama+u n ncroxn ero yxoxr x nepno nononnnecepenne I rtc. n. +.
x +noxe nennxoro nepecenennx napoon n nennxoro paccenennx cnanxn.
Tpyno narn pyro nepno, xoropt ctrpan t cront xe naxnym pont
n ncropnn cnanxncrna, xax +noxa nennxoro cnanxncxoro paccenennx VI-
VII nn. B +ro npemx cnanxne, panee xomnaxrno npoxnnanmne n Oepo-
nenponcxoro pernone
1
n ornocnrentnom yanennn or nenrpon anrnu-
no nnnnnnsannn, ntmnn na mnpoxym ncropnuecxym apeny, nonann na
crpannnt nnsanrncxnx, sananoenponecxnx n apacxnx xponnx
2
, n sa-
cennnn orpomnte npocrpancrna n Henrpantno, Bocrouno n Rxno
Enpone
3
.
3rn ypnte cotrnx oycnonnnn cnoxnte nponecct n cnanxncxom
mnpe
4
. Crapte npacnanxncxne nnemennte oennennx pacnaannct, n
ns nx ocxonxon nosnnxann nonte omnocrn. Hnora tnano rax, uro
ocxonxn onoro n roro xe npacnanxncxoro nnemennoro oennennx
oxastnannct sa cornn xnnomerpon pyr or pyra: opveveumi n rpueu-
meuui, nsnecrnte nnsanrncxnm ncrounnxam na Fanxanax, n opeeoeu-
:u, rpueu:u Bocrouno Enpont, oooopumi na ynae n n Honate, cep-
oi nyxnnxne n cepoi anxancxne, no.ue n Cpenem Honenponte n n
Mano Hontme, ceeepue na ecne n cenept na Fanxanax n r.. n r.n.
5
Ouennno, uro xora mt nmeem eno co cront anexo pasomemnmncx
+rnonnmamn, moxno crannrt nonpoc o tronannn anntx nasnann no
npemena, nenocpecrnenno npemecrnonanmne cnanxncxomy paccene-
nnm.
Onn ns raxnx +rnnxonon xopeami npnmeuarenen rem, uro xnnx-
ercx, noxany, nanonee mnpoxo pasomemnmcx: xopnart nsnecrnt
pannecpenenexontm ncrounnxam n Bocrouno Enpone, na Fanxanax, n
uexnn n Hontme, axe n Iepmannn, r. e. n semnxx n nocrountx, n sa-
nantx, n mxntx cnanxn. Baxno ormernrt, uro pasenenne cnanxn-
crna na +rn rpn nernn nponsomno, no nnnrnncrnuecxnm anntm, n VII-
VIII nn.
6
, a paccenenne xopnaron ornocnrcx x onee pannemy npemenn.
Vunrtnax cront mnpoxoe paccenenne xopnaron, nponema nx nponc-
xoxennx n mnrpann npnoperaer onontno ontmoe snauenne, oco-
26
2009, N 1 (15)
enno n cnere nonpoca o paccenennn cnanxn n pannem cpenenexonte n
nenom: n cyte xopnaron +roro npemenn (IV-VII nn.) xax t n yment-
mennom nne orpaxaercx ncropnx ncero cnanxncrna. Bor nouemy rema
nponcxoxennx n penneme ncropnn xopnaron xnnxercx xort n no-
xantno, no naxno, rem ne menee, nx nonnmannx ncropnuecxo cyt-
t cnanxn n nepenomnym nx nnx +noxy.
Ho+romy nnrepec x nponcxoxennm n panne ncropnn xopnaron n nc-
ropnuecxo nayxe ncera tn ocrarouno nennx
7
.
Tem ne menee, n ome:ecmeeuuo ncropnorpa]nn ne cymecrnonano
o cnx nop nn onoro monorpa]nuecxoro nccneonannx, cnennantno no-
cnxmennoro renesncy n nauantno ncropnn xopnaron. H ntmemax ne-
anno paora A.B. Maopona
8
sanonnxer +ror nspxnt ncropnorpa]n-
uecxn npoen.
3ect cneyer cenart naxnoe meronuecxoe sameuanne: ncropnm
xopnaron IV-VII nn. n nocneymmero npemenn cneyer paccmarpnnart
ne nsonnponanno, a n omem xonrexcre cnanxncxo ncropnn (nnpouem,
+ro ornocnrcx x paccmorpennm nmoro cnanxncxoro +rnononnrnuecxo-
ro oennennx ro nopt), nocxontxy mnorne snentx xopnarcxo ncro-
pnn n cnny cxyocrn ncrounnxon moryr trt ocnement nnmt npn cono-
crannennn c nponeccamn, nponcxonnmnmn no ncem cnanxncxom mnpe.
Hs ncex pannecpenenexontx ncrounnxon, ronopxmnx o xopnarax,
nanontmn nnrepec npecrannxmr annte, coepxamnecx n npnnn-
ctnaemom nepy nnsanrncxoro nmneparopa Koncranrnna Farpxnopo-
noro (945-959) counnennn O ynpannennn nmnepne (948-952)
9
. 3ror
ncrounnx npnmeuarenen rem, uro coepxnr ne xaxoe-ro xparxoe yno-
mnnanne o xopnarax, a aer ornocnrentno nenocrnym pasnepnyrym xon-
nennnm xopnarcxo ncropnn. Ho+romy ananns ero nsnecrn ncera sa-
nnmaer naxnoe mecro n nmom nccneonannn, nocnxmennom panne-
cpenenexono ncropnn xopnaron. Hcropnm nponcxoxennx n paccene-
nnx xopnaron nmneparop paccxastnaer n nyx rnanax cnoero rpya:
30- n 31-. B rnane 30- on ronopnr, uro Xopna1m annn n 1o npeun
(nepea no.oeuua VII e. M..) sa Barnnapnen (Baeapue M..),
re c neannero npeuenn naxon1cn enoxopna1m. Onn ns po-
on, o1ennnct o1 nnx, a nuenno nn1t pa1ten: Knyxa, Aonen,
Kocennnc, Myxno n Xopna1 n ne cec1pm, Tyra n Byra, nuec-
1e c nx napoou npnmnn n anuannm n onapyannn, u1o anapm
sannaenn +1on seunn. Ho+1ouy necxontxo ne1 onn noenann pyr
c pyrou n oonenn xopna1m; onnx anapon onn ynnn, npounx
npnnynnn nounnn1tcn. C 1ex nop +1a c1pana (a.+au M..)
naxon1cn no nnac1tm xopna1on. Hpoune ae xopna1m oc1annct
y mpanrnn (e.aoeuu Ommoua I (936-973) M..) n c neannnx
nop nasmnam1cn enoxopna1aun, 1. e. enmun xopna1aun, nue-
27

mmnun coc1nennoro apxon1a. O1 xopna1on, npnmemnx n an-
uannm, o1ennnact nexan uac1t n onnaena Hnnnpnxou n Han-
nonnen
10
.
B rnane 31- coepxnrcx necxontxo nno paccxas: Xopna1m, nmne
annymne n xpanx anuannn, nponcxon1 o1 nexpemnmx xopna-
1on, nasmnanmnxcn enmun, xo1opme on1am1 no 1y c1opony
Typxnn (Beuepuu M..), nns mpanrnn n rpannua1 co cnannna-
un nexpemnmun cepaun (.vruru+u M..). [Hun] xopna-
1m na cnannncxou nsmxe osnauae1 onaa1enn ontmon c1pa-
nm. 31n xopna1m oxasannct nepeeaunxaun x nacnnency po-
ueen Hpaxnnm (npaeu. e 610-641 ee. M..) n 1o npeun, xora
anapm, nonn nonnom, npornann o11ya pnunnn (eusaumuee
M..). Kora ynounny1me pnunnne mnn npornanm anapaun, n
nn 1oro ae nacnnenca poueen Hpaxnnn, nx seunn oxasannct
nyc1mun. Ho+1ouy, no nonenennm nacnnenca Hpaxnnn, +1n xop-
na1m, nonn nonnom npo1nn anapon n npornan nx o11ya, no none
nacnnenca Hpaxnnn n nocennnnct n cen c1pane anapon, n xaxon
anny1 nmne
11
.
Hn]opmannx +rnx nyx rnan (xnnxmmnxcx uacrtm omnpnoro none-
crnonannx o paccenennn cnanxncxnx napoon na Fanxanax) necxontxo
pasnnuna. B nepnym ouepet pocaercx n rnasa ro ocroxrentcrno, uro
n rnane 30- xopnart noexamr anapon n onnaenamr anmanne nnon-
ne camocroxrentno, n rnane xe 31-, nanpornn, nouepxnnaercx nnnnn-
arnna Bnsanrnn n nsrnannn anapon ns anmannn. Bepoxrno, nn]opma-
nnx +rnx nyx rnan nocxonr x pasnnuntm ncrounnxam: annte 30-
rnant xnnxmrcx, nepoxrno, nnsanrncxo opaorxo xaxnx-ro xopnar-
cxnx npeann
12
, n ro npemx xax cneennx rnant 31- xnno nonyuent ns
cocrnenno nnsanrncxnx ncrounnxon
13
. Bosmoxno eme, uro rnana 30-x
n nonce xnnxercx nosneme ncranxo n rexcr Koncranrnna Farpxno-
ponoro
14
. Hoxa nce +rn nonpoct eme anexn or oxonuarentnoro peme-
nnx
15
.
3ra xparxax n nectma nenpocrax n nnrepnperannn nn]opmannx nn-
sanrncxoro nmneparopa (n ero nensnecrntx nx nac ncrounnxon) xnnx-
ercx ocnono nx nmo pexoncrpyxnnn ncropnn pannecpenenexontx
xopnaron, no, xax yxe tno ormeueno ntme, aer nanonee xcno nsno-
xennte npecrannennx o nponcxoxennn xopnaron. cno, uro nnrepec
x +rnm nsnecrnxm ncera tn orpomen. Ho, rem ne menee, xnmuente
nonpoct, cnxsannte c oxcnennem anntx Koncranrnna Farpxnopo-
noro, o cnx nop ne pement. Ie naxonnact onacrt, ns xoropo uacrt
xopnaron nepecennnact n anmannm? Houemy onn nepecennnnct? Ftn
nn coms nmneparopa Hpaxnnx c xopnaramn? Ftno nn nepecenenne en-
nonpemenntm nnn mno necxontxnmn nonnamn, orenenntmn pyr or
28
2009, N 1 (15)
pyra snaunrentntmn npemenntmn npomexyrxamn? Conepmenno on-
peenenno moxno saxnnrt, uro es ornera na +rn nonpoct nsyuenne
penneme ncropnn xopnaron npx nn nosmoxno.
Hepntm enom cneyer nontrartcx ntxcnnrt crenent ocronepno-
crn nsnecrn Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro o nponcxoxennn n pacce-
nennn xopnaron
16
. He pas npenarannct pexoncrpyxnnn panne ncropnn
xopnaron, nonnocrtm orneprammne cneennx nnsanrncxoro ncrounn-
xa
17
n ne ocrannxmmne mecra nx xaxnx-nno ocotx +rnononnrnuec-
xnx opasonann xopnaron, oennxnmnx nect +rnoc n nepno, npe-
mecrnonanmn ero pasenennm na orentnte noxantnte rpynnnponxn
n nponecce cnanxncxoro paccenennx
18
. Mexy rem, no cnpanennnomy
mnennm A.B. Maopona, raxne nocrpoennx crpaamr onocroponnoc-
rtm n nrnopnpymr coomaemte Koncranrnnom Farpxnopontm ]ax-
rt ornocnrentno xapaxrepa paccenennx xopnaron, ocnannanmnx no-
nte reppnropnn n pesyntrare noenntx noe na nx npexnnmn onra-
renxmn, n uacrnocrn, noet na anapamn n anmannn
19
. Vuent cun-
raer, uro raxne ]axrt ne moryr trt nonnocrtm ycrpanent nnn nepe-
cmorpent Xopnart npntnn n Henrpantnym Enpony ne cnao opra-
nnsonanno macco nepecenennen, cnacammnxcx or npaxecxoro name-
crnnx, a, nanpornn, nmenn ocrarouno cnntnym n noenno-nonnrnuecxom
ornomennn oprannsannm, ananmym nm onpeenennte npenmymecrna
nepe pyrnmn napoamn n opte sa nonte reppnropnn
20
. 3ect
A.B. Maopon pasnnnaer nen H. Hnepne, xoropt, nospaxax B. rn-
uy, ananornuntm opasom ormeuan, uro rpannnn o Bennxo nnn Fe-
no Xopnarnn na cenepe nentsx cunrart nopoxennem ]anrasnn nn-
sanrnnen, rax xax xopnart npnmnn na mr xax cnntnte nnemena,
cneonarentno, noxnax Hpnxapnarte, onn npecrannxnn snaunrentnym
cnny
21
. A. B. Maopon enaer ntno, cornacno xoropomy pemenne
nponemt entx xopnaron nenosmoxno es antnemero anannsa rex-
cra nsnecrn Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro, xoropt tn n ocraercx
rnanntm n nesamennmtm ncrounnxom n annom nonpoce
22
.
Opamaxct x nenocpecrnennomy anannsy nsnecrn, coepxamnxcx
n rpye nnsanrncxoro nmneparopa, cneyer paccmorpert nponemy
coornomennx nonxrn Be.a n Be.ura Xopeamu, rax xax ecrt nec-
xne ocnonannx cunrart, uro, nonpexn yrnepxennm camoro Koncranrn-
na Farpxnoponoro
23
, +ro nonce ne ono n ro xe, n npn nx oroxecrnne-
nnn, onycxaemom n O ynpannennn nmnepne, mt nmeem eno c xon-
ramnnanne nyx nepnonauantno ne cnxsanntx nonxrn
24
. Hpenxar Be-
nnxax, no mnennm A.B. Maopona, osnauaer, xax n n pxe ananornuntx
cnyuaen, pennxx n yxastnaer na npaponny xopnaron, re cymecrno-
nano nx +rnononnrnuecxoe opasonanne, oennxnmee nect xopnarc-
xn +rnoc n nepno, npemecrnonanmn ero pasenennm na orentnte
29

noxantnte rpynnnponxn n nponecce cnanxncxoro paccenennx
25
. B cny-
uae xe c npenxarom Be.a, raxxe ornocnmom x Xopnarnn n nsnecr-
nom ne rontxo Koncranrnny Farpxnoponomy, no n Honecrn npemen-
ntx ner
26
n neronncn nona yxnxnnna
27
, mt nmeem eno c nnnxnnem
nnerono cnmnonnxn reorpa]nuecxoro opnenrnponannx asnarcxnx xo-
uentx napoon
28
, n xoropo nonxrne enoro nnera cnxsano c sanaom.
Be.a Xopeamu +ro, cneonarentno, 3ananax Xopnarnx. Bnnmo,
+ro nasnanne ornocnnoct x sanano uacrn xopnaron
29
. Taxnm opasom,
+rn na nasnannx Be.a n Be.ura Xopeamu oosnauamr conep-
menno pasnte nonxrnx, xax n reorpa]nuecxom, rax n n xpononornuec-
xom ornomennn: nropoe ornocnrcx x penne npaponne ncex xopnaron,
n ro npemx xax nepnoe nnmt x nexoropo nx uacrn (nnn uacrxm)
30
. Ho
n uem xe npnunna nx xonramnnannn, n re onn pacnonarannct? Hpn or-
nere na nepnt ns +rnx nonpocon A.B. Maopon onycxaer, uro coen-
nenne npenxaron ee.ura n oe.a n nasnannn Xopnarnn moxer trt
onycrnmo rontxo c rouxn spennx anmarnncxnx xopnaron nnxa-
mnx cocee Bnsanrnn. nx nnx Fenax (= sananax) Xopnarnx, pacno-
naranmaxcx n paonax Cenepnoro Hpnxapnartx, tna ononpemenno n
Bennxo (=crapo) Xopnarne, orxya nponsomno nepecenenne na Fan-
xant cemn xopnarcxnx poon npexon anmarnncxnx xopnaron, onn-
cannoe n rpaxrare "O ynpannennn nmnepne"
31
. Hmenno or anma-
rnncxnx xopnaron annoe oroxecrnnenne morno nonacrt n n nnsanrn-
cxne ncrounnxn, cranmne ocnono coornercrnymmnx rnan rpya Kon-
cranrnna Farpxnoponoro. Kax t ro nn tno, ocnonann nx oroxe-
crnnennx Be.uro n Be.o Xopnarnn ner nnxaxnx
32
, uro nornepxaer
n pyro naccax Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro, ronopxmn o rom, uro
Xopnart xe xnnn sa Farnnapne (Baeapue M..), re c nean-
nero npemenn naxoxrcx enoxopnart
33
. 3ect xnno pasnnuamrcx
pennxx npaponna xopnaron n Be.a Xopeamu xax nonoe +rnononnrn-
uecxoe oennenne. Koncranrnn Farpxnopont cneymmnm opasom
onnctnaer xoopnnart Be.o Xopeamuu: ona naxonrcx sa Farnnapn-
e (Fanapne)
34
, no ry cropony Typxn (Benrpnn), nns upanrnn (nna-
enn Orrona I), n rpannuar co cnanxnamn nexpementmn cepamn
(nyxnnxnmn)
35
. Hcxox ns +roro px nccneonarene
36
nomemaer Be-
.vm Xopeamum, xoropym onn xax tno noxasano A.B. Maopontm,
esocnonarentno oroxecrnnxmr c Be.uro Xopeamue na reppnro-
pnm, coornercrnymmym npnmepno conpemenno uexnn. Mnenne +ro A.B.
Maopony, c xoroptm n annom cnyuae rpyno ne cornacnrtcx, npe-
crannxercx neocrarouno onpananntm no pxy npnunn
37
. Bo-nepntx,
nectma nmontrno, uro reppnropnantno yxasannax Koncranrnnom Far-
pxnopontm Be.a Xopeamu nonnocrtm connaaer c penneuemc-
xnm rocyapcrnom
38
, xoroporo nam ncrounnx nopasnrentntm opasom
30
2009, N 1 (15)
ne snaer. Orcma nanpamnnaercx ntno, uro Feno Xopnarne nmne-
parop nastnaer nmenno uexnm
39
, na reppnropnn xoropo n ro npemx
ecrnnrentno npoxnnana ona ns nerne xopnaron, nmenmax n rora
cnoe snaunrentnoe nonnrnuecxoe opasonanne
40
. Houemy nasnanne +rnx
xopnaron tno pacnpocrpaneno na ncm uexnm, cxasart cnoxno. B nm-
om cnyuae, nepoxrno, nmenno uemcxne xopnart, n nepnym ouepet, n
nastnannct cocrnenno oe.i+u
41
.
Hotroxnnax ntnot, cenannte A.B. Maopontm ornocnrentno
coornomennx Be.o n Be.uro Xopeamuu, c xoroptmn, na nam nsrnx,
cneyer cornacnrtcx, moxno cxasart, uro n Bnsanrnn Be.a Xopeamu
tna omnouno (nosmoxno, npn nocpecrne anmarnncxnx xopnaron)
npnnxra sa pennmm npaponny xopnaron ncnecrnne nosneme xon-
ramnnannn nyx pasntx n nepnonauantno ne cnxsanntx nonxrn. Home-
mart na reppnropnm uexnn peantnym npaponny xopnaron nnxaxnx oc-
nonann ner ona naxonnact xnno nocrounee, uro eme n xonne XIX n.
noxasan B. rnu
42
. Kax nonaraer A.B. Maopon, ona pacnonaranact n
Bocrounom Hpnxapnarte n, nosmoxno, raxxe n 3axapnarte
43
. O +rom
cnnerentcrnyer ncx conoxynnocrt anntx o nponcxoxennn n nauant-
no ncropnn xopnaron, n nmenno n +rom pernone ecrt ocnonannx nome-
mart Be.urvm Xopeamum Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro
44
, o uem cnn-
erentcrnymr, nanpnmep, ero yxasannx o nanaennn na nee neueneron
45
,
uro nx roro npemenn tno nosmoxno rontxo npn ycnonnn ee npnxap-
narcxo noxannsannn
46
. He menee naxno n nponeennoe nccneonare-
nem rmarentnoe conocrannenne anntx o cocexx nenrpon n 13-
47
n
40-
48
rnanax O ynpannennn nmnepne, n uncne xoroptx n oonx cny-
uaxx nasnant n xopnart, noxasanmee, uro n anntx rnanax counnennx
Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro xopnart noxannsymrcx nmenno n Hpnxap-
narte
49
. O +rom xe cnnerentcrnymr n pyrne nontcxne n nemenxne
ncrounnxn
50
. Haxonen, paccmarpnnax paccxas nnsanrncxoro nmnepa-
ropa o nyrn ns Be.uro Xopeamuu x Uepuo+v +opm, sannmammem 30
ne
51
, A.B. Maopon noxastnaer, uro no nocnennm cneyer nonn-
mart uepnoe mope, a ne Fanrncxoe, xax nnora cunramr
52
. Xopnart
xax pas n mornn ocrnrnyrt ero, cnycxaxct nnns no necrpy npnmepno
sa 30 ne
53
. Taxnm opasom, nccneonanne A.B. Maopona yenrentno
noxastnaer, uro pennemn nnacr anntx o xopnarax n nx nponcxox-
ennn, orpasnnmncx n O ynpannennn nmnepne, orpaxaer nn]op-
mannm o nx npaponne, naxonnmecx n Hpnxapnarte. Tam xe naxo-
nnoct n cosannoe xopnaramn momnoe +rnononnrnuecxoe oenne-
nne, pacnanmeecx n cepenne VI n. n xoe nx paccenennx.
3ect nao xparxo xocnyrtcx nponem +rnorenesa n camo nauant-
no ncropnn xopnaron. Baxnemnm nonpocom ryr xnnxercx nponcxox-
enne camoro +rnonnma xopeami, uro nnonne ecrecrnenno, yunrtnax,
31

uro, no mnennm conpemenntx nccneonarene, ronopnrt o cnoxennn
ro nnn nno +rnnuecxo omnocrn moxno rontxo rora, xora y +ro
omnocrn noxnnxercx camonasnanne
54
, a cnonoopasonarentnax crpyx-
rypa +rnonnma orpaxaer ero ncropnm, samn]ponano nonecrnyer o ero
nponcxoxennn
55
. Ornocnrentno nmenn xopeami tno ntcxasano mno-
xecrno npenonoxenn
56
, ontmax uacrt ns xoroptx ntne nmeer unc-
ro ncropnorpa]nuecxn nnrepec. Hanonee oocnonanno na ceronxm-
nn ent xnnxercx npancxax +rnmonornx
57
. Orranxnnaxct or nee n yun-
rtnax ror ]axr, uro nexn anrpononnm xopeam, npnnanexanmn, cyx
no ncemy, ntxonam ns nnemenn xopnaron
58
naxt (n rpennsnponanno
]opme) ynomnnaercx n nanncxx ns Tananca (I-II nn. n. +.)
59
, moxno
cenart ntno, uro nepnonauantno xopnaramn nastnanoct nexoe nne-
mennoe oennenne ceneponpnuepnomopcxnx npannen, xnnmee x noc-
roxy or ona
60
.
3ror ntno nensexno npnnonr nac x neoxonmocrn oxcnennx
nocnpnxrnx cnanxnamn +roro npancxoro +rnonnma, uro ntnonr ero na
nsyuenne nponemt cnanxno-npancxnx cnxse nepntx nexon n. +. n ne-
nom. anno n mnoroxparno yuentmn ormeuanoct cnntnoe xstxonoe n
xyntrypnoe nnnxnne npancxoro mnpa na npexon nocrountx n mxntx
cnanxn
61
(npn +rom nmontrno, uro npexn sanantx cnanxn ne ncnt-
rann noonoro nnnxnnx)
62
, uro cnnerentcrnyer o nx nnrentnom
cocecrne n nsanmoecrnnn c npannamn, xoropte npemecrnonann
nauany mnpoxoro cnanxncxoro paccenennx, a cneonarentno onxnt
trt ornecent x nepntm nexam n. +. n noxannsonant n paone uepnx-
xoncxo apxeonornuecxo xyntrypt, xoropax, xax yenrentno noxasan
B.B. Ceon, npecrannxna coo sony cnanxno-npancxoro +rnoxyntryp-
noro cnmnosa
63
, ns sont xoroporo n ntmnn npexn nocrountx n mx-
ntx cnanxn. O xapaxrepe +roro cnmnosa moxer art npecrannenne
ntno B.H. Tonopona, cornacno xoropomy mnorne npannsmt moryr
oxasartcx ne crontxo sanmcrnonannxmn, cxontxo pennxramn npancxo
peun n xstxe nacenennx, nepememero na cnanxncxym peut
64
. Kon-
nennnx cnanxno-npancxoro +rnoxyntrypnoro cnmnosa n pamxax uepnx-
xoncxo apxeonornuecxo xyntrypt npecrannxercx ncxnmunrentno
nepcnexrnnno, rax xax nosnonxer ouent mnoroe oxcnnrt n ncropnn
pannnx cnanxn, n rom uncne n nponcxoxenne pxa +rnnuecxnx nasna-
nn, xapaxrepntx nx pannecpenenexontx cnanxn: aumi, cepoi, ce-
eepue, pvci n r..
65
Ouennno, uro onn tnn nepenxrt cnanxnamn or
npanoxstunoro nacenennx n xoe +roro camoro +rnoxyntrypnoro cnmn-
osa. Ananornunym xaprnny ycnoennx cnanxnamn +rnonnma xopnart npe-
noxnn B.B. Ceon, no mnennm xoroporo nepnonauantntmn ero nocnre-
nxmn tnn npannt, xoropte sarem cnanxnnsnponannct, coxpannn cnoe
camonasnanne
66
. A.B. Maopon ne cornacnncx c raxnm npxmonnne-
32
2009, N 1 (15)
ntm saxnmuennem, nocunran, uro +ro cymecrnennoe ynpomenne npo-
nemt n nx noonoro poa nocrpoennx neocrarouno ocnonann, rax
xax ono ne coornercrnyer peannxm +noxn Bennxoro nepecenennx napo-
on
67
. Vuent npenaraer nnoe oxcnenne: n xoe rynncxoro name-
crnnx npanoxstunte xopnart, onranmne o roro n paonax nocrounee
ona
68
, yxoxr na cenepo-sana, x Kapnaram, re n cranxnnamrcx co
cnanxnamn n nepeamr nm cnoe nmx. Hpnuem, nponcxonr +ro, no mne-
nnm A.B. Maopona, ne n pesyntrare +nonmnnonntx nponeccon mex-
+rnnuecxoro cnnresa, a nyrem nnrencnnnoro nonnrnuecxoro nsanmoe-
crnnx
69
. Kax nonaraer ncropnx, xaxoe-ro npemx npecrannrenn anan-
cxoro poa Xopnaron, no-nnnmomy, nnacrnonann na npnnecrponcxnx
cnanxncxnx semnxx. nx nernrnmnsannn cnoe nnacrn onn mornn ncry-
nnrt n pocrnennte ornomennx c mecrno cnanxncxo snartm. Hmx
xopnaron nx cnanxn npnopeno ocooe caxpantnoe snauenne nnny roro,
uro cnxstnanoct c noeo na roramn n ocnooxennem or rorcxoro
nra. Bosmoxno, npant n re nccneonarenn, xoropte cunramr, uro cna-
nxncxn +rnonnm xopnart mor nponsorn ne rontxo or nnunoro nnn
poonoro nmenn anan, no n or nexoero connantnoro repmnna, oosnauan-
mero noennym pyxnny noxx no nmenn Xopnar, nastnaemym nmtmn
Xopnara nnn xopnaramn; cama xe +ra pyxnna morna trt cmeman-
no no +rnnuecxomy cocrany n nxnmuart n cex xax anan, rax n cna-
nxn
70
. B pyrom mecre, npana, yuent npenaraer necxontxo nnoe
pemenne +ro nponemt, cnxstnax nponcxoxenne cnanxncxoro +rno-
nnma xopeami c nx cnyxo capmaram, xoropte sacrannxnn npnxap-
narcxnx cnanxn sannmartcx nacrymecxnm cxoronocrnom, orxya n npo-
ncxonr nx nasnanne xopeami crpaxn cxora
71
.
Hmenno nsanmoecrnne c ananamn n rynnamn nomorno cnanxnam
noenrt roron n nsannrtcx or nx nnatuecrna, npnuem n opte c
nnmn npnnnmann yuacrne ne rontxo cnanxne noontcxo-nenponcxoro
pernona, no n npnxapnarcxoro
72
. Hmenno nocne cnepxennx nnacrn roron
n yxoa rynnon na sana n nosnnxaer +rnononnrnuecxoe oennenne
xopnaron cnanxncxoe n ocnonnom no +rnnuecxomy cocrany, no c ananc-
xo nepxymxo
73
n Hpnxapnarte, Bepxnem Honecrponte n Mano
Hontme
74
. Hpn +rom naxno nouepxnyrt, uro, no mnennm A.B. Mao-
pona, xopnart ne nxonnn n cocran anrcxo rpynnnponxn
75
, rax xax cnx-
stnamrcx onn c apxeonornuecxnmn marepnanamn ne rontxo npnnane-
xanme anram npaxcxo-nentxoncxo xyntrypt, no n npaxcxo-xopuaxon-
cxo, oroxecrnnxemo co cr.aeuua+u nnsanrncxnx ncrounnxon
76
. Ho
mnennm nccneonarenx, pennee nnemx xopnaron onxno tno nos-
nnxnyrt pantme, uem opasonannct ynomxnyrte (nparcro-rop:aroe-
cra u nparcro-neuiroecra M..) apxeonornuecxne xyntrypt, n
npemenem ero cnoxennx xnnxercx nepno nocnene uerneprn IV
nepno nononnnt V n.
77
33

3arem yxe n VI n.
78
n xoe anapcxoro namecrnnx ennoe +rnononnrn-
uecxoe oennenne xopnaron paspymaercx, n onn pacnaamrcx na rpn
nernn: ona ocraercx na mecre, re coxpanxercx o npemen Knencxo
Pycn n cranonnrcx n yymem ocnono nacenennx Iannnxo semnn, py-
rax yxonr na Fanxant, re n antnemem cocrannr xpo cpenenexo-
ntx n conpemenntx anxancxnx xopnaron, a rpertx nnnercx na sana,
re n nocnecrnnn noer n cocran uemcxo n nontcxo naponocre
79
.
Hac, pasymeercx, n nepnym ouepet, nnrepecymr xopnart, ocranmn-
ecx na reppnropnn ome xopnarcxo npaponnt Be.uro Xopeamuu,
xoroptx uacro omnouno cunramr oe.i+u
80
, onnpaxct na ynomnnanne
entx xopnaron n Honecrn npemenntx ner
81
. Onaxo +ro xnnoe neo-
pasymenne. Btme yxe tno ormeueno, uro no oe.i+u xopeama+u
cneyer nonnmart sananocnanxncxnx nnn uacrt anmarnncxnx xopna-
ron (nocnenee nmeer mecro y nona yxnxnnna). K nnm xe, no nce
nnnmocrn, cneyer ornocnrt n +ror ]parmenr Honecrn npemenntx
ner, nocxoxmn, ouennno, x xaxomy-ro nnsanrncxomy, mxno- nnn
sananocnanxncxomy ncrounnxy
82
. Xopnart xe nocrounoenponecxne,
o xoroptx Honecrt npemenntx ner ynomnnaer neonoxparno
83
, npn
+rom nn pasy ne ncnontsyx npenxara oe.ie, onontno ynepenno noxa-
nnsymrcx n paonax Bocrounoro Hpnxapnartx, Bepxnero Honpyrtx n
Honecrpontx
84
. O rom xe cnnerentcrnymr n ynomnnannx o xopna-
rax n nocrountx ncrounnxax n conocrannenne anntx Honecrn npe-
menntx ner c sanantmn ncrounnxamn
85
.
B anrnocaxconcxom nepenoe xponorpa]nn Oposnx (xonen IX n.), nt-
nonnenno no pyxonocrnom xoponx Ant]pea, ynomxnyrt nexne xo-
port
86
, no pernon nx npoxnnannx onpeennrt nourn nenosmoxno: x
cenepy or nnx semnx M+ra (amasonxn)
87
, eme cenepnee cepmen-
t (capmart)
88
. Ho+romy moxno ronopnrt o npoxnnannn +rnx xopo-
ron (ecnn eme nepno oroxecrnnenne nx c xopnaramn, uro roxe ne
eccnopno) re-ro cenepnee ynax n Henrpantno Enpone, npenono-
xnrentno n Hpnxapnarte. 3ro cnnerentcrno nyxaercx eme n ant-
nemem nsyuennn.
O ncropnn +rnx nocrounoenponecxnx xopnaron VII-IX nn. anntx
y nac ner npaxrnuecxn nnxaxnx, uro nosnonnno n cnoe npemx M.C. Ipy-
mencxomy ycomnnrtcx n camom nx cymecrnonannn, uro, no cnpanenn-
nomy mnennm B.B. Manponna, ne oneruaer, a sarpynxer pemenne
nonpoca o xopnarax. Koncranrnn Farpxnopont n nama neronnct
xnnxercx ocrarountm oxasarentcrnom nannunx re-ro y Kapnar pyc-
cxnx (eocmo:uoc.aeucrux M..) xopnaron
89
. Hpan tn, na nam
nsrnx, I. Honmxntcxn, xoropt ocropoxno nonaran, uro cnntnt xop-
narcxn nnemenno coms n Hpnxapnarte ne ncues nocne anapcxoro na-
mecrnnx n npocymecrnonan n Mano Hontme n Bepxnem Honecrpo-
nte nnnort o nauana IX n.
90
34
2009, N 1 (15)
Opnrnnantnym, xorx no mnorom n neocrarouno aprymenrnponannym
xaprnny ncropnn xopnaron napnconan pyro nontcxn nccneonarent
E. Iaunntcxn
91
, nonaranmn, uro n V-VIII nn. xopnart sannmann or-
pomnoe npocrpancrno x cenepy or Kapnar or nepxonten Oepa o Io-
ptnn. 3rnonnm xopeami on nponsnen or nerenapnoro anrpononnma
Xopnar, cunrax nocnenero peantntm ncropnuecxnm nnnom. 3ror Xop-
nar tn nexora namecrnnxom rynnon. He satn yuent n nerenapno-
ro Kpaxa, ynomnnaemoro Iannom Anonnmom (nauano XII n.). Hocne
cmeprn Kpaxa, tnmero, no E. Iaunntcxomy, npannrenem xopnaron, nx
oennenne pacnanoct. 3ra xoncrpyxnnx opnrnnantna, no neocrarouno
noxpennena ncrounnxamn n nmeer px ceptesntx narxxex, a noromy
ne moxer trt npnnxra.
Hs-sa cxyocrn nnctmenntx anntx nornuno opamenne x cneenn-
xm nnoro nopxxa. Peut ner, ecrecrnenno, o apxeonornuecxnx mare-
pnanax, xoropte, nnpouem, roxe ne ocoo mnorouncnennt. Pacxonxn na
nnrepecymme nac reppnropnn nauannct eme n 70-80-x rr. XIX cr. Onn
npononnnct A. Knpxopom (mornntnnxn nns Bepxnxxonnen, Bonxonnen,
Intouxa Bennxoro, Iopona, 3acrenxn, Hocxuxa n r. .), F. nymem,
H. Konepnnnxnm, B. Hmnncnancxnm (3enent Ia, 3nnnxua), nosnee
I. Occoncxnm, B. emeropnxennuem n p. B nauane XX n. n 3enenom
Iae n Hanamenxe npononn pacxonxn H. Iaauex. Hosnee +rn pacxon-
xn npoonxann nontcxne n yxpanncxne apxeonorn: B. Anronennu (Io-
ponnna, Topcxe), . Hacrepnax (Hanmnn, Honocenxn, Kocrmxonxa,
Ocranonnnt n p.), R. Kocrmencxn (Xomxxonxa), T. Cynnmnpcxn (Be-
nnxax Hnanyua, Foaxn) n p.
92
B antnemem pacxonxn nnrepecym-
mnx nac namxrnnxon npononn A. A. Parnu
93
. Vuentm tna cocranne-
na nnrepecnemax cnoxa apxeonornuecxnx namxrnnxon 3anano Vx-
pannt, n rom uncne n onacre, npnnanexanmnx nexora xopnaram
94
.
Bnepnte mtcnt o npnnanexnocrn pxa norpeantntx namxrnnxon
3anano Vxpannt xopnaram ntcxasan, xaxercx, E.H. Tnmo]een
95
.
Hosnee +ro nonoxenne tno nornepxeno F.A. Tnmomyxom, nccne-
onanmem ne rontxo mornntnnxn, no n nocenennx n Cenepno Fyxonn-
ne
96
. Kyprant annoro paona crann nsnecrnt naroapx pacxonxam
C.H. Henxx
97
n H.H. Pycanono
98
. Hecmorpx na snaunrentnoe xonnue-
crno nponeenntx pacxonox, apxeonornuecxne marepnant, cnxsannte c
xopnaramn, neocrarouno ntpasnrentnt n onpeenennt. Onn npecran-
nent npexe ncero saxoponennxmn (nonnnrntmn n ecnnnrntmn, ns-
pexa xypranamn), coepxamnmn n ocnonnom rpynononoxennx c sa-
nano opnenrnponxo. 3axoponennx nourn ncera onnount n, xax npa-
nnno, co cxpomntm nnnenrapem. nx xopnaron tnn xapaxrepnt nep-
crneopasnte xontna c saxoxmnmn nnn sanepnyrtmn n oparnom na-
npannennn xonnamn. Hnora n mornnax ncrpeuamrcx nsennx pemec-
35

na
99
. B V-VII nn. apean xopnaron nxonn n xyntrypy npaxcxoro rnna, a n
VIII-IX nn. onn tnn npecrannent namxrnnxamn xyntrypt rnna nyxn-
paxonenxo
100
.
uro npecrannxnn ns cex xopnart n +ro npemx (VIII-IX nn.) n nnane
connantnoro n nonnrnuecxoro pasnnrnx? Btme tno cxasano, uro mt
ne moxem (ns-sa orcyrcrnnx ceptesntx nornepxenn n ncrounnxax)
npnnxrt rnnoresy E. Iaunntcxoro o ontmom nperocyapcrnennom
oennennn npnxapnarcxnx xopnaron nx omoeo npemenn. Ouennno,
uro anapcxoe namecrnne n yxo ontmnx macc nacenennx na mr n sana
ocnannn Be.urvm Xopeamum. Moxno nnmt c nexoropo one nepo-
xrnocrn nonarart, uro xopnart tnn ananornunt pyrnm rpynnam cna-
nxn, ynomnnaemtm n Honecrn npemenntx ner: no.ua+, opee.ua+,
v.u:a+, c.oeeua+, paou+u:a+ n r. . Ho uro nce onn ns cex npe-
crannxnn? 3ror nonpoc anno sannrepeconan nccneonarene. Hcropn-
xn XIX n. uacro nastnann nx nnemenamn, ne pacxptnax, nnpouem,
cxontxo-nnyt uerxo cnoero onpeenennx +roro nonxrnx
101
. B 1916 r.
C.M. Cepeonnn npenonoxnn reppnropnantnt xapaxrep +rnx omno-
cre, ns xoroptx neronnct cenana nnemena (annt repmnn yuent
pan n xantuxn).
102
Hpana, n neronncn, xora ona ronopnr o nocrou-
nocnanxncxnx +rnononnrnuecxnx oennennxx, repmnn nnemx, nnn
xaxo-ro ero cmtcnono ananor ne ynorpenen nn pasy.
C pyro cropont, A.H. Coonencxn npenoxnn paccmarpnnart na-
snannte neronnctm oennennx n xauecrne +rnnuecxnx rpynn
103
, uro
tno npnnxro A.A. Baxmarontm
104
n A.A. Cnnntntm
105
.
Haxonen, cornacno eme onomy mnennm n openonmnnonno ncropn-
orpa]nn, ntcxasannomy H.H. Fapcontm
106
, neronncnte no.ue, opee-
.ue n r. . npecrannxnn ns cex nonnrnxo-reorpa]nuecxne omnocrn.
Hosnee n conercxo ncropnorpa]nn yrnepxaercx nsrnx na nero-
nncnte nnemena (noemopu+: uu .emonuci, uu uuie ucmo:uuru uu
pasv ue vnompeo.mm omoeo u.u o.usroeo r ue+v mep+uua M..)
xax na nnemennte comst
107
. Ho necxontxo nnomy mnennm B.B. Manpo-
nna, xoropt ocoo nouepxnnan +rnnuecxn xapaxrep neronncntx
rpynn nocrounoro cnanxncrna, onn npecrannxnn ns cex +rnnuecxne
omnocrn, xoropte yxe ne xnnxnnct nn nnemenamn, nn comsamn nne-
men, no eme ne cnoxnnnct n naponocrn
108
.
Ho nnrepecno rnnorese A.A. Iopcxoro, n xoe paccenennx cnanxn n
VI-VII nn. poonnemennte cnxsn tnn paspyment, n opasonannct no-
nte omnocrn na reppnropnantno ocnone
109
.
Taxnm opasom, paspoc mnenn ornocnrentno connantno-nonnrnuec-
xo oprannsannn orentntx rpynn nocrountx cnanxn, nasnanntx n ne-
ronncxx, naxanyne cnoxennx pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna npecrannx-
ercx ouent snaunrentntm. A. R. nopnnuenxo no +romy nonoy nean-
36
2009, N 1 (15)
no samernn: uro xacaercx neronncntx nnemen, ro onee nnn menee
eccnopntm xnnxercx nx +rnorpa]nuecxn xapaxrep. Onpeenenne
ocrantntx cymnocrntx nx uepr naxonrcx na yponne nsnecrno anr-
nncxo nocnonnnt: cxontxo ronon crontxo n ymon
110
.
Ham npecrannxercx nanonee xoppexrno nastnart neronncnte rpyn-
nt nocrountx cnanxn omuono.umu:ecru+u ooeouueuu+u nnn, ecnn
cneonart repmnnonornn nnsanrncxnx ncrounnxon, c.aeuuu+u
111
.
Ecnn ronopnrt o nx connantno crpyxrype, ro cneyer, nanepnoe, npn-
nxrt nsrnx na nnx xax na nnemennte comst, onaanmne nonnrnuec-
xnm n, n nsnecrno mepe, +rnnuecxnm enncrnom. Ftrt moxer, c rouxn
spennx conpemenno nonnrnuecxo anrpononornn, nx cneyer nastnart
eoroecmea+u
112
. Kax cnpanennno, na nam nsrnx, nonaraer A.H. Ho-
nocentnen, pennxne, nonxne n r. ., no-nnnmomy, nenrnunt raxnm
repmancxnm nnemenam, xax ]panxn, caxct, anapt n r. ., xoropte
na ene npecrannxnn yxe comst nnemen, xorx n coxpannnn nanmeno-
nanne onoro (rocnocrnymmero) nnemenn
113
.
B +ro cnxsn neoxonmo xocnyrtcx eme onoro nonpoca: o rax nast-
naemtx nnemenntx xnxxennxx rnnorernuecxnx nocrounocnanxnc-
xnx nperocyapcrnenntx oennennxx, cymecrnonanne xoroptx ne-
pexo nocrynnpyercx n ncropnorpa]nn
114
. Mexy rem, +ro nonxrne
ouennnt ncropnorpa]nuecxn ]anrom
115
. Vxe xorx t noromy, uro n
neronncn ner nnxaxnx nnemen, panno xax ner n ne n nnxaxnx xnxxe-
nn n cmtcne connantno-nonnrnuecxnx oennenn. Heronncnt nac-
cax, xoropt n noponn +ror ncropnorpa]nuecxn mn], ronopnr o rom,
uro no cnx partn (noc.e c+epmu Ku, Lera u Xopuea M..)
nouama po nx xnxxente n nonxx, a n epennxx cnoe, a peronnun
cnoe, a cnonenn cnoe n Honeropoe, a pyroe na Honore, nxe nonoua-
ne
116
. Ouennno, uro peut sect ner nnmt o o]opmnennn n orent-
ntx c.aeuuux nncrnryra nacnecrnenno xnxxecxo nnacrn, n ynor-
penennoe neronncnem cnono rureuue osnauaer nn uro nnoe, xax
nacnecrnennoe xnxxecxoe npannenne. 3ro ronopnr o rom, uro, no npe-
crannennxm neronncna, y nocrounocnanxncxnx +rnononnrnuecxnx oe-
nnenn o]opmnxercx nocrenenno nncrnryr nacnecrnenno xnxxec-
xo nnacrn. H xorx neronncen n npnneennom nastnaer ne nce c.aeu-
uuu Bocrouno Enpont, mt nnpane yrnepxart, uro n +ro npemx, n
VIII-IX nn., nncrnryr nacnecrnenno xnxxecxo nnacrn xnxxenne
cymecrnonan y ncex nocrountx cnanxn, n rom uncne n y xopnaron. Crpyx-
rypa ynpannennx cnannnnxmn roro npemenn tna rpexcrynenuaro n
nxnmuana n cex xnxxecxym nnacrt, coner snarn crapnen rpac-
xnx
117
n naponoe copanne
118
.
Hotroxnnax cxasannoe, moxno saxnmunrt, uro n cepenne I rtc.
n. +. n ycnonnxx ypntx cotrn nennxoro nepecenennx napoon n Hpn-
37

xapnarte n Bepxnem Honecrponte nosnnxaer momnoe +rnononnrnuec-
xoe oennenne Be.ura Xopeamu cnanxncxoe n cnoe +rnnuec-
xo ocnone, no nmenmee, cyx no ncemy, npancxym connantno-nonnrn-
uecxym nepxymxy. B cepenne VI n. n xoe anapcxoro namecrnnx Be.u-
ra Xopeamu pacnanact, n snaunrentnax uacrt xopnaron noxnnyna +ror
pernon, yxox na mr n na sana, no pyrax uacrt ocranact n, no nce
nnnmocrn, noccosana cnoe +rnononnrnuecxoe oennenne, nycrt yxe
n ne cront snaunrentnoe, xoropoe npocymecrnonano nnnort o xonna
X n.
119
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Pvcauoea H.H. Cnanxncxne pennocrn VI-VII nn. M., 1976. Kapra na c. 198;
Hcropnx Enpont. T. II. M., 1992. Kapra na c. 750.
2. Cno pennemnx nnctmenntx nsnecrn o cnanxnax. T. I-II. M., 1991-1995.
3. Pvcauoea H.H. Cnanxncxne pennocrn VI-VII nn.; Ma:uucru .A.,
Tuxauoea M.A. O mecrax onrannx n nanpannennxx nnxennx cnanxn I-VII nn. no
nnctmenntm n apxeonornuecxnm ncrounnxam // Acta archaeologica Carpatica. T.
XVI. 1976; Ceooe B.B. 1) Cnanxne n pennocrn. M., 1994; 2) Cnanxne n pannem
cpenenexonte. M., 1995; 3) Cnanxne: ncropnxo-apxeonornuecxoe nccneonanne
// Ceooe B.B. Hspannte rpyt. M., 2005; Bapau B.. Benen, cxnaninn, ra anrn y
cnirni apxeonoriunx xepen // Hponemt cnanxncxo apxeonornn (Tpyt VI Mex-
ynaponoro xonrpecca cnanxncxo apxeonornn. T. I. M., 1997 n p.
4. O nnx cm.: Iopcru A.A. Cnanxncxoe paccenenne n +nonmnnx omecrnenno-
ro crpox cnanxn // Bvoauoea B.H., Iopcru A.A., Ep+o.oea H.E. Bennxoe nepece-
nenne napoon: 3rnononnrnuecxne n connantnte acnexrt. M., 1999. C. 160-177.
5. Tpvoa:e O.H. Pannne cnanxncxne +rnonnmt cnnerenn mnrpannn cnanxn
// Bonpoct xstxosnannx. 1974. N 6.
6. 4u.uu 4.H. Hponcxoxenne pyccxoro, yxpanncxoro n enopyccxoro xst-
xon. H., 1972. C. 6-30.
7. Hoponym ncropnorpa]nm cm.: Lowmianski H. Poszatki Polski. Warszawa,
II. 1964. S. 114-142; Gluhak A. Porijeklo imena Hrvat. Zagreb, 1990; Loncar M.
Porfirogrnetova seoba Hrvata pred sudom novije Literature // Diadora. Glasilo
Archeoloskog muzeja u Zadru. Zadar. T. 14. 1992.
8. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx: 3rnorenes n pannxx ncropnx cnanxn Hpn-
xapnarcxoro pernona / Orn. pe. A.R. nopnnuenxo. CH., 2006.
9. Tounoe nponcxoxenne n npemx nanncannx orentntx pasenon +roro rpax-
rara xnnxercx ncxyccnonntm. Cm. nanp., ns nocnennx paor na +ry remy, cra-
rtm . Xonapa-xoncrona n copnnxe Les Centres proto-urbains russes entre
Scandinavie, Byzance et Orient / Ed. par M. Kazanski, A. Nercessian et C. Zuckerman.
Paris: Editions P. Lethielleux, 2000 (Realites Byzantines. 7). uro xacaercx rnan, co-
epxamnx cneennx o nponcxoxennn n paccenennn xopnaron, ro nonpoct npe-
menn nx nanncannx n crenenn ocronepnocrn coomaemtx n nnx cneenn e-
rantno pasopant neanno n paorax A.B. Maopona: Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncran-
38
2009, N 1 (15)
rnn Farpxnopont o nponcxoxennn n panne ncropnn xopnaron: Bennxax Xop-
narnrx n ente xopnart // Rossica antiqua: Hccneonannx n marepnant. 2006 /
Orn. pe. A.R. nopnnuenxo, A.B. Maopon. CH., 2006; 2) Bennxax Xopnarnx.
C. 43-61.
10. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. M., 1989. C. 131.
11. Tam xe. C. 135-136.
12. Tam xe. C. 368-369 (xommenr. O. A. Axnmono x nn. 30).
13. Tam xe. C. 374-375 (xommenr. O. A. Axnmono x rn. 31).
14. Tam xe. C. 368 (xommenr. O. A. Axnmono x rn. 30).
15. Honemn nopont ananns ncex +rnx nsnecrn cm.: Maopoe A.B.
1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont; 2) Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 11-79.
16. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 40-43; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 11-14.
17. Cm.: Racki Fr. Biela Hrvatska i biela Srbija // Rad Jugoslovenske Akademije
Znatnosti i Umjetnosti. Zagreb, 1880. T. 52; Jagic V. Ein Kapitel aus der Geschichte
der sdslawichen Sprachen // Archiv fr slavische Philologie. Bd. XVII. Berlin, 1895.
S. 47-48; Brckner A. Wzory etymologii i krytyki zrdlowej // Slavia. Praha. T. 3.
1924-1925. S. 209-211; Ceon B.B. 1) Cnanxne n pannem cpenenexonte. C. 326;
2) Cnanxne. Hcropnxo-apxeonornuecxoe nccneonanne. C.488-490.
18. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 42; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 13.
19. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 42; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 14.
20. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 42; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 14.
21. Huoep.e H. Cnanxncxne pennocrn. M., 2000. C. 77-78.
22. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 43; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 14.
23. Bennxax Xopnarnx, nastnaemax Feno (Koncranrnn Farpxnopont.
O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 141).
24. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 43-73; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 14-42.
25. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 45-48; 2) Bennxax Xop-
narnx C. 36-42.
26. Honecrt npemenntx ner. Hororonxa rexcra, nepeno, crartn n xommenra-
pnn .C. Hnxauena / Ho peaxnne B. H. Apnanono-Hepern. 3-e ns. / Hororon-
xa nsannx n ononnennx M. F. Cnepnona. CH., 2007. C. 8.
27. Luuuh 4. Heronnc nona yxxnnna C. 16-18. V nona yxnxnnna Be.o
nmenyercx ona ns reorpa]nuecxnx uacre anxancxo Xopnarnn.
28. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 35.
29. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 45-48; 2) Bennxax Xop-
narnx C. 24-36.
30. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont; 2) Bennxax Xopnarnx
C. 174-176.
31. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 176.
39

32. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont; 2) Bennxax Xopnarnx C.
14-15, 176.
33. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 131.
34. Tounee, ram, sa Farnnapnee, naxonnact npaponna anmarnncxnx xop-
naron, re ntne xnnyr oe.oxopeami (Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O yn-
pannennn nmnepne. C. 131).
35. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 131, 135.
36. Cm. nanpnmep: Labuda G. Chrowacja Biala czyli Wieika // Slownik
starozytnoski slawianskich: Encyklopedyczny zarys kultury slowian od zcasw
najdawniejszych. Wroclaw etc. 1961. T. I. S. 255-256; Koucmaumuu Baepuopoo-
ui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 370 (xommenr. 14 O.A. Axnmono npn yuacrnn
F. H. unopn), 377-378 (xommenr. 18 O. A. Axnmono npn yuacrnn F.H. unopn).
37. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 49-61.
38. Lowmianski H. Poszatki Polski. Warszawa. II. 1964. S. 163-168.
39. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 370 (xommenr.
14 O.A. Axnmono npn yuacrnn F. H. unopn).
40. 4.op B.H. uopmnponanne uemcxo panne]eoantno rocyapcrnennoc-
rn n cytt camocosnannx cnanxncxnx nnemen uemcxo onnnt // uopmnpona-
nne panne]eoantntx cnanxncxnx naponocre. M., 1981.
41. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 47-49.
42. Jagic V. Ein Kapitel aus der Geschichte S. 47-89.
43. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 176.
44.Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 63-73; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 62-79.
45. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 141.
46. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 63-66; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 62-67.
47. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 53.
48. Tam xe. C. 165-167.
49. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 66-70; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 67-71.
50. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 71-76.
51. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 141.
52. Maopoe A.B. 1) Koncranrnn Farpxnopont C. 70-73; 2) Bennxax Xopna-
rnx C. 76-79. Cp.: Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C.
378. (xommenr. 19 O.A. Axnmono x rn. 30).
53. Bomoeu: H.B. Fini xopnarn un xapnarctxi xopnarn? // Mnxonainmnna.
T. 1. Htnin, 1998. C. 51.
54. Hempvxuu B.B., Paeecru .C. Ouepxn ncropnn napoon Poccnn n penno-
crn n pannem cpenenexonte. M., 2004. C. 151.
55. Kapneuro P.A. Hcropnx +rnmonornuecxoro meroa n oreuecrnenno rono-
nnmnxe // Pasnnrne meroon rononnmnuecxnx nccneonann. M., 1970. C. 13.
56. Hcropnorpa]nm cm.: Gluhak A. Porijeklo imena
57. M. uacmep nponsnonr ero or pennenpancxoro (fsu-) haurvata crpax
cxora (4ac+ep M. 3rnmonornuecxn cnonapt pyccxoro xstxa. T. IV. M., 1987.
C. 262). Ananornunym +rnmonornm amr B.B. Hnanon n B.H. Tonopon
40
2009, N 1 (15)
(Heauoe B.B., Tonopoe B.H. O pennnx cnanxncxnx +rnonnmax. Ocnonnte npo-
nemt n nepcnexrnnt // Cnanxncxne pennocrn: +rnorenes, marepnantnax xynt-
rypa penne Pycn. Knen. 1980. C. 32). Hnym npancxym +rnmonornm npenaraer
O.H. Tpyauen, ormernnmn roxecrnennocrt +rnonnmon xopnart n capma-
rt, nosnex nx x npancxomy *sar-ma(n)t/ *har-va(n)t nmenmemy snauenne xen-
cxn, nsonnymmn xenmnnamn (3rnmonornuecxn cnonapt cnanxncxnx xst-
xon. Hpacnanxncxn nexcnuecxn ]on / Ho pe. O. H. Tpyauena. Btn. 8. M.,
1981. C. 151).
58. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 85.
59. Hamiuee B.B. Hsnecrnx pennnx nncarene, rpeuecxnx n narnncxnx, o Cxn-
]nn n Kanxase. T. II. CH., 1890. C. 237, 261; Kopnyc ocnopcxnx nannce / Orn.
pe. B.B. Crpyne. M.; H., 1965. C. 736-737, 764.
60. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 91, 135.
61. A.B. Maopon opamaer nnnmanne na ro, uro n xstxe n xyntrype anma-
rnncxnx xopnaron npocnexnnamrcx mnorouncnennte napannenn c npancxnm
mnpom (Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 94-97), xoropte moryr trt oxcnent rontxo
cnntnemnm npancxnm nnnxnnem na nx npexon, npoxnnanmnx o nepecenennx
na nonte reppnropnn n nenocpecrnennom cocecrne n recnom xonraxre c npa-
noxstuntmn napoamn.
62. 3a.usur A.A. Hponemt cnanxno-npancxnx xstxontx ornomenn pen-
nemero nepnoa // Bonpoct cnanxncxoro xstxosnannx. M., 1962; Aoaee B.H. 1)
Hpenept n nep]exrnnnocrt. O ono cxn]o-capmarcxo nsornocce // Hpone-
mt nnoenponecxoro xstxosnannx. M., 1964; 2) Cxn]o-enponecxne nsornoc-
ct: Ha crtxe Bocroxa n 3anaa. M., 1965; Tpvoa:e O.H. Hs ncropnn cnanxno-
npancxnx nexcnuecxnx ornomenn // 3rnmonornx. 1965. M., 1967; Tonopoe B.H.
1) O ono cnanxno-npancxo napannenn ns onacrn cnnraxcnca // Kparxne co-
omennx nncrnryra cnanxnoneennx, Btn. 28, M., 1960; 2) O npancxom +nemen-
re n pyccxo yxonno xyntrype // Cnanxncxn n anrncxn ]ontxnop. Pexoncr-
pyxnnx penne cnanxncxo yxonno xyntrypt. M., 1989; Mapmiuoe B.B. Cax-
pantnt mnp Cnona o nonxy Hropene // Tam xe; Bacu.iee M.A. stuecrno
nocrountx cnanxn naxanyne xpemennx Pycn: Pennrnosno-mn]onornuecxoe nsa-
nmoecrnne c npancxnm mnpom. stuecxax pe]opma Bnanmnpa. M., 1999.
63. Ceooe B.B. 1) Cnanxne n npannt n pennocrn // Hcropnx, xyntrypa, +rnore-
nes n ]ontxnop cnanxncxnx napoon. VIII Mexynapont ces cnanncron.
oxnat conercxo enerannn, M., 1978; 2) Hponcxoxenne n pannxx ncropnx
cnanxn. M., 1979. C. 78-100; 3) Cnanxne n pennocrn. C. 233-286; 4) Cnanxne C.
150-198.
64. Tonopoe B.H. O npancxom +nemenre C. 24.
65. 4u.uu 4.H. Opasonanne xstxa nocrountx cnanxn. M.; H., 1962. C. 60;
Aoaee B.H. Hcropnxo-+rnmonornuecxn cnonapt ocernncxoro xstxa. T. III. M.,
1973. C. 435-437; Tpvoa:e O.H. 1) Pannne cnanxncxne +rnonnmt; 2) K ncroxam
Pycn (nanmennx nnnrnncra). M., 1993; 2) Indoarica n Cenepnom Hpnuepnomo-
pte: Pexoncrpyxnnx pennxron xstxa: 3rnmonornuecxn cnonapt. M., 1999. C. 73-
75; 3rnmonornuecxn cnonapt cnanxncxnx xstxon. Hpacnanxncxn nexcnuecxn
]on. Btn. 5. M., 1979. C. 147-148; Btn. 8. M., 1981. C. 149-151; Kapcauoe A.H. O
+rnnuecxo npnnanexnocrn pocomonon // Hmx-+rnoc-ncropnx. M., 1989; Ia.-
41

ruua E.C. 1) Tant pyccxoro xaranara. M., 2002; 2) Homat Bocrouno Enpont:
+rnoct, connym, nnacrt (I rtc. n. +). M., 2006. C. 385-446.
66. Ceooe B.B. Cnanxne C. 237.
67. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 134.
68. Tam xe. C. 135.
69. Tam xe. C. 178.
70. Tam xe. C. 162.
71. Tam xe. C. 129-132.
72. Tam xe. C. 133-161.
73. Hoxasarentno, uro nasnannte Koncranrnnom Farpxnopontm nmena npe-
nonrene xopnaron, nosrnannxnmnx nepecenenne uacrn nx n anmannm: nxrn
parten Knyxa, Honen, Kocennnc, Myxno, Xopnar n nyx cecrep Tyra n Byra
(Koncranrnn Farpxnopont. O ynpannennn nmnepne. C. 131) - xnnxmrcx, no
nce nnnmocrn, nmenno npancxnmn: Kronsteiner O. Gab es unter den Alpenslawen
eine kroatische ethnische Gruppe? // Weiner Slavistisches Jahrbuch. Wien. 1978.
Bd. 24; Katicic R. Die Anfnge des kroatischen Staates // Die Bayern und ihre
Nachbarn. T. I. Wien, 1985. S. 309; Koscak V. Dolazak Hrvata // Historijski zbornik.
G. 40 (1). Zagreb, 1987. S. 362.
74. Maopon A. B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 161-173.
75. Cp.: Ceon B. B. Cnanxne C. 236-237 n p.
76. Tam xe. C. 295-323.
77. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 179.
78. Otuno namecrnne anpon na Bennxym Xopnarnm arnpyercx npemenem
ox. 560 r.: Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte no nropo nononnne I rtc. n. +.
Hauantnte +rant ]opmnponannx rocyapcrnennocrn // Rossica antiqua. 2006.
C. 22.
79. 4.op B.H. uopmnponanne uemcxo panne]eoantno rocyapcrnennoc-
rn
80. Cm. nanp.: Pioaroe B.A. 1) Hepnte nexa pyccxo ncropnn. M., 1964. C. 23;
2) Knencxax Pyct n pyccxne xnxxecrna XII-XIII nn. M., 1982. Kapra na c. 375;
Pvcauoea H.H., Tu+ouvr B.A. pennepyccxoe Honecrponte. M., 1983. C. 22;
To.o:ro H.H. pennxx Pyct: ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn. Knen,
1987. Kapra na C. 32; Tu+ouvr B.A. Bocrounte cnanxne: or omnnt x ropoam.
M., 1995. Bocrounte cnanxne C. 173 n r. .
81. Honecrt npemenntx ner. C. 8.
82. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx. C. 24-28.
83. Honecrt npemenntx ner. C. 16, 54.
84. Maopoe A.B. Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 167.
85. Tam xe. C. 167-169.
86. Maopoe A.B. Anrnncxne cpenenexonte ncrounnxn. M., 1979. C. 23.
87. Tam xe. C. 23, 27.
88. Tam xe. C. 23-28.
89. Maepoouu B.B. Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna. H., 1945. C. 86.
90. Lowmianski H. Poszatki Polski. S. 114-200.
91. Gaczynski J. Zarys dziejow plemiennych Malopolski // Rosznik przemyski,
1968, XII. S. 51-117.
92. Ceooe B.B. Bocrounte cnanxne C. 126.
42
2009, N 1 (15)
93. Pamu: A.A. 1) pennepyccxn mornntnnx n cene Konaunnnt Cranncnanc-
xo onacrn // Kparxne coomennx Hncrnryra apxeonornn AH VCCP. 1955. 4; 2)
penntopyctxi apxeonoriuni nam'xrxn na reppnropii saxinnx onacre VPCP. Knin,
1957.
94. Pamu: O. penntopyctxi apxeonoriuni nam'xrxn
95. Tu+oqeee E.H. Rro-sananax rpynna nocrountx cnanxn no apxeonornuec-
xnm anntm X-XIII nn. // Vuente sanncxn Xaaponcxoro nenncrnryra. Btn. VI.
Xaaponcx, 1961. C. 69.
96. Tu+ouvr B.A. 1) Cnon'xnn Hinniunoi Fyxonnnn VI-IX cr. Knin, 1976; 2) an-
ntopyctxa Fyxonnna (X - nepma nononnna XIV cr.). Knin, 1982; 3) Bocrounocna-
nxncxax omnna VI-X nn. M., 1990; 4) Bocrounte cnanxne
97. Heur C.H. Hccneonannx pennecnanxncxnx namxrnnxon nropo nononn-
nt I rtc. na reppnropnn 3axapnarcxo onacrn VCCP // Archeologicke Rozhledy.
Praha, 1968. 5.
98. Pvcauoea H.H. Hsyuenne cnanxncxnx nocenenn y cena uepnonxa // Apxe-
onornuecxne orxptrnx 1979 r. M., 1980.
99. Oomammym paory cm.: Muxa.oea H.H., Tu+ouvr B.A. Cnanxncxne
namxrnnxn accena Bepxnero Hpyra VIII X nn. // Cnanxne na necrpe n ynae.
Knen, 1983.
100. Tam xe. C. 205.
101. Cm. nanp.: K.m:eecru B.O. Kypc pyccxo ncropnn. uacrt I // K.m:eecru
B.O. Counnennx n enxrn romax. T. I. M., 1987. C. 125-132 n p.
102. Cepeoouuu C.M. Hcropnuecxax reorpa]nx. Hr., 1916. C. 152.
103. Cooo.eecru A.H. Ouepxn ns ncropnn pyccxoro xstxa. Knen, 1884.
104. Lax+amoe A.A. pennemne cytt pyccxoro nnemenn. Hr., 1919.
105. Cnuiu A.A. Paccenenne pennepyccxnx nnemen no apxeonornuecxnm
anntm // Xypnan mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx. 1899. VIII. C. 301-340.
106. Bapcoe H.H. Ouepxn pyccxo ncropnuecxo reorpa]nn. Bapmana, 1885.
107. Pioaroe B.A. 1) Hepnte nexa; 2) Knencxax Pyct C. 235-286; Co.oei-
ea I.4. Cnanxncxne comst nnemen no apxeonornuecxnm marepnanam VIII-XIV nn.
(nxrnun, panmnun, cenepxne) // Conercxax apxeonornx, 1956, T. XXV; Ceooe B.B.
1) Bocrounte cnanxne n VI-XIII nn. M., 1982. C. 269 n p.; 2) pennepyccxax napo-
nocrt: Hcropnxo-apxeonornuecxoe nccneonanne // Ceooe B.B. Hspannte rpy-
t; 3) V ncroxon nocrounocnanxncxo rocyapcrnennocrn. M., 1999; 4) Cnanx-
ne; 4pouoe H.B. Knencxax Pyct: Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn
// 4pouoe H.B. Hauana pyccxo ncropnn. Hspannoe. CH., 2001. C. 492-494 n r..
108. Maepoouu B.B. Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna n ]opmnpona-
nne pennepyccxo naponocrn. H., 1971. C. 157-170.
109. Iopcru A.A. 1) Cnanxncxoe paccenenne n +nonmnnx; 2) O nnemenno
snarn n nnemenax y cnanxn // Florilegium: K 60-nernm F. H. unopn: Copnnx
crare / Cocr. A.A. Typnnon. M., 2000; 3) Pyct: or cnanxncxoro Paccenennx o
Mocxoncxoro napcrna. M., 2004 C. 9-19.
110. eopuu:euro A.P. O nocrounocnanxncxom nonnrorenese n VI-X nn. //
Rossica antiqua. 2006. C. 188.
111. O npanomepnocrn npnmenennx +roro nanmenonannx x nocrounocnanxnc-
43

xnm +rnononnrnuecxnm oennennxm rnna pennxn, nxrnue, panmnue n r. .
cm.: Iopcru A.A. Pyct C. 9-19.
112. eopuu:euro A.P. O nocrounocnanxncxom nonnrorenese C. 188-191.
113. Hoeoce.iee A.H. Bocrounte cnanxne n opasonanne pennepyccxoro
rocyapcrna // Hcropnx Poccnn c pennemnx npemen o xonna XVII n. / Orn. pe.
A.H. Caxapon, A.H. Honocentnen. M., 2000. C. 49.
114. Tpemiroe H.H. Bocrounocnanxncxne nnemena. M., 1953. C. 299;
Kopo.mr B.. Ocnonnte nponemt ]opmnponannx panne]eoantno rocyap-
crnennocrn n naponocre cnanxn Bocrouno n Henrpantno Enpont // Hccne-
onannx no ncropnn cnanxncxnx n anxancxnx napoon. M., 1972. C. 17; Maepo-
ouu B.B. O nnemenntx xnxxennxx nocrountx cnanxn // Hccneonannx no conn-
antno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn Poccnn. H., 1971. C. 55; Hauvmo B.T. Ocoennocrn
crpyxrypt pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna // Honocentnen A.H., Hamyro B.T., ue-
pennnn H.B., Bymapnn B.H., Banon .H. pennepyccxoe rocyapcrno n ero mex-
ynaponoe snauenne. M., 1965. C. 83-92 n r. .
115. Cp. 4pouoe H.B. K ncropnn sapoxennx Pyccxoro rocyapcrna // 4po-
uoe H.B. Hauana pyccxo ncropnn. C. 723.
116. Honecrt npemenntx ner. C. 10.
117. O nnx cm.: Maepoouu B.B., 4pouoe H.B. Crapnt rpacxne na Pycn X n.
// Kyntrypa cpenenexono Pycn. Hocn. 70-nernm M. K. Kaprepa / Orn. pe.
A.H. Knpnnunnxon n H.A. Pannonopr. H., 1974; 4pouoe H.B. Knencxax Pyct.
Inannte ueprt connantno-+xonomnuecxoro crpox. CH., 1999. C. 89-105. Cun-
rart +ror repmnn xnnxntm xoncrpyxrom, xax +ro enamr nexoropte nccneona-
renn (cm. nanpnmep: 3aeaocra C.B. 1) O crapnax rpacxnx n crapnax nmc-
xnx n penne Pycn // Bocrounax Enpona n pennocrn n cpenenexonte. M.,
1978, 2) K nonpocy o crapemnnax n pennepyccxnx ncrounnxax X-XIII nn. //
pennemne rocyapcrna Bocrouno Enpont. 1987 r. M., 1989), ner nnxaxnx oc-
nonann.
118. eopuu:euro A.P. O nocrounocnanxncxom nonnrorenese C. 189.
119. nx 907 r. mt nmeem n Honecrn npemenntx ner yxasanne na yuacrne
xopnaron n noxoe Onera na Koncranrnnonont (HBH. C. 16). Hcxox ns +roro
F.A. Tnmomyx nonaraer, uro xopnart yxe n +ro npemx nxonnn n cocran Knencxo
Pycn. Taxo ntno npecrannxercx xorx n samanunntm, no cnnmxom npxmonn-
nentm: no-nepntx, cam cnncox nocrounocnanxncxnx nnemen, yuacrnonanmnx n
noxoe, moxer trt n neocronepen, a no-nroptx, camo no cee yuacrne n noxo-
e ne ronopnr o sanncnmocrn Xopnarnn or Knena xopnart nnonne mornn npnnn-
mart yuacrne n ntronom noxoe xax comsnnxn Pycn, paccunrtnax na uacrt
oraro otun. C ynepennocrtm moxno ronopnrt o nounnennn xopnaron Pycn
nocne noxoa Bnanmnpa n 992 r. (HBH. C. 54). Ionopnrt o cymecrnonannn n
Hpnxapnarte o 992 r. camocroxrentnoro panne]eoantnoro rocyapcrna xopna-
ron, nnxnnnponannoro Bnanmnpom, xax +ro enaer F.A. Tnmomyx (Tu+ouvr
B.O. anntopyctxa Fyxonnna. 1982. C. 67), nnxaxnx ocnonann ner, no ]eoann-
sannx nocrounocnanxncxoro omecrna n +ro npemx eme axe ne naunnanact (4po-
uoe H.B. 1) Knencxax Pyct: Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn; 2) Knen-
cxax Pyct. Inannte ueprt connantno-+xonomnuecxoro crpox; 3) pennxx Pyct:
Ontr nccneonannx ncropnn connantno n nonnrnuecxo optt. M.; CH.,
44
2009, N 1 (15)
1995; 4) Pacrno n annnuecrno y nocrountx cnanxn (VI-X nn.) CH., 1996;
4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. H., 1988).
3ect neoxonmo ormernrt nsnecrnym acnnxponnocrt ncropnuecxoro pasnnrnx
pasntx nocrounocnanxncxnx nnemen. Hecomnenno, uro y nonxn nponecc ncro-
pnuecxoro pasnnrnx npoxonn tcrpee, uem, nanpnmep, y peronnue. Taxnm
opasom, xora onn nocrounocnanxncxne +rnononnrnuecxne omnocrn nepexo-
nnn x nontm omecrnenntm ornomennxm n ncrynann n nepno cxnatnannx n
Bocrouno Enpone ropoon-rocyapcrn, y pyrnx eme rocnocrnonan nosnepo-
ono crpo. Hpecrannxercx neonycrnmtm cnonrt nponecc naennx poono
oprannsannn n ]opmnponannx n Bocrouno Enpone omnnno-reppnropnant-
ntx ornomenn x xaxomy-ro ennomy nx nee nce npemenn. 3ror nponecc pac-
rxnyncx na necxontxo cronern (VIII-XI nn.) n nporexan xpane nepannomepno
(Maepoouu B.B. 1) Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna; 2) Opasonanne
pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna n ]opmnponanne; Pioaroe B.A. 1) Hepnte nexa;
2) Knencxax Pyct; 4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna n
p.).


nn1epne1-uarasnn
Knnrn n nannunn:
- Vntxnon H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma
- Pyccxax Iannnnx n "masennnnt"
- Cnopenxo C. Vxpanna - roxe Poccnx
- uyen C. Vxpanncxn Hernon
- Ieponcxn I. stx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Apncron u. Hnreparypnoe pasnnrne Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Hon H. 3nnnxnonenx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Xypnan Pycnn n mnoroe pyroe...
Conmecrnt npoexr caron Ennax Pyct (www.edrus.org),
Vxpanncxne crpannnt (www.ukrstor.com) n Manopyccxo
napono ncropnuecxo nnnoreuxn (mnib.malorus.org).
Apec marasnna n Hnrepnere: http://magazin.malorus.org
e_mail: magazin@malorus.org Ten.: +7 (903) 53 44 218
Apec: Poccnx 109028 Mocxna. o nocrpeonannx.
Hpexnnrenm O3H 5 IN 1196995
Hepnt remarnuecxn
xnnxnt marasnn no
yxpanncxomy nonpocy.
Btctnaem xaranor no
noure n nomoxem c
n p n o p e r e n n e m
menxoonrontx naprn xnnr.
45

Kpin AHHAEHL
3 ICTOPI IHOHOIO CKHTY
PI3BA-BOIOPOHHI B C. I3A
XYCTCLKOIO PAHOHY
Ha nouarxy XX cr. na 3axapnarri nounnac nipoxynarncx npano-
cnanna nepxna. Hpanocnan`x mano rpn nenrpn ne c. Isa Xycrctxoro
p-ny. C. Bennxi Hyuxn Myxauinctxoro p-ny ra c. Fexepeno na Hpxmin-
mnni (Cnonauunna). Haintm axrnnnnmn ynn cenxnn n c. Isa, xxi me n
1901 p. saxnnnn npo cni nnxi s rpexo-xaronnntxo nepxnn. Hanepeoni
ra n poxn Hepmo cnirono ninn n ntomy ceni yrnopnnocx xintxa uepne-
unx rpoma, mo monnnncx pasom ra pxrynanncx ni yropctxnx xanapmin.
Ha uoni xinouo rpoman croxna Iynianix Hpoxon (sroom irymenx Hapa-
cxena), uennin ouonmnann Am]inoxi (Kemint), Hanrenemon (Kynpx),
Marni (Baxapon).
3 nxnmuennxm 3axapnarrx o cxnay uexocnonauunnn ni nasnom
Hixapnarctxa Pyct, npanocnanna nepxna orpnmyc npano nintno posnn-
narncx. 3a nenennxn npomixox uacy s yni nnmnn ecxrxn saxapnarct-
xnx cin ra rncxui nipnnxin. Bnxini is c. Isa ann nouarox ninomy pxy
npanocnannnx monacrnpin ra cxnrin. Cepe nnx Cnxro-Mnxonanctxn
uononiun monacrnp n c. Isa (ypounme Kapnyrnam), Cnxro-Pisna-Fo-
roponntxn xinoun n c. Hnnua, Cnxro-Tpontxn uononiun cxnr (nnni
monacrnp) n m. Xycr-Ioponnono, Cnxro-Pisna-Foroponntxn xino-
un cxnr n c. Isa. Maxe nci is nasnannx namn onrene ixnn y 1920-
1950 pp. XX cr. ra niponnncx si soyrrxm nesanexnocri Vxpann. Ha
ninonnennx me uexac xinoun cxnr y c.Isa, nnnuennm ixntnocri xxoro
npncnxuena ana nynixanix.
B icropnuni nayni nponema ixntnocri npanocnannoro cxnry n c. Isa
maxe ne ninimanacx. V paxnctxn uac oxpemi acnexrn posnnrxy on-
reni ocnixynan icpomonax Cepri (Htoxa) [1]. Ha xant, oro poora
nce me sannmacrtcx n pyxonnci. V 1993 p. myxauinctxn xpacsnanent
Bacnnt Harnpx onynixynan y xnnsi Monacrnpi 3axapnarrx uacrnny
nic npani [2. C. 54-55]. Anrop nnx pxxin y 2004 p. nnan xnnry npncnx-
ueny icropi monacrnpin na Xycrmnni [3. C. 47-49]. Ha ocnoni apxinnnx
marepianin namn yno npocnixonano coniantno-exonomiunn posnnrox
cxnry n Isi n paxnctxn nepio.
V ani nynixani macrtcx na meri ocninrn sacnynannx ra ixntnicrt
xinouoro cxnry n c. Isa na uecrt Pisna Hpecnxro Foroponni. Anrop
46
2009, N 1 (15)
nocrannn nepe coom px sanant. 3oxpema, nnsnaunrn npnunnn sac-
nynannx cxnry, noxasarn pont icpomonaxa Ioanna (Caon) y ntomy npo-
neci. Bnnunrn coniantno-exonomiunn ra penirinn acnexr ixntnocri
cxnry.
Xpononoriuni pamxn poorn oxonnmmrt nepio 1923-1956 pp.
mnrpo Caon naponncx 20 xonrnx 1888 p. n c. Isa. Be n nrnncrni
sannmnncx cnporom. 3 mannx nir xnonent nisnauancx nooxnicrm ra
nocrinnm orpnmannxm nocry. Bci n ceni nnaxann oro mponnnm, nin
nirom i snmom xonn ocn n pnani oexi. uacro nin socepexynancx n
monnrni y nenennxi neuepi y ropax na c. Isa. Xanapmn n nepio ronint
na npanocnannnx ne sneprann na ntoro ynary, ane sroom sposyminn, mo
nin npnxnacrtcx, nx roro mo nintno xonrn no ceni nonepexynarn
npo pen nonini. Pasom s Mnxanom Comomem oro yno cxonneno,
saxonano n xaann ra niano roprypam. B uexocnonantxn nepio
. Caon s osnony micneno nepxonno nnan sacnynan y artxinctxomy
ynnxy omony nepxny.
Hicnx yrnopennx xinouoro monacrnpx n c. Hnnua ne nci inuara nimnn
o nic onreni. uacrnna s nnx sannmnnacx n Isi, e monoi nonnxnnni
noma npononnn uepneue xnrrx. Came ni mayrni monaxnni sipann
rpomi ra xynnnn nenennxn epen`xnn ynnox, xxn nocrannnn inx
xarn . Caona. Taxnm unnom, na nouarxy 1920 pp. ynn saxnaeni nepmi
nimypinxn nono onreni. Onax cxnr nimonnxnncx nnsnanarn, xx nep-
xonna rax i cnirctxa nnaa. Fararo monaxin crannnncx o . Caona s
niospom, nnaxamun, mo nin nanan s cee mponnoro, mo oro ne
uinann xanapmn. Kpim roro . Caon ne man uepneuoro nncnxuennx. B
icropnuni nireparypi, mo nnananacx o ntoro uacy nxasynanocx, mo
arom sacnynannx cxnry cni nnaxarn 1924 p. Onax, cnnpamunct na
apxinni xepena, nnaxacmo, mo ne niynocx panime, monamenme y
1923 p. Hpo ne ]axr cniunrt snir neniomoro anropa ni 22 nncronaa
1923 p., mo sepiracrtcx n onacnomy apxini. Xapaxrepnsymun npano-
cnannn pyx i ixntnicrt monacrnpin na nouarxy XX cr., anrop sasnauac,
mo n c. Isa yrnopnncx uepneun open ni xepinnnnrnom . Caona.
ani n oxymenri snaunrtcx, mo . Caon nnaxan cee nonnicrm anro-
nomnnm nepxonnnm ixuem ra nixomy ne ninopxxonynancx. B o-
epri ximnari c ninrap, ram cnyxnrt cnyxy (. Caon anrop), a mo-
namxn npncnyronymrt omy [4. C. 2].
Hepmnmn uepnnnxmn, mo npoxnnann ni yxonnnm xepinnnnrnom
. Caona, ynn Mapix Herpinna Ianac (c. Isa), Mapix Mnxaninna He-
mem (c. Kpnna), Xpncrnna ueopinna Isa (c. Isa), Onena Bacnninna
Tersa (c. Fepesono), Henarex Ieoprinna onrannu (c. Isa). V 1926 p. o
cxnry ncrynnnn: Mapix Ieoprinna Hemem (c. Kpnna), Henarex Anpin-
na Cnmynnx (c. Isa); y 1933 p. Onena Inaninna Hennnent (c. Benxrnno);
47

y 1936 p. Bacnnnna Herpinna Ianac (c. Isa), Henarex Kocrxnrnninna
Baxapon (c. Isa); y 1937 p. Ianna Hocnninna Iaon (c. Isa); 1938 p.
Ianna Inaninna Bamn (c. Hnxni Fncrpn) [5. C. 86].
V 1946 p. sa xnonorannxm apximanpnrin Onexcix (Kaanmx) ra Mar-
nix (Baxapon) cnncxon Hecrop (Cnopyx) nnsnan cxnr . Caona, a oro
camoro osnonnn nocrpnrrn n monaxn. . Caon yn pyxononoxenn n
manrim s imenem Ioann na uecrt cn.Ioanna Forocnona. unn pyxonono-
xennx snepmnn apximanpnr Marni (Baxapon) n npanocnanni nepxni
c.Isa. 30 uepnnx 1946 p. Ioann yn pyxononoxenn cnncxonom Hecropom
i icponxxona, a 2 nnnnx 1946 p. n can icpomonaxa. 21 rpannx 1946 p.
ynn nocrpnxeni n manrim i nocnymnnni Cnxro-Foroponntxoro cxnry s
napeuennxm nacrynnnx imen: Maxpnna (Mapix Ianac), uenponix (Mapix
Hemem), Xapnrnna (Xpncrnna Isa), Cnnsanera (Onena Tersa), ueoxrn-
cra (Henarex onrannu), Cn]nmix (Mapix Hemem), Onexcanpa (Hena-
rex Cnmynnx), Hmmnna (Onena Hennnent), ueoocix (Bacnnnna Ia-
nac), Innxepix (Henarex Baxapon), 3nnonix (Ianna Iaon), Anacracix
(Ianna Bamn) [5. C. 87].
V sn`xsxy s rnm, mo uepnnni ne mann nnacnoro xpamy, nonn niniyna-
nn napa]ixntny nepxny c. Isa. Henonsi s narocnonennx cnncxona He-
cropa o.Ioann (Caon) nnamrynan npn cxnri omony nepxny na uecrt
Pisna Foxo Marepi, n xxi moenno ninpannxnacx Hiryprix. 2 epesnx
1949 p. Cnapxiantne ynpanninnx o]inino nnsnano xinoun cxnr n c. Isa.
Cnpanxa ntana xencxomy Cn.
Foroponunomy cxnry n cene
Hse, Xycrcxoro oxpyra n rom, uro
+ror cxnr cymecrnyer xax mo-
nacrtpt c 1924 r. n xnnxercx
cxnrom xencxoro monacrtpx
Poxecrna Hpecnxro Foropo-
nnt cena Hnnun Xycrcxoro ox-
pyra 3axapnarcxo onacrn.
Honnct: Hpannrent xannenxpnn
apxnenncxona Maxapnx, npor.
H. Konononnu c.p. [2. C. 55].
V 1946 p. o cxnry ncrynnna
Bacnnnna Mnxaninna Isa, a y
1947 p. Mapix Ieoprinna
Xnycr. x yno nocrpnxeno n
monaxnni 21 rpannx 1949 p. s ime-
namn Cnoxix ra Map]a. Oc-
rannc nononnennx cxnry monon-
mn nocnymnnnxmn niynocx y
Hepouonax Hoann Caon
48
2009, N 1 (15)
1949-1953 pp. V ne uac o onreni ynn npnnxri Bipa Inaninna Henn-
nent (1949 p.), Mapix Mnxaninna Isa (1950 p.), Bacnnnna Mnxaninna
Bepan (1952 p.), Onexcanpa Crenaninna Bepan (1952 p.), Rnnna
Mnxaninna Knnax (1952 p.), Onexcanpa Ieoprinna Bepan (1953 p.).
Taxnm unnom, xintxicrt nacentnnnt cxnry na 1953 p. cxnaana 18 oci,
is nnx 6 nocnymnnnt [5. C. 110-110 sn.].
Cni npoananisynarn ocnirni, coniantnn, nanionantnn ra nixonn cran
uepnnnt. Ocnirni pinent monaxnnt yn ocnrt nnstxnm. Tax is 18 oci
8 uon. saxinunno 6 xnacin nouarxono mxonn, 2 uon. 5 xnacin, 8 uon.
4 xnacn. Bci uepnnni ra nocnymnnni ynn yxpanxamn ra noxonnn is ce-
nxnctxnx ponn. Bixonn posnoin cranom na cepenny 1953 p. nnrnxan
raxnm unnom [5. C. 110-110 sn.]:
xintxicrt poxin o 18 p. s 19 o 40 p. s 41 o 55 p. sa 55 p. yctoro
xintxicrt uon. 3 8 4 3 18
x niomo, oon`xsxn n cxnrax ra monacrnpxx uirxo posnoineni mix
uepnnnxmn. 3 camoro sacnynannx cxnry na nocai nacroxrentxn yna
monaxnnx Maxpnna (Ianac). Inmi nocnymannx ynn posnoineni nacryn-
nnm unnom: exonom monaxnnx ueoocix (Ianac), narounnna, xacnp
monaxnnx uenponix (Hemem), exnncnnapma Cn]nmix (Hemem), no-
miunnx exonoma monaxnnx Cnoxix (Isa) [5. C. 110-110 sn.]. Oon`xs-
xn yxinnnxa nnxonynan sacnonnnx cxnry icpomonax Ioann (Caon).
nx saesneuennx cee npoyxramn xapuynannx, uepnnni npanmnann
n cintctxomy rocnoapcrni. 3a apxinnnmn marepianamn y 1947 p. uepnnni
mann y cnocmy nonoinni 5-6 ra semni [5. C. 88]. V 1950 p. cintctxom
paom c. Isa cxnry yno naineno me 3,5 ra. V ne uac uepnnni mann
nenennxe rocnoapcrno: napy xone, ony xopony, 10 xype, ni cnnni.
nx opoirxy semni yno npnano ninoy, nnyr, opony. 3arantnn
npnyrox cxnry y 1949 p. cxnaan 5798 xp., a n 1950 p. 7253 xp. [5.
C. 83]. Cepe cnopy, sycrpiuacmo y sniri niomocri npo omony nepxny,
rpn ynnxn ra xnin. Monaxnni sann epxani y 1949 p. 27 xr m`xca ra
210 n monoxa; y 1950 p. 27 xr m`xca, 120 n monoxa, 150 mr xcnt. Kpim
roro uepnnni cnnauynann pisni epxanni noopn. Hanpnxna y 1949-1951
pp. yno cnnaueno: noarox s npnyrxy 1309 xp., crpaxonxa 609
xp., epxanna nosnxa 1375 xp.
Ha nouarxy 1953 p. posnouancx nponec nixniani monacrnpin ra cxnrin.
3a noannxm ynonnonaxenoro pan no cnpanam PHH A. Bepcrmxa,
narounnnn monacrnpin ra cxnrin 3axapnarctxo onacri apximanpnr
Mar]e (Baxapon) 27 ciunx 1953 p. cxnan npoexr yxpynnennx uepneunx
rpoma. 3rino ntoro oxymenry nenrpanisanix nonnnna yna niyrncx
49

raxnm unnom: n Cn. Mnxonanctxn uononiun monacrnp (c. Isa-Kapnyr-
nam) mann nepenonnncx cxnrn is Ioponnona i Konecapona; y Tepe-
entctxn monacrnp is Feenni i yonoro; y Myxaueno (npn cnnc-
xonctxi pesnenni) is ypinxn; y Hnnuanctxn is c. Isa, Iopxn,
Hpnopxanctxe; y uymaninctxn is parona, Konamnena, Vrni; xinoui
monacrnpi na uepneui ropi n Myxaueni i omoxax nnanynanocx sann-
mnrn camocrinnmn [6. C. 5]. Taxnm unnom is 18 monacrnpin ra cxnrin
nonnnno yno sannmnrncx nctoro 7 rpoma. Onax ne npoexr yno nixn-
nyro.
3 nouarxom nira 1953 p. cnncxon Inapion (Koueprin) npncrynnn o es-
nocepento nixniani Cnxro-Pisna-Foroponntxn xinoun cxnry n
c.Isa. Bxe 23 rpannx 1953 p. narounnnn monacrnpin ra cxnrin apxi-
manpnr Mar]e (Baxapon) orpnman Cnapxiantne posnopxxennx, n xxo-
my cepe nctoro inmoro sycrpiuacmo nacrynni rnepxennx: Paccennrt
nn nacentnnn Hscxoro cxnra mexy pyrnmn xencxnmn monacrtpxmn,
nnn nepecennrt nx na mecro Feennxncxoro cxnra? [5. C. 99].
Honirnxa cnncxona cnpxmonana na saxpnrrx cxnry nnxnnxana pisxn
cnpornn xx y nacenennx c. Isa rax i n npecrannnxin cintctxo pan. 30
rpannx 1953 p. s c. Isa na im`x cnncxona yno naicnano na nncrn. V
sn`xsxy s nasnnuanom naxnnnicrm nnx oxymenrin, nnaxacmo sa ne-
oxine nanecrn x smicr y crarri.
Hepmn nncr, ni nasnom Hpomenne yn ninncann 347 xnrenxmn
c. Isa. Bame Hpeocnxmencrno Hpeocnxmennnmn Bnatxa, mt, pen-
nnrenn Hpanocnannx cena Hst, xoroptx n ornt nx mnoro crpaann sa
npanocnanne, ocmennnaemcx npocnrt Bame npeocnxmencrno n cneym-
mem: Hponeccx cnyx no ceny Hse, uro nacentnnnt Cnxro-Foroponu-
noro cxnra n Hse onxnt trnn ntcenent c Hst noromy, uro cxnr ne
moxer cymecrnonarn n cene. Bame Hpeocnxmencrno. Ocnonarent cxn-
ra n Hse Hoan Caon mnoro nocrpaan npn none 1914-1918 rr. Cnet
ero crpaannx n nooen na nem cneno. Ocrancx raxnm na ncm xnsnt
cnom. On conpan monamecrnymmnx mnome n enuar, xoropte n er-
noe npemx no ncem monacn xnmr n pasntx cenax n unnax. Hocrponn na
cnoe yuacrxe cxnr c nomomnm cnonx nacentnnn, xoropo cxnr Hpeoc-
nxmenno enncxon Hecrop npnnxn n mnrpnx Mnxanonnua Caona
narocnonnn nocrpnut n monaxn n ero nacentnnn n pyxononoxnrt n nepo-
monaxa. Mt, xnrenn cena Hst, xoroptx ouepn xnmr n cxnry Poxen-
crna Foroponnt n Hse, ne nnenn o ntne nnxxoro conasna n cxnry
cena Hst, nn o nocrpnra nx n monaxnnn no n nocne nocrpnra. Xnmr
naroroneno, exenenno monxrcx Fory, nnxomy ne enamr, nn n nep-
xonno ena nn n centcxne ne memamrcx. Ha ocnonannn yxasannoro
cmnpenno npocnm Cnxremaro Harpnapxa, name Hpeocnxmencrno oc-
rannrn na mecre nacentnnn cxnra n Hse, n npocnrt Cnxremaro Harpn-
50
2009, N 1 (15)
apxa, urot on narocnonnn n na antme xnrnn n monnrncx Fory n Hse
sa Ero Cnxmennmecrno spanne n sa mnp no ncem mnpe! [7].
Hosnnim cena nirpnmano xepinnnnrno cintctxo pan na uoni s rono-
nom Cnmynnxom ra cexperapem Baxaponnm. He un ne cnnn nnnaox
na 3axapnarri n 1950-x pp., xonn micnena nnaa crana na cropony sneo-
nennx uepnnnt. Cnpanxa. ana Hscxnm centconerom enyraron rpy-
xmnxcx Xycrcx. oxp. 3axapn. on. n rom, uro xencxn Cnxro-Foropo-
nnxn cxnr n cene Hsa, om N122, nocrpoen rpyamn n cpecrnamn
rontxo nacentnnn cxnra. Vuacrox semnn nonyuen na saxonnom ocnona-
nnn nsamen tnme nxne cocrnenno semnn. Iocyapcrny onnaunna-
er xax rocnocranxn, rax n nanorn n yxasannt cpox n ne nmemnnaercx n
nonnrnuecxne ena omecrnennoro nopxxa, noromy centconer ne nme-
er nnuero npornn cxnra n ue xeuaem (rvpcue aemopa), urot on tn
ntcenen c cena Hsa, a rem onee sa ro, uro nourn nce nacentnnnt
cxnra xnnxmrcx xnrenxmn n ypoxennamn cena Hsa [8].
He snaxamun na nirpnmxy cenxn ra micnennx ypxonnin uepnnni ni
rncxom ynn smymeni noronrncx na nncenennx s c. Isa. V nncri o cnnc-
xona ni 9 uepnnx 1953 p. cecrpn npocnnn nepxonne xepinnnnrno nepece-
nxrn x y nonnomy cxnai ra ni n xxomy pasi ne posnopomynarn mix a-
rartma monacrnpxmn ra cxnramn [5. C. 99]. V pyromy oxymenri na-
croxrentxa cxnry monaxnnx Maxpnna oxpecnnna rpn ymonn nx nepene-
cennx cxnry o Feenni. V nepmomy nynxri sasnauanocx, mo ynnxax
xonnmntoro uononiuoro cxnry n Feenni ne moxnnno ye posmicrnrn
ncix uepnnnt, uepes pax xnrnono nnomi. nx nnpimennx anoro nnran-
nx nacroxrentxa npononynana nepenecrn na none micne ynnxn s c. Isa.
pyre nnrannx, mo rypynano uepnnnt ne ne ocrarnx xintxicrt semni
n Feenni. Hopymynanocx xnonorannx npo sintmennx sementno inxn-
xn nx norpe nacentnnnt cxnry. Hacroxrentxa raxox npocnna cnncxo-
na osnonnrn siparn nocinn ypoxam n c. Isa, nx saesneuennx cee
npoyxramn xapuynannx [5. C. 98].
12 nnnnx 1953 p. cnncxon Inapion nnan naxas, srino xxoro nixniony-
nancx uononiun Cnxro-Hpereunnctxn cxnr n Feenni, a oro nacent-
nnxn nepecenxnncx o Tepeni. pyrnm nynxrom ntoro naxasy saxpnna-
nn Cnxro-Pisna-Foroponntxn xinoun cxnry n c. Isa, a uepnnnt ne-
penonnn o Feenni. osnonxnocx nepenesennx mana crpoxom o 1
nepecnx 1953 p. [5. C. 100]. He niomo, s xxnx npnunn ne naxas yn
npoyntonann raxox 20 cepnnx 1953 p. sa N 1027 [5. C. 109].
x nnno s oxymenrin, uepnnni ne nnxonann naxasy cnncxona. Ha no-
uarxy nepecnx 1953 p. na oro im`x yno snony niicnano xintxa nncrin
ni xnrenin c. Isa ra cintctxoro rononn. V nnx oxymenrax soxpema
sasnauanocx, mo narounnnn monacrnpin ra cxnrin apximanpnr Mar-
]e (Baxapon) ni rncxom ra manraxem smycnn uepnnnt ninncarn
51

nporoxon npo nixnianim cxnry ra nepecenennx o Feenni. Cenxnn npo-
cnnn cxacynarn naxas npo nixnianim cxnry ra norpoxynann snepnennx-
mn o npoxypary s ntoro nnrannx [5. C. 103]. He nnxnnxano pisxy peax-
nim npannxuoro apxicpex. V nncri o ynonnonaxenoro pan y cnpanax
PHH npn Pai Minicrpin CPCP no VPCP I. Kopuenoro ni 18 nepecnx
1953 p. nin nncan, mo nacentnnni cxnry n Isi namnn cee samnry n
Centcxom Vnpannennn ra rantmymrt nponec nixniani. Cnncxon npo-
cnn ynonnonaxenoro uepes ninonini posnopxxennx sponrn nnnnn
na xepinnnnrno c. Isa [5. C. 102].
5 nncronaa 1953 p. npocniynan nacrynnn cnncxonctxn naxas. 3rino
xxoro icpomonaxa Ioanna yno snintneno s nocan yxinnnxa xinouoro
cxnry n c. Isa ra nanpanneno na nocnyx o Cnxro-Mnxonanctxoro mona-
crnpx. Monaxnnt: Maxpnny (Ianac), ueoocim (Ianac), uenponim (He-
mem), Cn]nmim (Hemem), Hmmnny (Hennnent), Xapnrnny (Isa), Cnn-
sanery (Texsa), 3nnonim (Iaon), Onexcanpy (Cnmynnx), Anacracim
(Bamn), Cnoxim (Isa) nepeneeno o Hnnuanctxoro monacrnpx [5.
C. 103]. Taxnm unnom snepnennx monaxnnt moo cnintnoro nepecenen-
nx x n Feennm yno npoirnoponano.
uacrnna uepnnnt ra yxinnnx icpomonax Ioann (Caon) ne nixopnnn-
cx naxasy cnncxona. Toi cnncxon Inapion 22 nmroro 1954 p. sa nenocny-
manne n conpornnnenne nosannn oro cany i monamecrna [5. C. 115].
Ha ananc cena Isa yno nepeano 3 ynnxn posmipom: 1) 3 na 14 m
xn.; 2) 6 na 4 m xn.; 3) 6 na 2 m xn. ra xnin posmipom 7 na 4 m xn. [3.
C. 48].
Hpo re, mo cxnr ]axrnuno npoonxynan icnynarn y 1955 p. cniunrt
nncr cnncxona Inapiona o ynonnonaxenoro Pan y cnpanax PHH no 3a-
xapnarctxi onacri A. Bepcrmxa ni 18 epesnx 1955 p. V ntomy o-
xymenri cnncxon rnepnrt, mo tnmn nepomonax Caon npoonxaer
epxart oxono cex monaxnnt n ynepxer nx, uro c Hacxn cxnr yer
noccranonnen [5. C. 117]. Bin raxox snony napixan na nirpnmxy na-
centnnxin cxnry cintctxom nnaom.
Cni npoananisynarn cxna cecrep xxi nepecennnncx o Feenni, Hnnui,
Myxauena, ao x sannmnnncx npoxnnarn n c. Isa.
Ha nouarxy nmroro 1954 p. o Feenni nepecennnncx monaxnni Inn-
xepix (Baxapon), A]anacix (Baxapon), ueoxrncra (onrannu), Cn]nmix
(Bepan), 3nnonix (Iaon), nocnymnnni Rniana Knnax, Onexcanpa
Bepan, Henarex Opoc, Ianna Fypnx. Monaxnnx Innxepix (Baxapon) 10
nmroro 1954 p. yna opana nacroxrentxom cxnry. 1 xnirnx 1954 p. uep-
nnni orpnmann s Cnapxiantnoro ynpanninnx Hocniuennx, srino xxoro
nasny cxnry yno smineno na Ioanno-Hpereunnctxn ra ninopxxona-
no Hnnuanctxomy, a sroom Myxauinctxomy monacrnpm. V nnnni 1954 p.
na nocay nacroxrentxn yno opano monaxnnm Cn]nmim (Hemem).
52
2009, N 1 (15)
3a noniomnennxm narounnnoro monacrnpi ra cxnrin apximanpnra
Apcenix (3exan), y cepnni 1956 p. n npnmimennxx xonnmntoro Cn.Pisna-
Foroponntxoro xinouoro cxnry n c. Isa npoonxynann npoxnnarn 12
uepnnnt. Cnincrannnmn cnncox cecrep, moxna npnrn o nncnonxy, mo
n c. Isa sannmnnncx maxe nci monaxnni, xxi nonnnni ynn nepern n
Hnnuy. B ocnonni maci nonn npoxnnann noma, ao y ponuin ra snpa-
nncx na cnintny monnrny.
10 cepnnx 1956 p. nacroxrentxa Maxpnna (Ianac) niicnana na ape-
cy Harpiapxa Mocxonctxoro i ncic pyci Anexcix I cxapry na nesaxonni i
moo nixniani cxnry. Onax, nxe 16 cepnnx 1956 p. ann oxymenr
yn niicnann npannxuomy cnncxony Inapiony, nnrannx sannmnnocx es
nnpimennx [9].
Taxnm unnom, uepnnni smymeni ynn posirncx no ominxax. o.Ioann
(Caon), monaxnni Maxpnna (Ianac) ra ueoocx (Ianac) nocennnncx na
oxonnni c. Isa, e sanepmnnn cni semnn mnxx. onx inmnx uepnnnt
raxox nioma. Hanpnxna, monaxnnx Cnoxix (Isa) nocennnacx y cecr-
pn Kannnn Isa, npanmnana n xonrocn im. Miuypina c. Isa n pnrai no-
sonnerinnx; monaxnnx Xapnrnna (Isa) npoxnnana y nneminnnxa; nocnym-
nnnx Mapix Isa nnmna samix, npanmnana na ]erpo]intneni ]apnni
m. Xycr; o artxin y Benxrnno nonepnynncx cecrpn monaxnnx Hm-
mnna (Hennnent) ra Hina Hennnent [10. C. 19-20].
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHHX EPEA TA AITEPATYPH:
1. Cepeu (Hiora), uepo+ouax. Hpanocnanne n nnouecxax xnsnt n 3axapna-
rte n nepno nononnne XX cronernx. 3aropcx, 1960. (Mamnnonnct).
2. Haeup B. Monacrnpi 3axapnarrx (1360-1939). Myxaueno, 1994. - 116 c.
3. annnent R. Hpanocnanni monacrnpi Xycrctxoro paony (XX cronirrx) /
Hepemona npo]. . annnmxa. Vxropo: Ipaxa, 2004. - 168 c.: in.
4. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri (A3O). u. 151. On. 7. Cnp. 1041.
5. A3O. u. P. 1490. On. 4. Cnp. 14.
6. A3O. u. 1490. On. 4. Cnp. 16. - Apx. 5.
7. Hpoxannx xnrenin c. Isa o cnncxona Inapiona (Koueprin) ni 30 rpannx 1953
p. // Horounn apxin Xycrctxo-Bnnorpainctxo npanocnanno cnapxi, m.Xycr.
8. Cnpanxa nnana cintctxom paom c.Isa ni 30 rpannx 1953 p. // Horounn
apxin Xycrctxo-Bnnorpainctxo npanocnanno cnapxi, m.Xycr.
9. Horounn apxin Xycrctxo-Bnnorpainctxo npanocnanno cnapxi, m.Xycr.
10. A3O. u. P. 544. On. 3. Cnp. 22.
53

Pouan mAHKA
OBmHHL, OCHOBAHHLE TBEPLMH*
PYCHHAMH B KAHAE
Bcxope nocne npntrnx n Kanay pycnnt crann pasmtmnxrt o neo-
xonmocrn nmert cno xpam n nonom xpae. Tax co npemenem n xaxom
pycnncxom nocenennn noxnnnact nepxna. Haunnax c 1898 r. no nnnnn
ropoon 3monron - Pexana - Bnnnnner apxnrexrypa Kapnaro-nec-
rponcxnx sement oorarnna xanacxn nesax. Onn ns nepntx xpa-
mon tn nocrpoen rannnxnmn pycnnamn n nocenennn Crap (3nesa)
1
n
nponnnnnn Antepra n 50 xm na cenepo-nocroxe or r. 3monron. Hep-
nonauantno n 1898-1899 rr. xpam crponnn ns pycon, no n 1913 r. nepnt
xpam pasopann n nocrponnn nont ns epena
2
. Xpam c onnm xynonom
n ]opme xpecra ynenuan rpexpamenntm xpecrom n ocnxmen n uecrt
Hpeopaxennx. Ha xnanme nosne xpama norpeen Hnan Hnnnnon,
nnnnnarop pycnncxoro nepecenennx n Kanay
3
.
Hocenenne Bocrox
4
naxonrcx npnmepno n 10 xm or nocenennx Crap.
Hepnt xpam n Bocroxe crponncx
rannnxnmn pycnnamn n 1899-1901 rr.
n na Tponny 1901 r. tn ocnxmen n
uecrt Cn. Tponnt enncxonom Ane-
yrcxnm n Cenepoamepnxancxnm Tn-
xonom, nnocnecrnnn narpnapxom n
ncnonennxom Mocxoncxnm. Bocrox
snamennr n rem, uro sect naro-
apx rannnxnm pycnnam tna or-
cnyxena nepnax npanocnannax nn-
ryprnx na xanacxo semne, sect
tn ocnonan nepnt npanocnannt
monacrtpt n Kanae
5
, cma nasna-
uen tn cnxmennnx Haxon Kopunn-
cxn, nepnt nocroxnnt npano-
cnannt cnxmennnx n Kanae, n
sect orxptnact nepnax npanocnan-
nax mnccnx n Kanae. Cnxro-Tpo-
nnxn xpam n Bocroxe cran yxon-
Hnan Hnnnnon
*Teepoi+u aemop uasieaem pvcuuoe, romopie oo roua ceoe rusuu co-
xpauu.u uoea.i Cemo Pvcu.
54
2009, N 1 (15)
ntm nenrpom nx mnornx pycnnon, ocoenno rneptx. Kora eme ne
tno ecrnymmnx nepxne n pyrnx nocenennxx, nce xonnn na Boc-
rox na orocnyxennx, na npasnnxn n na rpet. B moe cemte paccxa-
stnann, uro n 1905 r. mox aymxa xonna nemxom (50 xm n ony cropo-
ny) na Bocrox, urot xpecrnrt ctna, noromy uro eme ne tno xpama
na Banxax, re onn rora rasynann (xosxnnuann). B 1907 r. nep-
nt xpam n Bocroxe cropen, nropo cropen n 1932 r., n rontxo mecrt ner
cnycrx, n 1938 r., tn nocrpoen rpern
6
, xoropt o cnx nop ecrnyer
no yxonntm pyxonocrnom Mocxoncxo narpnapxnn. Bosne xpama na-
xonrcx namxrnnx cnxrnrenm Tnxony, narpnapxy Mocxoncxomy.
B nocenennn Fyxonnna n 8 xm or Bocroxa xpam nocrpoen yxonnncxn-
mn pycnaxamn ns pycon, cenanntx ns epenten oxpecrntx necon, n
]ynamenr sanoxen ns xamne, nsxrtx na nnsnexamnx nonxx. Xpam c
onnm xynonom ocnxmen n uecrt cnxrnrenx Hnxonax n 1901 r. cnxrnre-
nem Tnxonom, xora on nepnt pas nocernn Kanay n trnocrt enncxo-
nom
7
. Xorx exrenn nononosnnxmero yxpanncxoro parcrna nponenn
sect mnccnm n 1920 r., npnxoxane Cnxro-Hnxonaencxoro xpama oc-
ranannct npeanntmn Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn
8
.
Xpam Cnxroro Haxona pacnonoxen n mecrnocrn Kpaxon (nnocnecrnnn
Mon+p (Mundare)). Omnna tna oprannsonana n 1901 r. n ome Kon-
para Bepemert, xora cemnanart rannnxnx cemecrn ocrannnn ynnm
n npncoennnnnct x Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn. Xpam ocnxmen ennc-
xonom Tnxonom n 1904 r., on neont-
mo, no c xynonom n xonoxontne
9
.
B mecrnocrn Bnmxonnt
10
(no nasna-
nnm cena n Cenepno Fyxonnne, ntne
n uepnonnnxo on.) crponrentcrno
xpama nauanoct n 1905 r. Hont xpam
ocnxmen n 1963 r. apxnenncxonom Han-
renenmonom (Pytxom)
11
. Opnrnnant-
nt xpam cran nnocnecrnnn uacrtm
Banponcxoro mysex, xoropt oc-
nonan na cnoe ]epme Bacnnt 3asynx.
Myse naxonrcx n 120 xm na cenepo-
nocrox or 3monrona n nmemaer n
xomnnexce n ocnonnom nocrpoxn n no-
enxn pycnncxnx ntxonen ns Ancr-
pncxo Fyxonnnt. Bacnnt 3asynx
tn onnm ns nocnennx nepecenen-
nen nepno nonnt pycnncxoro nepece-
nennx n Kanay (1891-1914). On co-
npan nce, uro mor, urot coxpannrt Bacnnt 3asynn
55

marepnantnt tr pycnnon-nepecenennen. Vcnnnxmn B. 3asynn ns Bnm-
xonen tn nepenesen xpam, xoropt, naxoxct cpen nomasanox-nsy-
mex, semnxnox, xomop n pyrnx nocrpoex, nenuaer +xcnosnnnm. Homnm
nocnenmm ncrpeuy c nnm. 3ro tno nosne xpama n Banpax na npo-
noax (na Paonnny) nocne Hacxn n nauane 1980-x rr. B. 3asynx ntmen
ns xpama, n x noomen x nemy c nacxantntm npnnercrnnem Xpncroc
Bocxpec! Orneuax, on noan pyxy n cxasan: xxym Poman. uann-
mnx cnnn nema nnment na cnona, no xnntxo paocrn (Kpacnnemnx
cnon ner nnmt na cnona, no cxontxo paocrn).
B nocenennn Cxapo (Skaro) pacnonoxen Cnxro-Bosnecencxn xpam, xo-
ropt naxonrcx n 20 xm na cenepo-sana or Bocroxa. On tn cosan n
1897-1898 rr. nocne npntrnx rneptx pycnnon n +ry mecrnocrt.
Ocnonarenxmn n crponrenxmn nepno nepxnn tnn Hoann Caxman n
Bacnnt Honymnncxn, pyccxne narpnort ns Iannunnt
12
. Hont xpam
tn ocnxmen n 1927 r. enncxonom Aamom (unnnnnoncxnm)
13
. 3ect,
xax n Bocroxe, Couane, Fyxonnne, Banpax, Banxax n n pyrnx mecr-
nocrxx, rnepoe pycnncrno epxanoct onro. B CBA rnepoe py-
cnncrno epxanoct eme xpenue nepnax pycnncxax omnna nepemna n
Pyccxym npanocnannym nepxont n 1891 r. n r. Mnnneanonnce nmecre co
cnonm cnxmennnxom Anexcnem Tonrom, nnocnecrnnn xanonnsnponan-
ntm Hpanocnanno nepxontm Amepnxn. (Iopo Mnnneanonnc naxonr-
cx n mrare Mnnnecora n 800 xm na mr or r. Bnnnnner). B 1964 r. na
Bnanmnpcxo Iopxe nosne Cnxro-Bnanmnpcxoro xpama (100 xm or
Haun1nnx
Ha Beunym Haun1t xapna1o-
pyccxnu uyuennxau, c1paanmnu
n nornmnu n Taneproqe n Hepnym
unponym nonny 1914-1917.
56
2009, N 1 (15)
r. Htm-Hopxa) Amepnxancxax Pyct nosnnrna namxrnnx Ha neunym
namxrt xapnaropyccxnm myuennxam, crpaanmnm n nornmnm n Ta-
nepro]e n Hepnym mnponym nony 1914-1917.
Xorx pycnncxoe nocenenne n mecrnocrn Heno ocnonano n 1899 r. , Cnx-
ro-Mnxannoncxn xpam nauann crponrt rontxo n 1909 r.
14
Xpam n ]op-
me xpecra c onnm xynonom ynenuan rpexpamenntm xpecrom. Xpam
naxonrcx n 10 xm na cenep or Bocroxa. Ha ero crenax moxno ynnert
ynnxantnte nxont, nanncante na xoncre.
Hpnmepno n 25 xm na cenep or Bocroxa n mecrnocrn Haxan pacnono-
xen Cnxro-Hntnncxn xpam, xoropt ocnonann pycnaxn n monanane,
ntxont ns Ancrpncxo Fyxonnnt, nepecennnmnecx n Kanay n xonne
XIX nauane XX n. Xpam tn ocnxmen n 1906 r. Ha Poxecrno
1954 r. xpam cropen, n nropo, n ]opme xonuera, cpasy nauann crponrt
no pyxonocrnom Hnana Mnoronernoro (poom ns cena Henxonnt no
uepnonnamn). Ero ctn n out tnn namnmn cocexmn; onn nmnnn
paccxastnart, uro nx nento (oren) xya xony (xonn) ro nocny (no-
cnn) c cooy (coo) xntnen (monorox). Bropo xpam ocnxrnn n 1965 r.
Cnntnecrp, enncxon Monpeantcxn n Kanacxn
15
.
B 6 xm na cenep or Haxana naxonrcx Tonopoyn (nnocnecrnnn Cmoy-
xn H+x (Smoky Lake)), n xoropom pacnonoxen Cnxro-Tponnxn xpam,
ocnonannt n 1900 r. n ocnxmennt n 1909 r. Xpam cropen n 1928 r., n
cpasy nauann crponrt nropo, xoropt ocnxrnn cnxrnrent Apcenn (ua-
ronnen)
16
. Hepnt nepecenenen mecrnocrn Cre]an nepnnuyx tn po-
om ns cena Tonopoyn (Tonoponnt ntnemne uepnonnnxo onacrn).
Bosne xpama ontmoe xnanme, na xoropom ecrt n namxrnnx nepece-
nennam ns
Tonopoyn.
Ha sana na
5 xm or n.
To n o p o y n
pacnonoxen
Cnxro-Her-
po-Hannonc-
xn xpam n
nocenennn
uarop (no na-
snannm cena
na mre or r.
uepnonnt n
Ce n e p n o
Fyxonnne).
Manentxn
Cnn1o-Tponnxnn xpau n n. Tonopoyn
57

xpam, naxonnmncx na xonme, nocrpoen n 1904 r. n ]opme xonuera c
onnm xynonom.
B 10 xm x nocroxy or n. Bocrox, n nocenennn Couana, pacnonoxen
Cnxro-Mnxannoncxn xpam
17
. B 1904 r. cnxrnrent Tnxon nonyunn or
npannrentcrna 40 axpon semnn no xpam. 3ect pycnnt, ecnn nx tno
onee 30 cemecrn, nmenn npano no craryram xanacxoro npannrent-
crna na 40 axpon semnn no nepxont, mxony n xnanme
18
. Ioa mnn, no
mnorne pycnncxne nepecenennt ne satnann o cnonx neanax, o cnonx
yxonntx nennocrxx, ocnontnax ne rontxo xpamt, no n monacrtpn. Co-
uancxn cxnr tn nroptm npanocnanntm monacrtpem, ocnonanntm n
Kanae. 6 max 1916 r. cocroxnoct orxptrne cxnra no nmx nennxomyue-
nnxa Hoanna Couancxoro
19
. Hepnt xpam cropen n 1914 r., a nropo
cpasy nocrponnn no pyxonocrnom Konpara Bepemert ns xauecrnen-
noro marepnana
20
. B 1978 r. nropo xpam cropen or yapa monnnn.
B 5 xm na mre or Couant n mecrnocrn uapyct pacnonoxen Cnxro-
Hoanno-Hpereuencxn xpam, xoropt nocrpoen n ]opme xonuera c
onnm xynonom. Xpam naxonncx na xonme n nnen nsanexa.
B 8 xm na mr or n. uapyct, n nocenennn Cepexxn, xoropoe pycnncxne
nepecenennt sacenxnn c 1898 r., pacnonoxen Cnxro-nmnrpnencxn
xpam. Hepnt xpam tn nocrpoen n 1905 r., no cropen n 1921 r. Bropo
xpam nocrpoen n 1923 r. n cropen n 1967 r., no cxopo nocrponnn rpern na
nx mecre.
B 10 xm na cenep or Couant, n n. Kncenen (nasnannom no ceny n Ce-
nepno Fyxonnne, ntne uepnonnnxo onacrn), pacnonoxen xpam Pox-
ecrna Hpecnxro Foroponnt. Xpam ocnonan n 1899 r. n ocnxmen n
1905 r. cnxrnrenem Tnxonom. Hpn ocnxmennn npncyrcrnonann nsnecr-
nte cpen rnep-
tx pycnnon ueo-
op Hemnpcxn
21
n
Hnxon Banpo
22
,
onn ns parten
Banpo, xoropte
sacennnn n. Ban-
pt (Shandro) n
1899 r. Ha mecre
nepnoro xpama n
1951 r. nocrpoen
no pyxonocrnom
Hnana Mnoronerno-
ro nropo.
B 10 xm na cene-
po-nocrox or Knce- Cnn1o-Mnxannoncxnn xpau n n. Couana
58
2009, N 1 (15)
nena pacnonoxen Cnxro-Tponnxn xpam n nocenennn Cann+n (Sunland -
Conneunt xpa). Xpam nocrpoen n 1912 r. n ]opme xonuera no rpemx
xynonamn no pyxonocrnom Hnana Mnoronernoro. 3ect n 1927-
1928 rr. nosnnx cnop mexy npnxoxanamn, xora yxpanncxn nonnrnx
yronapnnan nexoroptx nepern ns Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn n no-
nonosnnxmee yxpanncxoe parcrno. eno omno o cyenoro nponec-
ca, n n xonne xonnon xpam ocrancx n mpncnxnnn Pyccxo npanocnanno
nepxnn
23
.
Vcnencxn xpam na Banpax
24
naxonrcx n 7 xm x mro-nocroxy or
Cann+na. Hpnxo ocnonan n 1899 r., n ocnxmenne xpama ocymecrnnx-
noct n 1904 r. cnxrnrenem Tnxonom. Xpam nocrpoen es npoexra no
pyxononcrnom Cre]ana Poccnuyxa, poom ns Ancrpncxo Fyxonn-
nt, cenxnnna, xoropt ne ymen nn unrart, nn nncart. Xpam pacnonoxen
na xonme, nsanexa nnen, n ero xonoxontnte snont moxno cntmart no
nce oxpyre. Crapte nmn paccxastnann, uro, xora ryun conpannct
na rposy, ro nepesnonom manponcxnx snonon nx pasronxnn n nonx nce-
ra ocranannct nentmn. Heanexo or xpama, n Banponcxo onnne,
pacnonoxen Banponcxn myse Bacnnx 3asynn. Ho paccxasam crapo-
xnnon, xpam na Banpax nocrpoen no nnnannrnne Anacracnn, xent
Cre]ana Banpo, onoro ns parten, nocennnmnxcx ram n 1899 r.
25
Paccxastnann, uro cpasy no npntrnn paa Foxnx Anacracnx, npocrax
cenxnxa, samna na camt ntcoxn xonm, cenana ns nept xpecr n,
nomonnnmnct, nocrannna ero na mecre, re cxopo nauann crponrt Vc-
nencxn xpam. B 1980 r. n namxrt Anacracnn n cero ee ecrna nos-
nnrnyrt n ocnxment npara nepxonno orpat
26
. Hocenenne Banpt
nsnecrno n rem, uro sect n 1913 r. cocroxnoct nepnoe n Kanae Pyc-
cxoe naponoe neue, na xoropom npncyrcrnonann oxono 4000 yuacrnn-
xon
27
.
uepes Banponcxn
Mocr, n 12 xm x cenepy or
n. Banpt naxonrcx
Cnxro-Herpo-Hannoncxn
xpam n nocenennn Banxn
(nnocnecrnnn nxn Fym
(Dickie Bush)). B 1909 r.
xpam nauann crponrt es
npoexra no pyxono-
crnom Cre]ana Poccnuy-
xa. Xpam n ]opme xpecra
ns pycon ocnxmen n
1913 r. na Cnn. Herpa n
Hanna. Hxrt ontmnx rpe- Ycnencxnn xpau n n. manpm.
59

uecxnx xpecron nenuamr xynona xpama, xoropt pacnonoxen na camom
ntcoxom xonme, n mecrnocrn, nanomnnanme nanma]r Hpnxapnartx.
Xpam cunraercx onnm ns xpacnnemnx n npnuncnen x ncropnuecxnm
namxrnnxam nponnnnnn Antepra.
Ha nononnne nyrn ns n. Banpt na Banxn naxonrcx nocenenne Ba-
cnnt. Cnxro-Bosnecencxn xpam ocnonan sect n 1901 r. n ocnxmen n
1912 r. Ero apxnrexrypa nanomnnaer monancxym.
Mecreuxo unnman (Chipman) naxonrcx n 20 xm na mro-sana or Boc-
roxa. Hpanocnannax omnna c]opmnponanact n 1895-1905 rr. no npnt-
rnn rannnxnx pycnnon n +ry mecrnocrt. B 1909 r. nocrpoen nepnt xpam,
no on cropen n 1923 r. B 1925 r. nropo xpam n uecrt cn. Hoanna Kpecrn-
renx tn ocnxmen enncxonom Aamom (unnnnnoncxnm). B 1963 r. n
+ror xpam cropen, a n 1965 r. nocrpoen rpern, xoropt ocnxrnn apxn-
enncxon Hanrenenmon (Pytx). 3ect n 1919 r. cocroxncx ces rnep-
tx pycnnon, npoxonnmn no nosynrom Ces xapnaropoccon ces-
xarect, ctnt n ouepn Kapnarcxo Hoxpemno Pycn
28
.
Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn xpam n nocenennn Hont Knen (New Kiew) no-
crpoen n 1908 r. rannnxnmn pycnnamn. Omnne cnyxnnn cnxmennnxn
Pyccxo npanocnanno mnccnn ns Bocroxa. Hont Knen naxonrcx na
nocroxe or nocenennx Bocrox n 40 xm. Xpam nocrpoen ns pycon n ]op-
me xopanx c onnm xynonom. Crapte nnrorpa]nponante nxont ns
Poccnn yxpamamr nnyrpennee ypancrno xpama.
B mecreuxe Berpennnnt (Vegreville), xoropoe pacnonoxeno n 100 xm na
nocrox or r. 3monron, naxonrcx Cnxro-Hoanno-Hpereuencxn xpam,
ocnxmennt n 1927 r. B nem xpannrcx nxona cn. nennxomyuennxa Hoan-
na Couancxoro, ocoo nounraemoro rneptmn pycnnamn: yxonnnnt
nounramr ero xax noxponnrenx Fyxonnnt, a rannnxne pycnnt sa ro, uro
ero cnxrte momn noun-
nann n xpannnnct n Ia-
nnnnn n ropoe Xonxna,
nepe rem, xax nx nos-
nparnnn n 1783 r. n Co-
uany na npexnee mecro.
3ra ncropnx o cnxrom
Hoanne Honom Couanc-
xom paccxastnanact n
Kanae no xnnxxe, nsa-
no n Iannnnn rnep-
tm pycnnom Mnxan-
nom Fenoycom
29
.
B 1896 r. npntn n me-
crnocrt, pacnonoxennym
Xpau Poaec1na Hpecnn1on Boroponnm
n n. Kncenen
60
2009, N 1 (15)
n 40 xm x mro-sanay or r. 3monron ns cena Bnconxo nns r. pocnan
(n ntnemne Hontcxo Iannnnn), rnept pycnn ueoop Hannonnu
uyp
30
. B ero ome tnn orcnyxent poccncxnmn mnccnonepamn ns Can-
upannncxo nepnte npanocnannte orocnyxennx, n naroapx emy npn-
coennnnnct x npanocnanno nepxnn rannnxne pycnnt +ro mecrnoc-
rn
31
. Hanncano tno npomenne pyccxomy enncxony n Can-upannncxo o
npnnxrnn npncoennenntx rannuan n xonnuecrne 99 ym n cnom enap-
xnm
32
. B 1902 r. nocrpoen n ocnxmen Cnxro-Bosnecencxn xpam na ]ep-
me ueoopa uypa. C xaxtm room crapannxmn u.H. uypa npncoen-
nxnnct x npanocnannm mnorne rannnxne pycnnt, n pesyntrare uero n
1910 r. ynnarcxax n npanocnannax omnnt oennnnnct n onn npn-
xo
33
. Hont xpam n uecrt Poxecrna Hpecnxro Foroponnt ocnx-
men n 1966 r. apxnenncxonom Hanrenenmonom (Pytxom), xoropt,cor-
nacno cnoemy sanemannm, tn norpeen na xnanme nosne xpama cpen
cnonx yconmnx semnxxon.
Ha sanae or xpama Poxecrna Hpecnxro Foroponnt ocnonant ra-
nnnxnmn pycnnamn eme na xpama: Cnxro-Tponnxn n n. Topcn
(Thorsby), a n m. Kanmap (Calmar) - Cnxro-Bosnecencxn, xoropt tn
ocnxmen cnxrnrenem Apcennem (uaronnentm) n 1927 r.
34
1-ro cenrxpx 1900 r. tna orxptra xanacxax mnccnx c nenrpom n
mecrnocrn Bocrox, n cnxmennnx Haxon Kopunncxn tn nasnauen ee
nepntm nauantnnxom. 26-ro noxpx on npntn n Kanay ns Can-upan-
nncxo n na nporxxennn 18 mecxnen rpynncx n nponnnnnn Antepra no
nosnpamennm n npanocnanne ynnaron pycnncxoro nponcxoxennx ns Ia-
nnnnn n ycrpocrny n mecrax nx xomnaxrnoro npoxnnannx npnxocxnx
xpamon
35
. Cnxro-Bapnapnncxn Harpnapmn coop n r. 3monron tn
ocnonan n 1901 r. ornom Haxonom Kopunncxnm. nx nponeennx oro-
cnyxenn on npnopen
nyx+raxnt om, n xoro-
pom ycrponn uaconnm.
B 1908 r. tn nocrpoen no-
nt epenxnnt xpam, oc-
nxmennt nrymenom Ap-
cennem (uaronnentm).
B rasere Kanancxax
nnna sa 1909 r. unraem
samerxy, nanncannym
Hpanocnanntm pycn-
nom: Mt, npanocnannte
pycnnt, nepeynammnn n
3monrone mann n nee-
nm 24 max (6 nmnx) nenn-
Mornna apxnenncxona
Han1enenuona (Pymxa)
61

xym yxonnym paocrt. o nac sarocrnn nrymen Apcenn n orcnyxnn
cnyxt n nono neanno noyonanno nepxnn
36
. B 1959 r. epenxnnax
nepxont tna cnecena, a na ee mecre nocrpoena nonax xnpnnunax n ra-
nnnxom crnne, xoropax tna ocnxmena n 1960 r. apxnenncxonom Hanre-
nenmonom (Pytxom).
B nponnnnnn Antepra tnn n pyrne nocenennx, re pycnnamn ocno-
nant xpamt: Kpacna Boa (Red Water), Konman n Iemapyxa
37
. 3rn
xpamt ceuac saxptrt n ocnonnom no ro npnunne, uro npnxoxane ne-
pepannct n pyrne mecra nnn npocro ymepnn.
Hponnnnnx Mannroa pacnonoxena n Henrpantno Kanae mexy no-
crouno n sanano ee uacrtxmn. Mannroa - nnecxoe cnono, xoro-
poe osnauaer rnac Foxn, nasnann ee rax noromy, uro n Mannroe
mnoro osep, a nonnt, pasnnammnecx y eperon, nanomnnann xopenntm
onrarenxm xpax o Foxnem rnace. Mnorne npnxapnarcxne nepece-
nennt ocranannct n Mannroe, ne oesxax antme na sana o Ant-
eprt. Hocenennx nosnnxann na cenepe, mre n sanae or r. Bnnnnner. B
100 xm na mre nosnnxno n. Pyct
38
, re tnn nocrpoent nmnrpnencxn
xpam c npnnncntmn Mnxanoncxnm, Hnxonaencxnm n Hntnncxnm
39
. n-
mnrpnencxn cnannrcx rem, uro n nem ycranonnen nxonocrac, ntnncan-
nt ns r. uepnonnt.
C nasnannxmn nacenenntx nynxron nnora cnyuancx xanamyp: n Ma-
nnroe namn nastnann cnoe nocenenne Pyct, a xanant - Stuartburn.
Tora namn crann nastnart ero Brymyp. B Antepre namn nasna-
nn cnoe nocenenne Banxn, a xanant - Dickie Bush, n namn rora
crann nastnart ero nxn Fym.
B 300 xm na cenepo-sana or r. Bnnnnner n mecrnocrn C+nn H+x
(Sandy Lake - Hecounoe osepo) pacnonoxen Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn xpam.
Cpen pycnnon, xoropte sacennnn +ry mecrnocrt, tn ncanommnx n-
mnrpn (eprax), npntnmn n Kanay n 1903 r. ns cena Hanonnt Fop-
mencxoro p-na Iannnnn (ntnemne Tepnonontcxo on.), naxonnmero-
cx n yrny mexy pexamn 3pyu n necrp npn tnme cenepno rpannne
Feccapacxo ryepnnn. o nepecenennx n Kanay on npomen nemxom
600 nepcr ns pono Iannnnn n Knen, urot nomonnrtcx n noxnonnrtcx
cnxrtm momam n cnxrtnxm nepe oresom n Hont Cner
40
.
B 100 xm na cenep or r. Bnnnnner naxonrcx mecreuxo Inmnn, xoropoe
pacnonoxeno na epery Bnnnnnercxoro osepa, camoro ontmoro n Ma-
nnroe. Pycnnt nauann sacenxrt +ry mecrnocrt c 1899 r., a n 1905 r.
rnepte nanncann orxponennoe nnctmo cnxrnrenm Tnxony. Hnctmo
ntmno xax crartx no sarnannem Bonnn ns Kanat n Amepnxanc-
xom Hpanocnannom Becrnnxe sa 1905 r. B nnctme npocro, no rouno
onnctnaercx, xro tnn re nmn n uro onn xorenn : Mt, rannnxne pycn-
nt, mecrt ner romy nasa nauann cennrtcx n +ro xononnn. Cnauana
62
2009, N 1 (15)
nac tno mano... ntne nac cntme 500. Hama Inmentcxax napa]nx pant-
me pyrnx nocrannna nepxont, xoropax renept cronr nocpenne xono-
nnn n x xoropo npnnanexar onee 200 ]epmepon. Ftnmne rannnxne
ynnart, mt, xax rontxo npnmnn n +ror nontnt xpa, nonauany xe xore-
nn trt rneponpanocnanntmn, xax namn et n npaet tnn... mt
npocnm Bame Btcoxonpeocnxmencrno ne art nam nornnyrt ryr n
uyxom xpam, anre, oporo Bnatxo, nocroxnnoro cnxmennnxa, rontxo
t cnxmennnx ronopnn no-pyccxn...
41
. Boome moxno cxasart, uro
nce rnepte pycnnt tnn raxontmn, xax rnmentcxn, nce xnnn c
raxnmn xe neanamn, crpemxct nx coxpannrt o xonna xnsnn.
B 400 xm na cenepe or r. Bnnnnner no sanano cropone Bnnnnnercxoro
osepa naxonrcx mecreuxo Cn]ron, re n 1900-1905 rr. tn nosneen
Cnxro-Bocxpecencxn xpam c ntcoxo xonoxontne na npnrnopom, c
ontmnm xynonom nocpenne na xpamom n mentmnm na anrapem.
Ho Cn]ronom pacnonoxen Cnxro-Bosnecencxn monacrtpt, ocnonan-
nt cnxrnrenem Apcennem n 1927 r. xax ouar yxonnoro npocnemennx.
Bor uro nncan n 1965 r. tnmn nocnymnnx onrenn cnxmennnx E. Mo-
ceuyx: Bo ncex ornomennxx, ecnn xacanoct xaxo-nnyt paort, ro
ontme ncex oxastnanact nomomt narouecrnntmn cemtxmn n pyrn-
mn nnxamnmn cocexmn
42
.
B +rnx xpaxx naxonrcx ceno Hapont (no nasnannm cena n Iannnnn), n
xoropom n 1911 r. no nnnnnarnne uaex Hnaxnmxa, nnocnecrnnn pyxo-
nonoxennoro n can npanocnannoro cnxmennnxa, ocnonan Cnxro-Hnxona-
encxn xpam
43
. Hocenenne c 1904 r. sacenxnn rannnxne pycnnt, ntxo-
nt ns cena Fepnnn n pyrnx cen Fpoonmnnt (ntnemne Htnoncxo
on.), xoropax rpannunna c Bontncxo ryepnne Poccncxo nmnepnn.
Mnorne rnepte pycnnt n Kanae poom tnn ns Fpoonmnnt.
B camom Bnnnnnere Tponnxn xpam tn ocnxmen cnxrnrenem Tnxo-
nom n 1904 r.
44
Co npeme-
nem on cran coopom n nen-
rpom Kanacxo enapxnn
Pyccxo Amepnxancxo
mnrpononnn (nnocne-
crnnn Hpanocnanno nep-
xnn Amepnxn). 3ect npo-
xonn nepnt Coop xa-
nacxoro pyccxoro npano-
cnannoro yxonencrna, co-
croxnmncx 12-13 nmnx
1917 r. nocne Pyccxoro xon-
rpecca
45
.
Mexy Antepro n Ma-
Cnn1o-Bocxpecencxnn xpau n n. Cnq1on
63

nnroo naxonrcx nponnnnnx Cacxauenan, n xoropo n 1918 r. cyme-
crnonano na monacrtpx n cemnanart npnxoon Pyccxo npanocnan-
no nepxnn
46
. B mxnom Cacxauenane, n ropoe Myc xa (Moose Jaw -
Hocnnax uenmcrt), xpam tn ocnxmen 25 exapx 1914 r.
47
, a n 1964 r.
orpemonrnponan
48
. B 200 xm na cenepo-nocrox or r. Pexana n nocene-
nnn Crnnen xpam ocnonan ntxonamn ns Fyxonnnt n 1903 r. 3acnyra
coxpanennx omnnt n npanocnannn npnnanexnr H. Faxancxomy
49
.
B rex xe xpaxx Cnxro-Herpo-Hannoncxn xpam n n. Iynma ocnonan n
1911 r.
50
, a n n. Maxnor (MacNutt) ntxonamn ns Fyxonnnt - n 1908 r.
Hont xpam nocrpoen n 1960 r. B apxnnax npnxoa sameueno, uro cnx-
rnrent Tnxon nocernn +rn xpax n trnocrt enncxonom Aneyrcxnm n
Cenepoamepnxancxnm
51
. C 1905 r. yxonnnnt-nepecenennt sacennnn no-
cenenne uoym Hax (Foam Lake - Hennoe osepo), n xoropom ocnonann
Cnxro-Ony]pnencxn npnxo n 1909 r. Hepnt xpam nocrpoen n 1910 r.,
a nropo - n 1925 r.
52
B nocenennn Kanopa, sacenennom npenmymecrnenno npanocnanntmn
yxonnnnamn, noxnnnoct epenxnnoe crpoenne yxonnncxoro omono-
ro rnna crpoenne no xpyro xptme es xynonon ynenuano xpecra-
mn. B nocenennn H+n Hax (Lady Lake - amcxoe osepo) xpacyercx
cpen xanacxnx npepn n nropo xpam omonoro yxonnncxoro rnna.
Bosne xpama, xax no ncex pycnncxnx nocenennxx, pacnonoxeno xnan-
me c nopasnrentno xyoxecrnenno orenxo xpecron
53
.
Haunnax c 1898 r. n 3anano n Henrpantno Kanae nanma]r xa-
nacxnx npepn oorarnncx rpexpamenntm xpecrom on n ceronx nn-
en na nepmnnax xpamon n na narpontx namxrnnxax xnanm. 3ror
xpecr, xax snamx npaeoncxo nept, nanomnnaer o rom, uro sect xnnn
nmn, xoropte ero nounrann, xoropte ero rnepo orcrannann n xoro-
pte ero xpannnn xax cnmnon Cnxro Pycn, cnmnon cnonx yexenn,
xax ronopnnoct n 1915 r. n ra-
sere Pyccxn napo: 3a
xoporxoe npemx nycrtnnax
Kanaa yxpacnnact rpexpa-
menntmn xpecramn, xoro-
pte cyrt noxasarenn, uro
xnna pyccxax yma, uro xnn
pyccxn yx no remn cnx-
mmnmn xpecramn
54
.
Ceronx monooe noxone-
nne nsyuaer ncropnm cnoe
ponnt, cnonx npexon. Xo-
renoct t, urot ono nsy-
uano n ncropnm npanocna-
Harponme naun1nnxn
nun1pnn n Mapnn manxn
64
2009, N 1 (15)
nnx. Bet noonoe xnnenne (ro ecrt opta sa coxpanenne nocrou-
noro opxa) nanmanoct ne rontxo n 3axapnarte, onee xpxne ]op-
mt ono npnopeno n cocene Iannunne
55
. Haeemcx, uro yer nsy-
uartcx n ]enomen rneporo pycnncrna, xoropt ne rontxo onro ep-
xancx n npnxapnarcxnx xpaxx, no n coxpanxncx n Honom Cnere.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Lanra P. Kparxn ouepx ncropnn rneptx pycnnon n Kanae // Mexyna-
pont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2007. N 3 (9). C. 149.
2. Orthodox Church of the Transfiguration Star // Pride in Progress - Alberta Rose
Historical Society, Chipman 1982. P. 165.
3. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 146.
4. He+upcru 4. Hcropnx nasnt xononnn Bocrox // Kanancxn Hpanocnan-
nt Mnccnonep. N 8/9. Bnnnnner, 1926.
5. Kanenapt pyccxoro napoa. Bnnnnner, 1918. C. 184.
6. The Russian Greek Orthodox Church of the Holy Trinity-Wostok, Alberta //
Pride in Progress. Chipman, 1982. P. 175.
7. 27 anr. Ero Hpeocnxmencrno Tnxon conepmnn ocnxmenne xpama no nmx cnxrn-
renx Hnxonax n cenennn, nastnaemom Fyxonnna. Ha ropxecrno copanoct oxono
300 npanocnanntx. Amepnxancxn Hpanocnannt Becrnnx N 19. Can-upannnc-
xo, 1901.
8. Church Capital of North America Lamont County. Lamont, 1988. P. 38.
9. Harpnapmne npnxot n Kanae // www.orthodoxcanada.net
10. Tam xe.
11. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 154.
12. Pride in Progress. Chipman, 1982. P. 172.
13. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 152.
14. Pride in Progress. Chipman, 1982. P. 171.
15. Kanacxn npanocnannt xanenapt Pyccxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn n Ka-
nae. Toponro, 1965. C. 108.
16. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 153.
17. Tam xe.
18. Amepnxancxn Hpanocnannt Becrnnx. N 1. Can-upannncxo, 1904. C. 28.
19. Pyccxn napo. N15. Bnnnnner, 1916.
20. Dreams and Destinies-Andrew Historical Society. Edmonton, 1980. P. 226.
21. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 149.
22. Tam xe. C. 150.
23. Dreams and Destinies. Edmonton, 1980. P. 196.
24. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 150.
25. Tam xe.
26. Patriarchal Parishes of the Russian Orthodox Church in Canada. Edmonton,1988.
P. 61.
27. Pyccxn ronoc. 3monron, 24 nmnx 1913.
65

28. Pyccxn napo. Bnnnnner, 17 anpenx 1919.
29. Xnrne n crpaannx cn. Hoanna Couancxoro c axa]ncrom. Konomtx, 1907.
30. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 150.
31. Tam xe. C. 148.
32. Amepnxancxn Hpanocnannt Becrnnx. Can-upannncxo, 13 cenrxpx 1897.
33. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 148.
34. Patriarchal Parishes in Canada. Edmonton, 1988. P. 26.
35. Hs nnctma enncxona Hona (Cmaxoysa), ynpannxmmero narpnapmnmn npnxo-
amn n Kanae, nrymennn Cepa]nme, nacroxrentnnne Apxanreno-Mnxannoncxo-
ro xencxoro monacrtpx r. Oecca. 3monron, 15 cenrxpx 2008 r.
36. Kanancxax nnna. N 9. Bnnnnner, 15 nmnx 1909.
37. Hemaruka Church // Calgary Herald. Calgary, July 18, 1964.
38. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 147.
39. Kanenapt pyccxoro napoa. Bnnnnner, 1918. C. 185.
40. Kanacxn Hpanocnannt Kanenapt. Toponro, 1962. C. 102.
41. Amepnxancxn Hpanocnannt Becrnnx. N 10. Can-upannncxo, 1905. C. 187.
42. Kanacxn Hpanocnannt Kanenapt. Toponro, 1966. C. 136.
43. Hapont xax ceno n Enpone // Kanacxn Hpanocnannt Kanenapt. Toponro,
1963. C. 111.
44. Lanra P. Vxas. cou. C. 151.
45. Osop pyccxo xnsnn n Kanae n 1917 r. // Kanenapt pyccxoro napoa.
Bnnnnner, 1918. C. 165-177.
46. Tam xe.
47. Pyccxn napo. N 4. Bnnnnner, 1915.
48. Kanacxn Hpanocnannt Kanenapt. Toponro, 1965.
49. Tam xe.
50. Patriarchal Parishes in Canada. Edmonton, 1988. P. 88.
51. Tam xe. C. 87.
52. Tam xe. C. 86.
53. Kanacxn Hpanocnannt Kanenapt. Toponro, 1962. C. 111.
54. Pyccxn napo. N 11. Bnnnnner, 1915.
55. auu.e P. Hcropnuecxne npenoctnxn n npnunnt npanocnannoro nnxe-
nnx n 3axapnarte na pyexe XIX n XX nn. // http://www.pravoslavie.ru/arhiv/
29077.htm
ypnan xoncepna1nnnon umcnn
"3ono1on Aen":
www.zlev.ru
66
2009, N 1 (15)
un1po AHHAKK
A. BAHHHCLKHH (17321809)
HEPmHH HPOCBITHTEAL 3AKAPHATTR
B eiooae Boev rumm,
Heprei npam
I cepe uapoooei.
Hpo Anpix Faunnctxoro Hepxonnax rasera n 1857 p. nncana rax:
a narocnonnrcx namxrt ero or poa n po n npeyer nmx ero no-
ureno n napoe namem o nosnemaro noxonennx ero [1. C. 239].
Cnpani, nnnuennx oro ixntnocri nepexonyc n romy, mo nin niirpan
naxnnny pont y nomnpenni na 3axapnarri npocnirnnntxnx ie y nepmn
nepio yropctxoro Hpocnirnnnrna (17701820 pp.). Htomy cnpnxno re,
mo oro ixntnicrt npnnana na nepio ocniuenoro aconmrnsmy Mapi
Tepesi ra cnna Hocn]a II. Hpn cnpnxnni n yxonnomy xnrri saxap-
narctxnx pycnnin cranncx snauni sminn, xxi peantno nnnnnynn na spoc-
rannx nanionantno cniomocri. He soyrrx n 1771 p. rpexo-xaronnnt-
xom Myxauinctxom cnapxicm nesanexnocri (xanonisani) ni Erepctxo
cnapxi narnnctxoro opxy, npnsnauennx Mapicm Tepesicm 5 cepnnx
1772 p., a uepes pix noimenynannx nanom Knnmenricm XIV A. Faunnct-
xoro cnncxonom (17731809 pp.) [2], oro anropnrer cepe npannxuo
nepxinxn Ancrpi, nminnx cxopncrarncx ocnonnnmn pncamn nonirnxn ocn-
iuenoro aconmrnsmy ancrpictxoro nopy. Came ni pncn oro xapaxre-
py ninri y experi Mapi Tepesi. V ntomy nisnauanocx: ... +am:u
.acraev npuxu.iuicmi oo c.aeuux, eiouux noxea.u npuumuux
seu:ae, maror epaxoevm:u euumroev ocei:euicmi i epvouim, vci+
+u.u uanp+ rumm ma oaeamcmeo ovui i iuui oocmoucmea ua-
uoeo eipuoeo i uauoeuoeo Auopi Ba:uuciroeo, apxiouroua +vra-
:ieciro raqeopa.iuo epreu vuiamie epeiroeo oopov oeo s ua-
uux eipuurie ov.o ua uaeuuo+v +ici eiosua:euo i npoc.ae.euo...
cu.om nampouamuoeo npaea uauoeo ropo.iecmea... uoo uaoa.i +a.u
uaseauoeo euue Auopi Ba:uuciroeo sa uauoeo cnpaeruioeo i sa-
rouuoeo i oescv+uieuoeo cnucrona i npe.ama, i o+v ua.eruv no-
:ecmi i nouauv, i noripuicmi nooaea.u eue..u, i e vcio+v nioro-
p.uc oeo mpucouri[2]. Hm icropnuny nocrart narocnoninnx
Foxe nanxnyno na npoyxennx rnopunx cnn napoy, na nnneennx oro
s rempxnn, crnopennx ymon nx napoxennx nonnx cnonnxnnxin, xxi
ycnimno npoonxynann opi cnpann cnoro nacrannnxa. Hepmi niomocri
npo ntoro noxnnnncx y nac n 1990 poni [3].
67

Tox xxnmn npanennmn inamn posropran Anpi ueoponnu Faunnct-
xn naropony cnpany nanionantno-xyntrypne nipoxennx cnoro na-
poy? oxymenrn, oconnno ri, xxi onynixonani n ocranni poxn n Cno-
nauunni [4. C. 223-241] i n Vropmnni [5], cniuart, mo nin nx ntoro
sponn nemano. Bonoimun rnnoxnmn i nceiunnmn snannxmn n ranysi
orocnonctxnx nayx, mamun ocniry cnponectxoro pinnx, nin essacre-
pexno cnpnnxn ie Hpocnirnnnrna, cnirornxom xxoro yna nipa n o-
cxrnennx xpamoro xnrrx mnxxom posnnrxy ocnirn, xyntrypn, nnxonannx
nmoni o nnacno icropi, pino monn. Hm nesanepeuny icrnny nin nocr-
ino nponarynan cepe cnox niannx i perentno cnixynan sa peanisa-
nicm na micnxx, cepe npocroro napoy. V onomy is cnox nocnant cnx-
mennxam cnncxon pos`xcnmnan: Ha cooeprauic e ceoc+ cocmaei roc-
eo-.uoo pooa i uapooa ue ccmi oo.iuaeo i rpin:aueeo comsa, ue-
re.i cooeprauic npupoouoeo, ome:ecroeo i +amepueo ceoeo su-
ra, nuci+a u uaooreucmea [5. C. 187]. nx peanisani ntoro, es
cymniny, npannntnoro nncnonxy cnncxon soon`xsynan cnxmennxin na
micnxx sanyuarn o nouarxonoro nanuannx ncix ire. Bin naxasynan,
mo ro re e napoxi maro i e qi.ia.ax ceox eci oimu, x.oni i
oie:ama om uicmi oo :emipuaoami poroe ua uavrv xpucmuucrvm
cnocoouix, i+eua i npiseucira oa icnuuem u no ce+v raroo ue-
oc.u e eprei... :epes su+v re e oo+i... .mooeuo i c ecrom rpomoc-
mim oimu euuav:amu... rompux pooume.e :aoa oo uavru xuoumu
ovovm, maroeux ocraprumu nompeoo ovoem [5. C. 162]. Hpnuomy
cnncxon omarancx, mo nanuannx ire rpexo-xaronnxin yno esxom-
ronnnm.
Oconnno nennxa sacnyra Anpix Faunnctxoro y saxncri pino pyct-
xo monn pymnsnn, xx nin nasnnan. V ntomy nnranni nin uirxo cniy-
nan sanoniry niomoro nimentxoro ]inoco]a npocnirnrenx H. Iepepa
(17441803) npo re, mo e mona ram napo, nanix. Cnncxon ope
posymin, mo yrnepxennx n uyxopinomy epxannomy cepeonnmi pino
monn cnpnxc ]opmynannm nanionantni ienrnunocri. Tomy nin oconn-
ny ynary npninxn nnnuennm pino monn s nrxunx poxin, o pvcri om-
poi auu :umamu auu nucamu ue suamm +amepuu+ ceo+ siro+
pvcru+, a es ntoro nemoxnnno napooni cnyxnrn, ra cam napo
moxe sirn s nonirnuno cnenn. Hm resy nanonernnno pos`xcnmnan cnx-
mennxam, xxi n ro uac ynn onnoxnmn ocnirxnamn cepe npocroro na-
poy. V cnox nocnannxx o nnx nin nonuan: Icmopu:uu ooceio, :uc-
.euui npur.aou neperou.ueo ceio:ami, uo o. s+iueuu ovoi-ro
uapoouocmi i uai ue+ac nioo+u +iuiuo ma mpueriuo, auir
soepereuu numo+o oamirieciro ma +amepuuciro +oeu, nuce+-
uocmi ma eipu. Br mi.iru ru-ueovoi uapoo no:uuac copo+umuc i
vpamuc piouo +oeu, nuce+uocmi ma pe.iei, a eiomar i soeci+ x
68
2009, N 1 (15)
saoveamu, oopasv r no:uuammi eiooveamuc ueseopomui s+iuu is
ca+u+ u+ uapooo+, r e norasae ua+ eioo+u npur.ao :eciroeo
ma +opaeciroeo uapoov, uooo uapoov, ru ooeprae cxiouv xpuc-
muucirv eipv oo cemux omie Kupu.a ma Meqooi, +ae c.oeuo-
pvcirv +oev, nuce+uicmi ma eipv, a.e, saevoueuu vce e, i ca+ ooro-
piuuo s+iuuec. Hpuoueimic maror oo ceox cvcioie-oouon.e+iu-
uurie: :u ue mpeoa ou i + is marux ca+ux npu:uu noooamu npo me,
uoo i x ue cnimra.a oo. nepepooreuu. A.e :u mi.iru ua iuui
uapoou ua+ mpeoa oueumuc? He empa:a nu.iuocmi i ua.eruo
ooa npo +ii Mvra:ieciro vepo-pvciro cnapxi, oo mara r .uxa
oo. +ore cnimramu i meoe, ruo mu saueooacu oamirieuuuv ma
+amepuucirv +oev i nuce+uicmi: aore s xuiom empamom saevou+o
uaoaeuiuoeo opvea i comsuura uauoeo uapoov i uai [6. C. 43].
Honuantnom nx ctoroennx c nnmora A. Faunnctxoro me na nouar-
xy XIX cr. npo oon`xsxone snannx pyctxo monn cnyxnrenxmn napoy
cnxmennxamn. Bin naxasynan: Tar-mo ooeoecoeu evxooueui .a-
muucirv uro.v aoco.eeum ua ue noc+ic nocm ovunacmip npocu-
mu, ar oi us xomir eicoro uro.i npuuoe, ruoi ue nosuac u ue
suac oaeuv, npupoouv pvcuucirv uavrv, oes rompo ue +ore ro ovu-
nacmipi uapoov ceo+v c.vrumu [5. C. 41-42].
Anpi ueoponnu nirpnman i ani posnnnyn cnonnene nouyrrxm
nanionantno ropocri racno cnoro nonepennxa nnctmennnxa-nonemi-
cra Mnxana Anpennn, nporonomene nnm me nanpnxinni XVII cr.: He
no pu+crv e.aeo.m cic, auu no .amuui, auu no .mmepcirv, uure
ra.ieuuucru+, uo siro+ e.acui+, uauu+. I n ntomy nin noxasynan
nnacnn npnxna, posmonnxmun monom cnoro napoy, uoro roi ne or-
pnmynanoct unmano nncoxonocrannennx yxonnnx oci. Cnncxon ymino
nnxnnxan cnpornn maxpnsani ra narnnisani, nnmyun cno nocnannx cnx-
mennxam nepxonnocnon`xnctxom monom i ninncymun x AFB nep-
mnmn yxnamn cnon`xnctxoro an]aniry, mo osnauano Anpi Faunnct-
xn Bnanxa. I ne nin ponn n ymonax nenpnxpnro monno ncxpnmi-
nani, xonn nanymuom yna narnnctxa mona, xxa n rimnasixx y 1784 p.
yna saminena nimentxom, a n 1790 p. y ncix mxonax oon`xsxonom crana
yropctxa mona, xxy 1809 p. snony saminnnn narnnctxom (o 1867 p.).
omaramunct posmnpennx c]epn nxnrxy pino monn, cnncxon y xo-
nomy pasi ne npnmenmynan pont i snauennx inmnx mon. 3 npnnoy ntoro
nin uirxo saxnnn: Omumoi ue eosoopaum .amuucroeo u.u uuix si-
roe uavru, mor+o aoi ceoc Pvcroc... uainepeic ue ocmae.mu, uo e
mo+ eiuav:umu u vmeepoumuc [5. C. 148].
Cnpnnxnmn resy H. Iepepa e mona ram napo, nanix, A. Fa-
unnctxn snepnyncx i o pyroro nxpa naxnnnoro nnrannx nnsnauen-
nx erniunoro noxoxennx saxapnarctxnx pycnnin, ninicmn x o cxinoc-
non`xnctxoro apeany. V ntomy nin raxox araro sponn, peanisymun sax-
69

nnx M. Anpennn: Mi eocmo:uui ec+e cno:amrv. Fyyun na nn-
coxomy mani nepxonno icpapxi i xopncrymunct nennxnm anropnrerom y
Iacyprin, nin, snnuano, uecno cnyxnn Vropctxi epxani, ane nixonn
ne saynan npo erniuny cnicrt saxapnarctxnx pycnnin si cxinnmn cno-
n`xnamn. Hpannntno nisnauan yropctxn ocninnx I. Vnapi, mo npn
nctomy romy uenoco+uieuo ruc u eoeopum v um+ ceioo+ocmi si-
roeo-emuu:uo oouuocmu us eocmo:ui+a c.aeua+u, npuuao.er-
uocmu saepauu:uix u nvorapnamcirix Pvcuuve uo couo+v ropium
[5. C. 43].
Hi nnnnnom saxinocnponectxoro Hpocnirnnnrna A. Faunnctxn
npannntno nnaxan posnnrox ocnirn xx saci camosepexennx napoy.
Came romy oxnaan snaunnx sycnnt nx noxpamennx. 3 nicm merom
nin y 1778 p. nepenic orocnonctxy mxony s Myxauena o Vxropoa i
peopranisynan n yxonny ceminapim, a uepes rpn poxn ocrarouno ne-
penic o Vxropoa i cnncxonctxy pesnennim. 3a oro cnpnxnnx n Vxro-
poi y 1793 p. yno nixpnro yunrentctxy ceminapim s pyctxom monom
nanuannx.
Anpi Faunnctxn axrnnno cnpnxn mononm pycnnam y soyrri oc-
nirn n nanuantnnx saxnaax Binx, Fyanemra, Tpnann. Oconnny oro
ynary npnnepran Htninctxn yninepcnrer, i pasom s ntninctxnm ra nepe-
mnmntctxnm cnncxonamn snepnyncx o camoro imneparopa. Hpoxannx
yno saononeno 9 epesnx 1787 p. yn nnann exper npo osnin
nnxnaarn oxpemi npemern n yninepcnreri pyctxom monom.
V experi, soxpema, nisnauanocx: Heoxino, snnuano, mo noxn
nemac ocranto xintxocri pycnnctxnx xannarin, xxi nonoimrt py-
cnnctxom monom, syynarn oxpemn rnmuaconn nanuantnn saxna s
pycnnctxo monn [7. C. 122-123].
3axapnarni nnnycxnnxn Htninctxoro yninepcnrery, mayrni nueni,
nearorn, epxanni cnyxonni n Vxpani i Poci nam`xrann cnoro nacran-
nnxa. 3oxpema, I. Opna i H. Hoi nacnnann na oro im`x s apunmn
nanncamn snauny xintxicrt xnnr, xxi i nnni sepiramrtcx n nayxoni inio-
reni VxHV. Ona s nnx Hacrannenix Hmomypnx npanoyunrentno-
ro nimentxoro ]inoco]a Faymecrepa, nepexnaena H. Hoicm pyct-
xom monom s raxnm apunm nanncom: Cro npenocxonrentcrny Bt-
coxonpeocnxmennememy Iocnonny Anpem Faunncxomy cnncxony
Myxauencxomy... n snax onxnoro Bam naroapcrnnx mnom npnnoma-
emoro.
Posymimun neoxinicrt posnnrxy nayxonnx ocnixent, nin saxnan
ocnonn cnapxiantnoro apxiny paou oecne:ueuaeo i oocmoeepuu-
uaeo coxpaueuu naxnnnnx oxymenrin s icropi epree u.u na-
poxi, u.u +acmuocme ux oomi:vmc [5. C. 115]. I nx ixntnicrt
cnncxona ninxom nnnpanana cee came na ocnoni marepianin cnapxi-
antnoro apxiny ynn sicneni nepmi xpoxn na mnxxy posroprannx icro-
70
2009, N 1 (15)
pnunnx ocnixent 3anncxn s icropi Myxauinctxo cnapxi 17721776,
[8] i sanouarxonano nanncannx icropi cin De origine Posesionis Hukliva.
1784 (Hpo noxoxennx nocenennx Iyxnnne) [9]. Hocrynono oxymen-
rn snpamrt n oxpemi sipnnxn.
Oconnny ynary A. Faunnctxn npninxn naxoxennm xnnr si cxinoc-
non`xnctxnx sement, soxpema raxoro penirinoro i xyntrypno-ocnirntoro
nenrpy, xx Houanctxa nanpa (npanocnannn monacrnp y m. Houacni Kpe-
menentxoro p-ny Tepnonintctxo onacri). 3icnmnarn raxy poory yno
ocnrt neesneuno, ocxintxn n imnepi sa nem nnntno cnixynana nann-
ma (npnnopna) xomicix xnnxxono nensypn, a n 1781 p. yn npnnxrn
saxon npo nensypy (Zensur Gesetr), ononnenn nensypnnmn npannnamn
1810 p. [10. C. 76].
Taxi ncxpnminanini saxon nxnnanncx o nctoro yxpanctxoro napo-
y s oxy inosemnnx npannrenin, soxpema nontctxnx. Onn is nnx yn
nnxnaenn y raxomy oxymenri xx Hpo+xr iesynra o ynnuroxennn
nocrounoro opxa n pennnx pyccxnx xpaxx Hontmn, xoropt npnnec-
rn n ncnonnenne, nexoropte omoranncx n n Vropmnne, nsannt roa
1717. Onn oro npnmipnnx sepiracrtcx n A3O [11], a yn onynixo-
nann n raseri Cner 1870 p. V ntomy yno naxpecneno ninn px i,
cnpxmonannx na nnxopinennx cxinoro (rpentxoro) opxy, a orxe, i pino
monn. B onomy s nynxrin nixpnro ananacx nxasinxa micnennm nnac-
rxm, mo uapoo vrpauucru, Hooo.icri i Bo.iucri... uvruo oo-
eecmu oo uuueucmea u ueeerecmea, mo nnacri cmpoeo c+ompe-
.u sa me+, :mooi Pvccri rpecmiucri oemu npiv:ueae+i oi.u ue
r ruuea+, uo r n.vev, coxu, pa.v u m. n. [12. C. 323], a croconno
mictxnx xnrenin, mo u cux uvruo ooeecmu oo uuuemi u ueeere-
cmea, :mooi ue +oe.u uu oeuiea+u, uu v+o+ no+o:i ceoe [12.
C. 306]. Csyrn pexomenynann nxnnarn raxnx saxoin, om :eeo Pvc-
crie ocmauvmc oo.iuu+u uaeceeoa ueeeroa+u, u uurmo us uux ue
ovoem u+emi e eopooax uu cu.i, uu earuocmu [12. C. 307].
Ha ni rpynomi cam cnncxon nxasynan: Co ee.uru+ mpvoo+ u ua-
r.aoo+ ruuei eproeui, uui oare us Ho:acea, uui re us Bv-
ouua paou oiceca.ui uvroi oocmam:umu vcu.oeaxc [5.
C. 147]. A. Faunnctxn nnxnnn nennxy rypory npo nononnennx ]onin
cnncxonctxo iniorexn, i sa oro nnmorom y 1790 p. yn yxnaenn xa-
ranor xnnr, s xxoro nnno, mo snauna x uacrnna yna nanncana xnpnnn-
nem i sanosnnacx is yxpanctxnx sement [13]. Bin onixynancx saesne-
uennxm nireparypom i iniorexn Myxauinctxoro monacrnpx, i n 1781 p.
yn yxnaenn xaranor [14] i cnncox orocnyxennx xnnr [15]. V cnnc-
xy onixonano araro nnant Kncno-Heuepctxo nanpn, Cranponirict-
xoro parcrna y Htnoni, a ni N 1 Finix I. ueopona 1581 p.
Ha nnmory cnncxona irymen monacrnpx I. Fasnnonnu y 1807 p. in]op-
mynan oro npo naxnnicrt nireparypn [16]. Biuynamun neocrarnm
71

xintxicrt, A. Faunnctxn nnctmono snepracrtcx o cnirctxnx i nepxon-
nnx nnacre s npoxannxm crnopnrn xpami ymonn nx saesneuennx py-
cnnin cnapxi orocnyxenom nireparypom. B onomy s nncrin 1776 p.
nin narayc, mo panime namarancx sanesrn is Hontmi (yxpanctxnx se-
ment). Onax omy saoponnnn ne ponrn, a noma pyxapni nemac. Bin
is xanem xoncraryc: He mi.iru +o mara ooua cnapxi, oo iuui +a-
mmi e.acui opvrapui o. .moe ua xui pioui +oei: v Ia.u:uui c
.ieiecira, a e Tpauci.ieauciri qoeapacira. Tomy cnncxon npo-
cnrt osnony Loo oopooei ruueu... o. raqeopa.iuo epreu vui-
amie s+ie saoesne:umu s Ia.u:uuu. Ha oro ymxy, ne ro mnxx,
xxnm +orua mu uasvcmpi: nompeoi sueoo.euux i +a.oi+vuux, a
maror npomucmomu ueocei:euocmi [17]*. Pasom s rnm, nin oma-
rancx y nnacre rpomono onomorn nx nnannnuo ixntnocri [18] ra
opranisonynan sip xomrin cepe samoxnoro nacenennx e no+oui ne-
:amauu ruue [19]. Cam cnncxon y 18041805 pp. nnan 5-romny
Finim nepxonnocnon`xnctxom monom. He raxox yno nemanosnau-
nnm nunnxom n ymonax, xonn n Vropmnni epxannom peniricm yna xaro-
nnntxa. Taxy axrnnny xyntrypno-ocnirnm ixntnicrt nncoxo oninnn
I. upanxo: Mvra:eecru enucron Auope Ba:uucru cooupaem eor-
pve ceo sua:ume.iuoe :uc.o v:euix, cooecmevem pacnpocmpaue-
uum epa+omuocmu u npoceeueuu cpeou npocmoeo uapooa, ne:a-
mauum ruue u v:eouuroe... Ca+ enucron Ba:uucru ocmaeu. e pvro-
nucu uumepecuie sanucru, ocuoea. e Mvra:eee* ovxoeuvm ce+u-
uapum u coopa. o. ue ouo.uomerv cmapone:amuix u pvronucuix
ruue, cocmoeuvm us 9 000 mo+oe [20. C. 123-124]. Anropnrer
A. Faunnctxoro yn nacrintxn nennxn, mo omy sanpononynann nnmy
nocay y nepxonni icpapxi. Kepinnnx mnrpononnuo xannenxpi y Htnoni
A. Herpymennu y Cnono Iannnxo-Pycxo neronncn (17721800 r.)
nisnaunn: 1779 e. 8 aeevcma coe.auo npeo.oreuue, :mooi Mvra-
:eecru enucron Ba:uucru nepeueceu oi. eo Hieoe u no+uuoeau
+umpono.umo+ [21. C. 579; 59, C. 46].
Xnrrx i ixntnicrt A. Faunnctxoro ynn npnxnaom nx oro yunin i
nocnionnnxin, xxi nncoxo oninnnn oro. Biomn saxapnarctxn noer i
]inoco] B. onronnu nxe y 1810 p. nisnaunn, mo nx namaxin e.a-
oura nio i++ Be.uroeo Auopi ovoe osua:amu uoev ooov. Icropnx
M. Hyuxa nnaxan, mo ni oro npanninnx no:uuacmic uoea enoxa
i an omy raxy xapaxrepncrnxy: Auopi Ba:uuciru ove uacmi.iru
ocei:euu+ i maru+ suaee+, maro +opa.iuo :ecuomu i maro ar-
mueuocmi, uo s+ie nooo.amu i uaear:i cnpaeu, sooove o. ceoe
marv ee.urv .mooe ue mi.iru e cnapxi, a.e sa +era+u, r nepeo
vcicm epo+aoom, mar i nepeo ropo.ieciru+u ee.u:uocm+u, uo nic.
c+epmi Ioauua Bpaoa:a, +vra:ieciroeo cnucrona, ove npusua:euu
ue .uue ua cnucroncirv raqeopv, a.e seooo+ oicmae mumv. eucoro
72
2009, N 1 (15)
npenoooouoeo, e.acue, mac+uoeo paouura ee.u:uocmi icapciro-
ropo.ieciroeo cmauv. Hio oeo repieuumeo+ cnapxi uaov.a uoeo
qop+u npae.iuu, aoo uoeoeo eue.ov [20. C. 269].
Ta nx naropona ixntnicrt cnncxona yna manonioma namomy un-
rantxomy sarany. yna npncnxuena cnna crarrx u. Horymnxxa (1957
p.) s ananisom exxnx oro nocnant [21. C. 152-153], a sarantny xapax-
repncrnxy noan . Brepnepr y 1979 p., nasnanmn oro eucoroocei-
:euu+ oi:e+, .mouuom uuporux eopusoumie ceoc enoxu. Vxe n
nam uac yna onynixonana uacrnna enicronxpno cnamnnn cnncxona
[22], unm i nocrannenn n onn px s niomnmn icropnunnmn nocrarxmn
3axapnarrx.
Kpame ixntnicrt A. Faunnctxoro yna oninena sa xoponom.
V 1963 p. O. Fapan n Kanai onynixynan nepmy posnory posnixy npo
cnncxona [23]. 3room cnonantxn nuenn A. Bnenentxn onynixynan
snauny uacrnny oro nocnant [4. C. 226-241], a O. Pynonuax cnpane-
nnno nasnana oro euoamuu+ npoceimume.e+, ru eearacmic
npeome:em uaioua.iuoeo eiopooreuu sarapnamcirux vrpauie
[24. C. 7]. I. Mannnctxn nncoxo oninnn came ne acnexr ixntnocri A.
Faunnctxoro, n ovui roeo nio none.o+ vuiamciro icmopu:uo
oicuocmi eopi.a vrpauci-
ra uaioua.iua ceioo+icmi
i ua.eruicmi oo cxiouux
c.oeu... [25. C. 33]. He
naxnnnn nncnonox nirnep-
xenn mnpoxom xepent-
nom asom, nnanom oxpe-
mom xnnrom yropctxnm nue-
nnm Imrnanom Vnapi. Ha o-
xymenrantni ocnoni nin onin,
mo came s imenem A. Fa-
unnctxoro xxyr cx nnpni npo-
xnn naponoro nospoxenx Py-
cnnyn... mox ro uncnnrn npe-
nicrnrenem naponoro nnra-
nx Pycnnyn XIX cronirix [5.
C. 9]. Bin cnonna cnpnnxn
iem nimentxoro npocnirnre-
nx H. Iepepa npo re, mo
pina mona ocnonnn xom-
nonenr icnynannx napoy, na-
ponocri, ocnonnn pymi ]op-
mynannx nanionantno cnio-
mocri.
Ypnnox is cnncxy annto ni1epa1ypn na
nepxonnocnon`nnctxin uoni y inio1eni
Myxauinctxoro uonac1npnxnnrn n Iannunni.
1776 p.
73

Bncoxo oninmmun ixntnicrt cnncxona A. Faunnctxoro, rpea marn
na ynasi, mo nona posnnnanacx n ymonax nonirnxn ocniuenoro aconm-
rnsmy. x nisnauac niomn ancrpictxn icropnx Epix Htontnep, san-
xxn ni nonirnni y cncremi mxintno ocnirn niynncx xxicni sminn. Tax,
sa uacin Mapi Tepesi nixnynannx npo sarantnn opoyr niannx cra-
no oon`xsxom epxann. He nnxnnxnocx, soxpema, n opranisani nouarxo-
no (napono) mxonn, xxa nepeauana oon`xsxony sarantny ocniry [26.
C. 364]. Hpana, na micnxx nx nacranona narnxanacx na snaunn onip s
oxy semnennacnnxin, xxi oxnncx nrparnrn poouy cnny na ceni. Kpim
roro Iacyprn, s merom npnnepnennx na cni ix nacenennx nononpn-
annx yxpanctxnx sement (Iannunnn i Fyxonnnn), noxntno nocrannnncx
o rpexo-xaronnntxoro yxonencrna, yun na exxi omy nocrynxn. Came
ne ]axrop nisnauana Hepxonnax rasera n 1857 p.: Hponnnarentnax
nmneparpnna Mapnx Tepesnx, xopomo snax, uro nnuro ne moxer cront
cnocnemecrnonart yrnepxennm n pacnpocrpanennm Vnin, xax nosa-
nie xnnpy Hepxnn Bocrouno npenmymecrn, xoroptmn nontsonancx xnnp
Hepxnn 3anano i romy nona mnoro saornnact o nosntmennn xnnpa
Hepxnn Ipeuecxo-Karonnuecxo, nocrannn ero na pannym crenent uec-
rn n ynaxennx c xnnpom Hepxnn Pnmcxo-Karonnuecxo [1. C. 238].
Hemanonaxnnm ]axropom yno i re, mo ancrpictxn im noxntnom noni-
rnxom namarancx npnnepnyrn na cni ix nacenennx saxinoyxpanctxnx
sement, xxi nin npnan sa nepmnm noinom Hontmi 1772 p. 3acnyra
cnncxona n romy, mo symin cxopncrarncx cnpnxrnnnnmn ymonamn sanx
cnyxinnx inrepecam napoy. Cnpanennno npo ntoro y 1864 p. cxasann,
mo nin ee.uru pvcuu, cocmae.euu eopoocmi Pvcu uaue [27.
C. 43]. Homep nennxn pycnn n Vxropoi. oxymenrom, xxn sa]ixcy-
nan ary xonunnn cnncxona, c nnpxynxp nporoicpex nepxonnnctxoro oxpy-
ry Mnxana Ipnramix. V ntomy nisnaueno: vua uauo eocmo:uo
upiroe.u, uaoi Pvcuuve, c.aea +vra:oeciro cnapxi, .moeui uau
omui, x comuocmi Auopi Ba:uuciri eooa 1809 uoee+opa 7-eo
vnoroue c... [5. C. 17]. Hisnime, 28 rpynx 1809 p. npo ne s cymom
cnonicrnno yropctxe xoponinctxe namicnnnrno y Fyi [28]. Anpi ue-
oponnu Faunnctxn nepmn is cnncxonin noxonann n ycnnantnnni ni
xa]epantnnm coopom n Vxropoi.
Anropnrer npocnirnrenx yn nnsnann nxe oro cyuacnnxamn. Tax,
cryenr Tpnanctxo ceminapi Anpi Bantxonctxn n oi Boscix mac-
rno... (1807 p.) nix A. Faunnctxoro nopinnxn s Carypna nixom, nasnna-
mun oro sonornm nx poccon [29. C. 28]. Hoer Bacnnt onronnu
noaxan: Bo momi nnanxn ninounnann y raxomy Mansone, na xxo-
my mac yrn nannc sonornmn yxnamn: Tvm .erumi Ba:uuciru, 3pa-
sor eipu, He:a.i ovxieuumea, Paoicmi poov, Bo. uapoov... i ovoe
rumu v eirax sa ceo sac.veu! [30. C. 185]. B. onronnu sacniunn,
mo ni uac ypouncroro noxopony Anpix Faunnctxoro nocepenni nepx-
74
2009, N 1 (15)
nn cnopynnn rax snann Hpecron Fonm, na xxomy x sponn raxi nann-
cn. Onn is nnx:
nian Fory xnrrx,
Hepxnam npanm
I cepne napooni [30. C. 187].
Ananis cnamnnn Anpix Faunnctxoro, na xxy nepmnm snepnyn ynary
u. Horymnxx, uacrxono onynixynan A. Bnenentxn, a naintm nonno
nnan I. Vnapi, cniunrt npo nennxy nonnxnnntxy npanm cnncxona. V
nonnx ocnixennxx nxe nnsnano, mo ni oro onixom rpexo-xaronnntxa
nepxna araro sponna nx posnnrxy ocnirn, pino monn, spocrannx na-
nionantno camocniomocri saxapnarctxnx pycnnin, sepexennx x xx
napoy n uyxosemnomy epxannomy cepeonnmi [31. C. 68]. A romy
A. Faunnctxoro ninxom cnpanennno moxna nnaxarn nepmnm npocnirn-
renem 3axapnarrx.
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHHX EPEA TA AITEPATYPH
1. Paroecru H. Fnorpa]nx ocronamxrntx nnn. Anpe Faunncxn. Hepxon-
nax rasera.1857. N 30.1 (13) anrycra.
2. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri (ani A3O) u.151, on.20. o.s.
2284. exper Mapi Tepesi npo npnsnauennx A.Faunnctxoro cnncxonom Myxau-
inctxo cnapxi. 1772. 5 cepnnx (Konix. 1800, 19 epesnx). A3O, ]. 64, on. 1, o.s.
788. exper nann Pnmctxoro Knnmenrix XIV npo npnsnauennx A.Faunnctxoro
cnncxonom Myxauinctxo cnapxi. 1773. - 4 apx.
3. auu.mr . He yman npo rnmuacone opo // 3axapnarctxa npana. 1990.
28 epesnx.
4. L.eneiru A. Myxauinctxn cnncxon Anpi ueoponnu Faunnctxn ra
oro nocnannx//Hayxonn sipnnx mysem yxpanctxo xyntrypn y Cnnnnxy.-
Hpxmin, 1967. T. .3. C. 223-241.
5. Voeapi I. 3nptxa xepen npo cryi pycnnctxoro nncemcrna. I. Knpnnnuni
yixnnxt myxauonctxoro cnncxona Anpix Faunnctxoro. Hipetrasa, 2002. - 238 c.
6. Hnr. sa: Voeapi I. Hapo ne mona ra nipa//Kapnarctxn xpa. 1991, 24 nepec-
nx.
7. Kpeeeiru I. Heonpanani oxopn. o icropi r.s. Pyctxoro incrnryry
(Studium ruthenum) na Htninctxim yninepcnreri // H3TB. Htnin, 1911. T. 52.
C. 122-123.
8. A3O. u. 151. On.. 1. O. s. 2261. 3anncxn s icropi Myxauinctxoro monacrn-
px. 1772-1776. - 17 apx.
9. A3O. u. 151. On. 1. O. s. 3245. uacrnna pyxonncy s icropi npnxoy c.
Iyxnnne i Cnonenxa. 1784. - 4 apx.
10. Bvmpuu M.o icropi ancrpictxo nensypn // Apxinn Vxpann, 1970, N5.
C. 76-77.
11. A3O. u.64. On 1. O . s. 34. Hpoexr Hontcxoro npannrentcrna o mepax
75

nannonantntx orpannuenn no ornomennm x pyccxnm, npoxnnammnx n Hontme.
1717. - 4 apx.
12. Hpo+xr Iesynra ot ynnuroxennn nocrounoro opxa n pennnx pyccxnx
xpaxx // Cntr. 1870. u. 38. C. 306-307, 322-323.
13. A3O. u. 151. On. 25. O. s. 151. Karanor xnnr iniorexn cnncxona
A. .Faunnctxoro ni 16 uepnnx, 1790 p. - 10 apx.
14. A3O. u. 64. On. 1. O. s. 950. Karanor nepxonnnx xnnr Myxauinctxoro
monacrnpx. 1781. 7 apx.
15. A3O. u. 64. On. 1. O. s. 1665. Cnncox annix nepxonnnx xnnr, mo sepira-
mrtcx n inioreni Myxauinctxoro monacrnpx. 15 apx.
16. A3O. u. 64. On. 2. O. s. 135. Honiomnennx nacroxrenx Myxauinctxoro
monacrnpx I.Fasnnonnua cnncxony npo nepernx i cxnaannx cnncxy nepxonno-
opxonnx xnnr. 1807. 4 xnirnx. - 8 apx.
17. A3O. u. 151. On. 1. O. .s. 2491. Hncr cnncxona A. Faunnctxoro o ancr-
pictxo imneparpnni Mapi Tepesi npo naannx osnony na nnesennx nepxonnnx
xnnr s Iannunnn. 1776. - 7 apx.
18. A3O. u. 151. On 5. O. s. 1757. Hpoxannx A .Faunnctxoro o nnacre npo
naannx rpomono onomorn nx nnannnuo ixntnocri.
19. Hempvueeu: A. Cnonax Iannnxo-Pyccxax neronnct pp. 1772-1800. P. 579;
59. C. 46.
20. Hv:ra M. Icropix xapnarctxnx pycnnin. Vxropo, 2003. T. 4. 328 c.
21. Homvuur 4. Honi marepiann o icropi nireparypn na 3axapnarri. (3nae-
nn pyxonnc Anpix Faunnctxoro) // Paxnctxe 3axapnarrx. 1957. N 1. C. 152-153.
22. 3aooporuu I. Cnncxon Anpi Faunnctxn n enicronxpni cnamnni.
Myxaueno: Kapnarctxa nexa, 2002. 64 c.
23. Bapau O. Cnncxon Anpi Faunnctxn i nepxonne nipoxennx na 3axap-
narri. Canada, 1963. 62 c.
24. Pvo.oe:ar O. Finx nnroxin araronono pixn. o 200-nirrx ni nx napo-
xennx Mnxana Hyuxax // H3MVKC. 1990. N 16. C. 7-28.
25. Mauuciru Ieau. Kinent XVIII- nepma nononnna XIXcr. ra xnrrx i ixntnicrt
Bacnnx onronnua. o noxcoro piunnni ni nx napoxennx(1783-1849) //
H3MVKC. 1982. N 10. C. 23-110.
26. Hio.uep Epix. Icropix Ancrpi. (Hep. s nim. Poman yacennu, Xpncrnna
Hasapxennu, Anaroni Onnmxo, Haranx Inannuyx. Htnin: Hironnc, 2001. 712 c.
27. Xnnoronncanne A.u. Faunncxoro // Mecxnecnon na 1864 r. Vxropo, 1864.
C. 38-44.
28. A3O. u. 151. On 25. O. s. 314. Posnopxxennx Vropctxoro namicnnnrna
n Fyi npo cmeprt i sanonir A. Faunnctxoro. 1809. 28 rpynx. 2 apx.
29. Pvo.oe:ar O. Xpecromarix 3axapnarctxo yxpanctxo nireparypn XIX cro-
nirrx. uacrnna nepma. pyre nepeponene i ononnene nnannx. Hpxmin, 1990. -
260 c.
30. oeeoeu: B. Enixei na cmeprt oro npeocnxmencrna nana Anpix Fa-
unnctxoro cnncxona Myxauinctxoro 1810 poxy // H3MVKC. 1982. N 10. C. 182-
185.
31. 4euu: B.I. Hepxna i cranonnennx napono ocnirn na 3axapnarri (xinent
XVIII cepenna XIX cr.) // Hponemn icropi, ]inoco]i i nireparyposnancrna
Vxpann. Bnn. 1. Vxropo, 1996. C. 28-80.
76
2009, N 1 (15)
nnxon Onexcanp MOHHH
IRALHICTL OCTAHHLOIO
HPABOCAABHOIO CHHCKOHA
OCHmER (mEOOPOBHHA)
YIOALCLKOIO (1648-1733)
3 icropi Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na Mapamopmnni y XVII-XVIII cr. nio-
mo, mo y nxasann nepio ynpanninnx Hpanocnannom Hepxnom ryr no-
crynono sicnmnann: Co]poni (Rctxo), Hop]npi (Apan), Ioanixi
(3exan), Me]oi (Paxonentxn) [1. C. 60-61], npocnannenn n XX cr.
Pymynctxom Hpanocnannom Hepxnom xx cnoninnx Hpanocnan`x cnx-
rn cnncxon Iocn] (Croxa), a raxox ocranni npanocnannn cnncxon
ocn]e (ueooponnu) Vrontctxn.
3 ornxy na re, mo ocranni cnncxon saman oconnne micne n icropi
Mapamopomnnn saranom ra Vrontctxoro monacrnpx soxpema, xorinocx
erantnime synnnnrncx na nacrnpctxi ixntnocri nnanxn ocn]ex.
Xnrrx ra esnocepenc npanninnx cnncxona ocn]ex (ueooponnua)
Vrontctxoro nixpnnamrt nepe namn neanxxy nocrart, xxa cnocm
ixntnicrm na repnropi npanocnanno Mapamopomnnn y XVII-XVIII crr.
yrpnmynana cnom npaartxinctxy nipy ra yna un necnnnm cminnnnm
cnoninnxom.
Cam cnncxon ocn]e cee nasnnan no-pisnomy: opo]e, oco]e,
Dorophtei, Dosotheus [2. C. 288.], ao x Dositheus, Doritheus, Dorothaeus
[3. C. 38].
3a cnonamn mnrpononnra opo]ex, cnncxon ocn]e naponncx y
1648 poni i yn ponuem cnncxona Iocn]a (Croxn) [4. C. 76]. 1648 p. xx
ary napoxennx ocn]ex npnnonrt i O.H. Herpon [5. C. 20; 3. C. 38].
Homnnxa y nipaxynxax arn napoxennx ocn]ex sycrpiuacrtcx nnme
y M. Hyuxax. Ocranni, ccnnamunct na cnicrno npo nnau ixonn Hpeun-
cro inn Mapi inx cena Kpnuena n Mapamopomi ni 19 xonrnx 1719 p.,
e nnanxa ocn]e Vrontctxn yn 71-piunnm crapnem npnxonrt o
nncnonxy, mo ocn]e naponncx ne n 1648, a n 1658 p. [2. C. 137-140].
Hpore, xxmo ni 1719 ninxrn 71 nne nce-raxn 1648 p. Orxe, sa ary
napoxennx nnanxn ocn]ex npnmacmo 1648 p.
To xe M. Hyuxa nnaxan, mo ocn]e yn, xxmo ne cnnom uomy
npornpiunrt ninnc: ocn]e ueooponnu, ro, no xpani mipi, nnstxn
ponu cnncxona Ioanixix 3exana i man cnom pesnennim n Imcrnuinct-
xomy monacrnpi [2. C. 137-140].
77

o monamoro nocrpnry cnncxon ocn]e yn nporononom y Bintxinnxx
(cmapa uasea Bv.ixvei O.M.) i nocnn im`x mnrpo [3. C. 39; 6.
C. 262]. Fyyun nporononom nin man snauny nnay, axe niomo, mo y
oro uacn ni nnnnnom xantninismy, came nporononn i coop nporononin
yn onnm is npannxunx cnapxiantnnx opranin [6. C. 262]. Hicnx cmepri
cnoc xinxn npnnxn monamn nocrpnr (nicnx 1708 poxy) s imenem ocn-
]e i xnn cnouarxy y Bintxinctxomy monacrnpi, xxn yn oro nnacni-
crm, rax n monnrn xyropom [5. C. 17; 3. C. 39].
B Cnncanin, npo xnrrx Bintxinctxoro nporonona mnrpa o npn-
nxrrx cnncxoncrna, ronopnrtcx rax: Onrent Bynxyncxa nauanact oxo-
no poxy 1708 cnne: nexn iepe nmenem Ioan 3ypnnxt, at emy
Hepxont yunnnnn cenxne, o rom npocnn, xorpa n cosanacx npn nporo-
none nmnrpn Byntxyncxom. Hpeonncannt nax iepe, axn t y
enncxona Croxt ranr (+ouauu nocmpue O.M.) pan, nnacrt
xe nporonona na nnm man. Ho ymeprnn xe xent nporonononon,
ocrancx c mnornmn uat, uro nonean renepemnn Conra Fnpon, a
Byntxyncxn otnarent, ro ne snanmn uro unnrn ranr nocnpnnxn-
mn napeuen tcrt ocn]e, no cem n enncxon, n n ro onrenn
noexonn socranan [7. C. 5; 5. C. 16; 4. C. 76].
Orxe, srino noniomnennx Cnncanix mayrni cnncxon ocn]e
yn opyxenn i man araroirny cim`m. Bnanxa ocn]e yn ao po-
om s Byntxynent, ao x ram cnyxnn nennn uac. Can nporonona na ro
uac yn yxe nonaxnnm. B uacn yni, xonn, xx niomo cnncxonar yn ne
soncim crixnm y cnox penirinnx nepexonannxx, came nporononn se-
intmoro i ynpannxnn nepxonnnmn cnpanamn na repnropi xx Mapamopo-
mnnn rax i inmnx uacrnn icropnunoro 3axapnarrx.
Hpnneprac o cee ynary i noniomnennx Cnncanix npo re, mo npo-
ronon nmnrpi y enncxona Iocn]a (Croxn) ranr pan. Orxe, cyx-
un s noniomnennx, n monamecrno nporonona nmnrpix nocrpnran inmn
cnoninnx Hpanocnan`x na Mapamopomnni Iocn] (Croxa).
ary monamoro nocrpnry ocn]ex ncranonnrn ocnrt naxxo, nona
xonnnacrtcx n mexax 1708 ra 1709 pp.. 3a cnonamn apxim. Bacnnix (Hpo-
nina) xpam n onreni Bintxinctxi nouan yynarncx n 1708 p., a n ro
uac, xx noniomnxcrtcx n Cnncanin cnncxon ocn]e yn me nporono-
nom [6. C. 262]. Onax, nxe 22 ciunx 1709 p. n Imcrnuinctxomy monac-
rnpi niynocx sipannx yxonencrna, n xxomy pan yuacrt irymen o-
po]e, cnn nana cnncxona Ioanna [2. C. 135]. Ha ymxy M. Hyuxax, ne
yn mayrni cnncxon ocn]e, xxn monipno nxe 1709 p. yn iryme-
nom.
Icnymrt posixnocri ninocno arn cnncxonctxo xiporoni cnncxona
ocn]ex (ueooponnua). Tax, n ocninnntxi nireparypi sycrpiuacrt-
cx 1715 [4. C. 76], 1717 [6. C. 263], ao x 1718-1719 pp. [8. C. 197; 2.
78
2009, N 1 (15)
C. 137-140; 9. C. 236; 10. C. 34]. Onax cnnom sannmacrtcx ymxa npo
re, xro snepmnn cnncxonctxy xiporonim ocn]ex. He yn monanctxn
npanocnannn Cyuanctxn mnrpononnr [4. C. 76; 3. C. 39; 6. C. 253]. Ha
ymxy mnrpononnra opo]ex (uinina), n cnncxonn ocn]e yno nnpa-
no n rnnoxi crapocri 76-piunnm crapnem [4. C. 77].
x i cnncxon Iocn], cnncxon ocn]e man cni rnryn: Mnnocrim Fo-
xim apxicnncxon npanocnannt oco]e Mapamopocxi, amnnncrpa-
rop Merpononin Monancxo [11. C. 75; 2. C. 135; 5. C. 21; 3. C. 38],
ocn]e ueooponnu Vrontctxn, Mnnocrnm Foxne enncxon npano-
cnannt [6. C. 263] ao x oco]e ueooponnu Oyroncxi, Mnnoc-
rim Foxiem enncxon npanocnannt or Mapomopo(t)ma [12, apx. 1; 5.
C. 21; 3. C. 38].
Ha ocnoni nncra Herponix Kamenctxoro (A. Ionnxa oro aryc
16 nncronaa 1709 p.) nnno, mo n ro uac n Mapamopomi ixnn na
Hpanocnannnx cnncxonn: Croxa i Hipxa. Moxnnno ni imenem Hipxa
macrtcx na ynasi nnacne cnncxon ocn]e. Icnyc ymxa, mo cnncxon
ocn]e yn nixapicm y apxicnncxona Iocn]a Croxn, a nicnx cmepri oc-
ranntoro cnncxonctxi ]ynxni nonnicrm nepemnn o ocn]ex [6. C. 261-
262].
Bnepme im`x ocn]ex sycrpiuacrtcx 3 uepnnx 1718 p. [5. C. 21; 3. C.
38]. B craryci Vrontctxoro cnncxona ocn]e nnepme sraycrtcx 13
epesnx 1719 p. M. Hyuxa npnnonrt cnionrno npo npnsnauennx na
nocan ax o nxxoncrna, nnane Ieoprim cnncxonom ocn]ecm 13
epesnx 1719 p. ra cniuennx 71-piunoro pyctxoro cnncxona ocn]ex
Vrontctxoro npo nnau ixonn Hpeuncro inn Mapi inx cena Kpnuena
n Mapamopomi ni 19 xonrnx 1719 p.
3oxpema, n cnionrni nnanomy Ieoprim, unracmo nacrynne: Foxom
mnnicrm apxicnncxon npanocnannn opo]e mapamopoctxn, aminicr-
parop mnrpononi Monanctxo. 3 naroari i nnacri, ano nami cmn-
pennocri npecnxrnm i xnnornopxmnm yxom ra nannmnm apxicpecm
Iocnoom namnm Icycom Xpncrom, mn nncnxrnnn ntoro oroonoro
Rpy i npnsnaunnn oro unrnem, xxom, cniuxonocnem, ninxxonom, n-
xxonom sa cniuennxm oro ornx yxonnoro, mo nin ocronn i mac no-
xnnxannx o ntoro. Hexa xoxen apxicpe, apximanpnr, icpe sa yxon-
nnm cranom, xxn nistme n pyxn ne name cnionrno, nonipnrt, mo nin
cnoonncx oepxarn anocrontctxn unn s apy yxa Cnxroro. V sn`xs-
xy s nnm mn naxasycmo roi, cnny mi yxonnn, mo rn unnnn srino s
anocrontctxnmn nxasinxamn ra npannnamn Cnxroro yxa i rax ani.
Hncane n Vrni 24 ciunx poxy Foxoro 1719. Bnanxa opo]e, nnacnom
pyxom. Micne neuarxn [2. C. 135-136].
Toro x nx i poxy cnncxon ocn]e naxasan sarnepnrn posnyuennx
mix Anpicm Kosyom ra Mapicm Hnnentxom [2. C. 136].
79

Koporxa sraxa npo cnncxona ocn]ex micrnrtcx y niomomy cnicrni
npo nnau ixonn Hpeuncro inn Mapi y nepxni pyctxnx monaxin inx
cena Kpnuena n Mapamopomi. Bxasane cnicrno yno nponeeno 19
xonrnx 1719 p. Hepmnm cnixom y ni cnpani nncrynac came cnncxon
ocn]e.
M. Hyuxa nnme: Hepmn cniox pyctxn cnncxon oco]e
Vrontctxn, 71-piunn, ni nepxonnom i cnncxonctxom npncxrom no-
cniunn, mo, xonn npanni yn nnxnnxann, ornxamun ixony Hpeuncro
inn Mapi, mo snaxonnacx s npanoro oxy y ni nepxni, noaunn na
npanomy oni onnuux ni npannm oxom uornpn, ni ninnm rpn sacrnrni
cntosn ra nonoricrt na rpyxx ni ynannx cnis, mo nnmann, xx uncre
sonoro. Ha onnnxonani mncouni, mo croxna nnnsy, nin noaunn ony npo-
nnry cntosy, nennunnom s ony ropomnny, xxa me sannmnnact. Hinnc:
Bnanxa oco]e, nnacnom pyxom [2. C. 137]. Kpim cnncxona, cniuen-
nx ni npncxrom anann pyctxi monaxn xanenan cnncxona, xanorep Ioann
(36-piunn), irymen Vrnxnctxoro monacrnpx ueo]in (Croxa) (58-piunn),
irymen xanorepin Hap]eni Vrontctxn (80-piunn), ra inmi napoxn cin
Vrni i Kpnuena ra x nomiunnxn [2. C. 137-138].
Biomo, mo xnrrx cnncxona yno esnocepento non`xsane s Vrontct-
xnm monacrnpem. Tax xx cnncxon ocn]e yn nocrpnxennxom Vrontct-
xoro monacrnpx, ro nicnx cnoc cnncxonctxo xiporoni nin man nocrine
micnenepeynannx y ni onreni [13; 14. C. 45; 6. C. 263; 4. C. 76-77; 15.
C. 34-37]. Tyr nin nncan rpamorn, ocnxuynan anrnmincn ra sicnmnan
xiporoni cnxmennxin. Ocrannc yno narononnimnm n oro ixntnocri.
Hpo ony s raxnx xiporoni, xxa niynacx n Vrontctxomy monacrnpi 24
ciunx 1719 p. nxe mna mona [2. C. 135-136]. Kpim roro, sepernocx me
one nocniuennx npo oepxannx ncix noca ax o nxxonary nnane
myxy narouecrnnomy i Foroonomy Ioanny. Bnann nxasann o-
xymenr rex n Vrontctxomy monacrnpi 23 rpannx 1733 p. cnncxonom
Vrontctxnm ocn]eem (ueooponnuem) [12. Apx. 1; 2. C. 140].
exonn nnanxa npoxnnan i n parinctxomy monacrnpi. V ntomy mo-
nacrnpi n 1731 p. niynacx nxxonctxa xiporonix Mnxana Pimxona, na
im`x xxoro yno nnane nxxonctxe crannennntxe cnionrno: oco]e
ueooponnu Oyroncxi, Mnnocrim Foxiem enncxon npanocnannt.
an n monacrtpe paryncxom 1731 [6. C. 263].
3rino nepeannx cnncxon ocn]e nnamrynan coi cxnr nenoanix
ni Vrontctxoro monacrnpx, xxn nasnnancx Oapono, i ram ycamirnm-
nancx nx monnrnn [6. C. 263].
Henonsi, nicnx nncnxuennx n cnncxonn, sa cnom nacrnpctxy ixntnicrt
n yrpnmanni Hpanocnan`x na Mapamopomnni cnncxon ocn]e nouan
repnirn ncinxxi yrncxn ni rpexo-xaronnntxoro yxonencrna, a oconnno
ni myxauinctxoro rpexo-xaronnntxoro cnncxona Ieoprix-Ienaix Fisanni
(Bizantius Georgius Genadius) (1656-1716-1733) [2. C. 285].
80
2009, N 1 (15)
Tax , 22 cepnnx 1720 p. nnanni ocn]em ni nnnnnom cnncxona Fisanni
yno saoponeno snepmynarn cnyxinnx xoponinctxnm experom
Kapna VI.
R. Xarxonnu nnme: ocn]e oxono 1718-1719 roa tn nspan ennc-
xonom, no npannenne ero nectma nyrana rax nce nyume pacnpocrpanxm-
maxcx ynnx, xax n nocrynonanne Fnsannnx, xoropt npxmo x napm Kap-
ny oepnyncx c npocto, urot nocnpernn ocn]ex or enncxoncxoro
npannennx n ecrnonannx. Ha xanoy Fnsannnx, napt roa 1720-ro an-
rycra 22 npnxasan nnacrxm Mapamopomcxnm, urot cnn npnnynnn
nocrounoro opxa nepnnxon xo ynosnannm sa enncxona Fnsannnx, x no-
nnnonennm cemy, n x rounomy nsnnauenannm npnxoxmnxcx emy oxo-
on, ocn]ex xe a nocnperxr or antmoro ecrnonannx [8. C.
197].
Harnnctxn rexcr expery nanonrt orent Ioann ynnmxonnu.
Carolus VI. Demisse repraesentavit nobis G. Gen. Bizanczy, quod
licet Clerus, et populus in Cottu vestro degens de jure ad ejusdem Eccl.
Pertineret nihilominus accideret, quod Schism. quidam Eppus Dorotheus
(rectius Dosotheus) Spiritualem jurisdictionem in Clerum, et populum
usurpando cum maximo scandalo conjugates personas ab invicem separate,
et alios excessus patrare praesumit. Quia vero memorato instauti Eppatum
cum obventionibus, emolumentis, et jurisdictionibus auctoritate Juris Patronatus
nostri R. ante aliquot annos clementer constituissemus, vellemusque has
concessione eundem imperturbate uti, frui, ac gaudere. Idcirco harum serie
vobis mandamus, ut memoratum Bizanczy Clerus et populus pro suo vero
Eppo agnoscat, obventiones absque renitentia praestet acceptisque
praesentibus praefatum Schismaticum Eppum ab ulteriori exercitio
praetensae Spiritualis jurisdictionis districtim inhibere debeatis, et teneamini.
Dat. Viennae 22. Aug. 1720. Cottui Marmaros. 27-a vero Exc. Canc. Aulica
Consilio Bellico ita, si placidioribus res in effectum deduci nequiret,
assistentiam militarem tribuere velit [11. C. 76].
Hepexna xoponinctxoro expery ni 22 cepnnx 1720 p. nanonmo sa
M. Hyuxaem.
Kapn VI, Foxom mnnicrm i r.. i r.n. noxipno naraan nami nennu-
nocri nam nipnn i manonnn Ieopri Iennai Fisanni, mo xou yxonen-
crno i nacenennx rpentxoro opxy, xxi npoxnnamrt y Bamomy xomirari
i sa saxonom s annix-anen nanexart o ric x nepxnn, nonnnni nino-
pxxonynarnct i n yxonni mpncnxni. Tnm ne menme nnacniox noi,
mo niynncx n ocranni uac, xonn xxnct cnncxon cxnsmarnx no imeni
opo]e (npannntnimeocore) neniomo s unoro osnony nocennn-
cx y Bamomy xomirari i, ysypnynanmn nx cee nepxonny nnay na y-
xonencrnom nnmenasnanoro opxy i napoom, saxonno opyxennx oci
is-sa nnnnxnnx nesro s nennuesnnm cxananom pos`cnyc ra onycxacrt-
81

cx inmnx nenpannntnnx nunnxin, mo nanexart o yxonno mpncnxni; i
o roro x nin nacminnncx npnnnacnnrn coi i re, mo nanexnrt o xomne-
renni oro nacrynnnxa.
Tomy, mo sraanomy nacrynnnxoni (roro Fisanni) nxe xintxa poxin xx
mn s namo noni i npana xoponinctxoro narponary nepeann nasnann cnnc-
xonar s ycima npanamn, oon`xsxamn, npnyrxamn i npanocyxm, mo s
anna sa saxonom nanexart omy mn xorinn , mo nin s ntoro namoro
xoponinctxoro osnony, cnoxino nnxonynan ]ynxni cnncxona, man s cnnc-
xoncrna xopncrt i paicrt. Tomy nnm experom osnonxcmo i opyuacmo
Bam, mo nicnx oepxannx expery naxasann yxonencrny i napoy rpent-
xoro opxy, mo npoxnnac y Bamomy xomirari, nnsnarn cnom cnpanxnim
saxonnnm cnncxonom Ieoprix Fisanni (myxauinctxoro cnncxona), nixopx-
nncx oro yxonni mpncnxni, nintno es ncxxo nepemxon s oxy npo-
rnnnnxin, snepranncx o ntoro si cnomn cnpanamn; xpim ntoro, Bn no-
nnnni osnonnrn ntomy cnncxony nnxonynarn xomnerenrne npanocyx
moo nnmenasnanoro yxonencrna i napoy ra cynopo npnnnnnrn nnxo-
nannx nepxonnnx ]ynxni i nepxonnoro npanocyx s oxy cnncxona-cxns-
marnxa. ano y Bini 22 cepnnx 1720 poxy, Mapamopoctxomy xomirary
[2. C. 141].
Hmonipno, mo ocn]e ne nixopnncx xoponinctxomy yxasy, rax xx
nixapi Myxauinctxoro cnncxona Hpoxoni Ioemapctxn yxe n uepnni
1721 p. onporecronyc pimennx ocn]ex ne nixopxrncx imneparopctxi
nocranoni [15. C. 35].
Cxopim sa nce, nnctmoni saoponn is Benn ynn mapnnmn, romy mo
nxe 27 cepnnx 1722 p. Benctxe nocnne ynpanninnx noniomnxno nnay
Mapamopomctxoro xomirary, mo n xnc posnopxxennx nocrynac nictxona
cnna, xxa snaxonrtcx n ntomy xomirari. Bencxn noennt coner n nnct-
me cnoem c nx 27-ro anrycra roa 1722-ro coomaer c nnacrxmn xomn-
rara Mapamopomcxaro, uro nx ycnemnoro ncnonnennx nonenennx nap-
cxoro n ene ocn]ex nepeaer nnacrxm n pacnopxxenne naxoxmym-
cx n xomnrare noennym cnny [8. C. 197].
He nnnxunct na imneparopctxy saopony, xxa s rouxn sopy nepxon-
noro xanoniunoro npana nx cnncxona ocn]ex ne mana nixxoro snauen-
nx cnnn, nin cnpanennno npoonxynan cnyxnrn. Onax, nenonsi no-
cniynana saopona n cnyxinni i ni Fisannix, xxi, sa cnonamn R. Xar-
xonnua, cnncxon ocn]e uepes necxontxo roon nonnnonancx [16. C.
243]. Hpore, xonn cnncxon ocn]e isnancx, mo Fisanni naxxo xnopn,
nin snony nncnxuynan cnxmennxin, npo mo cniuart nnani nnm rpamorn
n 1731-1733 pp. [12. Apx. 1-3; 2. C. 140; 16. C. 243].
Hepeynamun n Vrontctxn onreni, cnncxon ocn]e niniynan
raxox inmi Mapamopomctxi monacrnpi, sacnonani n xinni XVII na no-
uarxy XVIII cr., soxpema Fapcaninctxn. V Mocenctxomy monacrnpi
82
2009, N 1 (15)
cnncxon ocn]e nncnxrnn apximanpnra, ninian 1723 p. monacrnp y
Bnmni Bnmani. 3 ntoro nnnnnnac, mo Vrontctxn monacrnp, yn nenr-
pantnnm Mapamopomctxnm monacrnpem, pesnennicm cnncxona. exxi
monaxn npnxonnn n Vrontctxn monacrnp, mo ryr nomeprn i yrn no-
xonannmn. Tax nunnnn icpomonax ueooci, xxn npnmon cmn is xy-
nnnctxoro monacrnpx [15. C. 34].
3nnuano cnncxon ocn]e snaxonncx y naxxi ocranonni. Icro-
pnuni ocrannnn: ninncannx n 1727 p. n Vroui 46 cnxmennxamn yni, rnc-
xy na ocn]ex uoropamctxnx yniarctxnx cnncxonin Ioanna Haraxn i Inno-
xenrix Knena [5. C. 24; 3. C. 39] ra onnry ocn]ex n 1726 p. [3.
C. 39] nxpa ycxnanmnann yrrx cnncxona. Kpim roro, ocranni s
1728 p. cran yxe maxe cninnm [5. C. 24; 3. C. 39]. Hpore nce ne nnan-
xa ocn]e nepenocnn s noxxom Fory ra nennxnm repninnxm.
18 nncronaa 1726 p. [17. C. 126] ryepnarop Epenx rpa] Cnrismyn
Kopnnc posnopxnncx, mo cnncxona ocn]ex onnrann, uomy nin nopy-
myc posnopxxennx imneparopa Kapna i nncnxuyc cnxmennxin.
uorapamcxi pymtncxt enncxon, apon Ioann Haraxn, xany-
ercx Gubernium
,
y na necoennennaro monaxa n nmecre apxnmanpnra
opn]ex (Dorytheus), xoropt n npomnom roy, npox ns Mapamo-
poma n Monanim, tn ram nocnxmen n enncxont. Bepnynmnct
neanno orrya n Mapamopom, on es ncxxaro npana ymnoxaer
uncno pymtncxnx necoennenntx nonon n ymnoxaer clancularie,
n nounoe npemx nocnxmaer nx n nont c ontmnm praejudicium
,
om
nx yniaron, nonce ne opamax nnnmanix nn na sanpemenie Hpeocnx-
mennaro r. pymtncxaro enncxona, nn na mnnocrnnemym intention n
indultum Hamero Iocyapx. Hrax, urot +ro sno ynnuroxnrt in
prima herba, nopyuaem Bamnm Mnnocrxm +roro ntmeynomxnyraro
opn]ex nenoxnaro apxnmanpnra nnn enncxona, ecnn on ne saxouer
no opy xnnrtcx nepe Gubernium
,
om, etiam sub honesta custodia rya
npnnecrn.
Datum ex. R. Principatus Transylvaniae Gubernio. Claudiopoli die 18
Novembris 1726.
Sigismundus Kornis, gubernator. Sigismundus Kun. [5. C. 23].
Hpnnnsno raxoro x smicry Cnrismyn Kopnnc nnan posnopxxennx
ni 24 nncronaa 1726 p., 20 nncronaa 1728 p. ra 26 nncronaa 1728 p.
[5. C. 23-24]. Mera nxasannx posnopxxent snonnacx o onoro: cnixy-
narn sa cnncxonom ocn]eem Vrontctxnm, mo ne nncnxuynan intme
cnxmennxin nx cxnsmarnxin, rax xx ocranni i sananann snaunoro ya-
py rpexo-xaronnxam na Mapamopomnni.
14 nmroro 1731 p. ryepnarop Cnrismyn Kopnnc naxasan nnai n
Cnreri, mo ni sarposom nrparn cnyxn i uecri cxasann ocn]em,
mo xxmo nin nncnxrnrt xoua onoro icpex ao nxxona, ro ye nine-
83

enn ni oxoponom n Xycr. 3oxpema n posnopxxenni ronopnnocx: Co-
opasyxct c cmtcnom Btcouamaro Pecxpnnra, nonyuennaro n or-
ner na +ro npomente, npnxaxnre serio, urot +roro, ne epxama-
rocx n cnonx rpannnax, nenocnymnaro cxnsmarnuecxaro enncxona ror-
uac citra omnem dilationem eme pas semel pro semper severe et
peremptorie noneprnyrt ynemanim, urot on onee ne nosnaran cno-
ero cepna na uyxym nmennny, nosepxancx t n ne ncnonnxn nnxa-
xnx enncxoncxnx ]ynxni, a n ocoennocrn ne cmen a modo
imposterum nocnxmart, pyxononarart n nont. Ecnn on yer +ro
ncnonnxrt ad amussim, bene quidem, no nycrt Bamn Mnnocrn sa nnm
craparentno nanmamr n nopyuart nanmart. H ecnn ero noma-
mr, uro on xort onoro rontxo nocnxrnn, ro nenert roruac es
ncxxaro ornararentcrna nocnart x xomenanry Iycra (Xvcma O.M.)
no xopomnm xonnoem.
Datum ex R. Principatus Transylvaniae Gubernio. Claudiopoli die 14
Februarii a. 1731.
Sigismundus Kornis, gubernator. David Makay, secretarius. [5. C. 25].
3 epesnx 1731 p. cnncxon ocn]e yn nnxnnxann n Cirer, e omy
yno cxasano, mo xxmo nin ye npoonxynarn xiporoni, ro nonece crpo-
ry ninoniantnicrt sa cno nunnxn [6. C. 264].
V 1733 p. npanocnannomy cnncxony ocn]em uepronn pas saoponx-
mrt n cnyxinni [6. C. 264]. Ha ne pas saopona yna ni nonoro rpexo-
xaronnntxoro cnncxona Cnmeona (Ontmanctxoro), xxn n cnox nnpxynx-
pax ra nncrax nocrino cxapxnncx na ixntnicrt cnncxona ocn]ex. Tax
y nnnni 1733 p. cnncxon Cnmeon (Ontmanctxn), nnan nnpxynxp, a 5
cepnnx 1733 p. n nncri o Crepctxoro cnncxona, rpa]a Epenix, xx nac-
xopime nnpannx nonoro nacrynnnxa Fisannix aprymenrynan rnm, mo or
crapocrn yxe ocnenmn ocn]e cnona pyxononaraer cnxmennnxon n
Vrnxncxom monacrtpn, a on, Ontmancxn, ne nmeer nn cnnt, nn
nnacrn sanpemenne n npoxnxrne Fnsannnx, co nsopom ocn]ex, n e-
crnnrentnocrt npnnecrn [11. C. 99; 16. C. 244].
Bpaxonymun naxnnnicrt nnx nox oxymenrin nx icropi Vrontctxo-
ro monacrnpx ra icropi Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3axapnarri, nanonmo
x rexcr sa M. Hyuxacm.
Bcecnirntoniomomy coopy yxonencrna i pyctxomy nancrny mnpy
Xpncra i nctoro naxpamoro!
Biomo Bamnm uecnocrxm, mo cepe Bac oconnno araro yxon-
nnx, xxi mann marn ne rintxn nepxonni nintnocri i cnooy, a nacnpani
nepenocxrt araro rpynomin, npnrnonennx i xpinanrno, nnarxrt no-
arxn, niponxmrt nanmnny, nnarxrt openy. He nnnnnnac ne is xxo-
roct sonnimntoro xepena, a nnme s micnenoro n Mapamopomi. yxe
araro cnxmennxin nimnn npannntnnm mnxxom; ane cnxmennxin crano
84
2009, N 1 (15)
yxe araro, rax mo ne moxyrt nnamrynarncx; xro x nnme rax posm-
noxnn? Cnpani ne xroct inmn, xx orent oco]e Teooponnu, na xxo-
ro cmn n ni ni npnmna cxapra is Cnrora, n xxi epxanni nanone npo-
recrymrt, mo nin nocrino xiporonisyc i npnnocnrt sryy nepxonnomy
unny ra yxonencrny, ane epxanni nann, xpana i npecnirnn nicap cnpn-
mac ne xx nenxunicrt, o xpinaxn cramrt nonamn ni oco]ex. B sn`xsxy
s nnm mn cnonimacmo Bamnm uecnocrxm, ncim nporononam ra inmnm
cnxmennxam, naxasycmo i sanoniacmo, mo xoen xx ao nononnu ne
nacminnncx nncnxuynarncx n ornx oco]ex. 3a nnm nonnnen nnntno cre-
xnrn xoxnn nporonon. Hicnx ntoro xoen, mo ye nncnxuenn oco-
]em, ne ye marn nontnocri i nepxonno cnoon i nexa raxn onixy
ye nosannenn unny cnxmennocnyxnrenx. Hexa ye niomo Ba-
mnm uecnocrxm, mo orent oco]e nepeynac y saoponi, xxy na ntoro
naxnan naxenno nam`xri cnncxon Myxauinctxn i Mapamopoctxn Ie-
opri Iennai Fisanni, a nonropno na ntoro x na ntoro x ornx oco]ex
mn nncnann saopony i cynopo sacrepernn, mo ne ocminnncx xaxrncx
norim, xx nnxnmuenn. Hexa ne ye niomo ncim i nexa nono oon`xs-
xono orpnmycrtcx i nnxonycrtcx. ano o Bamoro nioma i nnxonannx
na myxauinctxi xa]epi micxnx nnnnx poxy Foxoro 1733-ro. Hanncan
par no Xpncri Cnmeon Ontmanctxn, nixapi cnncxona Myxauinctxoro,
n.p. [2. C. 243-244].
uepes micxnt 5 cepnnx 1733 p. n nncri o Crepctxoro cnncxona, rpa]a
Epenix, cnncxon Cnmeon (Ontmanctxn), noniomnxmun npo cmeprt
cnncxona Fisanni, nncan raxe: Bncoxonpenoonn i nentmnmanonnn
rpa]e, nane sacrynnnxy i nacrannnxy! Hepeycim nnxnnxm cnom noxipny
roronnicrt o Bamnx nocnyr. Ha npnsnauennx na 27 nnnnx i macnnno
saxinuennx noxoponax nomepnoro nana cnncxona s`xnnnncx y nennxi
xintxocri nci apxinpecnirepn, sanpomeni exann, a is yxonencrna araro
napoxin i npecnirepin. Opasy x nacrynnoro nx niynncx renepantni
sopn sa x yuacrm, na xxnx x osnaomnn npncyrnix s nnannm Bamn
opornm nx mene experom Bamo excnenenni npo npnsnauennx mene
na nocay nixapix. Hyniuno saunrann exper yn npnnxrn i cxnane-
nn ncim yxonencrnom s noxipnom sroom. Hicnx ntoro, cnnpamunct na
mo npana i oon`xsxn, cnpxmonani na ninepnennx i nonepexennx ncix
neonixin ra nnxopinennx snonxnnant, x an m araro xopncnnx nopa i
naxnnnnx nxasinox, mo xoxen is nnx rnnoxo nxopennn y cnoc cepne cni
oon`xsox cnxmennxa i naroarne xepinnnnrno nnipennmn i nepeannm
m ymamn, i mo sanxn mann nepe ounma antme nomnpennx nennxo
Foxo cnann. Kpim ntoro, x cynopo nonepenn apxinpecnirepin ni sarpo-
som nosannennx x noca i napa]i, a inmnx nacrannnxin is yxonencrna
x saoxornn, mo xoxen is nnx y cnocmy exanari nnntno crexnn sa rnm,
mo nixro ne ocminnncx ninpannrncx y Hontmy ao xynct ine sa nnc-
85

nxuennxm i npnsnauennxm, o x uyn, mo snamnnct exxi cnnn npecnirepin,
mo mann namip ne sponrn, roro rorynanncx o nnsy nx soyrrx
nepxonnnx noca. 3 merom nepemxon ntomy x raxox ceposno nonepe-
nn nnpxynxpamn, mo nixro ne ninaxnncx ne ponrn. Onax, o Foxe
xxn xant, npecnirnn nacroxrenm, y Mapamopomctxomy xomirari o
ntoro uacy nepeynac onn niomn yxe cninn crapent no imeni opo-
]e Teooponnu, mo n Vrnxnctxomy monacrnpi nasnnacrtcx cnncxonom,
xxn nomepnnm cnncxonom Fisanni yn nosannenn cnoc nocan. O-
nax, ninonnnmn cnom nocay, ne snaxoxun nepemxon n ntomy, nin xx i
panime, nncnxuyc arartox, mo npnxoxrt o ntoro ro is Tpancintnani,
ro is Vropmnnn, nanirt manonnctmennnx, ne cxaxy, nacryxin. Tenep, o-
nianmnct npo cmeprt noxoponenoro cnncxona Fisanni, snony sipan cno
crapeui cnnn i xxnxoct micrtox nonoxin nx Carmapctxoro xomirary ne-
moanno nouan nncnxuynarn. V sn`xsxy s rnm, mo oci x ne man moxnn-
nocri nnxnnrn cnom axrnnnicrt n Mapomopoctxomy xomirari i ne mam
moxnnnocri oro sarpnmarn, a na xonnmnc nosannennx npan, saopony
i nopan nin ne sneprac ynarn, s merom ycynennx snnnynauent, mo x
neocrarnto crexnn sa cranonnmem i ne nxnnan saxoin y ninoninocri
s mocm nocaom, snepramct o Bamo excnenenni, xx naopoxuoro
cnncxona, i yxe mnpo npomy, mo Bn ynn nacxani cnom nnnnnom na-
crannnxa nxnrn saxoin nx npnnnnennx raxoro sna. Bnaxam, mo yno
ope, xxmo is xoponinctxo Pan yno nanpanneno posnopxxennx
Mapamopomctxomy xomirary npo oro sarpnmannx, ao apemr; nin
nonnnen n yrn ninpannennm o xxoroct monacrnpx, mo snaxonrtcx
nenoanix Myxauena, mo ram ocranni ni cnoro xnrrx niyn xapy; y
raxnx cnoci nin mir n emo sponrn nx cnacinnx cnoc ymi, i omy
yn n saxpnrn mnxx nx npoonxennx snonxnnant. [...] Hepeamun
ne nce noxipno artxinctxi i noxponnrentctxi rypori Bamoro nnco-
xonpeocnxmencrna, ninym Bamy nacrannnntxy npannnm i sannmamct s
narnnmom nonarom o Bamoro nncoxonpeocnxmencrna, narpona i na-
mnnimoro nacrannnxa. V Myxaueni, n pesnenni cn. Mnxonax, 5 cepnnx
poxy 1733, nanoxipnimn cnyra i xanenan Cnmeon Ontmanctxn, npn-
snauenn renepantnn Myxauinctxn nixapi, n.p. [2. C. 244-246].
x nnaxac O.H. Herpon, came 5 cepnnx 1733 p. cnncxon ocn]e
Vrontctxn sraycrtcx n ocrannc [3. C. 40]. Onax, sa cnonamn apxim.
Bacnnix (Hponina), im`x cnncxona sycrpiuacrtcx i nisnime 30 xonrnx
1733 p., xonn Han]i nnan naxas xomirary, npo saopony nepxonno mpnc-
nxni cnncxony ocn]em [6. C. 264].
Ocranni ni cnoro xnrrx nnanxa nponin n Vrontctxomy monacrnpi.
Hi ni nx ntoro ynn nxpa naxxnmn uepes nonny nrpary sopy [11. C.
100].
Binocno cmepri cnncxona icnyc ni nepci. 3a onicm cnncxon ocn-
]e yn nnxnnxann n Xycrctxn samox, e nicnx onnrin nomep. 3nirn
86
2009, N 1 (15)
oro rino yno nepenesene n Vrontctxn monacrnp [11. C. 100]. 3rino
pyro nepci, nin rnxo nomep n Vrontctxomy monacrnpi, e sapas i noxo-
ponenn [9. C. 236; 6. C. 264]. Te, mo cnncxon ocn]e noxoponenn n
Vrontctxomy monacrnpi, ne escymninno. B Cnncanin 1788 p., npn ne-
pepaxynanni innenrapx Vrontctxoro monacrnpx ronopnrtcx nacrynne:
Kpecrnx ns nannymxom cpent or naxenno namxrn enncxona
ocn]ex, nxe n ro onrenn norpeen ecrt [7. Apx. 4-5].
Orxe, micnem saxoponennx cnncxona ocn]ex (ueooponnua) cni
nnaxarn repnropim 3anenctxoro (Vrontctxoro) monacrnpx, roro cy-
uacny repnropim cena Mana Vrontxa. Mornna nnanxn, xxa snaxonrt-
cx n Cnxro-Vcnenctxomy xinouomy monacrnpi n ceni Vrnx c nnme sna-
xom nmanynannx cnoninnxa Hpanocnan`x, i ne moxe nnaxarncx oro
cnpanxnim saxoponennxm.
Bnanxa ocn]e uacro ponn sanncn y nepxonnnx orocnyxonnx
crapopyxax. Tax, y 1959 p. n Myxauinctxn Cnxro-Mnxonanctxn mo-
nacrnp s ynona npnnecnn crapy orocnyxony xnnry. He yna O-
max Mnnex pixicnn npnmipnnx cranponirinnx xnnr, nnana 1628 p.
n Kncni n pyxapni Cnnpnona Coonx. Ha cropinxax nic xnnrn c ninn
px nnacnopyunnx sanncin cnncxona ocn]ex, mix xxnmn i yxonni nipmi.
ocninnxn cxnnxmrtcx o ymxn, mo ne nipmi camoro ocn]ex [15.
C. 36].
Pisni ocninnxn nanoxrt pisni arn cmepri cnncxona ocn]ex: xinent
xonrnx 1733 p., nouarox 1734 p. [16. C. 244; 9. C. 236], 1734 p. ao
nepma nononnna 1735 p. [6. C. 265; 10. C. 34]. Oni ocninnxn nnaxa-
mrt, mo n xinni xnrrx cnncxony yno 84 poxn [9. C. 236], exxi cxnnx-
mrtcx o nn]pn 85-87 poxin [3. C. 40], inmi x npnnycxamrt, mo cnncxony
yno inx 90 [4. C. 77], a ro 100 poxin [16. C. 244].
Taxnm unnom, onnpamunct na xepena, xxi xoncrarymrt ary napo-
xennx ocn]ex 1648 p., a xx imonipny ary cmepri 1733 p., mn npn-
nycxacmo, mo n momenr cmepri, cnncxony ocn]em yno 85 poxin.
o camo cmepri cnncxon ocn]e ne npnnnnxn racmno, nent i nnoui,
nncnxuynarn rnx, xro npnxonn o ntoro ne nnme is Mapamopoma [18.
C. 171-209], ane ncic Myxauinctxo cnapxi, a raxox is Tpancintnani [5.
C. 23; 3. C. 39]. Ocrannimn ixmn nnanxa ocn]e nnxnnxan cxaprn n
cnom apecy s oxy yniarctxo icpapxi onnox cnapxi, crpori yxasn s
oxy nnan [11. C. 76, 98, 99, 100; 5. C. 23-25; 3. C. 39] ra, xx moxna
cynrn s nncra cnncxona Cnmeona Ontmanctxoro o xnipy ni 9 nnnnx
1733 p. nenononennx nopxncrna. 3oxpema y nxasanomy nncri cnncxon
Cnmeon nncan: Bno Benente Ornene Coopa n Hancrna Pyccxaro
Mnp Xron n ncx narax! Beomo ecr uecnocrtxm Bamtm nx mnoro
ecr yxonntx Mexy namn, xoroptn ne at n nonnocrex Hepxonntx,
n cnooax nanexnrtx socranann, Ane naro eme mnortn rxxapt, yrncxt
87

n Kmnnrno nsnamamr, Hopnim amr, Hanmnny ponxr, Taxxe n Apeny
nnarxr, ns xoroparo xpona nnn ncrounnxa roe nntner ne or nnaro rox-
mo or cero xe n Mapamopomn Mnoxecrno yxonntx nanpannnocx; na
ronnxo xe mx ne moryrcx nmecrnrn xro nx ronnxo pomnoxnn ncrnnno
ne nnt ronnxo oren oco]e ueooponnu na xoroparo n n cin nn
ryr nonoc npnmon ns Cnrora Hanone epxanntn nporemranymr, nx
nenpecranno xnporonnsyer n Cnxrnr Kmeren, Hacrtpe, Hpocraxon
n uom ne roxmo unn Hepxonnt n yxonencrno 3ryy nmaer Ane rex
n Hanone epxanntn Opcar n Hpecnernt Kecap maer sa nenxunocr
nonexe Kmere cramrcx Honamn or Loco]ex. Cero pan Cnm ynnnepca-
nom nsnecno rnopnm uecnocrxm Bamnm ncem nporononam n Hpounm
Hapoxom npnxasyemo n sanemaemo at xaen ixx nnn nononnu ne
epsnyn Crnrncx or orna oco]ex na roe openo n onacno xoxt
Hporonon nonnnen nosop arn, n no cem xoropt xonnex yercx cnxrn-
rn y oco]ex, xaen raxont ne yer y nonnocrn n npn Cneoy Hep-
xonne 3ocranarn n or raxonaro cnxmencrna socraner n nexn uyx.
Beomo a yer n cie uecnocrxm namtm nx oren oco]e ecr no
sanpemenin, xoropoe naxeno namxrn Enn. Myxauencxi n Mapamo-
pocxi Ieopr. Ienn. Fnsanri na nero nonoxnn Honropenny na roro x
orna oco]ex sanpemenie nocnann ecmo, n cypono emy saxasann a ne
epsner omo]opa xacarncx xxo ncxnmunmt. Cix nsnecrno cornopme n
n neormennoe conmenie n ncnonnenie socraer na sanme Bno
B. B. Bmtm ana n Ka]epy myxauencxo Mnx Rnix 9-o, poxy 1733
stcrantn o Xp. Fpar Cnmeon Onmancxi Bnxapi Enna Myxau. mp.
[11. C. 98-99; 3. C. 39].
uncnenni cnxmennnntxi xiporoni cnncxona ocn]ex moxna orpynry-
narn ocrannnamn, n xxnx onnnnnocx Hpanocnan`x na Mapamopomnni
nicnx Vxropoctxo yni 1646 p.
3 oro xnrrx niomi ]axrn, xonn nnm nncnxuynanncx nanirt manonirni
ra nocxenni. Tax, onncymun cran Hepxnn na nouarxy XVIII cr.,
R. Xarxonnu, ccnnamunct na sanncxn Myxauinctxoro rpexo-xaronnnt-
xoro cnncxona Anpix Faunnctxoro (1772-1809), crnepxyc, mo npano-
cnanni cnncxonn arartox nncnxuynann, ni uoro n onomy ceni morno
yrn no 2-3 cnxmennxn. Pyxononarann manonirnix. Hanpnxna, n
1731 p. cnncxon ocn]e nncnxrnn 13-rnpiunoro Mnxana Pemxona, a
3-ro ciunx 1718 p. osnonnn opyxnrncx cnxmennxy Ieoprim Moepy
[16. C. 244; 256].
Hacxintxn icni ni snnnynauennx nam cynrn naxxo. Fyn ne pesynt-
rar nonemixn, un moxnnno cnpxmonane rnonennx Hpanocnan`x, mn ne
snacmo, onax npaxonymun ro cran Hpanocnanno Hepxnn, n xxomy nona
onnnnnacx na Mapamopomnni nicnx 1646 p., moxna npnnycrnrn, mo raxa
cnryanix morna yrn ninxom imonipnom.
88
2009, N 1 (15)
V pesyntrari nin, esnopxxin, sarocrpennx penirino cnryani, nep-
xonna ncnnnnina icno morna ocnanyrn [6. C. 265]. Onax s inmoro
oxy, me npn xnrri npanocnannoro cnncxona oro i ninxom ynn nnnpan-
ani, ocxintxn nnanxa npexpacno posymin, mo nicnx ntoro Hpanocnan`x
ye nepexnnarn nenerxi uacn, romy moxnnno rax araro niynanocx
xiporoni sapan sepexennx ra yrpnmannx npanocnanno nipn n Mapa-
mopomctxomy perioni.
3nnuano, s rouxn sopy nepxonno axpnnino xanonixn, xiporoni cnnc-
xona ocn]ex ninxramrt sacyxennm. Hpore, xxmo cynrn s ornxy
na cnryanim, n xxi onnnnnocx Hpanocnan`x, ro i nnanxn ocn]ex
norpino posrnxarn nnme s rouxn sopy nepxonno xanoniuno ixonomi.
Xnrrx ra i cnncxona ocn]ex necyrt n coi rnnoxi remn nx pos-
ymin, axe uepes npnsmy oro npanninnx mn ne nnme snaomnmocx s
icropicm Vrontctxoro monacrnpx, ane aunmo nacxintxn naxxo yno
yrpnmynarn nipnicrt cno Hepxni ra nipnnxam n uacn nnponaxennx yni
na 3axapnarri.
ixntnicrt ocranntoro npanocnannoro cnncxona ne eranon camo-
nianoro cnyxinnx Hepxni ra nmxm. Oconnno cni nixpecnnrn nipy
ra cnny yxy, s xxnmn cnncxon nicromnan Hpanocnan`x. B oro ixnt-
nocri sycrpiuamrtcx npocro nemonipni nnnaxn.
Cnom xnrrxm ra nacrnpctxom ixntnicrm nnanxa xnnn ro opas
cnanrentctxoro nacrnpx, xxn noxnan ymy cnom sa onent cnox (In.
15, 13).
Ctoroni norpino npnxnacrn ncix sycnnt, mo siparn marepian o
oro xanonisani, xx micnenoro cnxroro. Cnxroro s nennxo yxnn, xxn
cnom xnrrxm ra ixntnicrm noxasan ra peanisynan nannmn iean na-
crnpctxoro cnyxinnx i nocrpaxan, xx icrnnnn cnxmennomyuennx Hpa-
nocnanno Hepxnn.
AITEPATYPA
1. Kouopamoeu: Hpuue, o. Hcropix Hoxapnarcxo Pycn nx napoa. Vxro-
po, 1924.
2. Hv:ra M. Icropix Kapnarctxnx pycnnin. Historia Carpato-Ruthenorum. T. III.
Vxropo: Bnannnnrno 3axapnarrx, 2002.
3. Hempoe A. Crapax nepa n ynix n XVIIXVIII nn. Hoxcnnrentnax sanncxa
// Marepiant nx ncropin Vropcxo Pycn. T. II. CH., 1906.
4. 4u.un opoqe, +umpono.um Hparcru u ece Uexoc.oearuu. Hacnnt-
crnennoe nneenne ynnn n 3axapnarte 1646-1649 rr., oporta c nem n ee nnxnn-
annx n 1949 roy; pasnnrne Hpanocnanno Hepxnn o cero nx n 3axapnarte.
ncceprannx na concxanne yueno crenenn xannara orocnonnx Hennnrpac-
xo yxonno Axaemnn. Hpxmen, 1964. (Mamnnonnct).
89

5. Hempoe A. Crapax nepa n ynix n XVIIXVIII nn. Hoxcnnrentnax sanncxa
// Marepiant nx ncropin Vropcxo Pycn. T. I. CH., 1905.
6. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+auopum. Hcropnx Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3axap-
narte. Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn Myxauencxn monacrtpt. OPH 4iokuiu, 2005.
7. Cnncanie Onrene Mapamopocxtx penne tnmtx. 1788 ro. 3axap-
narctxn xpacsnanun myse. uonn. Apx. N 797.
8. amroeu: P. Enncxont Mapamopomcxne. // Hncrox. N 17. Io VII. 01
cenrxpx. Vnrnap, 1891.
9. Han Cmenau, omei. Icropix 3axapnarrx. T. II. Inano-upanxinctx: Bnannnn-
rno Hona 3opx, 2002.
10. 4euu: B., Hanv.u: O. Manoepesnxnctxn CnxroMnxonanctxn monac-
rnp ra napncn unny cn. Bacnnix Bennxoro na 3axapnarri. Vxropo: Bnannnnrno
B. Haxxa, 2004.
11. v.uuroeu: Ioauu, omei. Hcropnuecxix ueprt Vrpo-Pyccxnx. T. III. Vn-
rnap, 1877.
12. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri. u. 64. On. 1. Cnp. 169.
13. Kono.oeu: Iouaqau, apxicnucron Kuuuuieciru i Mo.oaeciru. Ocranni
cnncxon Mapamopoma (pamarnuna onx Hpanocnannoro nnanxn ocn]ex
ueooponnua) // Cnapxiantnn Bicnnx. Bnannx Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo
Hpanocnanno cnapxi. NN 3, 4. Fepesent. 1990.
14. Heose.icru E. Ouepx Kapnaropyccxo nnreparypt. Vxropo, 1923.
15. Haeup B. Monacrnpi 3axapnarrx (1360-1939). Bnannnnrno Myxauinctxo-
Vxropoctxo Hpanocnanno cnapxi. Myxaueno, 1994.
16. amroeu: P. Enncxont Mapamopomcxne // Hncrox. N 22. Io VII. 15
noxpx.
17. Pe.u C. Hpanocnannax Pymtncxax Hepxont n Mapamopome. uepnonnt,
1938. Pymynctxn icropnx C. Penn nnaxac, mo naneene posnopxxennx yno
nnano ne 18 nncronaa, a 18 xonrnx: 18 xonrnx 1726 poxy ryepnarop Epenx
Ipa] Kopnnc posnopxnncx mo cnncxona ocn]ex onnrann, uomy nin nopy-
myc posnopxxennx Kapna III i nncnxuyc cnxmennxin. Cnncxon ocn]e yn
npnmymenn ninpannrncx n Knyx (Konoxnap) o pexropa Aama unrrep; i ram
nin nonnnen yn arn nirnepxennx, mo ne ye pyxononararn nes`+nannx cnx-
mennxin nx 3penx. Hnr. no: [6. C. 264].
18. Iaoreta B. oarxn x ncropie Pycnnon n pyctxnx nepxne n Mapamopomi.
Cryin ncropnuno-apxnnni // Hayxont 3opnnx ronapncrna Hpocnera. Pou-
nnx I. Vxropo, 1922.
90
2009, N 1 (15)
Pouan MHPOBHH
AHOAOIET HPABOCAABHR HEPE
ABCTPHHCKHM BOEHHLM CYOM
K 100-AETHK CO HR POEHHR MHTPOmOPHOIO
HPOTOHEPER -PA KACCHRHA MHT. BOIATLPHA (1868-1968)
Ho ancrpncxomy xoncrnrynnonnomy saxony npanocnannomy neponc-
noneannm npnsnanannct pannte npana c npounmn neponcnoneannxmn
ancrpncxnx rpaxan. Ho +ro tno rontxo na ymare, n camom xe ene
tno concem nnaue. Kora rontxo ancrpncxnm n matxpcxnm nmnepn-
anncram +ro tno na pyxy, onn noracontnann npanocnannoe neponcno-
neanne no nonxrne rocyapcrnenno nsment, npnnepxennen xe npa-
nocnannx sa nx mnnmoe crpemnenne x noccoennennm c nennxnm pyc-
cxnm napoom sa rpannne xnemnnn xax rocyapcrnenntx nsmennnxon
n nosyxann npornn nnx nonnrnuecxne nponecct o rocyapcrnenno
nsmene.
Tax tno n nponecce npornn cnxm. Hoanna Ipnroptennua Haymonn-
ua 1882 r., nsnecrnom xax nponecc npornn Ontrn Ipaapt n ron.; rax
tno n 1913 r. n nponecce n Mapamopomcxom Cnrore, sarexnnom mat-
xpcxnmn nmnepnanncramn npornn nepomonaxa Anexcex Kaanmxa n
94-x pyccxnx xpecrtxn; rax tno n nncnnpnponannom naxanyne Hepno
mnpono nont ntnoncxom nponecce npornn xypnanncra Cemena Rpt-
ennua Fenacmxa n ron. roxe o rocyapcrnenno nsmene, n xoropom
onnnxnnct na npanocnanntx cnxmennnxa - Maxcnm Tnmo]eennu Can-
onnu n Hrnarn unnnnnonnu Iynma; rax tno n n nonnrnuecxom npo-
necce o rocyapcrnenno nsmene npornn cnxmen. -pa Kaccnxna m.
Forartpna n ron., nponeennom yxe no npemx nont (4.09.1916-
17.02.1917), n xoropom ns 23-x oxanonanntx omecrnenntx n xynt-
rypntx exrene Iannunnt n Fyxonnnt 16 tnn npnronopent x cmep-
rno xasnn, n rom uncne n cnxm. Forartpen.
Cneyer oparnrt nnnmanne na pasnnny mexy npnronopamn n raxnx
nponeccax n mnpnoe npemx n n noennoe. Kora n mnpnoe npemx ecrno-
nann eme xoncrnrynnonnte saxont o oxpane rpaxancxo cnoot,
rora nponecct nepe cyom npncxxntx sacearene xonuannct npn-
* Crartx tna nanncana P.. Mnponnuem x 100-nernm co nx poxennx Kaccn-
xna Forartpna no ncenonnmom P..M.
91

ronopom, ocnooxammnm or onnnennx n rocyapcrnenno nsmene. Ho
ne rax tno no npemx noenno cymaroxn, xora nocne orment xoncrn-
rynnonntx saxonon, rpaxancxnx npan ecrnonan cypont reppop, pas-
xnraemt noenntm ncnxosom. Ho+romy n npnronop n noennoe npemx
moxno tno npennert: cmeprnax xasnt. B raxnx ocroxrentcrnax
npnmnoct ecrnonart n nponecce nepe nencxnm nnnsnonntm cyom
xpaeno oopont -py Forartpny, xoropt myxecrnenno n eccrpamno
ntcrynnn n samnry npan npanocnanno nepxnn.
Hs onynnxonanntx o cnx nop n neuarn marepnanon nsnecrna samn-
ra npan nocrouno nepxnn, r. e. Hpanocnannx, c xoropo ntcrynnn n
cnoe npemx npocnernrent Iannnxo Pycn cnxm. Hoann Ip. Haymo-
nnu, xax nepe ancrpncxnm cyom n nasnannom ntme nponecce, rax n
nocne, nepe camtm pnmcxnm npecronom n cnoe annenxnnn x nane Htny
XIII. O +rom moxno ysnart ocroxrentno ns Crenorpa]nuecxoro npo-
roxona no eny Ontrn Ipaapt n ron. (Htnon, 1882) n Annenxnnn x
nane Htny XIII cnxm. Hoanna Haymonnua, onynnxonanno n ntnonc-
xo rasere Cnono sa 1883 r. (np. 119-137) n orentno nepeneuarxo, n
ns pyrnx nynnxann roro n nocneymmero npemen.
Hnre, onaxo, ne ormeuanoct n neuarn o sacnyxnnammem ocooro
nnnmannx anonorernuecxom ntcrynnennn -pa Forartpna n ynomxny-
rom nponecce, o uem cneyer cxasart n cnxsn co 100-nerne roonmn-
no co nx poxennx +roro sacnyxennoro na naponom n nepxonnom
nonpnme exrenx, xoropax connaaer c nem 5 noxpx 1968 r.
nx nonnort npnnonm necxontxo anntx ns ero norpa]nn.
Vpoxenen cena Kanno Bamxonenxoro yesa na Fyxonnne
5.11.1868 r., nponcxonn ns cemtn manosementnoro xpecrtxnnna. Hpo-
memn nauantnym mxony n ponom cene, nocrynnn n nemenxym rnmna-
snm n uepnonnax, xoropym saxonunn c ornnunem n 1890 r. Forocnoncxn
]axyntrer uepnonnnxoro ynnnepcnrera saxonunn roxe c ornnuntm yc-
nexom n 1894 r., n ero npo]eccopa, ormernn ontmne cnoconocrn nt-
nycxnnxa, coneronann emy npoonxart nayunym nororonxy nx sanx-
rnx cnoono ynnnepcnrercxo xa]ept.
Kaccnxn mnrpnennu samnrnn crenent oxropa orocnoncxnx nayx n
1896 r., no xa]ept rax n ne nonyunn, no xannar ne noxonn no
penenr ancrpncxnx nmnepnanncron. 3anxn mecro epenencxoro cnx-
mennnxa, on npn pennocrnom ncnonnennn cnonx nacrtpcxnx oxsannoc-
re rpynncx na nontmennem xyntrypnoro n +xonomnuecxoro yponnx
xpecrtxn, ocnontnax unrantnn n xooneparnnnte omecrna n peaxrn-
pyx nonynxpnte nsannx nx napoa. 3ry nnoornopnym exrentnocrt
-pa Forartpna, npecneyemym amnnncrparnnntmn nnacrxmn n
uacrnocrn, co cropont xpaenoro npesnenra apona ]on Fneneena
npepnana Hepnax mnponax nona, xora no npnxasy npexropa uepno-
92
2009, N 1 (15)
nnnxo nonnnnn Tapanryna -p Forartpen tn cocnan n ropo Hnnn, a
sarem, xax nonnrnuecxn ysnnx, nepeneen n nencxym rapnnsonnym
rmptmy, urot npecrart nepe nnnsnonntm cyom xpaeno oopont
no onnnennm n rocyapcrnenno nsmene.
Ha ocnonannn ocrannennoro nox. -pom Forartpnem ouepxa ero sa-
mnrnrentno peun na +rom nponecce npnnonm nxparne coepxanne
uacrn +ro peun, xoropax xacaercx npanocnannoro neponcnoneannx,
nasnannoro noenntm npoxypopom n onnnnrentnom axre onntm rep-
mnnom mnsma. Ha +ro nmenno rouxe -p Forartpen pasnnnaer cnoe
ntcrynnenne.
- Hac onnnxmr, - cxasan -p Forartpen, - n nponarane mnsmt.
Tax nastnaer onnnnrentnt axr namy npanocnannym, npnsnannym
ancrpncxnmn saxonamn nepxont. Ham onnnnrentnt axr yer nx
yymnx noxonenn ncropnuecxnm oxymenrom, xax ancrpncxne rocy-
apcrnennte nnacrn ornocnnnct x npanocnanno, nmn xe npnsnanno
nepxnn.
Cctnaxct na nnrnponannte ns onnnnrentnoro axra mecra, -p Fo-
rartpen orcrannaer, nonpexn conpornnnennm noennoro npoxypopa, cnoe
yrnepxenne n saxnnxer:
- Hamn nnacrn ne nepemonxrcx, xora ronopxr o name npanocnanno
nepxnn n nastnamr ee mnsmarnuecxo, ne nsnpax na ro, uro +ra nep-
xont npnsnana saxonom. 3ro nmeno mecro no ncex nponeccax. 3ro no-
nropxercx n n namem nponecce, n x xax unen n cnxmennnx npanocnanno
nepxnn saxnnxm pemnrentnt nporecr npornn raxoro nenanncrnoro n
onnoro o]nnnantnoro ornomennx x npanocnanno nepxnn, xax co cro-
pont nnacre, rax n co cropont npoxypopa, n npomy nx neuno namxrn
sa]nxcnponart n nporoxone cneymmee: Bnny 1oro, u1o npanocnan-
nan nepxont npnnanean1 x saxonno npnsnannmu n Anc1pnn
nepxnnu, n, ccmnanct na 15 c1a1tm ocnonnoro rocyapc1nenno-
ro saxona o1 1867 r. n na ueaxonqeccnonantnmn saxon 1868 r.,
xax 1oae na pacnopnaenne Iannnxon xpaenon ryepnnn 1792 r.,
xo1opmu sanpemeno nasmna1t namy npanocnannym nepxont
mnsua1nuecxon, ccmnanct, naxonen, na unenne unnnc1epc1na
xynt1on o1 6.05.1915 r., naxonmeecn n enax namero nponecca,
sannnnm 1opaec1nennmn n pemn1entnmn npo1ec1 npo1nn na-
smnannn npanocnannon nepxnn mnsua1nuecxon.
- B enax namero nponecca, npoonxaer -p Forartpen, - ncrpeua-
ercx nyrannna ornocnrentno npanocnanno nepxnn. Ho mnennm rannn-
xoro namecrnnuecrna, npanocnannax nepxont n Ancrpnn ne npnsnana,
nocxontxy +ra nepxont roxecrnenna c poccncxo rocyapcrnenno
nepxontm, n pyrom xe mecre onxrt cxasano, uro +ra nepxont ornnua-
ercx or pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn. Mnnncrepcrno xyntron na san-
93

poc cnecrnennoro cytn nx Iara ornernno, uro pyccxax npanocnan-
nax nepxont raxax xe, xax npanocnannax nepxont n Ancrpnn, a poccnc-
xn napt ne rnana nepxnn, a ee samnrnnx, xax n y nac n Ancrpnn, re
nmneparop nmeer axe ontme npan n npanocnanno nepxnn, uem poc-
cncxn napt. Bnny roro n roro, uro onnnnrentnt axr cunraer nepe-
xo na npanocnannoe neponcnoneanne npocro rocyapcrnenno nsme-
no, x nocrapamct (ronopnr -p Forartpen) npecrannrt eno n no-
nnnnom cnere n oxasart neoocnonannocrt onnnnrentnoro axra.
B antnemnx cnonx paccyxennxx oparop na ocnonannn neocnopn-
mtx ncropnuecxnx ]axron oxasan, uro o nocnenero Bcenencxoro
coopa nce ormt, yuenne n noome ycrpocrno tnn omne nx nce
Xpncrnancxo nepxnn. Co npemenem, onaxo, nauannct pacxoxennx mex-
y Bocroxom n 3anaom, n pnmcxn enncxon (nana) npncnonn cee anro-
pnrarnnnym nnacrt, npnuem ne nocrecnxncx axe onepertcx na ]ant-
cn]nnnponannte rax nastnaemte Hcenoncnoponcxne experannn,
ntrancx nounnnrt cee ncm Xpncrnancxym nepxont, n raxnm opasom
npnmno x oxonuarentnomy pacxony n 1054 r. Pnmcxne narnnxne yrnepx-
amr, uro npanocnannax nepxont orxononact or pnmcxo, n nastnamr
ee onunno mnsmom, n ro npemx xax n camom ene npanocnannax
nepxont ocranact raxo, xaxo tna nepnnunax nepxont Xpncrona, es
nononneenn orxononmerocx 3anaa. Cneonarentno, xapaxrep mns-
mt nmeer pnmcxo-xaronnuecxax nepxont n nnxoem opasom ne npano-
cnannax.
Harnnxnam yananoct nnora neperxnyrt na cnom cropony uacrt npa-
nocnanntx n nne ynnn, xax +ro nmeno, nanpnmep, mecro n mnxxercxo
Hontme n 1596 r., xora nontcxax mnxxra c nesynramn nacnntcrnenno
nepenena uacrt npanocnannoro napoa n ynnm. Onaxo napo +ror oc-
ranancx n cnonx cepnax npanocnanntm n npn naronpnxrcrnymmnx o-
croxrentcrnax nosnpamancx x nepe ornon, n n +rom ecrecrnennom xnne-
nnn npoxypopt nnxr rocyapcrnennym nsmeny, n ancrpncxne nnacrn
ycrpannamr ]antmnnte nponecct.
B saxonoarentno uacrn cnoero ntcrynnennx ntcxasan -p Fora-
rtpen nemee npecxasanne n apec ancrpncxoro rocyapcrna: Orno-
cnrentno onnnennx n npanocnannn mnsme - mory rontxo cxasart
cneymmee: nycrt ronnrenn nepxnn nomnxr, uro n pantme tnann rocy-
apcrna, xoropte npecneonann nepy, no no nnm yxe n cne npocrtn, n
ceuac rontxo ncropnx ynomnnaer o nnx, xax o ronnrenxx, norynnmnx
ecuncnennoe uncno myuennxon sa nepy n nepxont. A nepxont n o ce-
ronx ntnonnxer cnom ntcoxym npocnernrentnym saauy.
Cmenax, npoymannax n nornuecxn nayuntmn n ncropnuecxnmn apry-
menramn oocnonannax peut nocynmoro -pa Forartpna tna ec-
npncrpacrno onenena axe camnm noenntm rpnynanom, xoropt n oo-
94
2009, N 1 (15)
cnonannn npnronopa oxapaxrepnsonan ero nnunocrt cneymmnm opa-
som: Onnnneumn -p Bora1mpen +1o npoc1o uorymec1nen-
nan, nunonnpymman nnunoc1t, xo1opan ncec1oponnnu opaso-
nanneu, pemn1entnmu cnoxonnmu nmc1ynnenneu uoae1 sac-
1ann1t npncnymnna1tcn x neuy. Kora on ronopn1, ero cnona
ne nyc1me qpasm. Taxax onenxa nparon ronopnr cama sa cex.
Cypont cmeprnt npnronop ne tn npnneen n ncnonnenne, rax xax
no oxnnenno amnncrnn nocnenero ancrpncxoro nmneparopa
Kapna I npnronopennte x cmeprno xasnn ntmnn na cnooy n nepexn-
nn Ancrpo-Benrepcxym nmnepnm, xax +ro roxe npennen n npecxa-
san n +rom nponecce -p K.. Forartpen.
Hocne pasnana Ancrpo-Benrpnn -p Forartpen npoonxan cnom
mnororpannym exrentnocrt. Honte pymtncxne nnacrn nasnaunnn ero
nacroxrenem npnxoa n Knnmant n narounnntm paonon Knnmant n
3acranna. O. Kaccnxn nonoxnn mexy npounm nocne nont ouent mno-
ro rpya conmecrno c cepcxnm enncxonom ocn]eem ns Hnma na
noccoennennem ynnaron 3axapnarcxo Pycn c npanocnanno nepxontm.
Hacrtpcxym exrentnocrt npoonxan on o 1940 r., xora ymen na
nencnm n nepecennncx n uepnonnt, re c 1944 no 1953 rr. sannman on-
xnocrt yxonnnxa Cnxro-Bneencxoro xencxoro monacrtpx.
B nocnenne rot xnsnn sannmancx nayuntm rpyom. Ha ocnonannn
copannoro oraroro marepnana no ncropnn Fyxonnncxo npanocnanno
enapxnn cocrannn rpy, xoropt xer cnoero noxnnennx n cner.
Vnoxonncx n uepnonnax 25 nmnx 1960 r. n ram xe noxoponen 28 nmnx
1960 r. npn yuacrnn mnornx rtcxu nounrarene.
Hcmo:uur: Cnoonoe cnono Kapnarcxo Pycn. N 3-4. 1969. Newark, N.J. USA.
Ennan PYCL
http://www.edrus.org
Car cosan n 1999 r. nx npornnocroxnnx cranme
o]nnnantno nannonanncrnuecxo nepcnn ncropnn na
Vxpanne. Coepxnr marepnant no ncropnn yxpanncxoro
pacxona, cosannx "mont" n ronenn na omepyccxn xstx,
pasmtmnennx o xyntrype n reononnrnxe, anannrnuecxne crartn
n apxnnnte oxymenrt.
Ha care moxno narn xnaccnxy nonemnxn c yxpanno]nnamn
(H. Vntxnon, H. Bonxoncxn, xnxst Tpyenxo n p.) n
conpemenntx xpnrnxon yxpanncxo nen (C. Cnopenxo).
95

POMAH EHHCOBHH MHPOBHH
(1892-1971)
P.. Mnponnu ponncx n c. Bonunmo-
nnun Htnoncxo onacrn. Vunncx n
nontcxnx rnmnasnxx n Cxnoxe n Camo-
pe. Rpnnuecxn ]axyntrer c nnno-
mom oxropa oxonunn no Htnoncxom
ynnnepcnrere. Ftn unenom cryenuec-
xoro omecrna pyr n Cranponnrno-
na. Hocne pasnana Ancrpo-Benrpnn or-
xptn anoxarcxym xonropy n Hepe-
mtmne, re npnnnman yuacrne n ome-
crnenno xnsnn ropoa n oxpecrnocre.
B 1946 r. ns-sa ocrannennx Hepemtmnx
no nnacrtm Hontmn nepecennncx no
Htnon, nepemennn npo]eccnm na n-
nnorexapx-nnnorpa]a.
Mnoro npemenn nocnxrnn nnnorpa-
]nuecxnm postcxam no xapnaropyccxo
maprnponornn n Hepnym mnponym no-
ny, n nnoom +roro xponornnnoro rpya cran An]annrnt yxasarent
xeprn ancrpo-matxpcxoro reppopa na Iannnxo n Fyxonnncxo Pycn n
Hepnym mnponym nony, c norpa]nuecxnmn anntmn (1954-1960), c
ononnennxmn (1961-1970) n c napannentntm ronorpa]nuecxnm yxasa-
renem +rnx xeprn (n pyxonncn). Hs naneuaranntx paor ormernm cne-
ymmne: B copox uerneprym roonmnny Hepemtmntcxo rparenn
(1958); Eme o eccmennom uaconom, nonncano Hepemtmnxnnn
(1962); Vxasarent x Tanepro]cxomy Antmanaxy, ntn. I-IV (1964);
Ftnaer y xnnr cnox cyta (1964); Bacnnn Pomanonnu Banpnx
(K 75-nernm co nx poxennx) (1964); Fnnnorpa]nx Tanepro]a
(1966); B.P. Banpnx - xapnaropyccxn npocnernrent (K 80-nernm co
nx poxennx) (1969). Kpome roro, P.. Mnponnu coecrnonan co-
pannm n opaorxe marepnanon nencxoro nonnrnuecxoro nponecca npo-
rnn -pa K.. Forartpna n ron. o rocyapcrnenno nsmene yuacrnnxom
+roro nponecca -pom H.A. Anpexo.
Humepamvpa: B.P. Baepur. K 75-nernm P.. Mnponnua (1967).
Hcmo:uur: Baepur B.P. Kparxn ouepx rannno-pyccxo nnctmenno-
crn. Hynen, 1973. C. 70.
96
2009, N 1 (15)
Cepren Hoaap
3HAMEHHTLH PEIEHT H KOMHO3HTOP
H3 POA BECCAPABCKHX PYCHHOB
Cnpocnre ceronx nmoro +pynra, xro
raxo Ipnropn Htnoncxn, n npasymnrent-
nt orner nt npx nn cpasy nonyunre. Hmx
+ro nsnecrno rontxo ouent ysxomy xpyry cne-
nnanncron no ncropnn pyccxo nepxnn, xoro-
pax nx ontmnncrna ns nac o cnx nop ecnn
ne rana sa cemtm neuarxmn, ro nonpoc a-
nexo ne nepnocrenenno naxnocrn.
Mexy rem, no nropo nononnne XIX n.,
xora npanocnanne ecrnnrentno xnnxnoct
uacrtm xnsnn pyccxnx nme, o Htnoncxom
mnoro ronopnnn n nncann. On cntn ]nrypo
cront xe snaunrentno nx ncxyccrna, xax
ero conpemennnxn ns Moryue xyuxn nnn,
cxaxem, partx Pynnmrent. Tontxo npe-
crannxn concem nnym yxonnym ee onacrt.
Ero anropnrer nepnoxnaccnoro xoponoro npnxepa ocrnr n Cenep-
no Hantmnpe nenpepexaemocrn, a mystxa cunranact opasnono cpe-
n crpornx xyntrontx xanpon. Ho mnennm xypnana Xoponoe n perenr-
cxoe eno sa 1910 r., axe rora, cnycrx 11 ner nocne cnoe xonunnt,
Htnoncxn no crenenn ynorpenrentnocrn counnenn n nepxnxx nxo-
nr n mecrepxy neymnx anropon, napxy c . Foprnxncxnm, A. Htno-
ntm, H. Typuannnontm, A. Apxanrentcxnm n H. uaxoncxnm
1
. A net
peut ner o nepnoe nanntcmero pacnnera pyccxo xyntrono mystxn,
xora noxnnnoct n mnoro nontx xpxnx nmen, n ornocnrentnax cnooa
ecrnn n pamxax nexamn ycroxnmnxcx xanonon
2
.
Xnrenxm Monannn yer ocoenno npnxrno ysnart, uro repo an-
ntx samerox ynnen cner n ntpoc na name mepo n naroarno nx
mystxn semne, xoropym on orornopnn. uro nmenno sect nauan pac-
xptnartcx ero rananr, nonpemx sameuennt n cronnne.
Htnoncxn ponncx 25 xnnapx 1830 r. n crapnnnom nocenxe Hentxoy
Feccapacxo ryepnnn, neanexo or Oxnnnt. Mecreuxo +ro, paspoc-
meecx o ontmoro cena Henx+ynt (Henxonnt) Copoxcxoro yesa, cra-
97

no pacrn eme npn ero xnsnn. Ho cnonam mecrntx xnrene, Htnoncxn
nnaen ram nmennem n semnxmn, ro nn nonyunn nx n ap or napx, ro nn
xynnn na cocrnennte cepexennx. Bet na cxnone ner on cran nnuno-
crtm ne rontxo nsnecrno, no n cocroxrentno.
Ho nannonantnocrn Ipnropn ueoponnu tn pyccxnm, rounee, py-
cnnom, xoropte nspenne onrann n semnnx xpaxx. Oren ero paoran
nepxonntm nenunm. Kax n mart, on ornnuancx naoxnocrtm n n yx-
nantnom cmtcne c nenenox pan ctnnmxy c coo n xpam, re ror
npouno ocnonn nepxonnoe nenne n urenne. Ornpannn ero na yuey n ry-
epncxn nenrp, ponrenn paccunrtnann npexe ncero art emy xopo-
mee reonornuecxoe opasonanne. Ipnropn xe cymen coennnrt nx meu-
rt c cocrnenntmn npnpontmn anntmn ormenntm ronocom n cny-
xom.
B Knmnnencxo cemnnapnn mnoma ocoenno nnrencnnno sannmaercx
mystxo, c yonontcrnnem noer n xope. A norom nepenpaercx n Canxr-
Herepypr, re n 1854 r. saxanunnaer perenrcxne xnacct Hpnnopno
nenuecxo xanennt. Fnaroapx npnnnnernponannomy nonoxennm, an-
noe yuenoe saneenne conpano no nce Pycn nyumnx nennon. Tyr pa-
orann ntammncx xopmecrep Ianpnnn Homaxnn n anrop rocyap-
crnennoro rnmna Poccnn Foxe, napx xpann! Anexcanp Htnon, nos-
rnannxnmn xanenny, pyrne nsnecrnte nearorn
3
.
Kora n 1858 r. ncntrtnannct axycrnuecxne nosmoxnocrn neanno
nosneennoro Hcaaxnencxoro coopa, Hpnnopnax xanenna crana ocno-
no cnonoro rtcxunoro xopa. Ho nx nonoro xpama rpeonancx cno
cranntnt nenuecxn ancamnt. Tora-ro Htnon n ncnomnnn o cnoem
rananrnnnom ntnycxnnxe n nourn ono]amnntne ns anexo Feccapa-
nn, xoropt na nporxxennn pxa ner ycnen xpxo npoxnnrt cex n on-
xnocrn perenra Knmnnencxoro apxnepecxoro xopa. Hmenno emy
onepnnn xomnnexronanne nonoro cronnunoro xonnexrnna, npenparnn-
merocx ncxope n onn ns nyumnx cpen cee noontx no nce nennxo
epxane. He spx crporn M.Fanaxnpen n nnctme x H.Pnmcxomy-Kopca-
xony or 4 mapra 1882 r. nastnaer Htnoncxoro nectma opasonanntm
mystxanrom
4
.
Honoxenne n mrar xopa Ka]epantnoro Hcaaxnencxoro coopa tnn
yrnepxent 15 noxpx 1858 r. B nero nomno 50 uenonex: 18 ncxanron,
8 renopon, no 12 antron n acon. (Xencxne ronoca, xcrarn, n nepxont ne
onycxannct nonce; nnepnte n mnpono npaxrnxe onn noxnnnnct ram
naroapx cmenocrn n ycnnnxm pyroro namero cooreuecrnennnxa,
manopocca Ianpnnna Mysnuenxo, nsnecrnoro no ncenonnmom Mysn-
uecxy, n poccnxnnna A. Apxanrentcxoro
5
). Bmecre co Htnoncxnm n cnyx-
e yuacrnonann ero nomomnnxn Hononnnxnn, Hecxon, Mancypon, Ctp-
ynon n Hannon, npnxnponanmne na xnnpoce. Hs-sa nocroxnno sanx-
rocrn n orocnyxennxx c xonnepramn xop ntcrynaer pexo, n ro nnmt n
98
2009, N 1 (15)
rax nastnaemom Hepxonno-Henuecxom Fnaroponom Omecrne. Penep-
ryap ero crpor n orpannuen, ncxxne nonannn npecexannct mpoxparn-
uecxo amnnncrpanne na xopnm. Hsnecrnt xpnrnx I. Hapom nncan
rora: Hamn nepxonnte xomnosnropt npamannct n camo recno c]e-
pe otuno pyrnnt; opasonanne nx tno camoe enoe
6
.
Taxne ycnonnx ne crann rnopuecxnm ropmosom nx ma+crpo, ynpan-
nxnmero xopom c momenra ero ocnonannx n nourn o camo cnoe xon-
unnt. On ymypxncx nomart saxocrenente rpannnn xax ]opmantno,
ncxnmuax opxonte necnonennx nentcoxoro xyoxecrnennoro ocro-
nncrna, rax n nsnyrpn n cocrnenntx mnorouncnenntx onycax
7
. Ha-
npnmep, n cnonx nponsneennxx, ocnonanntx na pennnx onxontx
menonxx, on cmeno npnmenxer nmnrannn, nonn]onnuecxne couerannx
nnxnnx ronocon c nepxnnmn. Ho xapaxrepncrnxe conpemennnxon, onn
ornnuamrcx ouent yauntm crnnem
8
.
O cnoem noxoe x rapmonnsannn pacnenon cam I. Htnoncxn nncan
rax: Hamn rnaconte n pyrne pennne nepxonnte necnonennx nmemr n
cnoem ocnonannn ne omemystxantnte rammt (maxopnte n mnnop-
nte), a pennne rpeuecxne nat nnn pennne ronantnocrn; rapmonnsa-
nnx +rnx menon no omemystxantntm npannnam xorx n nosmoxna, no
npn conmennn osnauenntx npannn menonx no neoxonmocrn onx-
na repnert nsmenennx n repxrt cno ecrecrnennt xapaxrep, - nouemy
n rapmonnuecxoe conponoxenne pennnx necnonenn, nnny xenannx
coxpannrt nx n nenocrn n nenpnxocnonennocrn, no moemy xpanemy pa-
symennm, onxno conepmartcx npn nntx ycnonnxx. 3naxomcrno c pen-
nnmn ronantnocrxmn sacrannno menx uacro n noonry nymtnartcx n
cnocrno n xapaxrep namnx nepxonntx necnonenn n naneno menx na
mtcnt npnmennrt x nx rapmonnsannn npannna crpororo crnnx. annte
nen nepennmamrcx c npnnnnnamn, nsnoxenntmn A. Htnontm n I. My-
snuecxy n nx paorax O cnoonom, nnn necnmmerpnunom pnrme.
B nepxonno mystxe, snyuame n ocnonnom no npemx cnyxt, anrop-
crno oxnnxrt ne npnnxro. Ho+romy-ro mt n ne oratnaemcx, uro
mnoroe ns nexamn coxpannnmerocx n ne nanncano nno nepepaorano
Htnoncxnm. o cnx nop na cnerntx npasnnxax Cnxro Hacxn n Pox-
ecrna Xpncrona npnxoxan paymr ero xomnosnnnn Ha pexax Bann-
noncxnx n Xnannre Hmx Iocnone, Cam Enn ecrt n Tee ora-
mmerocx, Htne cnnt n Hpee cent saxonnax, Fnaxen myx n
npoune ncanmt n necnonennx.
Hopaxaer paorocnoconocrt n aprncrnuecxax ntnocnnnocrt Ipn-
ropnx ueoponnua, ero ornercrnennocrt n ymenne necrn cpasy necxontxo
camocroxrentntx en, anexo ne ncera conpnxacammnxcx pyr c py-
rom. ocrarouno cxasart, uro c 1858 no 1894 r., ro ecrt nect nepno
paort n Hcaaxnencxom coope, on sannmaer pyro, eme onee ntco-
xn n ornercrnennt nocr. On cronr y pynx Mnrponontnutero xopa
99

Anexcanpo-Hencxo Hanpt xonnexrnna ns 100 ornnuntx nennon,
naxonnmnxcx ncera na nny n npnnnmanmero yuacrne n camtx nax-
ntx meponpnxrnxx yxonno xnsnn crpant. 3auacrym +ror opasno-
nt xop anan cocrnennte neuepa npn orpomnom creuennn nynnxn.
Ero a]nmn oxnartnann nect ncropnuecxn nepno or craptx nrantxn-
cxnx n nnepnancxnx macrepon o conpemenntx nanpannenn
9
.
Cran necomo ]nrypo n poccncxo xyntrype, Htnoncxn crpemnr-
cx nomout cnonm semnxxam, yt ro npocrte onocentuane nno ypo-
xenen mxnoeccapacxoro Hsmanna monoo Mysnuecxy. B norpa-
]nn nocnenero, xcrarn, ecrt nepasraannax rana, cnxsannax c ero
npnrnamennem na onxnocrt perenra n Hcaaxnencxn coop. a, My-
snuecxy ornnuno yunrcx n Herepyprcxo xoncepnaropnn n Hpnnop-
no nenuecxo xanenne, nonyunn n 1872 r. ononpemenno na nnnoma
camtx npecrnxntx mystxantntx nyson crpant. 3ro npana, ero ycep-
ne n npnnexanne sameuaer xoncepnaropcxax npo]eccypa no rnane c
npexropom, ypoxennem Hpnnecrpontx Anronom Pynnmrenom; no
pacnopxxennm camoro napx Anexcanpa III on noompen crnnenne.
Ho pasne n Cenepno cronnne mano cnonx rananron, urot ne opa-
martcx x manoontrnomy xopmecrepy co cropont? Bepoxrno, cront
necrnoe npenoxenne nocneonano ne es yuacrnx Htnoncxoro, xoropo-
my nce-raxn rpyno tno cnert cpasy na nyx cryntxx, ro nmt cro-
xrt nepe nymx xpynntmn xopamn cpasy. Xenax narn ocronoro npe-
emnnxa, on npoxnnxer nnnmanne n cyte semnxxa. Onaxo ror npeno-
uen nepnyrtcx na ponny, re cran nonnmart ncxyccrno na nonym, ne-
nnannym o roro ntcory
10
.
Btx n orcranxy, Htnoncxn nosnpamaercx n cnoe eccapacxoe
nmenne, xoropoe npexe ne uacro naneman. 3ect on ncxope ymep, sect
n noxoponen, xorx mornny ero narn rax n ne yanoct.
3a nocnenne 90 ner o Htnoncxom ne noxnnnoct nn ono xnnrn, nn
ono nayuno crartn. Tontxo n connno mecrnromno Mystxantno
+nnnxnonenn ecrt npnnoxenne c necxontxnmn crpouxamn o nem
11
. B
ero xnsnn ontme nonpocon, uem orneron. o neannero npemenn ne
tna naena axe ]ororpa]nx Ipnropnx ueoponnua. Onaxo myst-
xa ero nonnoxponno xnner n npanocnanntx xpamax, nce uame ntptna-
xct na ]nnapmonnuecxne nomocrxn.
3aro na ponne snamennroro perenra nanpaer cnny ]ecrnnant y-
xonno mystxn, oemammn crart rpannnonntm. Tpn roa nasa on
npomen n Henx+ynt, a npomntm nerom n nnsnexamem Kanapamcxom
xencxom Cnxro-Vcnencxom monacrtpe, pacnonoxennom n noncrnne pa-
cxom yronxe npnpot: n necy, na epery xnnonncnoro necrpa, cpen
rpex nenentx ponnxon.
Oprannsonannt no nnnnnarnne Hannonantnoro nenrpa naponoro
rnopuecrna no rnane c Rcrnno Cxapnar npn noepxxe anropa an-
100
2009, N 1 (15)
ntx crpox, +ror npasnnx copan px xpenxnx camoexrentntx xonnex-
rnnon cenepa Monont. pxo npoxnnnn cex xamepnte xopt ns on-
mman (pyxononrent H. Herpy) n Agapis ns Fpnuan (C. Mapuyx),
centcxne xoponte ancamnn ns Ipnn+ynt (B.Iatma), Roua
trandafirului ns 3+nxant (B. Kxypy), Lencnteanca ns Henx+ynt
(H. Mepeyn+). Ho ocoenno sanomnnnoct ntcrynnenne monacrtpcxo
noxantno rpynnt (A. Kapnonnu)
12
.
Hapxy c xanonnuecxo n conpemenno xyntrono mystxo sect
mepo snyuann eccmeprnte necnonennx Ipnropnx Htnoncxoro, o xns-
nn n rnopuecrne xoroporo nonean npnxoxanam n rocrxm anrop anntx
crpox. Ocoax naroart cnycrnnact n ror ent na cnxrym onrent,
cnococrnyx ycnexy raxoro naxnoro nx name xyntrypt naunnannx.
Xouercx nepnrt, uro annt ]ecrnnant craner nauanom nospoxe-
nnx nmenn +roro cnannoro perenra n xomnosnropa, xem nnpane ropnrt-
cx ne rontxo Poccnx, no n Monona.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Xoponoe n perenrcxoe eno. CH., 1910. C. 102.
2. H.iuu B. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxo xopono xyntrypt nropo nononnnt
XVII nauana XX nexa. M.: Conercxn xomnosnrop, 1985. C. 76-131.
3. Mema..oe B. Ouepxn ncropnn npanocnannoro nepxonnoro nennx n Poccnn.
M, 1915.
4. Hepenncxa M.A. Fanaxnpena c H.A. Pnmcxnm-Kopcaxontm (1862-1898) //
Mystxantnt conpemennnx. 1916. N 4. C. 56.
5. Horap C. Hnryprnx I. Mysnuecxy: cnxst npemen n xyntryp // Conercxax
mystxa, 1991. N 11.
6. Hapou I. Mystxantnte nanmennx // Conpemennax neronnct. 1880. N 36.
19 oxrxpx. C. 8.
7. He.uooe K. I.u. Htnoncxn xax yxonnt xomnosnrop. Pyccxax mystxant-
nax rasera. 1899, NN 41, 45, 46.
8. Xoponoe n perenrcxoe eno. Hnr. ns.
9. Horap C. Perenr Hcaaxnencxoro coopa: satrte snamennrocrn Monont
// Kommynncr. 2007. N 15. 20 anpenx. C.16.
10. Horap C. Bce cymee on nouepnnyn n Poccnn // Kopt. Monona nnrepa-
rypnax. 1997. N11-12.
11. Mystxantnax +nnnxnonenx. T. VI. M.: Conercxax +nnnxnonenx, 1982. Cr.
825.
12. Horap C. Hs Henx+ynt n Herepypr // Monona. Honax cepnx. 2008.
N 7-8.
101

Mnxanno mEHCA
TEHEHHH PO3BOK HOPMOBAHR
PYCKOIO R3HKA
BOHBORHCKHX PYCHAHOX*
Ha repnropnm ncmxame Bononnn/Cepn Pycnann me npncencnn
npe 264 poxamn sos cnneponocrounnx xynannox renmnc Iacypr-
cxe monapxn, yrnannnm sos 3emnnnny, Bapnmy n Fopmoy. Cnono y
cymnocnn o mnrpann sos Iopnx uacnox o onnx uacnox y pamn-
xox ncre, ynme epxann.
Xe Pycnann npnnccnn sos coy rpannnm, npocnnry n yxonnocn mne-
oun n ]axr xe yx o acxento poxn o npncencnx ocnonann mxonn (y
Kepecrype 1753. poxy, a y Konype 1765. poxy). Fynn ro nepxonnn (xon]e-
cnnn) mxonn, raxn. rpnnnxnxn y xropnx me na pycxe emen, nonpn
nnponayxn, yueno unran, nncan n paxonan. Hepxna y rnm nepnose yna
cnnn ]axrop ouynanx xsnxa n, noome, mnpenx opasonanx n xynrypn.
3 ornxom xe me y nepxnn xon]ecnonanne nncnauonano sos napo-
nnm n xynrypno-npocnnrnnm, nona soyna yrnx uynapa naponoro ccrna
n onpnnccna xe n me y uyncrny napoa npnnanocn rpexoxaronnxe
nnpn nenrn]nxonana sos npnnanocny nannonanne sacnnn (Xopnax,
2006, 35).
Houarox nnreparypno-ymernnxe rnopuocnn na xsnxy mrocnanxncxnx
Pycnanox nxxe me sa 1904. pox, xe mnan Ianpnn Kocrentnnx crnopen
nepmn noernunn sopnx na pycxnm xsnxy 3 +ooeo eauaua. Ho
nnxosenm sopnxa 3 mooro nanana Kocrentnnx ynanpxmen cnoo
nnrepeconanc na npeyuonanc saxonrocnox pycxoro xsnxa, na rncanc
onnrymnoro nncma n oprorpa]nunnx npannnox, na yrnepsonanc
]onernunnx n rpamarnunnx saxonox, na nnop raxoro nexcnunoro ]ona
sos xorpnm n ]onernunn n rnopenn ]opmn cnonox onnronann yxy
pycxoro xsnxa
1
. Hpnnnnnn pycxoro xsnxa o xropnx omon Ianpnn Ko-
crentnnx xon]nxonan y Ipa+amuuu aueauocuo-pycue eueu.
Ho Anexcanponn ynnuenxonn, pycxn xsnx o nnxosenx Kocrentnnxo-
ne Ipa+amuuu ocrana nononny nanocn n]epennnxnnnx xapax-
* Toma poooma :umaua ua Meosuuapoouu+ cu+nosum+v C.aeucru suru u
rv.mvpu v cv:acuu+ ueee 25. +apa 2009. porv ua Mocroecru+ oepraeuu+
vuueepsumemv Ho+ouocoe.
102
2007, N 1 (7)
repncrnxox nnreparypnoro xsnxa: nopmonanocn (ncnonanc opoene ]op-
mn n cnnomn nnop xsnxonnx ]opmox n cnnxox) n oma oonxsxonocn
sa mnnxnx unenox sacnnn: xacnonan sanponasenn nopmn, no yn c
nnnt; ]ynxnnononanc y pyxrnennx, rou n orpanuennx, c]epox (mxona,
nnreparypno-ymernnxa rnopuocn n r..), ncnonanc nncmenocnn (xorpa
yx, npana, mana cnom ncropnm) n nnme (ynnuenxo, 2009: 228). Ipa-
+amuua nyro crana y pyxonncy n nnpyxonana c ax 1923. poxy y
Cpnmcxnx Kapnonnox.
Kocrentnnxona Ipa+amuua me cocro sos mecnox uacnox. Hepma
uacn onanx noarxn o pycxe asyxn n rnacox y pycxnm xsnxy; ry
anannsonann acnn ]onernunn saxonn, sencnc cnonox na cxnan, axnenr.
V pyre uacnn Kocrentnnx ana nexcnuno-cemanrnuny anannsy pycxoro
xsnunoro marepnxny n rnopenc cnonox. Tpena uacn ro mop]onornx mnn-
xnx npemennnnx ]arox cnonox, a y mrnapre uacnn opoenn
ncnpemennnn ]arn cnonox. Hnxra uacn onanx cnnraxcy npocroro n
snoxenoro nnpeuenx, a mecra uacn xoexc npanonncnnx npannnox.
Poory na nopmonanm n npeyuonanm manepnncxoro xsnxa, xorpy
posnouan Kocrentnnx, ycnnmno npenyxenn nome pycxn nnnrnncrn:
Ianpnn Hat n Mnxona M. Kounm, onnome nearorone n nncarenc.
Iou mesn nma ncnym nentxn posnnxn, nonn me na cen cnoco
ononnmm. Hanncann ncre uncno poorox sos nnnrnncrnxn no 34, anc
Kounm oxpem crarox ma n 9 xnxxn, n mnnxo roro nanncan sa ncm 10
poxn, a Hat nncan nonnn 50 poxn, anc ncm crar, rax xe me nane oro
nynnxonane nnnrnncrnune namncrno smecneno o cne xnxxn (Bu-
ureucmuuuu cmam u posnpaeu, 1983)
2
.
Hax nnrepeconann yrnannnm nponemn s oprorpa]n, mop]onorn n
nexcnxonorn. Ho me ornxa poorox s oprorpa]n, Hat snnuano
nnrepnperyc Kocrentnnxono npnnnnnn, anc nx n pospomc, posnnna,
yconepmyc.
Hasnoxenmn nnranx sos oprorpa]n Hat pospnmen no pyre
mnerone nonn (o 1945. no 70-n poxn XX nnxy). Horo nancnma poora
y re onacnn ro crarx 3 namoro npanonncy sos 1950. poxy. V crar
ncr reopnnn noomonanx, anc nopono namoponann npnxnan, no sa
renmn ycnonnx nno n nancoxoncme. Moxe poorn Hax cxpomnn
no ocxry, anc me nen oro cyrecrn n samepxonanx nornepsenn y npax-
cn n non an nentxe onpnnomenc xe n me pycxn xsnx nnsnnrnyn na
yponent ope nopmonannx n posnnrnx cnanxncxnx nnreparypnnx xsnxox.
uaxrnuno o pyre mnerone nonn ra ax no nononxy 60-nx poxox XX
nnxy oxpem Hax n oro xparxnx crarox o aps xonxpernnx xsnxonnx
nponemox, nc yno ]axonnox xorpn n npeyuonann xsnx.
Mnxona M. Kounm me sos cnom na`snnuannm rananrom sxnen npane
ren xe yn nanorpencmn. Bon yn cnnomn xe rpea xon]nxonan
103

mnnxo no ocrano ncononesene n, ncno s nopmamn xorpn crnopenn
sexymnn Kocrentnnxonn, ]opmonan nopmarnnny cncremy sa mxoncxn
norpen, a nosncme nx npemnpnn n na pyrn c]epn y xorpnx me
nnreparypnn xsnx xacnyc. Tax o 1965. no 1968. pox nnmnn rpn oro
rpamarnxn no cny nasny Mauepuucuu asuu, y xorpnx nc yn ncm
mxoncxn marepnxn, anc pnmonann n naxnn nopmarnnnn nnranx. Posymn
me xe ro nc yno neanne pnmenc, anc rnanne yno nopoene crnopena
nopmarnnna cncrema. Oxpeme snauna nox sa pycnnncrnxy ro pyxonanc
nepmoro Hpaeonuca pycuoeo asuua 1971. poxy, xorpn nnmon nosa
pamnxn mxonn n nocran nc ncm yuenx, anc n paronnnn npnpyunx y
mnnxnx c]epox se me pycxn xsnx xacnyc. Koncuno yrnepsene xe
ocnonnn npnnnnn pycxoro npanonncy mop]onornno-]onernunn, rou rora
pyra uacn ma menmy ynory.
Kounm xaan nnrnopnn n nentxy rpamarnxy pycxoro xsnxa, anc my
me nc yano saxonunn m. Pyxonnc, rou n ncoxonuenn, oxnenn xx Ipa-
+amuua pycuoeo asuua. Ipamarnxa nnpyxonana nocrrymno 1974. poxy.
Bentxy rpamarnxy pycxoro xsnxa nocnnmeno me saxonunn npo]. p.
Rnnxnonn Pamauonn (2002). x narnamyc cam anrop, nona rpea xe n
nocnyxena xx mxonxpom n cryenrom, rax n npenoanauom n mnnxnm
pyrnm xynrypnnm poornxom. Ipa+amuua pycuoeo asuua me cocro
sos mecnox uacnox: ]onernxn, mop]onorn, cnnraxcn, nexcnxonorn,
ncropnne rpamarnxn n uacnn o namnm naponnm n nnreparypnnm xsn-
xy. Tpea narnamnn xe Pamau no nepmn pas erantno opoen cnnrax-
cy, nexcnxonornm, ncropnny rpamarnxy pycxoro xsnxa n crnnncrnxy.
Hpo]ecop Pamau nynnxonan xono 100 poorn sos nnnrnncrnxn, o
roro xono 15 xnxxn. 3 re naron cnomncme naxnemn s nx: Hpau-
muuua cmuuucmuua
3
, Hpu+euoeuuuu uoucmpyuuu y pycuu+ uu-
mepamypuu+ jasuuy
4
, Pycua ueucuua
5
, 0paseououuu peuuuu:
cpncuoxpeamcuo-pycuucuu
6
.
Oxpeme snauna nox y pycnnncrnxn ro pyxonanc Cepcuo-pycuoeo
cuoeuua, xorpomy rnannn peaxrop p Rnnxn Pamau, a peaxrope mp
Mnxano ueca n mp Ienena Mecmn (I rom nnmon 1995; II rom 1997.
poxy). o Cepcuo-pycuoeo cuoeuua yncmenn n menmn npanonncnn
nnnpanxn, anc opesene uncno npanonncnnx nponemox xropn pycxa
nannonanna sacnna ma norpey pnmnn nc pospnmenn.
pyxrno sa pycxn xsnx, nnreparypy n xynrypy nopymonano nnnnnxrn-
ny sa nonnm npanonncom na acxento sanon, anc xonxpernn pesynrarn
nc yno.
uyncrnymnn norpey pycxe nannonanne sacnnn sa ocyuacncnnm
npanonncom, npo]. p Mnxano ueca xonnnnonan xonxpernn npocxr n
ynanpxmen axrnnnocnn pycxnx ]axonnox na nepmy ]asy, r. c. na nynn-
xonanc npanonncnoro cnonnxa. Hepmn n no ncmxa cnnn npanonncnn
104
2007, N 1 (7)
cnonnx oxnenn y pamnxox Hpaeonuca pycuoeo asuua Mnxonn M.
Kounma (o 81. no 156. ox), xropn y nexy npemnnx 38 poxox y senoc-
nnx cermenrox npenosnsenn. Hpocxr npo]ecop uecn me, s cnoro oxy,
cocro y ocyuacntonanm rexcra cxopo mrnpnenennnoro npanonncnoro
cnonnxa, anc n y ynomenm xopexnnox, r. c. y pnmonanm narpomasennx
npanonncnnx nponemox.
Torn nponemn, xropn y cymnocnn npecranxm snaunn ncycorname-
nocnn n ncononesenocnn, mox rpynonan o rpox nanocnox:
1. sanponasonanc ]ononornnoro ao mop]onornnoro npnnnnny;
2. nxnexrnsonanc pycxoro xsnxa nponasene sos nysnma pnmenxmn;
3. npncryn ry crpancxnm cnonom.
Hepma rpyna nponemox nnxosn sos mesnonomenx mop]onornno-
ro n ]onernunoro npnnnnna nncanx cnonox, r. c. o omnnonanx ynnna
ernmonorn ao oproenn na oprorpa]nm. V Vnonnm cnone Hpaeonu-
ca pycuoeo asuua Mnxona M. Kounm nnme: Mop]onornnn npnnnnn
xorpn mame y ocnonn namoro nncanx opesyc xe nc sanncycme cnona
rax xx nx nnrnapxme, anc y nncanm nosnme paxynxy xx cnono nacrano
(Kounm, 1971, 3). Hpnxna xropn ana ro npe]nxconane cnono poscu-
nau (uc pocunau). x npnxnan xe nen cnona nnmeme n no ]onernu-
nnm npnnnnny anroponn cnyxa cnona muauuu n muaumeo (uc muauc-
uu, muaucmeo). Anexcanep . ynnuenxo xoncraryc mnymne: Kon-
cuno yno nonarnyre xe y ocnonn pycxoro npanonncy ncxn mop]ono-
rnno-]onernunn npnnnnn, npn unm me ynora ]onernunoro npnnnnna smen-
mana (ynnuenxo, 2009: 250).
Tax, nauanno, s cnoro (mop]onornnoro) oxy nc sasnauycme nncna-
uonanc xonconanrox no snonxocnn (ra nnmeme nanp. aua, uuxua n
r..) n npe]nxcn sarpnmycme y x ocnonne ]opmn (poscunau, npenua-
uuu), a, s pyroro (]onernunoro) oxy, oronanc, nanarannsannm n a-
nayr nnmeme rax xx cnona s rnma xsnunnma sxnenxmn uycme, es ornx-
y xe sme axen n cnnomn x ernmonorn. nnema un sanponasnn
]ononornnn un mop]onornnn npnnnnn y opesennx cnyuaox cnpnun-
nmc nocnx y nxsn sos nncantom nacamnpes cy]nxcox, npe]nxca s-
(y napnxnrox s-, c- n so-) n nonocnnx xonconanrox (nanp. essauouuu
un essuouu, cuapucmu un uapucmu, oeou un oeou). Hcnpennso-
nana mpncnxnnx ]onernunoro, onocno mop]onornnoro npnnnnny cnpn-
unnmc oananx n npn nncanm: euacuu un euauuu, neueuuu un ne-
ueuouu, xyoeuuu un xyoeuouu, uauuuu un uacuuu, cmopoue
un cmopouc n p.
pyra rpyna nponemox nnpocna sos mryunoro ypamnxononanx pyc-
xoro xsnxa. Tax nanp. npn Mnxononn M. Kounmonn naxosnme nentxe
uncno npanonncnnx (n nexcemnnx) pnmentox xropn s uacom pycxn xsnx,
r. c. oro emenxn nc npnnanenn n, nomnxono, opynenn. Hamaramnn
105

me pycxn xsnx nopnnn no yxpancxn, non my (nepmomy cnomnyromy)
osencn ynory nxnexra, xropn y onomenm na nnreparypnn (nn nnc-
mn), yxpancxn xsnx man nnxopnopnpan o cee roro no xromxa semxa,
y pyrnx connonnnrnncrnunnx ycnonnox, npnnanen. Cnopnn cnyua me
pospnmonann sos raxn. copy-paste nponeypy, onocno xe me nc sna-
no xx, ornopeno me npanonncnn cnonnx yxpancxoro xsnxa, ymemopona-
no me pnmenc n npocro me ro sanneno o npanonnca pycxoro xsnxa.
Anpnopno nnpann moen sa cranapnsonanc nnnpoyxonan, mesn nn-
mnma, n mnymnn, pnmenx: nonpn no+uuoeaua n +uuocuu y Cnonn-
xy n ncuyre nouaa; nonpn areuma n unumua ]anromcxn me sxnmc n
poseuuu; nonpn naxyuoua n naxououa n uuxuuua; nonpn oueua n
ouuuua; nonpn npueuseua n npu+apa; ncm mpae+a (nc n mpay+a);
npe]eponann uuoyu (xropn nxro s Pycnanox nc none) y onomenm na
uuoeu; oepexuo nnnarpa snauncme (rou c nanxom nyse pycxomy e-
menxonn) o ocmopoxuo, s ornxom xe my y opennn npexosn
nr. Ha ror cnoco me namarano pycxn xsnx mryuno sorannn sos
nexcnxonom xropn asonann na emen crpentoro Hannponx n oxon-
nnx onacnox (xropa y ocnonn yxpancxoro nnreparypnoro xsnxa), a nc na
pycxe/pycnncxe/nemxoncxe emen Kapnarcxoro apeana sos xrope
pycxn xsnx npnpono nnnexa. Hopmarnnnn pnmenx asonann na nonyx-
nynox (nexcnunnx, ]paseonornnnx, mop]onornnnx, cnnraxcnunnx n p.)
pyrnx pycnncxnx napnxnrox s Kapnarcxoro apeany mam ancxo nexmy
mancy saxnn. Hopmarnnne ncxycrno Pycnanox yxasano xe mncne npo-
nasenc nysnx nnreparypnnx nopmox moxe yn ax n xonrpanpoyxrnn-
ne.
Tpena rpyna nponemox me ornxa npanonncnnx napnxnrox nexcemox
y xropnx yrnannnm nc oauycme snauncmn cemanrnunn posnnxn. Xa-
paxrepncrnuna c sa crpancxn cnona. Hpnxnan sa rory rpyny npone-
mox naxosnme n mesn npnxnaamn npexone rpynn (cnyua uuoyu
un uuoeu, ao mpae+a un mpay+a), no snaun xe ]anmnne ypamnxon-
onanc xsnxa moxe y snaune mnpn cnpnunnn sxnonanc ynerox ao
rpnxox. O noxnuxox xropn nnnonym opesenn npanonncnn oananx s
re naron cnomnme n: auruucuu/aueuucuu, rpauum/epaum, +o-
sauu/+osau, uoc+ouaym/uoc+ouaem, unumu/unuou, aueroma/
aueuoma, rpa+/epa+, eyuurau/xyuurau, uaysauuu/uaesauuu, uau-
euu/uaeuu, nuxa+a/nuxa+a, Pycua/Pocua n nen p. senocnn s
nanesennx napox ]opmonann s npexrnnm xonraxrom pycxoro n ornu-
noro crpancxoro xsnxa, a senocnn s nnnpexrnnm xonraxrom, npn unm
uacro oauycme n ynnn nocrpeymnoro xsnxa. 3 ornxom xe nauac-
reme nc ynoma nnpasncmn posnnxn y snauenm (rou n nonn oaunnn
nanp. y oumop n oxmop, uop n xop), mox nonecn, xe ynern npn nx
peynanrnn, r. c. nc ncoxonn.
106
2007, N 1 (7)
3a norpen nonoro npanonncnoro cnonnxa xropn y saxonuymne ]asn,
anrop rnx mopnxox me namara rpnman mnymnnx nox nanpxmxox:
1. xe opesena ]opma xnna, oma n yxnonena o pycxe cncremn,
rpeana n man n nopmarnnny npenocn;
2. xe cymecrnym napnxnrn-pennnxn crpancxnx cnonox, sos n es cnn-
omocnn o opnrnnany npn xacnonarentonn (no me, posymn me, nc mme
onomnn na nopmonarenx), nopma pennnxn n me rpeana ynanpxmonan
ry opnrnnanne ]opmn.
Cnnomn xomnnexcnocnn nponema, nnnrnncra-nopmonarent, a non n
rpean yn ror xropn nexnc o ornxy mnnxn penenanrnn ]axropn n
npecysn, mymn nosnn ynary n o uacy/uacox npnxosenx ornune
nexcemn, o parn/parox c npnxosenx, o c c]epn xacnonanx axen n
ncmxa, xx n o c ]pexnennn. Hnycrpyme ynnn rnx ]axropox sos acxe-
nma npnxnaamn. Ke aanrannx yrnepsena ]opmy easuau sa ncmen-
xe cnono Eisenbahn, nen ncr npnunnn xe n mesn rory ]opmy n nopmy
nc yn nonoxenn snax cnaxocnn. Tnx rax, mox mncono nnxnmunn
]opmy uoeo npero xe ]opma uayo n ome npnnanena (npana npe
ynnn cepcxoro xsnxa) n nsma c nnrnapxnm anrnncxoro cnona cowboy.
H ynern anrnncxnx cnonox baseball n hooligan n npe nme nexme
ynosnananc sos opnrnnannnma cnonamn n nomnxone xacnonanc rpeann
yn pospnmenn xx esou n eyuurau na paxynox eson n xynnran (n
nonpn rnm xe rorn pyrn ]opmonann no ynnnom xsnxa crpexy). Aan-
rannx mesnnaponnx n]ronrox xx nanp. au n eu n nc mmena yn no
xaxy neny ynn]nxonana s ornxom na ro xe cnona y xropnx cy npnxo-
senn nc y ncrn uac n nc aanronann cy y ncrnm xpyry xacnonarentox;
rax n ocrann aemo, eexapucmua n Eepona, a nc menxnn me xoc+oua-
ym, pey+a n eypeua.
Ho me ornxa npncryna ry nepmnm nom rpynom, nopmonarent me
yrnannnm ynanpxmn na snosenc ynerox na ncoxonn mnnnmym. To
me nacamnpes onomn na cnyua xe ]nrypym rpn ao mrnpn napnxn-
rn. Hanpnxna, ncr norpen n sa xnapray uuymuu, mnymmn, cuy-
muu n cuymuu, xe, mamnn y ornxse nncme nonesene, ocn uuy-
muu n enenryanno y yxonne c]epn cuymuu. Tnx rax, nc norpen
an sa rpnxy Hmauuauua, 1auuauua n Hmauuua (no Mnxona M.
Kounm npexnaa y Cnonnxy), xe ocn Hrannxnxa n, enenryanno y
emene c]epn 1auuauua.
ox me npn aanronanm nonnx crpancxnx cnonox nopmonarent ynan-
pxmyc apxe ry ]onercxomy npnnnnny, y, ycnonno nanonannm, spaxe-
nm mop]onornnoro n ]onercxoro npnnnnny npn xpnnonnx pycxnx cno-
nox non naronpnxnntncmn ry mop]onornnomy npnnnnny, oxpeme npn
nopmonanm mecra xonraxra ocnonn n cy]nxca/saxonuenc (nanp. essa-
uouuu, coeeus`c, nepxn. omue; earcuu, emuouoruuu, mpeuupau).
107

Hpn nncanm snoxennx npncnonnxox sos npnmenonnxom, xe snoxene
cnono nocrana cna axnenronana nanocn, nanpanenn xpoua ry nncanm
ncno (ao roncm oxaenn ynern s unm onymene n nncanc ncno n
oxpeme, s npe]eponantom nncanx ncno).
3nauna ynara nomnenena n nncanm sos cmyxxy (oxpeme y crpancxnx
snoxennx cnonox xe cnono ma na axnenrn n opeseny nansy mesn
xomnonenramn), xx n nopmonanm xacnonanx ]onrox n nnrepnynxnn (nra-
nnxa/xypsnna sa nacnonn nox a snaxn nanonxox sa nasnn crarox, os-
nauonanc nnrara y nnrary n p.).
3a anropa rnx mopnxox nnemn xono xacnonanx acrepncxa na raxn.
xonypcxnma emennma napnxnramn, no ycnonnom xe nx nornepsyc
xapnarcxn apean, ncr. Acrepncx, onocno napnntonanc uyncrna ncnpa-
nnnnocnn s nm nc yse npncyrne. To me rnx rax onomn n na rnx raxn.
xepecrypcxe o mpy. A yno n ax n ncnornune repas xe mame mox-
nnocnn uepnan n mon]nxonan senocnn npanonncnn pnmenx na xap-
narcxnm xpnny, cnomy euu npnmnnan ernxery ncrpamarnunocnn.
V cxnay s rnm ynern rnna uompu/xmopu, euu/uue, xoemu/xou-
mu, cmpeu/umpeu nc yy yraprnyrn.
V nxsn sos o]apenocny Hpaeonuca pycuoeo asuua, xropn nc
ncm xe ma uepnenn pamnxn, anc c oraro nnycrponann sos npnxnaamn
xropn nosnenuym xomynncrnunn nepno n nc ma snauncmy nnpcxy n-
mensnm, mox nonecn xe Hpaeonucuu cuoeuu pycuoeo asuua nncne-
pa xomnnrepnoncxy n yyyc xpncrnxncxy nmensnm. A pamnxn nc yy
uepnene ]apn.
o Hpanonncnoro cnonnxa nmenxx xe nose n snaunn ]on o-
pennox sos nn]opmarnxn, onocno xomnmrepncrnxn. Tax nanp. n o-
penna eapeep a nc xapeep (cnono eapeep y Hpaeonucy pycuoeo
asuua, xx an y noromnnm Cepcuo-pycuu+ cuoeuuy, an nc sacry-
nene npero xe y pycxnm xsnxy saxnno y ocrarnc enenn). 3axnaanc
sa napnxnry sos e noxosn o cnosnanx xe anrnncxe e y nnnnnxnnnm
nonoxenm nenrnune sos pycxnm xonconanrom e, a nc sos cepcxnm xon-
conanrom x, xropn, npana, y snaune mnpn ynnnyc na sxnonanc x.
Hoxpancxn cexperapnxr sa nayxy n rexnonornnn posno nepmn, a
nornm n Hoxpancxn cexperapnxr sa opasonanc n xynrypy, xx n Mnnn-
crepcrno xynrypn penynnxn Cepn npenosnann snaunocn Hpocxra n
norpnmann ro, no snaun xe oxnonanc Hpaeonucuoeo cuoeuua pyc-
uoeo asuua mox ouexonan xonnom 2009. poxa
7
.
AHTEPATYPA
v.u:euro A.ercauoep . (1995). Jugoslavo-Ruthenica I, HBV Pycxe cnono.
Honn Ca.
108
2007, N 1 (7)
v.u:euro, A.ercauoep . (1997). Bonoxncxn Pycnann n x xsnx: ncropnx,
craryc n nepcnexrnnn. Bnernocn. u. 3. HBV Pycxe cnono. Honn Ca. C. 131-136.
v.u:euro A.ercauoep . (2002). Knxxa o pycxnm xsnxy. HBV Pycxe cnono.
Honn Ca.
v.u:euro A.ercauoep . (2009). Jugoslavo-Ruthenica II, unnoso]cxn ]axyn-
rer - Osencnc sa pycnnncrnxy n HBV Pycxe cnono. Honn Ca.
Kocme.iuur Iaepu. (1973). Hposa. Pycxe cnono. Honn Ca.
Ko:uu Muro.a M. (1977). Ipamarnxa pycxoro xsnxa: uonernxa - mop]onornx
- nexcnxa, I. Hoxpancxn sano sa nnananc yuenxox. Honn Ca.
Ko:uu, Muro.a M. (1978). Hnnrnncrnunn poorn. Pycxe cnono. Honn Ca.
Haoi Iaepu. I. (1983). Hnnrnncrnunn crar n posnpann. Pycxe cnono. Honn
Ca.
Haoi Iaepu. I. (1988), Hpnnorn o ncropn pycxoro xsnxa. Pycxe cnono. Honn
Ca.
Pa+a: P., 4eca M. u Meocuu I. (1995, 1997). Cpncxo-pycnncxn peunnx /
Cepcxo-pycxn cnonnx. I-II. 3ano sa yuennxe n nacranna cpecrna, Vnnnep-
snrer y Honom Cay, unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Karepa sa pycnncxn jesnx n xnnxen-
nocr n pymrno sa pycnncxn jesnx n xnnxennocr. Feorpa-Honn Ca.
Pa+a: P.uu (2002). Ipamarnxa pycxoro xsnxa. 3ano sa yuennxe n nacranna
cpecrna. Feorpa.
Cvnpvu A.E. (1989). Bneenne n cnanxncxym ]nnonornm, Btm+max mxona.
Mnncx.
4eca Muxa.o (1990). Posnxosenx mesn noma rexcramn npnnonexn Xma-
pn Mnxana Konauax. Studia Ruthenica. u. 1. pyxrno sa pycxn xsnx n nnrepary-
py. Honn Ca. C. 5-26.
4eca Muxa.o (1995). Tpn xpnna nponemox y nopmonanm pycxoro xsnxa.
Bnernocn. C. 2-6, 150-160.
4eca Muxa.o (1992-1993). Pycxn - emea, nxnexr un xsnx. Studia Ruthenica.
N, 3. pyxrno sa pycxn xsnx n nnreparypy. Honn Ca C. 83-105.
4eca Muxa.o (1996). Konypnsmn n nopma y: Pycnann / Pycnnn 1745-1995.
Honn Ca. 3ano sa yuennxe n nacranna cpecrna. C. 95-115.
4eca Muxa.o (1997). Kapnarcxocn xonypnsmox y: 3opnx poorox sos III
xonrpeca Pycnnox/Pycnanox/ Hemxox, Pycxn Kepecryp: Pycxa marxa. C.155-168.
4eca Muxa.o (2000). Cnocon aanronanx/aanrnpanx/aanrnponanx ccno-
nox na cy]nxc -npa. Bnernocn. u. 1-2. HBV Pycxe cnono. Honn Ca. C. 72-84.
4eca Muxa.o (2001-2003). 30 poxn `Hpanonncy pycxoro xsnxa Mnxonn M.
Kounma. Studia Ruthenica. u. 8. pyxrno sa pycxn xsnx n nnreparypy. Honn Ca.
C. 25-29.
4efca Muxaf.o (2005). Bpeme n nn y pycnncxom n enrnecxom jesnxy. Hpome-
rej. Vnnnepsnrer y Honom Cay. unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, Ocex sa pycnncxn jesnx
n xnnxennocr. Honn Ca.
4eca Muxa.o (2005). Tpancxpnonanc anrnncxnx cnonox na pycxn xsnx.
Pycxe cnono. 05. anrycr 2005. HBV Pycxe cnono. Honn Ca. C. 8.
4eca Muxa.o (2006). 3 naron nynnxonanx xannrannoro rnopa pycxe nn-
nrnncrnxn. Eparo na Kynypom/Konypom, 9-10. pyxrno sa pycxn xsnx, nnrepa-
rypy n xynrypy. Honn Ca, Konyp. C. 41-42.
109

4eca Muxa.o (2006). Ocnonnn xapaxrepncrnxn pycxoro xsnxa y noponnanm
sos pyrnma cnanxncxnma xsnxamn // Cnanxncxne nnreparypnte mnxpoxstxn n
xstxonte xonraxrt. Taprycxn ynnnepcnrer, Ka]epa cnanxncxo ]nnonornn n
Bnecxax Koponencxax Axaemnx nnreparypt. Tapry. C. 90-100.
4eca Muxa.o (2007). Hnnrnncrnuna rnopuocn Ianpnna I. Hax. Ionmnax
unnoso]cxor ]axynrera y Honom Cay, xn. XXII, unnoso]cxn ]axynrer. Honn
Ca. C. 293-302.
4eca M., Meocuu I. (2007). Hpanonncnn nponemn pycxoro xsnxa y Bono-
nnn // Jazykova kultura a jazykova norma v rusinskom jazyku / stxona xynrypa i
xstxona nopma n pycnntcxim xstxy. Presovska univerzita v Presove, Ustav
regionalnych a narodnostnych studii, Presov. C. 59-65.
Xopnar Muxaf.o. Fauxo-cpemcxn Pycnnn y: Pycnnn /Pycnann / Ruthenians
(1745-2005). Hpomerej. Ocex sa pycnnncrnxy unnoso]cxor ]axynrera. KH OK.
Honn Ca. C. 23-73.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. To nornepsym n oro nncma nosnaromy ernorpa]onn n ]onxnopncronn B.
Inarmxonn o 1904. no 1909. pox n nncmo nnsnaunomy pycncxomy nnnrnncronn
A. Baxmarony 1904. poxy, y xorpnm my nnme o oxpemnnx ]onernunnx n rpama-
rnunnx sxnentox y pycxnm xsnxy (r n e, axnenr na npeocrarnm cxnay,
xapaxrepncrnunn cy]nxc -u y nn]nnnrnne, cexynapnn npnnaxono ]nexcn npn
acnnx menonnxox no ynnnom cepcxoro xsnxa ...).
2. Tpea, mesnrnm, narnamnn xe oro poora ma aps nentxe snauenc npero
xe Hat yn cnnn pycxn nnnrnncra y nepmnx nox nonononnx enennox n
mymen me cam opnn sa xsnx, a yno, mesn nnmnm, ax n npexnan xe n me
pycxe nncmo npemencno na cepcxy xnpnnxy. Iy romy, rpea nnsnaunn n ]axr xe
non posnouan nen poorn xropn rnopx nme cny xnxxy (Hpnnorn o ncropn
pycxoro xsnxa, 1988).
3. Pa+a: P.uu. Hpaxrnuna crnnncrnxa. Honn Ca: Pycxe cnono, 1996.
4. Pa+a: P.uu. Hpnmenonnnxn xoncrpyxnn y pycxnm nnreparypnnm xsn-
xy. Feorpa, 3ano sa yuennxe n nacranna cpecrna, 1998.
5. Pa+a: P.uu. Pycxa nexcnxa. Honn Ca: Vnnnepsnrer y Honnm Case, un-
noso]cxn ]axynrer, 1983.
6. Pa+a: P.uu. upaseonomxn peunnx: cpncxoxpnarcxo-pycnncxn. Honn Ca:
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer, 3ano sa nsanane yuennxa, 1987.
7. Pyxonnc Hpanonncnoro cnonnxa pycxoro xsnxa me rnx ntox naxosn na
cnoo]arone xnne posnpann y oprannsann Kynrypno-npocnnrnoro pyxrna
OK - Konyp.
110
2009, N 1 (15)
Pyccxnn napo, Pyccxnn unp n pyccxan
nnnnnnsannn: nc1opnn n conpeuennoc1t
20 mapra na
ncropnuecxom
]a x yn tr e r e
Canxr-Herep-
yprcxoro ro-
cyapcrnenno-
ro ynnnepcnre-
ra cocroxnoct
s a c e a n n e
xpyrnoro crona na remy Pyc-
cxnn napo, Pyccxnn unp n
pyccxan nnnnnnsannn: nc-
1opnn n conpeuennoc1t,
oprannsaropamn xoroporo ntcrynnnn nc1opnuecxnn qaxynt1e1
Canx1-He1epyprcxoro rocyapc1nennoro ynnnepcn1e1a, nnqop-
uannonnoe aren1c1no Pyccxan nnnnn n ueaynaponmn nc-
1opnuecxnn aypnan Pycnn (Knmnnen, Monannx). Beymnmn sa-
ceannx crann onenr Canxr-Herepyprcxo yxonno axaemnn n
CHIV, xannar ]nnonornuecxnx nayx naxon Bnanmnp Bacnnnx,
rnannt peaxrop HA Pyccxax nnnnx Anaronn Crenanon n xann-
ar ncropnuecxnx nayx, rnannt peaxrop xypnana Pycnn (Knmnnen)
Cepre Cynxx.
Orxptn saceanne xpyrnoro crona samecrnrent exana ncropnuec-
xoro ]axyntrera x.n.n. onenr Enrennn Me1enxnn. B cnoem npnner-
crnennom cnone on ormernn naxnocrt n axryantnocrt npononmo xon-
]epennnn. Hasnan cex uenonexom, ne cornacntm c rem, uro n nacnop-
re mt ceronx ne nmeem axe nosmoxnocrt ormernrt cnom nanno-
nantnocrt, E. Merenxnn npnsnan pyccxym nnrennnrennnm ne samanun-
nart nponemy pyccxocrn, npornnocroxrt ornynnxmmnm napo CMH
n, axe ecnn nac ceronx ne cntmar, npoonxart enart cnoe eno.
Bcne sa nnm nonpnnercrnonan yuacrnnxon xon]epennnn nacroxrent
Heymnncxoro nonoptx nporonepe Iennann Benononon. On orme-
rnn, uro saxnnennax rema xacaercx ncex es ncxnmuennx pyccxnx nm-
e. Bet nce mt, npanocnannte narpnort, xnnxemcx pyccxnmn nmt-
mn, nne sanncnmocrn or name nannonantnocrn, mt nce xnnem n mnpe,
xoropt mt nastnaem Pyccxnm mnpom, nouepxnyn on. Paccyxax
o rpannnax Pyccxoro mnpa, oren Iennan oparnn nnnmanne na mnoro-
111
,
snaunocrt cnona mnp, nmenmero o penonmnnn nonoe nanncanne.
Ho cnonom +up moxno nonnmart rpannnt npoxnnannx n nnyrpennee
cocroxnne ymn. Tax re xe rora naunnaercx Pyccxn mnp? Haunna-
ercx on c nnyrpennero cocroxnnx, a sarem operaer n nnemnee ntpa-
xenne, cxasan cnxmennnx. On raxxe oparnn nnnmanne na cosnyune
cnona mnp cnony mnpo, nanomnnn ncxonnoe coepxanne noronopxn,
cnmnonnsnpymme enncrno npanocnannoro pyccxoro napoa: Bce mt
onnm mnpom masant! Ho+romy mnp ncem! narocnonnn oren Ien-
nan yuacrnnxon xon]epennnn.
Btcrynnnmn c nepntm oxnaom .]nnoc.n. npo]eccop Herepypr-
cxoro ynnnepcnrera Anexcanp Kasnn nocnxrnn cnoe ntcrynnenne pac-
xptrnm nnxnon pyccxo nnnnnnsannn. Hpecrannn namy nnnnnnsannm n
nne cxemt, ]nnoco] nasnan ee xpom npanocnannym nepy, noxpyr xo-
roporo nocneonarentno pacnonoxent c]ept pyccxoro xstxa, pyccxo
xyntrypt, rocyapcrnennocrn n rexnonornn. Ho ero mnennm, nama nn-
nnnnsannx ncntrana na cee nxrt rxxenemnx yapon, xoropte n ro
nnn nno crenenn nopaxann +rn c]ept: rarapo-monrontcxoe nro (noc-
cranonnenne nocne xoroporo cnxsano c nmenem npenoonoro Ceprnx
Paonexcxoro); Cmyrnoe npemx (npeoonenne xoroporo acconnnpyercx
c nmenem narpnapxa Iepmorena); nerponcxax penonmnnx XVIII n.
(noccranonnenne nocne xoropo cnxsano c npenoontm Cepa]nmom
Caponcxnm, noeo n none 1812 r. n A.C. Hymxnntm); penonmnnx
1917 r., cnomanmax nce crpyxrypt (noccranonnenne nocne xoropo na-
uanoct c noccranonnennx narpnapmecrna n nepenoca cronnnt n Mocx-
ny, a raxxe cronnme mnnnnonon pyccxnx xnsne exrentnocrtm
H.B. Crannna) n onan 1991 r., nocne xoroporo mt noxa rax n ne cmornn
onpannrtcx. Ho mnennm A. Kasnna, xomana Hyrnna nnmt saropmosn-
na nponecc naennx, no ne ycrpannna ero npnunnt. H ceronx, n ycnonn-
xx nonoro yrnynennx xpnsnca, npo]eccop nosnaraer ontmym naexy
na nonoro narpnapxa, rax xax rontxo npanocnannax nepxont moxer yxa-
sart napoy nepnt nyrt npeoonennx xaracrpo]t.
Oren Bnanunp Bacnnnx, ntcrynax c oxnaom O nonxrnxx: pyc-
cxn napo, Pyccxn mnp n pyccxax nnnnnnsannx, pasnnn mtcnt nporo-
nepex Iennanx Fenononona, cenan ]nnonornuecxn pasop nonxrnx
napo. Ho cnonam yuenoro-]nnonora, ceronx axe n nayunom mnpe
ner ennoro xpnrepnx n onpeenennn +roro repmnna, a mexy rem, oue-
nnno, uro nonxrne pyccxn napo nocnr pennrnosnt xapaxrep. Bet
trt pyccxnm - snaunr trt npanocnanntm, nanomnnn on cnona
u.M. ocroencxoro. Kax ormernn oren Bnanmnp, n tnte npemena
nam napo ncnontsonan raxne nonxrnx, xax xstx, no xoroptm no-
pasymenan, xax npannno, uyxne, nnopennrnosnte rpynnt, xstunnxon,
n nmne, osnauanmee cnonx, naronepntx pyccxnx nme. Cnono
xe napo, nponcxoxmee or cnona napoxenne, xapaxrepnsyer
112
2009, N 1 (15)
crpemnenne x +xcnancnn, x pasmnoxennm n sanonnennm coo npocrpan-
crna. Ho+romy, c rpycrtm samernn yuent, n ntnemnmm +noxy emor-
pa]nuecxoro xpnsnca cnono napo n ornomennn napoa pyccxoro, x
coxanennm, ne orneuaer yxe cnoemy coepxannm. Taxxe yuent oc-
ranonnncx n na rpaxronxe nonxrn mnp n nnnnnnsannx n pacxptn
ocnonnte cnenn]nuecxne ueprt pyccxoro napoa: aconmrnsm n penn-
rnn c ero marannxmn or cnxrocrn o nonnoro arensma; npnopnrer y-
xonno cnoot na connantno; nocrnennoe ornomenne x rocyap-
crny, npenonarammee ononpemenno n cxenrnuecxoe ornomenne x nemy,
n roronnocrt cnyxnrt emy nepo n npano; ocooe nounranne napx;
nocnpnxrne cemtn xax narpnapxantnoro nncrnryra; npnmar mnnocep-
nx na saxonnocrtm; npenepexenne ]opmo n nmont x coepxa-
nnm. Pyccxn uenonex aconmrncr no ncem, saxnmunn oren Bna-
nmnp Bacnnnx.
Homomnnx pexropa Mocxoncxo yxonno axaemnn xannar oro-
cnonnx nepomonax Enqnunn (Monceen) cenan nnrepecnt oxna
Hepxont xax ocnona Pyccxoro mnpa, Pyccxn mnp xax ocnona Bcenen-
cxo Hepxnn. Ormernn noxnnnmnecx nonoxnrentnte renennnn no nna-
crn, nauanme saymtnartcx o neoxonmocrn neonornuecxo xonnen-
nnn, n nosnpamenne n nonnrnuecxn oopor cnona pyccxn, oren En-
]nmn nmecre c rem yxasan na ro, uro es opamennx x npanocnannm
nmax xonnennnx Pyccxoro mnpa opeuena na neyauy. B npecran-
nennn nacrtpx rpannnt Pyccxoro mnpa roxecrnennt xanonnuecxnm
rpannnam Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn. Oren En]nmn raxxe same-
rnn, uro n nonn+rnnunocrt, n mono+rnnunocrt Pyccxoro mnpa mn],
r.x. on cynep+rnnuen, a pyccxn napo xnnxercx npanocnanntm cyne-
p+rnocom. Pyccxn mnp monoxon]eccnonanen, no cynep+rnnuen, cun-
raer monax. Ho ero mnennm, opasonanne nocne penonmnnn Pyccxo
sapyexno nepxnn, npnxot xoropo oxasannct paccexnntmn no nce-
my mnpy, npnano ncenencxn xapaxrep pyccxomy npanocnannm, no
rontxo pyccxne cnocont ceronx oennnrt npanocnannt mnp.
Hpo]eccop Xaptxoncxoro ynnnepcnrera .n.n. Anexcanp Kannnn
n cnoem ntcrynnennn cenan +xcxypc n ncropnm pyccxo mtcnn, pac-
xptn nepe cnymarenxmn nsrnxt na saxnnennte nponemt cnanxno-
]nnon Xomxxona, Axcaxona, Knpeencxoro. Kocnyncx yuent n ncro-
pnn ponoro nx nero Xaptxona, c nn]pamn n pyxax noxasan, xax pyc-
cxn o penonmnnn ropo nocne rpaxancxo nont n xopne nomenxn
cnom +rnnunocrt, rax xax ncx pyccxax nnrennexryantnax +nnra tna
ncrpenena, a ee mecro sanxnn npecrannrenn pyrnx +rnocon, o neys-
nanaemocrn nsmennnmne ero connoxyntrypnt onnx.
Hpenoanarent Btcme anrpononornuecxo mxont (Knmnnen) .n.n.
npo]eccop Hnxonan Pyccen xocnyncx n cnoem ntcrynnennn cye pyc-
cxo epxannocrn. Vuent yxasan na connoxyntrypnt pasnom Pyc-
113
,
cxoro mnpa n orcyrcrnne na ceronxmnn ent ]opmantntx npnsnaxon
ero cymecrnonannx. Ho mnennm npo]eccopa, nen Pyccxoro mnpa ntne
xnnyr nnyrpn pyccxnx nme. On cunraer, uro ceronx nx pyccxoro
napoa nanonee axryantnt nonpoct ne uro enart? n xro nnno-
nar?, a nonpoc: n uem eno?.
Fontmo nnrepec ntsnan oxna rnannoro peaxropa xypnana Hm-
nepcxoe nospoxenne x.n.n. Mnxanna Cuonnna Hpeoonen nn pyc-
cxo nanne anapxnuecxn cptn? Ormernn cxnonnocrt pyccxoro ueno-
nexa x noncxy aconmrnoro neana, oxnaunx yxasan na cnocrnen-
nte pyccxomy napoy monapxnsm n anapxnm, cnoconocrt trt mono-
nnrom n amop]no macco. Ho ero mnennm, 1990-e rr. tnn ouepentm
anapxnuecxnm cptnom pyccxoro napoa, xoropt nauan npeoonenart-
cx nonnmannem neoxonmocrn cnntno rocyapcrnenno nnacrn, crn-
xnntm nosnpamennem x rocyapcrnennomy crponrentcrny n nocrenen-
nomy ocosnannm nmnepnn xax xnsnenno neoxonmocrn.
Inannt peaxrop xypnana Pycnn x.n.n. Cepren Cynnx n cnoem
oxnae Pycnnt Kapnaropyccxoro pernona n pyccxax nnnnnnsannx pac-
cxasan o nxnae pycnnon n pasnnrne pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, nanomnnn o
pycnnax, ronnmtx n Ancrpo-Benrepcxo nmnepnn sa cnom nepnocrt ne-
anam Pyccxoro mnpa. Vuent npnsnan omecrnennocrt ormernrt
95-m roonmnny Tanepro]cxo rparenn.
Hepxonnt ncropnx, npecearent Omecrna nm. Hnana Hntnna
Hnxonan Cnuaxon ntcrynnn c oxnaom 3nauenne n pont narpnap-
mecrna n cyte pyccxoro napoa. Hcropnx noxasan, uro narpnapme-
crno ctrpano cytonocnym pont n name ncropnn, noxnnnmnct naxa-
nyne Cmyrnoro npemenn XVII n., nnont noccranonnnmnct no npemx cmy-
rt XX n. n nosnennunnmnct nocne xpymennx CCCP n nauana ouepeno-
ro xpnsnca. Hmenno Cnxremn narpnapx xnnxercx ceronx namnm nox-
em, ormernn Cnmaxon, nouepxnynmn, uro n ycnonnxx ntnemnero
mnponoro xpnsnca, xnnxmmerocx ncntrannem Foxnnm, narpnapx on-
xen crart pyccxnm Monceem, xoropt ntneer nam napo ns nne-
pantnoro nnena.
Inannt peaxrop xypnana Pyccxoe camocosnanne Bopnc nep-
nnnxnn n cnoem oxnae Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx ocoo ocranonnncx
na pacxptrnn nonxrnx nannx, npecrannn cnoe mnenne o +ranax pas-
nnrnx pyccxo nannn, ocoennocrxx ee ]opmnponannx n cnenn]nxn ee
neanon (Cnxrax Pyct, Mocxna Tpern Pnm, Bennxax Poccnx). B sax-
nmuenne nepnnnxn npnnen cnona ns crapnnno o]nnepcxo monnrnt,
xoropte onxen nomnnrt xaxt pyccxn uenonex: Hac mnoro, a Poc-
cnx ona!.. Cmeprn ner! Bce npoer, n mt npoem, a Poccnx ocraner-
cx!
Herepyprcxn nynnnncr n xypnanncr Hropt Hntnn, paccyxax o
rocyapcrnennocrn pyccxoro napoa, nanomnnn, uro rocyapcrna cosa-
114
2009, N 1 (15)
mrcx ne nx roro, urot na semne tn pa, a nx roro, urot ne tno
aa. Hynnnncr samernn, uro ntnemnxx rocyapcrnennax nnacrt ne
sameuaer pyccxoro napoa, n nocnenn, n ornnune or pyrnx nacenxm-
mnx crpany naponocre, ne nmeer cnoe rocyapcrnennocrn. On no-
uepxnyn neoxonmocrt npnnxrnx saxona o rnryntno nannn, samernn,
uro Hspannt, x npnmepy, ne crecnxercx o]nnnantno nmenonart cex
rocyapcrnom enpecxoro napoa, a Poccncxax ueepannx o cnx nop
ne moxer na +ro pemnrtcx. Hntnn raxxe npnsnan, uro oprannsymmnm
pyccxn napo nenrpom moxer ceronx trt rontxo Pyccxax npano-
cnannax nepxont. B saxnmuenne Hropt Hntnn npnnen cnona rpa]a u.Po-
cronunna: ne ]nnoco], a pyccxn; xnny no-pyccxn, ymam no-pyc-
cxn, n ecnn t ne ponncx pyccxnm, ro coxpymancx t, uro ne pyc-
cxn.
Corpynnx CHIV Hropt 3aun1nn ntcrynnn c oxnaom Pyc-
cxne rannuane xax uacrt Pyccxoro mnpa, nocnxmennom ncropnn py-
cnncxoro nonpoca. Co cnoe cropont onenr Iocyapcrnennoro ynnnep-
cnrera nn]opmannonntx rexnonorn, mexannxn n onrnxn Cepren He1-
pon oparnn nnnmanne na ro, uro nn onn ns oxnaunxon nn pasy ne
ynomxnyn nonxrne +rnoc, xoropoe, no ero mnennm, xnnxercx xnmue-
ntm nx ocyxaemo remt. Ho ero cnonam, na ceronxmnn ent e-
o pyccxo nnnnnnsannn xnnxercx nnauennoe cocroxnne pyccxoro napoa
xax +rnoca.
B paore saceannx xpyrnoro crona raxxe npnnxnn yuacrne xnnpnx
xpama Bocxpecennx Xpncrona y Bapmancxoro noxsana nepe Anexcn
Vcnencxn, nepe Poman 3enencxn, .]nnoc.n., npo]eccop, saneym-
mn xa]epo ]nnoco]nn Btcme mxont napontx ncxyccrn
C.B. Heeen, unen Conera Coopa npanocnanno nnrennnrennnn x.]n-
noc.n. A.H. Bneunxon, npexrop nerepyprcxo Bxont naponoro nc-
xyccrna nmneparpnnt Anexcanpt ueoponnt H.H. Honomapena, ne-
ymn nayunt corpynnx Iocyapcrnennoro mysex ncropnn Canxr-
Herepypra C.E. Centxo n pyrne. 3anepmnnoct meponpnxrne saxnm-
unrentntm cnonom ero neymnx onenra Canxr-Herepyprcxo y-
xonno axaemnn n CHIV xannara ]nnonornuecxnx nayx naxona
Bnanmnpa Bacnnnxa n rnannoro peaxropa Pyccxo nnnnn Anaronnx
Crenanona. A. Crenanon npenoxnn n yymem nponecrn onee macm-
ranym xon]epennnm, urot ocynrt na ne nponemt, nonxrte na
+rom ]opyme. Co cnoe cropont, naxon Bnanmnp Bacnnnx nonaro-
apnn ncex yuacrnnxon saceannx xpyrnoro crona sa nnrepecnte ox-
nat.
B pamxax meponpnxrnx cocroxnact npesenrannx nonoro nomepa mex-
ynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn.
Ho +amepuaua+ http://www.rusk.ru
115
,
Anexcanp KA3HH
KPYIH PYCCKOH HCTOPHH
Poccnx xax crpana, n rem onee xax nnnnnnsannx, ntstnaer n yer
ntstnart x cee camoe npornnopeunnoe ornomenne or naext o
nenanncrn. Ho nonoy mecra Poccnn n mnpe nornuecxn n ncropnuecxn
amrcx rpn rnanntx ornera. Hepnt, c]opmynnponannt n cnoe npemx
rpa]om A.X.Fenxenop]om, snyunr npnmepno rax: npomnoe Poccnn sa-
meuarentno, nacroxmee nennxonenno, a yymee npenocxonr ncxxoe
noopaxenne. Ceronx na +rnmn cnonamn ne cmeercx rontxo nennnt,
onaxo cneyer nomnnrt, uro x 1913 r. Poccncxax nmnepnx napana
raxym nnnnnnsannonnym nnamnxy, uro ecnn t ona npoonxnnact eme
ner 20, n 1940-x rr. Enpona t nmena enncrnennym cnepxepxany
napcxym Poccnm.
Bropo orner, npornnononoxnt, c]opmynnponan n ]nnoco]cxo ]op-
me H..uaaaentm n pasnnr nnocnecrnnn ncemn pyco]oamn: Poccnx
naxonrcx xax t nne ome ncropnn uenoneuecrna n cymecrnyer nx
roro, urot art mnpy xaxo-ro naxnt ypox. B XX n. +ra mtcnt o-
pena nn npecnonyro xpyrono xonnennnn namero nannonantnoro nn-
xennx, onnctnaemoro xax ecxoneunt rynnx, neunoe nonropenne o-
noro n roro xe nxrarypa-xaoc, samoposxn-orrenent. Kaxo-ro ymnnx
npnyman eme Bepxnmm Bontry c paxeramn. Onaxo nontrt ne
noexamr n mnpontx nonax n ne ntxoxr nepntmn n xocmoc. B nyu-
mem cnyuae onn nnparcrnymr, xax n Comann
Tpern n enncrnenno nepnt orner tn an ne rtcxun ner nasa n
nancera. Koro nmnm, roro naxastnam, n Iope nam, orarte, no
nt yxe nmeere narpay cnom oe +rn sanonen neyxocnnrentno co-
nmamrcx n pennrnn, rocyapcrnennocrn n xyntrype nourn ncex napo-
on, cnyxamnx ne +rnorpa]nuecxnm marepnanom (H..annnencxn)
ncropnn, a ecrnnrentno enammnx ee.
Hontraemcx oosnaunrt nexoropte ocnonnte nexn ncropnuecxo
nnamnxn npanocnanno-pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, ncxox ns roro, uro nnnn-
nnsannx +ro onpeenennax yxonno-anrpononornuecxax n connoxynt-
rypnax cymnocrt, pasnepnyrax n ontmom npemenn.
B mera]nsnuecxom nenrpe nnnnnnsannn naxonrcx pennrnosnoe xpo,
nxnmuammee n cex nepy napoa n ero cnxmennt xstx, na xoropom on
ronopnr c Forom. B pyccxo nnnnnnsannn +ro, coornercrnenno, npano-
cnannax nepa n cnanxno-pyccxn xstx. Boxpyr yxasannoro xpa pacno-
naramrcx nnnnnnsannonnte oonouxn, naunnax c nnrennexryantno-npan-
116
2009, N 1 (15)
crnenno-xyoxecrnenno (cocrnenno xyntrypa); anee cneyer rocy-
apcrnenno-nonnrnuecxax c]epa onacrt coennennx cnxmencrna n
napcrna, yxonno n cnercxo nnacrn; naxonen, nnemnmm ]opmy nnnn-
nnsannn opasyer ee xosxcrnenno-+xonomnuecxax n rexnonornuecxax
xnsnt, reno nnacrn, nsnyuammee ee +neprnm na nect ocrantno xoc-
moc. Kax n reocrparernuecxom npocrpancrne, rax n n reononnrnuecxom
npemenn xpncrnancxax nnnnnnsannx xnnxer coo enncrno, n xoropom
no nencnonenmomy npomtcny Foxnm opmrcx pyr c pyrom opo n
sno. Opast, cnmnont, snaxn, crepeornnt xyntrypt +ro yxonno-cmtc-
nonax nepapxnx (necrnnna), ononpemenno cnnxammax n pasenxm-
max mexy coo aconmr Cymero n ornocnrentnym uenoneuecxym
cymnocrt. Hpnmennrentno x ncropnuecxo nnamnxe +ro osnauaer, uro
nexoropte oonouxn nnnnnnsannn n uacrnocrn, xyntrypa moryr nnor-
a snaunrentno oranxrtcx or ee onronornuecxoro xpa nnn axe non-
ce npornnopeunrt emy. nx narnxnocrn nsopasnm crpoenne nnnnnnsa-
nnn n nne rpa]nuecxo cxemt.
Tenept moxno c]opmynnponart ocnonnym mtcnt crartn, xoropym x
xoren t onecrn o unrarenx: ncropnx Poccnn pyccxoro napoa, pyc-
cxo xyntrypt npecrannxer coo ynopnym opty sa coxpanenne
npanocnannoro xpa name nnnnnnsannn n ycnonnxx ntsona co cropont
uyxnx nnn axe npaxentx Pyccxomy mnpy cnn. Kaxt pas, xora
Pyct-Poccnx ncntrtnana ouepeno (nnemnn nnn nnyrpennn) yap
+rnx cnn, ona naxonna n cee ncrounnx noccranonnennx, npnuem nc-
rounnx +ror nensmenno naxonncx n onacrn cnxmennoro pennrnosno-
xstxonoro xpa pyc-
cxo ncenenno.
Cynre camn.
1. Ta1apo-uon-
rontcxoe sanoena-
nne n nocneym-
mee nro XIII-
XV nn. Mt ne y-
em sect ocyx-
art nce nara, npn-
necennte na Pyct
rarapamn (cm. o
+rom rpyt enpa-
s n n e n , o r
H.C. Tpyenxoro o
H.H. Iymnnena),
cxaxem rontxo, uro
+ro tno cnntne-
117
,
mee norpxcenne ncex oonouex npanocnanno-pyccxo ncenenno, npex-
e ncero, rocyapcrnenno, +xonomnuecxo n noenno. Hente onacrn n
ropoa nexann n pynnax. Knxstx tnn ntnyxent esnrt n Opy sa
paspemennem na xnxxenne, xax +ro enan, nanpnmep, cn. Anexcanp
Hencxn, n nexoropte ns nnx nornann ram myuennuecxo cmeprtm,
xax cn. Mnxann Tnepcxo. Enncrnennoe, uero rarapt, no cyrn, ne rpo-
nynn, tna npanocnannax nepxont, n nor nmenno sect, n nenrpe cax-
pantnoro xpa oreuecrnenno nnnnnnsannn, nocrenenno xonnnact ra
yxonnax momt, xoropax ntnena Pyct n 1380 r. na Kynnxono none. Kax
nsnecrno, nmenno cn. Ceprn Paonexcxn narocnonnn mnrpnx on-
cxoro na nrny n an emy n noepxxy nyx nonnon-nnoxon Hepecnera
n Ocnxm. Hocne noet na Mamaem Pyct nauana neyepxnmo nos-
pacrart no nce cnoe nonnore, rax uro x xonny XVI n. +ro tno yxe ne
Mocxoncxoe xnxxecrno, a moryuee Hapcrno, Tpern Pnm, nepemarnyn-
mee Vpan n npncoennnnmee x cee orpomnym Cnnpt, rpannuamym c
Knraem.
2. Cuy1noe npeun nauana XVII n. Cnona ncropnuecxn ntson po-
men nenocrno crpyxrype Pyccxoro mnpa, naunnax c ero nnemnnx ono-
on n xonuax rocyapcrnennocrtm n nepo (nontcxo-xaronnuecxne ac-
nexrt exrentnocrn Hxenmnrpnx I n Hxenmnrpnx II). Mapnna Mnn-
mex ne cnyuano noxnnnact rora n Mocxne. Onaxo npomtcen Foxn
npoxnnxercx n rom, uro ncxxn pas n +noxy ontmnx ncntrann na Pyct
noctnaercx nennxn cnxro nnn ntammncx nacrtpt nepxnn. Tax cny-
unnoct n rora n 1589 r. nponcxonr nnrponnsannx nepnoro mocxonc-
xoro narpnapxa Hona, a rnannax rxxecrt optt co cmyro ntnana na
onm cn. myuennxa narpnapxa Iepmorena n norom yxe nonxnoct
ononuenne Mnnnna n Hoxapcxoro. Cnna napoa n ero nepe n enncrne:
ecnn onn nannuecrnymr, nmo ntson moxer trt npeoonen.
3. He1poncxan penonmnnn nauana XVIII c1. n ne1epyprcxan
Poccnn. namepenno ynorpenxm cnono penonmnnx, a ne pe]opma,
noromy uro +ro tna nmenno rorantnax nnnnnnsannonnax penonmnnx n
axe n onpeenennom cmtcne nona c cocrnenno ncropnuecxo n
yxonno rpannne (xax nsnecrno, nocne Herpa nacenenne Poccnn
ymentmnnoct nourn na uerneprt). Hapaoxc ena Herpa Bennxoro sax-
nmuaercx n rom, uro nnemnne oonouxn pyccxo nnnnnnsannn rexnn-
xa, nayxa, noennoe eno n r. . npn nem tnn panxantno yxpennent,
nepex na npnnnnnnantno nno yponent, n ecnn t +roro ne tno ce-
nano, Poccnx norepnena t nannonantnoe xpymenne yxe n
XVIII n. Onaxo cosnarentno nnn eccosnarentno Herp npornnoe-
crnonan nmenno neprnxantno pasneprxe rpannnonno pyccxo xnsnn.
Ha yponne pennrnn Herp ormennn narpnapmecrno, na yponne rocyap-
crnennocrn samennn coopnym (napono-semcxym) monapxnm enpone-
118
2009, N 1 (15)
cxnm aconmrnsmom, ro ecrt ]axrnuecxn nontrancx nponecrn neuro
npoe nporecranrcxo pe]opmannn na noune xnnoro npanocnannx. Ha-
xonen, na yponne xyntrypt on cran poonauantnnxom snamennro pyc-
cxo nnrennnrennnn, nayunnmecx ymart o cnoe crpane cnauana no-
nemenxn, xo npemenn Hymxnna no-]pannyscxn, x xonny XIX n. no-
anrnncxn, a ntnue, xaxercx, no-amepnxancxn. cno, uro +ro ntsnano
axrnnnt napont nporecr, or xocrpon crapoopxnen o noccrannx
Hyrauena, onaxo ena nn ne camt ntpasnrentnt opas rnynnnoro
pacxona oreuecrnenno nnnnnnsannn n ycnonnxx nerepyprcxo moep-
nnsnponanno Pycn npenoxnn Hymxnn n Enrennn Onernne:
Ona (Tamiua Hapuua A.K.) no-pyccxn nnoxo snana,
Xypnanon namnx ne unrana,
H nsxcnxnacx c rpyom
Ha xstxe cnoem ponom.
3ro o uero nyxno onecrn cocrnennt napo, urot epenencxax
nopxnouxa ne ymena ronopnrt no-pyccxn!..
H nce xe pyccxax yxonnax +neprernxa ne ymepna n pesyntrare ex-
nn +roro rnranra na ponsonom xone. Cneyer nouepxnyrt, uro nn
nepxont, nn napo rax o xonna n ne npnnxnn nerponcxo pe]opmt.
B nepxonnom n naponom yxe nmneparop Bcepoccncxn npoonxan
ocrartcx cnxmenntm nomasanntm Forom npanocnanntm napem,
xoren on roro nnn ner. H eno ryr ne n rom, uro pyccxne nepxonnte
nepapxn n nnne Herpa nomasann na nnsanrncxoe n pyccxoe cnyxenne
sanant aconmrnsm (xax ymaer, nanpnmep, A. Bmeman)
1
, a n rom,
uro cama nerepyprcxax monapxnx ne ntmna nennxom ns noroxa npano-
cnanno yxonno rpannnn. Peut ner ne o nacrpoennxx n nnanax or-
entntx nme, peut o oexrnnnom yxonno-onronornuecxom crary-
ce pyccxoro rocyapcrna. Hoono romy, xax mocxoncxn napt ocranan-
cx nomasannnxom Foxnnm nesanncnmo or cnoe nnuno oport nnn
snonocrn
2
, rax n nerepyprcxn, oert n xamson nnn nocnnt nmnepa-
rop n npanocnanno-naponom cosnannn ocranancx napem-armmxo, sem-
ntm oropaxennem n paom Heecnoro Hapx. Koneuno, uacrt na-
poa sanoospnna n Herpe anrnxpncra n sarem ymna n neca n na
ropt, urot ne yuacrnonart n ero enax, no +ro pasronop ocot. uro
xacaercx ontmo ncropnn Poccnn, marncrpantno nnnnn ee ncenen-
cxoro xpncrnancxoro cnyxennx, ro ner comnennx n rom, uro nerponcxne
npeopasonannx, ocnonanne Herepypra, sanmcrnonanne sanantx +rn-
xeron, mo n nayx nnmt moepnnsnponann Poccnm, no ne ynnn Cnxrym
Pyct. Kopunnmaxcx no nepom (n xnyrom) nerponcxnx yxason, noex-
anmax nmecre c nnm no Honrano n Ianryrom, rannenanmax na ac-
119
,
camnexx n onnnanmaxcx na ncemyremnx coopax Poccnx n rnynne
cnoe eccmeprno ymn npoonxana monnrtcx Xpncry, snana, uro On
nce nnnr n sa nce cnpocnr Tax nnn nnaue, nerponcxne pe]opmt ne
ocrnrnn xpa pyccxoro yxa, ne nponsnenn nnnnnnsannonnoro cnoma,
xorx nonomann n noxopexnnn nourn nce ero nnemnne cnon. Vx xax cy-
pon H.H. Cononennu n onenxe nerepyprcxo monapxnn, a n ror ycmar-
pnnaer nauano noccranonnennx n ne cnxmennoro Hapcrna (npanocnan-
nym peaxnnm) yxe n exrentnocrn nmneparopa Hanna Herponnua.
Moxno cxasart, uro, nauan cnoe ncropnuecxoe nnxenne c nerponcxo
tt (Poccnm nsepnyn na tt), nerepyprcxax monapxnx n xynt-
rypa ana n cnoem sanepmennn myuennuecxym ]nrypy napx Hnxonax
Anexcanponnua n nce ero anrycreme cemtn, xpontm cnoe sane-
uarnenmnx nonnr nocnennx pyccxnx camoepxnen
Bosnpamaxct x name cxeme, nouepxnem, uro neecnoe xpo npa-
nocnanno-pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n na +ror pas cnacno semnym Poccnm or
pacnaa, nocnan e n nauane n xonne XVII-nauane XIX n. cn. Cepa]nma
Caponcxoro n pyrnx ntammnxcx nonnxnnxon, sacnnerentcrnonan-
mnx nepnocrt Cnxro Pycn cnoemy oxecrnennomy npnsnannm. Ha ypon-
ne rocyapcrnennocrn x nnacrn npnmen nmneparop-ncxynnrent Anex-
canp Fnarocnonennt (nosmoxno, yymn crapen ueop Kystmnu),
no nonrentcrnom xoroporo tna oepxana onronornuecxax noe-
a n Oreuecrnenno none 1812 r. npornn xopononanno ]pannyscxo
penonmnnn n nnne Fonanapra (nropnunocrt oonouex nnnnnnsannn nn-
nmcrpnpyercx rem, uro nsnecrnt coner n unnxx no pyxonocrnom
Kyrysona npoxonn na ]pannyscxom xstxe). Haxonen, n onacrn cnerc-
xo moepnnsnponanno xyntrypt neonponepxnmtm (n o cnx nop ne
npensoenntm) snaxom nosnpara x xnaccnuecxo nennocrno neprnxa-
nn crano rnopuecrno Anexcanpa Hymxnna, noxasanmero n ornnune
or cnonx conpemennnxon Iere n Fapona, uro renn n cnooa ne ox-
sarentno na cropone emona, uro onn moryr trt n na cropone Fora.
4. Poxonon 1917 r. V menx ner nosmoxnocrn n xoporxo crarte
nopono pasnnnart +ry remy (nnrepecymmnxcx orctnam x cnoe xnn-
re Bennxax Poccnx. Pennrnx. Kyntrypa. Honnrnxa., CH.: ns. Her-
pononnc, 2007). Kparxo cxaxy sect ono: nama xpncrnancxax ncropnx
ne xonunnact c Herpom. 3aerax nnepe, cxaxy, uro ne xonunnact ona n
c Hennntm. Herepypr n xauecrne nmnepcxo cronnnt nonec paro-
nennym uamy npanocnanno nept, n eme nensnecrno, xomy n +rom nnane
npnmnoct rpynee Mocxne nn c ee orxptrtm ncnoneannem ncenen-
cxoro npnsnannx (Hont Hepycannm Tpern Pnm) nnn Herepypry c
ero rantm xpncrnancrnom n orxponenntm neoxstuecrnom (npexe
ncero, nporecranrcxoro n maconcxoro rnna). Bo ncxxom cnyuae, nmenno
rax cneyer nonnmart asnarcxn conasn Mocxnt n enponecxn
120
2009, N 1 (15)
conasn Herepypra. Kaxt ns +rnx nenrpon Cnxro Pycn ncnnn cnom
uamy o xonna, n nama saaua cocronr ne n rom, urot cynrt n orny-
uart, a n rom, urot no nosmoxnocrn ntxnnrt nem, samtcen +rnx
cronnn nepe Poccne.
Hrax, Herepypry cyxeno tno ntxnnrt Pyct 3anay; onee roro,
emy npenasnaueno tno nnycrnrt xaronnuecxo-nporecranrcxo-macon-
cxn 3ana n cex. Ecnn Mocxna noenna Bocrox na Kynnxonom none n
epxanno o]opmnna pyccxoe npanocnannoe Hapcrno, ro Herepypry
npnmnoct cpasnrtcx c nntm npornnnnxom Enpono, xoropo, n ornn-
une or rarap, nyxna tna npexe ncero npanocnannax yma. ueo]an
Hpoxononnu nocne cmeprn Herpa nourn orxptro nsnonn npanocnan-
nym nepy n +ro crpane, n nocneymmee nemenxoe sacnnte nnmt o-
napyxnno npemennt ycnex ero nnanon n nnne npononmnnt n r. n. Ha
nporxxennn nce ncropnn Herepypra cepepxnax Pyct tna xax t
opeuena nocnponsnonrt cex n nnosemntx xyntrypno-ncropnuecxnx
]opmax: paora Iocnonx mna no nopnax apoxxo n amnnpa, na crpa-
nnnax pomanon n no+m, n rpaxrarax no ]nnoco]nn n nonnrnxe Or
uaaaena o Heonrtena, or Hymxnna o Conontena Pyct rontxo n e-
nana, uro noccranannnnana cex nocne ouepenoro noennoro nnn ym-
crnennoro, no+rnuecxoro nnn mncrnuecxoro conpnxocnonennx c poma-
no-repmancxo crpano cnxrtx uyec. B nerepyprcxo Poccnn naxo-
nnnoct ontmoe nanpxxenne mexy coepxannem n ]opmo, mexy
rem, uro n xax enanoct n crpane. Haunnax c cytonocno nrpt
cnon n nasnannn
3
n xonuax nocnennmn nxmn nmneparopcxo nnacrn,
Canxr-Herepypr nen cno rparnuecxn nmnepnannsm x penonmnnon-
no pasnxsxe, n xoropo yxe ouennno nx ncex npocrynnnn +cxarono-
rnuecxne ueprt. nocrnennocrt nerepyprcxo ymn nmena ne ront-
xo orpnnarentnte nocnecrnnx ona nmena snauenne nnrarenx ncro-
pnn. Tax npocrynamr nepe namn nyrn, npnnemne x penonmnnn 1917 r.,
n pennrnosnom, xyntrypno-nonnrnuecxom n cocrnenno uenoneuecxom
nsmepennxx.
Kax nsnecrno, nepnax penonmnnx +roro roa nponsomna n ]enpane-
mapre. Ocrpne ]enpantcxo penonmnnx tno naneneno npxmo n nenrp
pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n ee yxonnoe xpo. nnenne 2/15 mapra n
ent orpeuennx nocnenero npanocnannoro rocyapx epxanno nxo-
nt Foxne Marepn no Mocxno tno, xoneuno, ne cnyuantm conna-
ennem. Boccranmne npornn saxonnoro napx ymcxne nonnrnxn-nne-
pant (n npoune ]apmanenrt, xax oosnan nx Anexcanp Fnox) say-
mann nepenepnyrt Cnxrym Pyct c ronont na norn, npenparnn ee n
ymepennym ypxyasnym pecnnnxy anrno-]pannyscxoro rnna, ro ecrt
nsxrt penanm sa nopaxenne 1905 r. Kcrarn, penonmnnm 1905 r., rax osa-
ornnmym anropon Bex, ne an onecrn o xonna npocro pyccxn
121
,
napo, narocnonnennt na +ro cn. Hoannom Kponmrarcxnm. B ro xe
npemx nporpeccnnnoe omecrno pyxonnecxano reppopncram, noctna-
no nospannennx c noeo n none xnoncxomy nmneparopy, a ymcxn
nnep roramnnx nnepanon anrnoman H. Mnnmxon o xonna +mnrpanr-
cxo xnsnn ropnncx rem, uro cnoe peutm n yme n noxpe 1916 r.
(rnynocrt nnn nsmena?) noan nommme crpane penonmnnonnt
cnrnan. Mexy npounm, o noet na Iepmanne n Hepno mnpono
none ocrananoct necxontxo mecxnen. H o Mocxnt n Bonrn nemnt
rora ne omnn, nona mna n Ancrpnn n Hontme.
Tax nnn nnaue, n cyxom ocrarxe axrnnnocrn ]enpanncron-maconon
oxasanoct xpymenne pyccxoro camoepxannx (Kpyrom rpycocrt n ns-
mena, - sanncan n cnoem nennnxe orpexmncx or npecrona nmnepa-
rop) n nocneymmn pacna orpomno Poccncxo nmnepnn na ecxrxn
xponorouamnx xycxon. Bnacrn nnepanon c xpacntmn anramn xnarn-
no rora ena na 9 mecxnen, apmnx eseprnponana, renepan Kopnnnon
nomen nono na Herporpa, nauanact nceomax cmyra. Bnacrt nanx-
nact n ntnn, n nyxen tn xro-ro pemnrentnt, urot +ry nnacrt nsxrt.
Pemnrentnte namnnct cpen ontmennxon no rnane c Hennntm.
Pasymeercx, c mpnnuecxo rouxn spennx, Oxrxpt 1917 r. tn rnnnu-
ntm nepxymeuntm nepenoporom, onaxo sa nocneymmne 5 ner xpac-
nte noennn entx n nomoranmnx nm comsnnxon no Anranre (same-
rnm, uro xomanonann entmn apmnxmn nonce ne monapxncrt, a rene-
pant-]enpanncrt, n noenann onn ne sa napx, a sa Vupenrentnoe co-
panne) n copann pasennnmymcx Poccnm nourn n rpannnax nmnepnn.
Onaxo nonnnntm cosarenem CCCP tn, xoneuno, Crannn, nocrpo-
nnmn sa rpn nxrnnerxn ]axrnuecxn nonym cnepxepxany, nsxnmym n
1945 r. Fepnnn, cosanmym nepnym nooponym omy n nepno nt-
memym n xocmoc. H narpnapmecrno n Pyccxo nepxnn nocne nnrepna-
nnonan-xommynncrnuecxoro norpoma tno noccranonneno nmenno npn
nem. Hpnuem y nero ne tno xononn n nonmentx ncrounnxon ne]rn,
nce npnxonnoct enart na +nrysnasme, crpaxe n pacxom rpye. a,
+ro tno crpamno, n ne a For nam ynnert uro-ro npoe pacxynaun-
nannx, IVHAIa n noponxon no nouam, no ecnn t +roro ne nponsomno,
ceuac yxe ne tno t ne rontxo pyccxoro napoa, no n mnornx pyrnx,
npnmxnynmnx x nemy ner 200 nasa nnemen. H Fepxen neapom nann-
can xnnry Hcroxn n cmtcn pyccxoro xommynnsma x 20-nernm coner-
cxo nnacrn. a, ontmennxn cnacnn crpany nocne nnepantno-peno-
nmnnonnoro xpymennx, npornn xoroporo oxasannct eccnntnt npnstnt
myptx nexonnen, neno xnsnn mnnnnonon ee ctnone n ouepe. 3ro
ne reopnx, +ro mennnncxn ]axr. Cronno nn cnacenne Poccnn raxo
nent? Tyr xaxt ntnpaer cnoe. Kora-ro onn ns no+ron-]apma-
nenron (xaxercx, nexn xex Anraysen) nanncan no nonoy namxrnn-
122
2009, N 1 (15)
xa rpaxannny Mnnnny n xnxsm Hoxapcxomy na Kpacno nnoman:
Hoymaemt, onn cnacnn Poccnm! A moxer, nyume tno ne cnacart?
Moxno ryr ncnomnnrt n o cnesnnxe peenxa
Cymecrnyer mnenne, uro xpncrnancxax ncropnx Pycn xonunnact n
1917 r., a pyccxoro napoa ontme ner. He ymam, uro +ro rax. Onn ns
xnmuentx anropon copnnxa Bexn C.H. upanx nncan n 1930-x rr.,
uro pyccxn yx nacxnost pennrnosen. On ne snaer, cocrnenno, py-
rnx nennocre, xpome pennrnosntx
4
. Houemy xe pyxnyno camoepxa-
nne? Ecnn ornernrt xoporxo noromy, uro ne cmorno orpanrt napo or
nnacrn xannrana. Ho a]opnsmy Fepxena, Tpern Pnm cran Tpertnm
Hnrepnannonanom. Bexonnt npocnennn rany npenpamennx connan-
moepnncrcxo mapxcncrcxo oxrpnnt (npana, c cnntntm nerxosa-
nerntm +nemenrom) n pyccxym npanocnannym no ncroxam meury o
mnponom cnacennn. Cnna (n ononpemenno conasn) pyccxoro xommy-
nnsma tna n rom, uro on ne entx npenaran cenart orartmn, a,
naoopor, orartx onannrt nnamenem mnponoro noxapa. Mt na rope
ncem ypxyxm mnpono noxap pasyem, mnpono noxap n xponn. Ioc-
non, narocnonn! Coornercrnenno cnoe ncropnn n cnoemy yxonno-
my crpom Poccnx ncntrana, ocymecrnnna ro, uro na 3anae n nyumem
cnyuae tno npemerom ymospnrentntx nocrpoenn. B +rom nnane
moxno cxasart, uro Poccnx neno cocrnenno xponn cnacna uenone-
uecrno or nept n anocracnnym yronnm. B pyccxo xyntrype nponsom-
no napaoxcantnoe cpamenne asontx pennrnosno-ncropnuecxnx nen-
nocre n npexe ncero nen napcrnennoro, npanenoro trnx - c npn-
memnmn c 3anaa nperensnxmn nparmarnuecxoro ncnontsonannx +ro-
ro trnx, nnnort o ero panxantno nepeenxn. H n noxpe 1917 r.
ontmennxn saxnarnnn rontxo nonnrnuecxym nnacrt, a yxonnym nnacrt
n rom xe mecxne nocne nyxcornernero nepeptna npnnxn na cex ns-
pannt na xpemnencxom nomecrnom Coope narpnapx Tnxon (nnoc-
necrnnn xanonnsnponannt). H cronnny uepes nexoropoe npemx nepe-
necnn ns sanannuecxoro Herepypra n pyccxym Mocxny.
5. Hepec1ponxa, com1nn 1991-1993 rr. n name npeun.
B 1991 r. opnenrnponannte na sonoro nnepan-rnoanncrt (tnmne xom-
mynncrt) no emoxparnuecxnmn nosynramn cnona npnmnn x nnacrn n
Mocxne. 3ro tna nonemax (yxe rpertx sa XX n.) nnepantnax peno-
nmnnx, ocymecrnnennax ontmenncrcxnmn meroamn: naprnomenxna-
rypa xonneprnponana npannrentcrnennym nnacrt n +xonomnuecxym. Ho
rnynocrn nnn ns xoptcrn ouepente nnepan-penonmnnonept nonara-
nn, uro nce pemnr nennnmax pyxa ptnxa n nonyunnn n pesyntrare
crpany n rpannnax XVII n., re xon]nnxronann nce co ncemn, n re ront-
xo nennnt ne npoexrnponan antnemero pacnaa crpant na Vpant-
cxym pecnynnxy, antnenocrounym pecnynnxy n np. Axaemnx
123
,
Caxapon, x npnmepy, npenaran raxnx ocxonxon ne menee rpnnarn
roxe nnepan tn
Tax nnn nnaue, B.B. Hyrnn n ero xomana npeornparnnn n nauane
XXI n. antnemn pacna Poccnn, coxpannn ocnont poccncxo rocy-
apcrnennocrn (cnmnonnsnpyemte napcxnm repom, conercxnm rnmnom
n emoxparnuecxnm ]narom) n noxonunn c nxrarom +xonomnuecxoro
rorannrapnsma. Cemnanxnpmnne ann nonxrt, uro ona ne nce mo-
xer. Hpn ncem cnoem nnemnem anrnemoxparnsme nyrnncxne ecrnnx
coornercrnonann napono none, n napo noepxan nx cpannnre pe-
syntrart ymcxnx n npesnenrcxnx ntopon 20032008 rr. yxe ne
ronopm o nonnom nponane nnepantno-sanannuecxnx naprn, cnncart
xoropt na npecnonyrt amnnncrparnnnt pecypc npn ncem xena-
nnn ne yaercx. Ecnn t npannrentcrny Meneena-Hyrnna yanoct
nocrponrt coornercrnymmym mnponomy snauennm Poccnn nannonantnym
(a ne xomnpaopcxym) +xonomnxy n npexe ncero nauart npoanart
pyccxym ne]rt n ras sa pyccxne pynn, noxonunn rem camtm c nonnrn-
uecxo monononne onnapa, npanocnanno-pyccxax nnnnnnsannx tna
t marepnantno oecneuena, no ncxxom cnyuae, n oospnmom yymem.
Koneuno, cymecrnymr sameuarentnte Hnepantnte mann]ecrt
1947 n 1997 rr. o cnooe, ornercrnennocrn n cnpanennnocrn xax rnan-
ntx nennocrxx nnepannsma. Hnepannsm npenaraer uenonexy: e-
na, uro xouemt, rt cam cee xosxnn! Ho npn +rom rt cam orneuaemt
sa cex, rno om rnox xpenocrt, nce ocrantnoe For, rocyapcrno,
ponna cyrt rontxo uacrn rex. B name npemx +ror cnoont
cocrnennnx nennxom cran paom ptnxa n renennennx, xoropoe xop-
mnr ero uepnyxo-nopnyxo, a ynnnt ero ropoa oxastnamrcx no nna-
crn mnoroopasntx mentmnncrn. Ha xstxe xyntryponornn +ro nast-
naercx nocrmoepnom (HM), nenpenoxno cnnerentcrnymmem o sanep-
mennn ]aycroncxoro (moepnncrcxoro, peneccancno-npocnernrentcxo-
pomanrnuecxoro) +rana enponecxo ncropnn n nepexoe ee n npecmep-
rnym reonncrnuecxn-nrponym norpenrentcxym ]asy.
Ceronx n crpanax, nopaxenntx nnpycom HM, yxe ner pennrnn, ]n-
noco]nn, ncxyccrna, nayxn n cocrnennom cmtcne cnona; ecrt onee
nnn menee noxoxax noenxa (cnmynxxp) no nnx. Heanno npesnenr
CBA Oama paspemnn paory co crnonontmn xnerxamn +mpnonon
(]axrnuecxoe nx yncrno), a n Anrnnn ncntrann nepnt opasen ma-
mnnt nx urennx mtcne ynnexarentnax nepcnexrnna, ne npana nn?
Bo mnornx crpanax ysaxonen romocexcyannsm, ner uepes 10 ysaxonxr
soo]nnnm, norom neo]nnnm, norom nexpo]nnnm n xonuar nmoecrnom
+ro eme ocroencxn npecxasan. Hecxontxo mecxnen nasa n He-
repypre na monotx rora ynnn n cenn enymxy-+mo. Hmn,
ontnte HM, npornnnt camnm cee.
124
2009, N 1 (15)
Koneuno, raxo uenonex n nnnnnnsannx raxnx nme onro ne
nporxner. Tem onee, uro ona naxonnna ropt opyxnx, a axe nesapx-
xennoe pyxte pas n xnsnn crpenxer. Her uepes 1520 xepnax oma
moxer crart ocroxnnem mnornx axe neontmnx crpan, ne ronopx
yxe o momntx cerentx oprannsannxx, npenocxoxmnx nnte crpant n
no reppnropnn, n no mxery. Ha ropnsonre yxe nnnt npnsnaxn xn-
epnon, ncntrtnaemtx ceuac n nrpax pasnoro poa remepon n xaxe-
pon. uenoneuecrno ncera noenano, n ner nnxaxnx ocnonannx ymart,
uro ono nepecraner +ro enart n rpertem rtcxuenernn.
Onacnocrt nocrmoepna n rom, uro on, no cyrn, ecrt npaxrnxa nocr-
xnsnn, nnn, nonpocry ronopx, cmeprn. a n uro eme enart Hapnnccy,
nepexnnmemy camoro cex? Konen ncropnn, nonpexn u.uyxyxme, mo-
xer nacrynnrt ne or nceomero nnepantnoro ymnpornopennx, a or no-
nt ncex npornn ncex, npecxasanno n Anoxannncnce. Hocrmoepn ne
aer +ro none peantno antrepnarnnt, on rontxo o npemenn macxn-
pyer n ononpemenno pasxnraer ee. Hoxnatnaer menxn no nce mn-
ponte xocrpt. Cymecrnyer, npana, npoexr rax nastnaemoro mnpono-
ro npannrentcrna, no on npenonaraer +nexrponnt xonnnarept n
nonemym nomect ]eoannsma c paonnaennem na mo nsrnx, nt-
xo ne nyumn. Hacroxmax samnra or HM, a snaunr n or npexenpe-
mennoro camopaspymennx uenoneuecxoro mnpa +ro nepa n aconmr-
nym peantnocrt n nennocrt xnsnn, apyemo Forom. H npoonxaercx
ona o rex nop, noxa mt Ero payem. Kax ronopnrcx, nnoro ne ano.
Bnepen rpynte npemena moxer trt, camte rpynte nx uenone-
uecrna n nx Poccnn. H nononspannt narpnapx Knpnnn ne cnyuano
cxasan n cnoe rponno peun o nnnnnnsannn Cnxro Pycn. Ecnn na +ror
pas ee xpo ne ycronr, +ro yer osnauart xonen uenonexa xax yxonno-
ro cymecrna nnxaxne +xsornuecxne npaxrnxn Bocroxa ryr ne nomo-
ryr.
HPHMEHAHHR:
1. Cm.: Hpom. A.L+e+au. Hcropnuecxn nyrt Hpanocnannx. M.,1993. C. 380.
2. B uacrnocrn, moxno ncnomnnrt ornomenne napoa x snomy Hoanny Ipos-
nomy n opomy Fopncy Ioynony, uro namno cnoe ntpaxenne n n xnaccnxe
(y Hymxnna n Hepmonrona npexe ncero).
3. Hom+au P.M., Vcneucru B.A. Orsnyxn xonnennnn Mocxna Tpern Pnm
n neonornn Herpa Hepnoro (K nponeme cpenenexono rpannnn n xyntrype
apoxxo) // Xyoxecrnennt xstx cpenenexontx. M.,1982.
4. 4paur C.H. Pyccxoe mnponosspenne // yxonnte ocnont omecrna. M.,1992.
C. 483.
125
,
naxon Bnanunp BACHAHK
PYCCKHH HAPO. PYCCKHH MHP.
PYCCKAR HHBHAH3AHHR.
B conpemenno rymannrapno nayxe rpeyercx npeentno nosmox-
nax repmnnonornuecxax xcnocrt, xoropax, x coxanennm, anexo ne nce-
ra ocrnxnma. B cnxsn c +rnm xorenoct t nnecrn nsnecrnte pasxc-
nennx n yrounennx n namy ncxyccnm n ntcrpannammncx repmnnono-
rnuecxn px: pyccxn napo, Pyccxn mnp, pyccxax nnnnnnsannx.
Bo-nepntx, no nonoy repmnna napo. Ka]epa ncropnn cnanxnc-
xnx n anxancxnx crpan neonoxparno npononna saceannx xpyrntx
cronon na remy nann, nannonannsma, nporonannonantnoro ncxypca,
pennrnn n ]opmnponannx nannonantnoro cosnannx
1
. Btcrynnennx xon-
ner
2
n nx crartn noxasann paspo n maranne, napxmne n nayuntx xpy-
rax no nonoy camoro repmnna napo n no nonoy reopnn +rnoca n
nannn xax raxontx
3
. Kax nsnecrno, cymecrnymr ne nayunte rpannnn:
nepnax, r.n. npu+opoua.ucmcra, nymax eme c +noxn pomanrnsma,
xoropax nacrannaer na rom, uro napo nonxrne oprannuecxoe
4
. Co-
rnacno npnmopnanncrcxo reopnn, napo oprannuno ntpacraer ns yc-
nonn ncropnuecxo xnsnn - pennrnosntx, nnnrnncrnuecxnx, reorpa]n-
uecxnx, npnpono-xosxcrnenntx n npoxonr px cran or napono-
crn o nannn n nonoe n nonemee npemx. C rouxn spennx npnmopnann-
cron, +rnnunocrt xnnxercx oprannuntm opasonannem. 3ro npncymee
uenonexy omymenne cex n xauecrne unena roro nnn nnoro +rnoca n
nocnrenx ro nnn nno xyntrypt. Kax ntpasnncx u. Kec, npnmopn-
antnte xopnn +rnnunocrn epyr nauano n nnrepnperannn cnoero npo-
ncxoxennx n xonrexcre xyntrypt
5
. Conercxax ncropnuecxax n +rno-
nornuecxax mxona n ocnonnom paorana n pamxax npnmopnannsma.O-
naxo, cpannnrentno neanno noxnnnact pyrax reopnx roucmpvrmu-
eus+
6
, cornacno xoropo napo, nannx n r.. cyryo xoncrpyxrn-
nncrcxne nonxrnx. Cornacno reopnn xoncrpyxrnnnsma, napo cosnaer-
cx nnemnnmn cnnamn, xax npannno, none npanxme nnn nnrennexryant-
no +nnrt, sauacrym xenesom n xpontm, emy npncnannaercx nepnoe
nonanmeecx nasnanne, cnao cnxsannoe nnn axe ne cnxsannoe c opa-
sonanmnmn ero +rnnuecxnmn rpynnamn, a nnsmemy cnom nnymaercx,
uro on npnnanexnr x romy nnn pyromy +rnocy. Hanpnmep, unopnn
Kypra, nonemnxe c xoroptm nocnxmen rpern nomep xa]epantnoro
xypnana Studia Slavica et Balcanica Petropolitana, yrnepxaer, uro
cnanxne nonxrne ncxyccrnennoe, neoprannunoe, ero ntymann nnsan-
126
2009, N 1 (15)
rncxne ncropnxn VI-IX nn.
7
. Taxax nocranonxa nonpoca necxontxo anex-
ornuna: nx uero nnsanrncxnm nncarenxm, ornocnnmnmcx x cnanx-
nam xax x nxnm napnapam
8
, nosnennunnart +ror yro t pasnonne-
mennt cpo, npnnnctnart nm necymecrnymmee nnemennoe enncrno
n mtcnnrt o nnx xax o orentnom napoe? 3rn npnmept npnneent
nx ocosnannx cnoxnocrn nponemt roro pasnomtcnnx, xoropoe napnr
n nayunom coomecrne ornocnrentno camoro nonxrnx napo.
nx npeoonennx noonoro paspoa neoxonmo oparnrtcx x nc-
roxam nonxrnx napo, xoropoe noxnnxercx eme n crapocnanxncxnx
rexcrax, n uacrnocrn, n Ocrpomnponom Enanrennn:uismt aaeu aa.
xtat, t+t t+seu Iutt (Hn., 6, 14)
9
. Moryr nospasnrt, uro n nepxon-
nocnanxncxom napo ncnontsyercx n snauennn nmn nnn ronna,
onaxo n pennepyccxnx rexcrax mt naxonm px nenycmtcnenntx
xonrexcron, re napo ntcrynaer n conpemennom snauennn nacene-
nne crpant: 0tre iaa t+aau stau+awata u aaeu ae+amtta teaa
(cm. Hc. 2, 2).
Ecrt xonrexcrt, re cnono aae ornocnrcx x xpncrnancxomy napo-
y: saas aa aaez at caarz
10
. Ho n ontmnncrne cnyuaen aae nce xe
oosnauaer copanne nme, ronny.
Onaxo, nx crapocnanxncxoro xstxa n mxnocnanxncxoro mnpa tnn
xapaxrepnt necxontxo nnte nonxrnx - u u sz n am t: u u sz mor orno-
cnrtcx x napoy uyxesemnomy, nnoxstunomy, no uame ncero nnopenn-
rnosnomy, u u sz, u u u +ro xstunnxn, ne snammne Fora
11
. Hanpornn,
am t - +ro n ontme uacrn xonrexcron nspannt, nepymmn napo:
aeti+u u tz+seu ucasatat amtxz tseuxz (Hyx. 1, 68)
12
.
B pxe xonrexcron am t xax nepymmn napo, napo Foxn snaunmo
npornnonocrannxmrcx u u sam: c t+t xat am t u ca aau w stt z u u sz
(Hcx. 19,5).
Tenept paccmorpnm coepxanne ntmenasnanntx repmnnon. Ecnn
repmnn xstx nponcxonr or nasnannx nsnecrnoro oprana peun n, cne-
onarentno, cnxsan c ]axropom nnnrnncrnuecxnm, ro napo c e-
morpa]nuecxnm. Hapo +ro ro, uro napoxaercx. uro xacaercx nnyr-
penne ]opmt cnona napo, ro ono recno cnxsano c rnaronom aaeu.
+u, napoxy co snauennem poxart. He ncxnmueno, uro ero nponc-
xoxenne cnxsano c narnncxnm natio (napo), nponcxoxmnm or rnaro-
na nascor poxamct, n ero noxnnenne cnxsano c exrentnocrtm
sanantx mnccnonepon n cnanxncxom mnpe
12
.
Haxonen, cnono nmn cnxsano c ]axropom connantntm nnn, nyume
cxasart, nepapxnuecxnm. B pennnx repmancxnx xstxax rorcxom, pen-
nenepxnenemenxom liudi, nosnemee leute - +ro napo nspannt, a
nspanne morno nrn no pasntm xpnrepnxm: napo noopyxennt n na-
po nepymmn.
127
,
Tenept oparnmcx x ocnonno reme: xnnxnoct nn nonxrne napo,
+rnoc nx anropon Cnxmennoro Hncannx peantntm nnn nnpryantntm?
Bnnmarentnoe nsyuenne Fnnnn n ornon Hepxnn nocxastnaer nepnt
orner: ne rontxo uenoneuecxne omnocrn mtcnnnnct xax napot, a ne
cocnonnx, xnacct, rpynnnponxn, no n cama Hepxont mtcnnnact
xax Hont Hspannt, xax Hapo Foxn. Xapaxrepnt cnona cn. anocro-
na Herpa: Ho nt - po nspannt, napcrnennoe cnxmencrno, napo
cnxro, nmn, nsxrte n yen, at nosnemart conepmencrna Hpnsnan-
mero nac ns rtmt n uynt Cno cner; nexora ne napo, a ntne napo
Foxn; nexora ne nomnnonannte, a ntne nomnnonant (1 Herp. 2, 9-
10). Peantnocrt napoa oxnnxercx oroycranonnenno n, n nexoro-
pom cmtcne, xopenxmecx ecnn ne n neunocrn, ro, no xpane mepe, n
nopxxe anrentcxoro mnpa: Kora Bcentmnn anan yent napoam n
paccenxn ctnon uenoneuecxnx, rora nocrannn npeent napoon no uncny
Anrenon Foxnnx (Brop. 32, 8)
14
.
Hapo +ro reno Hepxnn, ncnonnenne nepxonnoro copannx. Hpnne-
em nnmt npnmep ns cn. Pomana Cnaxonenna:
Htne nepnt napo* no Xpncrono nmnn*
nr, coxct, no ncanmax,* necnonentx noer.
Henactrno xe Fory* nosnocnr on necnt,
H xora napt ann sanepmaer ncanom
n, narounnntm npourentem* Hncann ncnonnnnmnct,
cpasy Xpncra nocnenaem mt* n na nparom nennuaemcx
15
.
Conpemennte npecrannennx Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn o coor-
necennn pennrnn c +rnnunocrtm nsnoxent n Ocnonax connantno xon-
nennnn PHH, npnnxro na Apxnepecxom Coope 2000 r. B ne cxasano
cneymmee: Hapo nspanntcxn cran napoom Foxnnm, npnsnanne
xoroporo - xpannrt nepy n ennoro ncrnnnoro Fora n cnnerentcrno-
nart o +ro nepe nepe nnnom pyrnx napoon, at uepes nero xnnn-
cx mnpy Cnacnrent ncex nme - Forouenonex Hncyc Xpncroc. Enn-
crno napoa Foxnx oecneunnanoct, nomnmo npnnanexnocrn ncex ero
npecrannrene x ono pennrnn, raxxe nnemenno n xstxono omno-
crtm, yxopenennocrtm n onpeenenno semne oreuecrne... Fyyun no
npnpoe ncenencxo, Hepxont ononpemenno xnnxercx enntm opra-
nnsmom, renom (1 Kop. 12. 12). Ona - omnna ua Foxnnx, o nspan-
nt, napcrnennoe cnxmencrno, napo cnxrt, nmn, nsxrte n yen: ne-
xora ne napo, a ntne napo Foxn (1 Her. 2. 9-10). Enncrno +roro
nonoro napoa oecneunnaercx ne nannonantno, xyntrypno nnn xst-
xono omnocrtm, no nepo no Xpncra n Kpemennem. Hont napo
Foxn ne nmeer sect nocroxnnoro rpaa, no nmer yymero Bce-
nencxn xapaxrep Hepxnn, onaxo, ne osnauaer roro, urot xpncrnane
ne nmenn npana na nannonantnym camotrnocrt, nannonantnoe camo-
128
2009, N 1 (15)
ntpaxenne. Hanpornn, Hepxont coennxer n cee ncenencxoe nauano c
nannonantntm. Tax, Hpanocnannax nepxont, yyun ncenencxo, cocro-
nr ns mnoxecrna anroxe]antntx nomecrntx nepxne. Hpanocnannte
xpncrnane, cosnanax cex rpaxanamn neecnoro oreuecrna, ne onx-
nt satnart n o cnoe semno ponne. Xpncrnancxn narpnornsm o-
nonpemenno npoxnnxercx no ornomennm x nannn xax +rnnuecxo om-
nocrn n xax omnocrn rpaxan rocyapcrna. Xpnc1nannn npnsnan
coxpann1t n pasnnna1t nannonantnym xynt1ypy, naponoe cauo-
cosnanne. Kora nannx, rpaxancxax nnn +rnnuecxax, xnnxercx nonno-
crtm nnn no npenmymecrny monoxon]eccnonantntm npanocnanntm co-
omecrnom, ona n nexoropom cmtcne moxer nocnpnnnmartcx xax en-
nax omnna nept - npanocnannt napo
16
.
Cyx no +ro ]opmynnponxe, ee anropt xnnxmrcx npnmopnanncra-
mn n cunramr napo yxonno n omecrnenno peantnocrtm, xoropax
cnxsana c Hpomtcnom Foxnnm o uenonexe n ne npornnopeunr oroue-
noneuecxomy oprannsmy Hepxnn, no moxer oprannuno nnxopnopnponartcx
n nero.
Camo nonxrne pyccxoro napoa ]opmnponanoct xax nonxrne pennrn-
osnoe. 3ro moxno nnert no pxy rexcron, n xoroptx nenrn]nxannx
npoxonna nmenno no pennrnosnomy xpnrepnm. Or Cnona o nonxy Hro-
pene: ern econn xnnxom none nperpanma, a xpapte pycnun npe-
rpanma uepnnentmn mnrt o snamennroro nspeuennx u.M. ocro-
encxoro: He npanocnannt nx menx ne pyccxn mt nanmaem
nsnecrnoe roxecrno nonxrn pyccxn npanocnannt. He rontxo nx
+noxn Hoanna Iposnoro, no n nx npemenn Anexcanpa III nxo t sny-
uano yxe namosonnnmee nam cnyx cnonocoueranne pyccxn mycynt-
mannn, pyccxn nmrepannn. C rouxn spennx rpannnonno xax nx
Mocxoncxoro napcrna, rax n nx Poccncxo nmnepnn, oa onn nno-
pont.
Ha conpemennom yponne pennrnosnoe snyuenne repmnna pyccxn
omymaercx, xora nmecro pyccxn n n CMH, n n o]nnnantntx oxy-
menrax npenounramr ynorpenxrt cnono poccnxnnn. Cam repmnn
poccnxnnn nosnnx, xax nsnecrno, n XVIII n. On xapaxrepen nx pyc-
cxo no+snn XVIII n. nx crnxon Homonocona, Xepacxona, epxannna.
Ho ceuac n CMH nponcxonr pasenenne nonxrn: pyccxn - +rnonnm,
nocxontxy oosnauaer nocnrenx ne rontxo pyccxoro xstxa, no n onpee-
nenntx rpannn. B CMH npenounramr ne ronopnrt o nponemax pyc-
cxnx, sa ncxnmuennem, noxany, remt pyccxoro xstxa. Hanpornn, nst-
namr x narpnornsmy n nannonantntm uyncrnam poccnxn, uro, no ment-
me mepe, crpanno, rax xax poccnxnnn nonnronnm, oosnauammn no-
annoro Poccncxo ueepannn n (ne oxsarentno) nocnrenx pyccxoro
xstxa, a xro on rarapnn, nnrym nnt pyr crene xanmtx nenaxno.
129
,
Mt npnmnn x pasnoennm n cmemennm, xoroporo openonmnnonnax
xnsnt no cyrn ena ne snana. nx openonmnnonnoro nonnmannx pyc-
cxoro xapaxrepno coueranne rpex ]axropon pyccxoro xstxa, npano-
cnannx n pyccxo xyntrypt.
Bepnemcx x reme napoa n poxennx. Cronr nanomnnrt o cnonax
Hpoxonnx Kecapncxoro, xoropt nastnaer cnanxn cnopamn no npn-
unne nx mnorouncnennocrn n paccexnnx no nce semnn
17
. Hapo nonx-
rne, ronopxmee o pacmnpennn, pasmnoxennn, +xcnancnn. Vunrtnax +ro,
ceuac rxxeno ronopnrt o pyccxom napoe, npnnnmax no nnnmanne ro,
uro xaxt ro ero uncnennocrt coxpamaercx, no pasntm nocueram,
or cemncor rtcxu uenonex o mnnnnona. Houepxnnaem, +ro nponcxo-
nr n mnpnoe npemx. Hpnunn noontx uyonnmntx norept necxontxo.
Bo-nepntx aoprt. Ho nexoroptm anntm, ns rpex epemennoc-
re rontxo ona xonuaercx poamn
18
. Bo-nroptx ntxncrno n napxo-
mannx. Hanmennx anropa noxasann, uro cmeprnocrt n ornocnrentno
narononyunom Knponcxom paone Canxr-Herepypra 2000 no 2005 r.
ntpocna n 2,5 pasa n, npexe ncero, cpen myxunn or 20 o 40 ner n n
ocnonnom ns-sa npnunn, cnxsanntx c anxoronem n napxomanne.
3ro crpamno. 3ro snaunr, uro napo ntpoxaercx n yxe ne coorner-
crnyer cnoemy norocy, cmtcny, n xoropom, nomnmo pasmnoxennx n +xc-
nancnn, ecrt cmtcnt rnopuecrna
He cneyer ynycxart ns nny, uro aae n pennepyccxom xstxe
croxn n pxy raxnx nonxrn, xax aee+sesauu - rnopuecxn. Ecnn n
napoe nccxxaer rnopuecxoe nauano, ro +ro yxe ne napo.
Xorenoct t axnenrnponart pennrnosnym cocrannxmmym napoa.
Cronr npnnecrn cnona anocrona Herpa: Hexora ne napo, a ntne na-
po, nexora ne nomnnonannte, a ntne nomnnonannte. Hapo nspan-
nt, rax nastnann cex narouecrnnte pomen, nnn nnsanrnnt. 3ro
cosnanne tno nocnpnnxro Pyctm, ono omymaercx n Cnone o 3axone n
Fnaroarn
19
, n Cnone o nornenn semnn Pyccxo, n Honecrn npe-
menntx ner. Ecnn o xpemennx Pycn repmnn pyct tn nonnronn-
mom c xpane neonpeenenntm snauennem n mor oosnauart ro cnanxn,
ro nopmannon, ro n rex n pyrnx
20
, ro nocne xpemennx pyccxn crano-
nnrcx nonnonpanntm +rnonnmom n oosnauaer ne rontxo noanntx
epxant Pmpnxonnue Knencxo Pycn, no n ennonepnen, oen-
nenntx omnm xstxom, omnm crpoem xnsnn, ome xyntrypo. Hmen-
no npanocnannax nepa cnococrnonana xonconnannn pasnomepcrntx
cnanxncxnx n ]nnno-yropcxnx nnemen n ennym pennepyccxym napo-
nocrt
21
. H n antnemem Pyccxax npanocnannax nepxont nrpana nax-
nemym pont n pasnnrnn, n omecrnenno n xyntrypno xnsnn pyccxoro
napoa.
130
2009, N 1 (15)
Vmecrno npnnecrn sect cnona cnxremero narpnapxa Anexcnx I n
ero ncropnuecxom ntcrynnennn n 1960 r.: Kax cnnerentcrnyer ncro-
pnx, +ro ra Hepxont, xoropax npn sapoxennn pyccxo rocyapcrnenno-
crn nomorana ycranonnennm rpaxancxoro nopxxa na Pycn... yxpennx-
na saxonnte ocnont cemtn, yrnepxana nonoxenne xenmnnt xax mpn-
nuecxoro nnna, ocyxana pocronmnuecrno n pacrno, pasnnnana uyn-
crno onra n ornercrnennocrn n uenonexe n nepexo npn nomomn co-
crnenntx xanonon sanonnxna npoent rocyapcrnennoro saxonoarent-
crna. 3ro ra xe Hepxont, xoropax cosana sameuarentnte namxrnnxn,
oorarnnmne pyccxym xyntrypy, xoropte no ce ent xnnxmrcx npe-
meramn nannonantno ropocrn namero napoa. 3ro ona, nama Hep-
xont, yxpennxna yx napoa cnoe nepo... n cnooy, noepxnnax n
napoe uyncrno nannonantnoro ocronncrna n npancrnenno cnnt. Ona
tna noepxxo Pyccxomy rocyapcrny n ero opte npornn nnocr-
panntx sanoenarene n n Cmyrnoe npemx, n n Oreuecrnennym nony
1812 roa. Ona ocranact c napoom n n nocnenmm Bennxym Oreue-
crnennym nony
22
.
Hmenno naroapx Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn o cpannnrentno
neannero npemenn coxpanxnoct enncrno mexy rpemx nernxmn pyc-
cxoro napoa nennxopyccxo, manopyccxo, n enopyccxo. Xapaxrep-
nt cnona, c xoroptmn oparnncx x pyccxnm nocnam, npntnmnm na
Hepexcnancxym pay n 1654 r. mnrpononnr Cnntnecrp Koccon: Henyer
nac n nnne moem on, narouecrnnt Bnanmnp, nennxn xnxst pyccxn;
nenyer nac cnxrt anocron Anpe Hepnosnannt, nponosnecrnnt na
cem mecre nennm npocnxrn cnany Foxnm, xxe ntne namnm npnmecrnn-
em narononyuno naxn ononnxercx; nenymr nac omemy xnrnm na-
uantnnnt, npenoont Anronn n ueoocn Heuepcrnn n nce npeno-
onnn, nera n xnnor cno o Xpncre n cnx nemepax nsnypnnmne; neny-
em n mt o Xpncre name naropone co ncem ocnxmenntm coopom,
nenymme x nmonne nstnaem: nnnnre n om Fora namero n na cea-
nnme nepnemee narouecrnx pyccxoro, a namnm npnmecrnnem ono-
nnrcx xxo opnx mnocrt nacnenx narouecrnntx nennxnx xnxse pyc-
cxnx
23
. Taxnm opasom, nontno nnn nenontno Cnntnecrp Koccon ntpa-
xaer ncropnuecxym cymnocrt noccoennennx Bennxo Pycn c Mano
24
- ononnenne nacnenx narouecrnntx pennepyccxnx xnxse: mna-
mn (no nospacry) par, nonnt cnn, npnxonr nx roro, urot yxpe-
nnrt crapmero para n nepnyrt emy monoocrt.
Hrax, notroxnnax namn pasmtmnennx, nonpoyem art onpeene-
nne nonxrnm napo. Hapo peantnax omnocrt, cnxsannax omno-
crtm xstxa, enncrnom pennrnn nnn pennrnosno camonenrn]nxannn,
omnocrtm xyntrypt, nanpannennax na pacmnpenne (nnn, no xpane
mepe, na camonocnponsnocrno), npnsnannax x rnopuecxomy pasnnrnm
n x rocyapcrnennomy crponrentcrny.
131
,
Cneymmee nonxrne uips (c i ecxrepnuntm). Camo nonxrne xn-
nxercx cpenenexontm no cnoemy yxy, nocxontxy oosnauaer ono-
npemenno n ncenennym, coornercrnyx rpeuecxomy cnony,
25
n omecrno,
omnny, n rom uncne epenencxym. Hoonoe nocrnennoe cnonoy-
norpenenne xnnxercx nsnauantntm: yxe n Pyccxo npane mt ncrpe-
uaem ncnontsonanne cnona uip n snauennn omnna: a t aeu xt+z s+e +m +s
se as, am ce c +t, a aeaa t+z sz tset xz x|e, +e sa +u t xe tset, a r ru .
sai a ecu
26
. B cnxsn c nnm nenontno ncnomnnaercx rpysnncxoe cnono
conenn, xoropoe osnauaer ononpemenno n ncenennym, n omnny, n
epennm. Honxrne uips nnyrpenne nnsxo x rpeuecxomy cnony c. -cu: .
- ncenennax, n snauennn xocmoc xax oxnroe npocrpancrno. Ta-
xnm opasom, uip npecrannxercx xax nexoe oxnroe npocrpancrno,
xax nexn om, n ne npocro om, a nx conoxynnocrt, a rounee enn-
crno, eme ne ropo, no yxe nocenenne n n nmom cnyuae nexoe, nycrt ne
samxnyroe, no sanepmennoe npocrpancrno, nnsxoe x nee narnncxoro
orbis terrarium xpyra semnoro.
Ecnn rpeonart rounoro onpeenennx, ro uip ononpemenno cpea
onrannx n cnoco xnsnn roro nnn nnoro napoa, ero om.
3ror opas uipa xax oma nam rpyno omymart n name conpemen-
no esomnocrn, estrnocrn n xaornunocrn, xora na namnx rnasax n
XX n. nnont nponsomno Bennxoe nepecenenne napoon. Bo-nepntx, nxrt
mnnnnonon exennen n rpaxancxym nony, n ontmnncrne cnoem
pyccxnx, sarem uyonnmnoe pacxynaunnanne, sarponynmee ne menee e-
cxrn mnnnnonon nanonee rpyonmnntx xpecrtxn, npenmymecrnenno
pyccxnx, cctnxn n crannncxne enoprannn, +naxyannx Bennxo Oreue-
crnenno nont, yron nemnamn nxrn mnnnnonon pyccxnx paon ocron-
nen n Iepmannm. axe, xasanoct t, narononyunte npemena 1953-
1985 rr. tnn nactment nocroxnno mnrpanne nacenennx CCCP n npex-
e ncero pyccxoro. K nemy ornocnrcx n ercrno xonxosnnxon n ropoa,
n nnycrpnantnoe sacenenne Cnnpn n antnero Bocroxa, n mnrpannx
pyccxnx na oxpannt, n nannonantnte pecnynnxn, oepnynmaxcx nx
pyccxnx nme rparene xonna noctmnecxrtx-enxnocrtx roon,
xora onn, crponrenn n samnrnnxn Conercxoro Comsa, n onouacte ns
ynaxaemtx nme npenparnnnct n oxxynanron n yrnerarene, tnn
npeant n poment nenrpantno nnacrtm n ocrannent na nponsnon
ecunncrnymmnx nannonanncron. Pesyntrarom +roro xnnnact nonax
nennannax mnrpannx, nocunrart xoropym ouent cnoxno, ecnn ne ne-
nosmoxno. Hs ono nnmt ueunn c 1991 r. ntexano ne menee 500 000
exennen, n ontmnncrne cnoem pyccxnx, n pesyntrare nepmanenrno
+rnnuecxo uncrxn ceuac ram ocranoct ne onee rtcxun pyccxnx xn-
rene. Ecnn yuecrt, uro emorpa]nuecxne norepn Poccncxo ueepa-
nnn noxptnannct n ocnonnom sa cuer mnrpannn, ro, no camtm cxpom-
132
2009, N 1 (15)
ntm nocueram, ns tnmnx conercxnx pecnynnx ntexano ne menee
ecxrn mnnnnonon pyccxnx. Onaxo, n nnx ocraercx nanart nxrt mnn-
nnonon namnx cooreuecrnennnxon.
He menee nxrn mnnnnonon namnx cooreuecrnennnxon n noncxax nyu-
me xnsnn yexann n crpant antnero sapyextx. Ecnn npnannrt x
+romy mnrpannn nnyrpn Poccncxo ueepannn ercrno pyccxnx c
Cenepnoro Kanxasa, ores ns Cnnpn n antnero Bocroxa, ncxo na-
cenennx ns pasopenntx epenent n xonxoson n nnycrpnantnte nenrpt
n nannune nyx mnnnnonon esomntx (rontxo no o]nnnantntm an-
ntm), ro xaprnna conpemenno esomnocrn cranonnrcx eme onee nne-
uarnxmme. Kasanoct t, Pyccxnn uip pasopnan na necxontxo rocy-
apcrn n paccexn no ncemy mnpy. Ho +ro ne rax. On xnn, n +ro noxast-
namr raxne ]opymt, xax Bcemnpnt Pyccxn Coop, xoropt npoxo-
nr no +rno Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn. B nayuno cpee nosnn-
xano comnenne ornocnrentno neoxonmocrn nonxrnx uip, ne n nocne-
nmm ouepet n cnny ]axropon rnoannsannn n conpemennoro noma-
nsma. 3rn comnennx xaxyrcx neocrarouno oocnonanntmn: nonxrne
uip nanexnr coxpanxrt xorx t nx roro, urot noccranonnrt paspy-
mennt pyccxn om.
B cnxsn c remo uipa xax oma ncnomnnamrcx eccmeprnte crpoxn
Hymxnna:
na uyncrna nnno nnsxn nam,
B nnx cepne operaer nnmy
Hmont x ponomy nenennmy,
Hmont x oreuecxnm rpoam.
Koneuno, Hymxnn xax nacnennx anrnuno rpannnn nmen n nny
npexe ncero nenen omamnero ouara. Onaxo, n pyccxom xstxe nex-
cema nenennme ycrounno cnxsana co snauennem ocrarxn cropen-
mero oma. Cocecrno c oreuecxnmn rpoamn eme onee nouep-
xnnaer nocnenn cemanrnuecxn orrenox. B +rom rparnsm pyccxo
xnsnn, pyccxo nnnnnnsannn nocroxnno crponrt na paspymennom me-
cre, na nenennme. H on ycnnnnaercx orroro, uro paspymnrenxmn saua-
crym xnnxmrcx camn pyccxne. Fesomnocrt pyccxo xyntrypt n ee rocxa
no omy - ona ns naxntx xoncranr pyccxo nnnnnnsannn.
H, naxonen, cnono nnnnnnsannx. 3ror repmnn narnncxoro nponc-
xoxennx (civilisatio) n nponcxonr or cnona civis rpaxannn, coor-
nercrnenno, npn yxnantnom nepenoe na pyccxn mt nonyuaem rpax-
ancrno
27
. Ipeuecxnm +xnnnanenrom cnona civilisatio (n, nosmoxno,
ero nporornnom) xnnxercx cnono vc\.:. a, xopnem xoroporo xnnxercx
nonnc - ropo, uro nemanonaxno, nocxontxy ono cnxsano c opasom
neantnoro ropoa, n xpncrnancxo rpannnn - Heecnoro Hepycannma
nnn Ipaa Foxnx.
133
,
Co npemen Hnarona n Apncrorenx vc\.:. a osnauano rocyapcrno,
rocyapcrnennoe ycrpocrno. Hoonoe cnonoynorpenenne anexo
ne uyxo nepxonno rpannnn.
B nepxonnom npeannn nonxrne napo, nepymmn napo xnnxer-
cx ocroxnnem nnn cocrnennocrtm Xpncra n nepasptnno cnxsan c
xpncrnancxo nmnepne n xpncrnancxo nnnnnnsanne (nonnrne).
nx npnmepa npnneem rponapt Bosnnxennx Kpecra:
Cnacn, Iocnon, napo Tno
n narocnonn ocroxnne Tnoe,
noet napxm
na napnapon apyx,
n Tnoe coxpanxx
xpecrom Tnonm omecrno
28,29
.
B +rom rnmne npexe ncero orpaxaercx nepa n noenrentnym cnny
Kpecra xax ocnony ne rontxo napcxnx noe, no n camo camoepxan-
no nnacrn. Bropax nex +roro rponapx Kpecr xax xpannrent nmne-
pnn, samnrnnx nnnnnnsannn or napnapcrna, oroxecrnnxemoro c xst-
uecrnom n nenepnem. Cneymmax mtcnt, coepxamaxcx n +rom rnm-
ne, npecrannenne o nmnepnn xax o omecrne xpncrnancxom no
npenmymecrny, ocroxnnn nnn cocrnennocrn Xpncra, Ero nonnrnn, n
xoropo ecrnymr (nnn onxnt ecrnonart) Ero saxont
30
. Onaxo,
+ra nonnrnx nemtcnnma es xpncrnancxoro napoa, xoropt xnnxercx
n ncnonnennem xpncrnancxo nonnrnn-nmnepnn, n ee nentm. B cnxsn c
+rnm saxonomepno ncraer nonpoc o nmnepnn xax o nanonee ecrecrnen-
no ]opme oprannsannn npanocnanno nnnnnnsannn. Hcropnuecxn ontr
noxastnaer: Poccnx moxer cymecrnonart nno xax nmnepnx (n pasnnu-
ntx mon]nxannxx), nno ona nnsnepraercx n netrne. Ontr nocrpoe-
nnx npanocnanno xyntrypt ontr nmnepcxn, nno npoonxenne nm-
nepcxnx rpannn Bnsanrnn (o 1453 r.), nno ontr camocroxrentnoro
nmnepcxoro crponrentcrna.
Onaxo nnnnnnsannx, nnn rocyapcrnennoe ycrpocrno - ne enn-
crnennoe snauenne nexcemt vc\.:. a: nnsanrncxne arnorpa]nuecxne
namxrnnxn rpannnonno osarnannnnannct xnsnt n xnrne; n annom
xonrexcre cnono vc\.:. a moxer nonnmartcx xax noneenne, cnoco
ecrnn. Ha nepxonnocnanxncxn xstx ono rpannnonno nepenon-
noct xax xnrentcrno, n rom uncne n n npnnonmom namn npnmepe c
rponapem Bosnnxennx, n, coornercrnenno, moxer nonnmartcx n xax
cnoco rocyapcrnennoro crponrentcrna n omecrnenno oprannsannn,
n xax cnoco ornomennx c Forom, c mnpom, c uenonexom. B cnxsn c
+rnm neoxonmo ntcrponrt nsnecrnym cerxy ornomenn.
O1nomenne x Bory. nx ornomennx pyccxoro uenonexa x enam
Foxecrnenntm xapaxrepen aconmrnsm nno nonnax nepa, nno a-
134
2009, N 1 (15)
conmrnoe esnepne, npnuem esnepne ne ns +ronsma, a, xax rouno orme-
rnna Harantx Hapounnnxax, ns cocrpaannx x rnapn; +ro nonpoc o
cnesnnxe peenxa, nosnpamennt nner n r.. Ham nsnecrno, uem
xonunnnct +rn npoxnxrte nonpoct - oxeanamn cnes n xponn, no cne-
yer ormernrt, uro nam arensm npnnnnnnantno nno npnpot, uem sa-
nanoenponecxn, nocrpoennt na marepnannsme, +ronsme n nneprn-
nnsme neoysanno xaxe aconmrno cnoot n camontpaxennx.
nx pyccxo menrantnocrn n camonenrn]nxannn xapaxrepen npn-
mar pennrnosnoro (nnn xnasnpennrnosnoro n XX n.). Ecrt belle France
31
,
old merry England
32
, no rontxo Pyct nastnamr cnxrom. 3ro npnmar cax-
pantnoro n npnmar yxonno cnoot na connantno.
Ornomenne x mnpy n napono xyntrype raxxe ntpacraer ns cax-
pantnoro npnnnnna. Taxoe ntpaxenne, xax mart ctpa semnx, ronopnr
camo sa cex
33
. H orcma ocrarouno nerpeonarentnt, mnnocep-
nt cnoco opamennx c oxpyxamme cpeo, c npnpoo
34
. nx ope-
nonmnnonno Poccnn cnpanennnt cnona Maxcnmnnnana Bonomnna:
.. nepannt
H nnmn cpet orarcrn semnn
uepes cronertx nponecnn,
Coxom xontpxx nnnt,
K semne nexanym nmont.
C npnnxrnem xpncrnancrna n pyccxom uenonexe ntpaartnanact
nmont x xpacore, rounee, x npeopaxenno, ounmenno xpacore. uac-
ro +ra xpacora npocra n ocrnraercx nemnornmn cpecrnamn: nocmor-
pnm na nepxont Hoxpona na Hepnn (1164 r.): xasanoct t, nnuero oco-
ennoro. Ho ona cront rapmonnuna, cront ynnnrentno nnncana n ne-
sax, uro npecrannxer coo opas nesemno xpacort, opas ropnero
rpaa. Hmenno na +ro ocnone ]opmnpyercx ro, uro .C. Hnxauen na-
stnan ynnnennem mnpom
35
.
Ornomenne x uenonexy moxno pasennrt no cneymmnm xpnrepnxm:
ornomenne x rocyapcrny n omecrny (n uacrnocrn omnne), ornome-
nne x saxony, ornomenne x cemte n x orentno nnunocrn.
O1nomenne x rocyapc1ny. Ha nepnt nsrnx, pyccxn uenonex
ocrarouno cxenrnuno nacrpoen x rocyapcrny. On ne crpemnrcx na
cnyxy, no n ne orxastnaercx or nee: Ha cnyxy ne nanpamnnacx, or
cnyxt ne orronapnnacx. Xapaxrepno cxenrnuecxoe, nacmemnnnoe
ornomenne pyccxoro uenonexa x perannxm, unnam, xaptepe. Ho, c py-
ro cropont, cnyxnrt eno nouernoe, ne cnyxnrt snaunr trt nne
nsnecrnoro mnponopxxa. Ho npn +rom nopaxaer xeprnennocrt pyc-
cxoro napoa n xpnrnuecxne npemena nx crpant n na cnyxe rocya-
peno. Bcnomnnm xorx t 1612 r., Hnxnn Honropo: H xen, n ere
sanoxnm, a Mocxny nepnem. H +ro nonropxnoct ns cronernx n crone-
135
,
rne, nnnort o Bennxo Oreuecrnenno nont, noea n xoropo tna
t nenosmoxno es oponontnoro camonoxeprnonannx mnnnnonon
pyccxnx nme
36
.
Hoxnnenne raxo xeprnennocrn oxasanoct nosmoxntm naroapx
nym ]axropam. Bo-nepntx, Hpanocnanne nnecno n pyccxym xnsnt ac-
xernuecxoe nauano. Xpncrnancxax acxesa ecrt ynpaxnenne n ope, n
optx enax, mtcnxx, uyncrnax n orceuenne sntx nomtcnon n noxe-
nann. 3ro ntpaorxa paccyxennx n nsnparentnocrn, oropa, roro,
es uero nornaer conpemennax xyntrypa, satxammaxcx no ncexnoc-
rn. H, onee roro, +ro ycranonxa na axrnnnym, nonnxnnuecxym, ex-
rentnym xnsnt: es +ro ycranonxn n namem nannonantnom cosnannn
mt ne cosann t nennxoro rocyapcrna n nennxo xyntrypt, ne omnn
t o Kamuarxn n ne nocrponnn t Hcaaxnencxoro coopa. Bo-nro-
ptx, Hepxont ntpaartnana n pyccxom uenonexe myxecrnennoe orno-
menne x xnsnn n cnoxonoe, ocronoe ornomenne x cmeprn. Cronr ront-
xo nepeunrart Hoyuenne Bnanmnpa Monomaxa nnn sanemannx moc-
xoncxnx xnxse n nape, re c nennxo saoro n nennxnm myxecrnom
nepe nnnom cmeprn onn npennenn nce, uro mor npennert pyccxn
uenonex, xoropt n cnom crpany nmnn, n cnoero Fora oxncx
37
.
C opasom Cnxroro Ipaa nepasptnno cnxsano raxoe ocooe pyccxoe
nonxrne n xnnenne, xax coopnoc1t, nopasymenammee conmecrnoe
enanne na ocnone nnyrpennero yxonnoro enncrna. Ono tno nenos-
moxno n rnnnuno xstuecxo cnryannn pasponennocrn n nont ncex
npornn ncex. Ho nmenno naroapx nonxrnm uipa, xoropoe, xax mt nn-
enn, ntpaorano no xpncrnancxnm nnnxnnem, cosananoct omyme-
nne nceome cnxsn n nceome sanncnmocrn, nennocrn omecrna n
omecrnennoro cyxennx. Mipcxax monna mopcxax nonna, Ha mipy
n cmeprt xpacna - ocrarouno noxasarentnte nocnonnnt, xoropte nn-
nmcrpnpymr ornomenne pyccxoro uenonexa x omecrny n ero coopnoe
mnpo-omymenne.
O1nomenne x saxony. Ha nepnt nsrnx, ono ocrarouno cxenrn-
uecxoe: 3axon, uro tmno, xya nonepnyn, rya n ntmno. Onaxo, npn
neonepnn x nnctmennomy npany pyccxn uenonex nopasnrentno one-
pxer npany otunomy, nnn nenncannomy. Fnaroapx npanocnannm n pyc-
cxoe cosnanne nomno raxoe nonxrne, xax npana. Ono snaunrentno or-
nnuno or enponecxoro nonxrnx npano, cnpanennnocrt - jus, justitia,
noromy uro nmecre co cnpanennnocrtm nopasymenaer n npanenocrt,
cnxrocrt, ne rontxo npany uenoneuecxym, no n npany Foxnm. 3ro
nonxrne opnenrnponanno ne crontxo na nnctmennt, cxontxo na nenn-
cannt saxon, na nnyrpennmm npanenocrt, n ne crontxo na omne sa-
xonoarentnte nonoxennx, cxontxo na nnunoe onepne.
136
2009, N 1 (15)
Hmenno naroapx +romy cosnannm eme n npomnom nexe no uecr-
noe cnono saxnmuannct cenxn na ecxrxn n cornn rtcxu pyne. 3ro
nonxrne npana oprannuno nnxopnopnponano n cex mnnocepne: pyc-
cxn uenonex tn yexen, uro mnnocrt npenosnocnrcx na cyom
(Hax.2, 13).
Hcxonnoe pyccxoe o1nomenne x ceute xapaxrepnsyercx rnyoxnm
ynaxennem x ponrenxm. Ona ns xoncranr pyccxo menrantnocrn
narpnapxar. ocrarouno npnnecrn onn npnmep: sa eroyncrno no
saxony nmneparopa Koncranrnna I Bennxoro nonaranact poena cullei:
nnnonnoro samnnann n memox co smee n pocann n noy
38
. Ho Vnoxe-
nnm 1649 r. sa eroyncrno ponrent noneprancx rontxo roy rmpt-
mt n neunomy noxaxnnm, n ro npemx, xax sa orneyncrno nnn marepe-
yncrno nonaranact xasnt es ncxxnx nomat
39
.
O1nomenne x o1entnouy uenonexy xapaxrepnsyercx npnnnnna-
mn xonnexrnnnsma, nnmenmnx n npnmarom mnnocrn na npano.
Koneuno, ne cronr upesmepno neannsnponart pyccxoro uenonexa.
Hapxy c ntcoramn n nem cxptnannct n crpamnte esnt, xapaxrep-
no, uro n n rom, n n pyrom pyccxn uenonex ne snan npeena. Eme
Rpn Kpnxannu xanonancx, uro mt ne snaem mept nn n uem. O
+rom maxcnmannsme sameuarentno nnmer cn. Rcrnn Hononnu: Pyc-
cxax yma nmeer cno pa n cno a. Her nnre onee crpamnoro aa n
onee nnnoro pax, uem n yme pyccxo. Hn onn uenonex ne naaer
rax rnyoxo, o xpanero sna, xax pyccxn uenonex; no n ro xe npemx nn
onn uenonex ne nsmtnaer rax ntcoxo, o nepmnn, npentmammnx nce
nepmnnt rax, xax pyccxn uenonex. Hcropnx cnnerentcrnyer: pyccxax
yma meuercx mexy uepnemnm aom n camtm cnerntm paem
40
.
Onaxo, axe n cnoem naennn pyccxn uenonex nomnnn o pae, o cnxro-
crn n cnacennn.
Koneuno, mnoroe nopymeno. Conpemennt pyccxn uenonex snaun-
rentno ornnuaercx or openonmnnonnoro, n mnoroe cneyer crponrt c
camoro nauana. Pyccxn uenonex uacro npeneperaer ]opmo, opa-
max nnnmanne na coepxanne, n, xax cnecrnne, sauacrym repxer co-
epxanne ns-sa cnoe ec]opmennocrn. Hs-sa +ro ocoennocrn pyc-
cxne nponrptnann n pasnnuntx rexnonornuecxnx copennonannxx, re
rpeyercx ncnnnnnnnponannocrt, uerxocrt, ymenne paorart c ]op-
mo. Ecnn pyccxn uenonex oparnrcx x cnonm ncroxam n, npexe nce-
ro, x Hpanocnannm, xoropoe ano nosmoxnocrt pyccxnm trt napoom,
n yer onnpartcx na npanocnannte npnnnnnt norocnocrt (r.e. noncx
noroca cmtcna n Cnepxcmtcna), acxernunocrt, nepapxnunocrt, ro on
ne rontxo ntxnner, no n yxpacnr namy semnm nontmn npexpacntmn
nponsneennxmn.
137
,
HPHMEHEHHE
1. Hannonannsm n 3anano, Bocrouno n Rro-Bocrouno Enpone n XIX nexe:
nepcnexrnnt cpannnrentnoro nsyuennx. 26 cenrxpx 2007 r. Xpncrnancrno, nc-
nam, nyansm n (nporo-) nannonantnte nenrnunocrn n enponecxo ncropnn n
cpenne nexa n nonoe npemx. CH. 2008. 8-11 cenrxpx.
2. Ocoo cneyer ormernrt ntcrynnennx .n.n. npo].M.B. mnrpnena.
3. Teopnn +rnoca nocnxmena snaunrentnax nnreparypa. Hanonee nnrepecnt-
mn n nonntmn c nnnorpa]nuecxo rouxn spennx xnnxmrcx paort Cmnra:
Smith A. Theories of Nationalism. L., 1971; Idem. Nationalism in Twentieth Century.
Oxford, 1979; Idem. The Ethnic Revival in the Modern World. Cambridge, 1981;
Idem.The Ethnic Origin of Nation, Oxford, 1986; Idem. National Identity. L., 1991. Hs
pyccxoxstuntx paor, nocnxmenntx reopnn +rnoca, cm. Bpo+.e P. B. Ouepxn
reopnn +rnoca / Hocnecn. H. . Fpomne. Hs. 2-e on. M.: Hsarentcrno HKH,
2008. Cm. raxxe c. Kon]eccnn n nannn. Pennrnosnte n +rnnuecxne rpannnn n
]opmnponannn nannonantntx nenrnunocre n Enpone: or cpenenexontx nc-
xypcon x conpemenntm pesyntraram. M., 2008.
4. Onnm ns neymnx npecrannrene xnnxercx Van den Berghe P.L. Tehe Ethnic
Phenomenon. N.V., 1981. K coxanennm, n ero paorax neannpyercx, npexe nce-
ro, nonornuecxn ]axrop.
Hanpornn, n rpyax In+sepa n Monnx+na ocooe snauenne npnaercx xynt-
rypno-ncropnuecxnm cocrannxmmnm +rnoca. Cm. Glazer N., Moynihan J. Ethnicity.
New York, 1975. Hs nocnennx paor nanonee canancnponanntm noxoom
xapaxrepnsymrcx rpyt Kapa-Mypst. Cm. Kapa-Mvpsa C. Konnennnn +rnnuno-
crn: npnmopnannsm. http://www.contr-tv.ru/common/1991/.
5. Keyes Ch., ed. Ethnic Change. Seattle, 1981. P. 183.
Hanonee xpxnm ee ntpasnrenem xnnncx Anepcon. Cm. Anderson B. Imagined
Communities: Reflection on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. L., 1983. Cmnra
(cm. ntme) moxno raxxe n nsnecrnom cmtcne npnuncnnrt x xoncrpyxrnnncram.
7. Curta Fl. The making of the Slavs. Oxford, 2001.
8. Hoauu Jqeccru. Onn ntyunnnct noenart nyume pomeen, onn, nmn npo-
crte, xoropte npexe ne ocmennnannct noxasartcx ns necon n samnmenntx e-
pentxmn mecr n ne snann, uro raxoe opyxne, xpome nyx nnn rpex merarentntx
xonn. Hepxonnax ncropnx III. 6. 25. Cno pennemnx nnctmenntx nsnecrn o
cnanxnax. T. 1. M., 1991. C. 279.
9. Cpesueecru H.H. Marepnant nx cnonapx pennepyccxoro xstxa. T. 2.
CH., 1902. Kon. 320.
10. Hepnax Hcxoncxax neronnct. 6970 r.
11.Hanpnmep, cu+u xu tae+u+tam tz se sz uutz, tae+am iteaartaum
c+ um (Pnm. 15.16). Anocron. 1220 r. Cm. Cpesueecru H.H. Marepnant nx cnona-
px pennepyccxoro xstxa. T. 3. CH., 1903.
12. Tam xe. Kon. 1649.
13. Hs narnncxoro xstxa n nepxonnocnanxncxn nonan px raxnx repmnnon, xax
ca+a s, aee a (n snauennn pa) n r.. Ha +rom ]one napo moxer trt raxo
xe xantxo c narnncxoro natio, xax n xeu c narnncxoro virtutes.
138
2009, N 1 (15)
14. Koneuno, Hepxont ncera nomnnna, uro no Xpncre ner nn nyex, nn +nnn-
na, nn napnapa, nn cxn]a, nn paa, nn cnoonoro, nn myxcxoro nona, nn xenc-
xoro, no rpannnonno ornocnna +ro x cnacennm uenonexa n x xnsnn yymero
nexa, ne saxptnax na semne rnasa na pasnnunx mexy myxunno n xenmnno n
ne npnstnax x nacnntcrnennomy ynnuroxennm pacrna.
15. Romanus Melodus. Canticum 22. Sect. 1. Cm. Cantica, ed. J. Grosdidier de
Matons, Romanos le Melode. Hymnes, vol. 3 // Sources chretiennes T. 114. 1965.
P. 56.
16. Ocnont connantno xonnennnn Pyccxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn. M., 2000.
C. 52-53.
17. a n nmx y cnanxn n anron nspenne tno enntm: n rex, n pyrnx nastnann
n crapnny cnopamn, noromy, x ymam, uro onn cenxrcx no semne ro ram, ro sect,
cnopanuecxn. Ho+romy-ro nm n nyxno mnoro semnn - net onn onn sannmamr
nourn nect npornnononoxnt eper Hcrpa. Hporonu Kecapucru. Hcropnx
non. VII. 14 // Hporonu Kecapucru. Bona c roramn. O nocrpoxax. M. 1996.
C. 255.
18. Ceu. Marcu+ Oovxoe. Aopr // Hpanocnannax +nnnxnonenx. T. 1. M.,
2000. C. 46-48.
Honnym nnnorpa]nm o Cnone o 3axone n Fnaroarn cm.: Cnonapt xnnx-
nnxon n xnnxnocrn penne Pycn. T.1. H.. 1989. Hs paor, nenocpecrnenno cnx-
sanntx c paccmarpnnaemo namn remarnxo, cm. Hpom. Hee Heoeoee. Forocno-
nne Pyccxo 3emnn xax opasa Oeronanno semnn Hapcrna Heecnoro // Ttcx-
uenerne Kpemennx Pycn. Mexynaponax nepxonno-nayunax xon]epennnx Fo-
rocnonne n yxonnocrt. Mocxna. 11-18 max 1987 r. M., 1989. C. 140-175. Mainka R.
Von Gesetz und Gnade. Die heilsgeschichtliche Schicht im Slovo des Kiever
Metropoliten Ilarion // Clarentianum, 1969, T. 9. S. 273-304.
20. B nnsanrncxnx ncrounnxax VII-IX n. Pas oosnauann napnapon cxannnan-
cxoro nnn nopmancxoro nponcxoxennx (uro nornepxaercx nexoroptmn na-
rnncxnmn ncrounnxamn, no uacrnuno onponepraercx nexoroptmn apacxnmn).
B nacroxmee npemx ontmnncrno yuentx cornacnt n rom, uro nasnanne Ros -
cxannnancxoro, nopmanncxoro nponcxoxennx, xorx cymecrnymr nontrxn cna-
nxncxo, rorcxo, xentrcxo +rnmonornn. Cymecrnonann mnorouncnennte no-
ntrxn +rnmonornsannn, nanpnmep, or xopnx Rud, Rus - ptxn, xpacnt, r.e.
ptxenonoct, cnernononoct. B nacroxmn momenr camo naexno cunraer-
cx +rnmonornx M.B. Fnnxona: Ros - or Rods, uro nepenonrcx xax rpent,
nonnt, nntnymne na nate. Coornercrnenno, pyct, pycnun nonyunnn cnoe na-
snanne or nonncrnennoro npnmnoro +nemenra, cocrannnmero ocnony nepnona-
uantno apncroxparnn, npanxmero xnacca. Hsnoxenne ncex rouex spennx n non-
nym nnnorpa]nm nonpoca cm. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn
nmnepne. M., 1991. C. 290-310.
21. Ceooe B.B. Cnanxne.
22. Hinuu B.aouc.ae (npomouepe). Hcropnx Pyccxo Hpanocnanno Hepx-
nn. 1917-1990. M., 2006. C. 157.
23. Axrt, ornocxmnecx x ncropnn Rxno n 3anano Pycn. T. X. CH., 1882.
N 4. Cr. 2. C. 251-252. Hs nocnennx nynnxann cm. Bacu.ur B.B. O moenxx
nsanmoornomenn nepxonno n rocyapcrnenno nnacrn n +noxy ocnoonrent-
139
,
no nont Forana Xmentnnnxoro // Becrnnx Canxr-Herepyprcxoro ynnnepcn-
rera. 2005. Cepnx 2. Btn. 2. C. 25-50.
24. 3ect n n pyrnx mecrax anrop ncnontsyer nasnanne Manopoccnx ne n
neoparnnnom cmtcne, a n cmtcne yxasannx nsnauantno ponnt xax, nanpn-
mep, Manax Hontma, Manax Asnx nnn npocro Ipennx n npornnononoxnocrt Be-
nnxo Ipennn.
25. a st+se xet ait+s w xa ttre (Hn. 18, 36).
26. Cpesueecru H.H. Marepnant T.2. Kon. 148-149.
27. Cnono rpaxancrno n +rom snauennn npncyrcrnyer n nepenoe 14 Cnona
Ipnropnx Forocnona (O nmnn x entm), n pyxonncxx XIV n.: saxont, rpaxan-
crno, xnrne xporxo (rpeu. nmouj , pol i t eaj , bon mer on) Cm. Cpesueecru H.H.
Marepnant. T. 1. Kon. 577. B annom cnyuae cneyer ronopnrt o xantxnponannn
rpeuecxoro cnona vc\.:. a +xnnnanenrnomy civilisatio (cm. ntme).
28. M.a.a cu c \cu : ..au cu. Z:v: 3.cu. A).a., 3 . Z. 234. Hepeno
B. Bacnnnxa.
29. He cnyuano nosnee H.H.uaxoncxn nonoxnn n ocnony yneprmpt 1812
ro nx pyccxo remt nmenno nanen 1 rnaca nx rponapx Cnacn, Iocnon, nmn
rnox.
30. Hpexpacnax upannnx.
31. Crapax necenax Anrnnx.
32. Hccneonarenn ntncxnnamr xstuecxne xopnn nx +roro nonxrnx. Ha ca-
mom ene sect moxno ronopnrt o nsnecrnom npeopasonannn, xpncrnancxom
xonnenre, a Pyccxax 3emnx ocosnaercx xax nropax Cnxrax 3emnx, yen Foromare-
pn.
33. Mt ne paccmarpnnaem sect cnryannm XX n., nocxontxy +ro cnryannx
cnoma. nanart nex - cnryannx esopasnoro xnmnnuecrna, npoxonnmero
no nymx nosynramn - connanncrnuecxnm: Mt ne moxem xart mnnocre y
npnpot. Bsxrt nx y nee - nama saaua n xannranncrnuecxnm: Fepn or xnsnn
nce.
34. Huxa:ee .C. Ho+rnxa pennepyccxo nnreparypt. M., 1980. C. 32.
35. B nocnenee npemx n cnpana, n cnena yuacrnnnct pasronopt o rom, uro
noea n Bennxo Oreuecrnenno none tna ocrnrnyra npexe ncero naroa-
px xecrxocrn n axe xecroxocrn crannncxoro pexnma, naroapx cnnpeno nc-
nnnnnne, HKB n sarpanrentntm orpxam. Hoonte pasronopt cneyer cun-
rart ne rontxo xnenero na pyccxn napo, no n orpnnannem ncropnn: n 1941 r.
apmnx orcrynana o Mocxnt, necmorpx nn na xaxne sarpaorpxt n HKB, no-
cxontxy n macce cnoe pyccxn conar ne xenan noenart sa xommynncrnuecxn
pexnm. Hepenom n none nponsomen rontxo rora, xora pyccxn napo ocosnan,
uro no nemenxo nnacrtm ero oxnaer ncrpenenne n accnmnnxnnx. H es o-
ponontntx xeprn mnnnnonon pyccxnx nme n npecrannrene pyrnx napoon
CCCP noea tna t nemtcnnma. O +rom n cnoe npemx nncan noxont
A.H. Conxennntn n Apxnnenare IVHAI. Hs onee nosnnx paor cm. Kv.u:-
ruu C. Bcrana, crpana orpomnax. M., 2005.
37. Co.oueeu: H.H. Haponax monapxnx. Mnncx, 1998. C. 473.
38. Codex Justiniani. Liber IX. Titulus 17.
140
2009, N 1 (15)
39. Coopnoe ynoxenne 1649 r. Inana XXII, n ne 26 crare.Vxas, sa xaxne nnnt
xomy unnnrn cmeprnax xasnt, n sa xaxne nnnt cmeprnm ne xasnnrn, a unnnrn
naxasanne.
1. Fyer xoropo ctn nnn out yunnnr orny cnoemy nnn marepn cmeprnoe
yncrno, n nx sa oreuecxoe nnn sa marepne yncrno, xasnnrn cmeprnm xe eso
ncxxnx nomat.
2. A yer xoropo ctn nnn out orny cnoemy nnn marepn cmeprnoe yncrno
yunnxr c nntmn c xem, a ctmercx npo ro onpxma, n no ctcxy rex, xoropte c
nnmn raxoe eno yunnxr, xasnnrn cmeprnm xe eso ncxxnx nomat.
3. A yer oren nnn marn ctna nnn out yner o cmeprn, n nx sa ro nocanrt
n rmpmy na ro, a orcnen n rmpme ro, npnxonrn nm x nepxnn Foxnn, n y
nepxnn Foxnn otxnnxrn ror cno rpex ncem nmem n cnyx. A cmeprnm orna n
marepn sa ctna n sa out ne xasnnrn. Cm. Tuxo+upoe M.H., Enuqauoe H.H. Co-
opnoe ynoxenne 1649 roa. M.: Hs-no Mocx. yn-ra, 1961.C. 288.
40. Hpen. Hvcmuu (Honoeu:). unnoco]cxne nponacrn. M., 2005. C. 189.
141
,
Anexcanp KAHAHH
PYCCKAR HER B KOHTEKCTE
HCTOPHH PYCCKOIO HAPOA
(XIX nauano XXI n.)
onontno uacro noxnnenne nonxrnx pyccxax nex cnxstnamr c
B.C. Conontentm, n mae 1888 r. ntcrynnnmnm n Hapnxe c nexnne no
raxnm nasnannem. C rex nop +ro cnonocoueranne ne pas cranonnnoct
npemerom cnennantntx nstcxann. B.C. Cononten, ortcxnnax orner
n neuntx ncrnnax pennrnn, cunran: ...nex nannn ecrt ne ro, uro ona
cama ymaer o cee no npemenn, no ro, uro For ymaer o ne n neuno-
crn [1. C. 220]. Bropax uacrt conontencxoro onpeenennx ronopnr o
raxom epsnonennn, uro enaer +ry saauy (yxcnnrt: uro For
ymaer ) nonpocry nentnonnnmo.
Ha camom ene cnono nex ne pas ncrpeuaercx n rexcrax XVIII n.,
a c 2030-x rr. XIX n. nonyuaer mnpoxoe pacnpocrpanenne. B nnrepec-
nom xonrexcre ncrpeuaem mt +ro cnono y onoro ns rax nastnaemtx
cnanxno]nnon. B nnctme x M.u. Paencxomy or 15 xnnapx 1860 r. ns
Hennnra H.C. Axcaxon nncan: V menx ecrt namepenne nsart sect
xnnry no nasnannem Russische Ideen r.e. copnnx nnn ntopxy sa-
meuarentnemnx crare ns Pyccxo Fecet, Centcxoro Fnaroycr-
pocrna n np., raxnx, n xoroptx t yuent mnp enponecxn osnaxo-
mnncx c opnrnnantno pyccxom mtcntm, paspaortnaemom, xoneuno,
rontxo cnanxno]nnamn. Hemnt ronopxr, uro pyccxne ne ntpaorann
nnxaxo nen; nor n cneyer nm noxasart, uro nama nex anexo nx
onepenna, n uro nce, cmyrno cosnanaemoe Pnnem, upeenem n pyrn-
mn ocrontmn nemnamn, anno ntcxasano n xcno ocosnano cnanxno-
]nnamn n nonnomeno n xnsnn pyccxoro napoa [2. u. 2.T. 4, C. 29] .
Kax cneyer ns npnneennoro rexcra, H.C. Axcaxon npnsnanan pas-
paorxy opnrnnantno pyccxo mtcnn sacnyro rontxo cnanxno]n-
non. Ho nac n annom cnyuae nnrepecyer n ocosnanne H.C. Axcaxontm
naxnocrn nnycrnrt n oopor omeuenoneuecxn pyccxym mtcnt [2.
u. 2. T. 3. C. 402]. Oparnm nnnmanne n na saauy: noxasart ne npo-
cro namy nem, no nem, anexo nx onepennmym.
K romy npemenn A.C. Xomxxontm mnoroxparno yxastnanoct na nce-
mnpno-ncropnuecxoe npnsnanne Poccnn n pyccxoro napoa. Ho, urot
nosponrt n cee ntcmne nauana, roramnee opasonannoe cocnonne,
orpexmeecx or cnonx xopne, onxno tno conepmnrt ne uro nnoe xax
142
2009, N 1 (15)
nonnr, a nmenno nospoxenne xnsnenntx nauan n nac n pasnnrne nc-
rnnnoro npocnemennx n Cnxro Pycn [3. T. 1. C. 100]. Hyxno tno
nosnpamartcx n pyccxym xnsnt, x Cnxro Pycn, xax x cnoe yxon-
no ponrentnnne [3. T. 1. C. 170]. Hyumax onx npenasnauanact
yymnm noxonennxm. A.C. Xomxxon nonaran, uro n nnx yxe moryr
ntpasnrtcx nnonne nce yxonnte cnnt n nauana, nexamne n ocnone
Cnxro Hpanocnanno Pycn [3. T. 1. C. 173].
Ho cnanxno]nnt nnenn n ro, uro moxer +romy nomemart.
H.C. Axcaxon n cnoe 3anncxe 1855 r. enaer ntno, uro nerponcxax
npannrentcrnennax cncrema neer x romy, uro Poccnx nepecraner trt
Poccne, n rora penonmnnn ee coxpymar [4. C. 88]. Cnanxno]nnon n
npn xnsnn, n nocne xonunnt onontno uacro es ncxxnx ocnonann yn-
pexann n nesnannn poccncxo ecrnnrentnocrn. Btmenpnneennoe
ntcxastnanne (a noontx nponnnarentntx saxnmuenn y nnx tno
nemano) ronopnr xax pas o oparnom.
Hpoer uyrt ontme mecrn ecxrnnern, n B.B. Posanon (rax xe
xax n pantme H.C. Axcaxon) nannmer o nynnxe n nopa omo, no
+ro yer xyrxoe nosnpamenne: Ornxnynnct. Ho nn my, nn omon ne
oxasanoct.
A renept nocmorpnm na npnmepe Xaptxona n Vxpannt, cxontxo ocra-
noct xnntnon, c xaxnm opom n re oxasancx pyccxn napo n ero
opasonannte cnon. Ho nepenncn 1897 r. n Xaptxone 89,1% cocrannx-
nn pyccxne (63,17% nennxopocct, 25,92% manopocct). B rpannnax
ceronxmne Vxpannt +ro tn ropo-crortcxunnx c camtm ntcoxnm
nponenrom nme, nasnanmnx pyccxn xstx pontm (n cocenem Exa-
repnnocnane (ntnemnem nenponerponcxe) coornomenne, nanpnmep,
tno raxnm: 41,8% - nennxopocct, 35,4% - enpen, 15,8% - manopocct
[5. C. 79]).
Bo npemx rpaxancxo nont tnn ynrt, nnmnnnct nmymecrna
nce mano-mantcxn cocroxrentnte npanocnannte pyccxne xaptxonuane,
a Xaptxon npaxrnuecxn nepecran cymecrnonart xax pyccxn ropo. Ha
Vxpanne no pesyntraram Bcecomsno nepenncn 17 exapx 1926 r., xo-
ropax nponcxonna n nepno roramne yxpannnsannn, cpen ropo-
xan yxpannnen tno 47,2%, pyccxnx 25%, enpeen 22,7%. Hpnuem xonn-
uecrno enpeen-ropoxan n Xaptxone ntpocno n 7 pas, n Knene n 5 pas
n r.. [6. C. 60-61]. B cronnunom Xaptxone n 1926 r. yxpannnen tno
160 138 uen., pocixn 154 448 uen., enpeen 81 130 uen. [7. C. 310]
Hponenr pocixn n rocyapcrnennom ynpannennn VCCP n 1920-x rr.,
na pyxonoxmnx nocrax n naprnntx, npo]comsntx, xomcomontcxnx n
p. oprannsannxx tn nnuroxno man. Ho n n ropronne, npenpnnnma-
rentcrne n r.. (ncnomnnm n+n) nponenr pyccxnx tn xpane nenennx.
onx uacrntx npenpnnnmarene (no ornomennm xo ncem npecrann-
143
,
renxm annoro napoa) cpen pyccxnx tna nnmt 0,5%, (cpen enpeen
7,2%, cpen yxpannnen 0,27%). B ropronne (c unenamn ceme) xap-
rnna tna raxo: enpen cocrannxnn 66,7 % or omero uncna ropronnen,
yxpannnt 21,1%, pyccxne 7,3%. Hpnmepno raxoe xe coornomenne
(xorx ecrt nn]pt n xymne nx pyccxnx) nanmanoct n no mnornm
pyrnm c]epam sanxrocrn [6. C. 60-61].
Ecnn xe ncnomnnrt o nennanntx ronennxx oroopuecxo nnacrn
na npanocnannym nepxont (x 1941 r. n Xaptxoncxo enapxnn nesaxptro
ocranact nnmt ona nepxont ns 1063), yxpannnsannm n nepxnn n mno-
roe pyroe, ro mt ynnnm, uro cnycrx cronerne nocne nepntx cnanxno-
]nntcxnx nponsneenn nosnpamartcx omo n tnme Manopoc-
cnn, na Cnooxanmnne, n Xaptxone tno nexomy (rax xax pyccxn o-
penonmnnonnt opasonannt cno n macce cnoe tn ncrpenen, ma-
no uacrtm oxasancx na uyxnne, a ocranmecx n ntxnnme noxa ua-
crtm nnaunn xanxoe cymecrnonanne) n ne x uemy (Cnxrax Pyct crana
oexrom nennanntx ronenn n xomyncrn).
Ho nmenno n +ro xe npemx (1938 r.) apxnenncxon Cepa]nm (Coonen)
sa pyexamn Oreuecrna xparxo ]opmynnpyer yxonnt cmtcn pyccxo-
ro trnx: ...pyccxax neonornx cocronr n npanocnanno nepe n ocno-
nanno na ne xnsnn pyccxoro uenonexa no ncex ex npoxnnennxx
[8. C. 3]. Koneuno, n noconercxo npenoenno Vxpanne raxax xnsnt
tna nonnnntm nonnrom. A sarem nacrynnnn nonte ncntrannx. Hpor.
H. Heeen (cm. ero xnnry Bennxopoccnx: xnsnennt nyrt) nonaran,
uro n Poccnn pyccxn napo xax ncropnuecxax nnunocrt tn pacnxr n
norn na ncropnuecxo Ionro]e, n ocnonnom, c 1917 no 1945 r. Htne n
Poccnn mt nmeem eno c pyrnm napoom, ncxyccrnenno ntpamenntm
nyrem cenexnnn, oropa n coornercrnymmero nocnnrannx ns orpocon
napoa pyccxoro.
Ho snaunr nn +ro (npn neeccnopnocrn ntmenpnneennoro saxnmue-
nnx), uro xnsnt pyccxo mnoromnnnnonno omnnt Vxpannt ne nmeer
nnxaxnx nepcnexrnn? Bonce ner. Tontxo n conpemenntx ycnonnxx nenr-
pom nospoxennx npanocnanno-pyccxo xnsnn (pyccxo neonornn)
moryr trt, n nepnym ouepet, npnxot xanonnuecxo Vxpanncxo npa-
nocnanno nepxnn Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara n nnunte ycnnnx xaxoro
npanocnannoro. A nosnpamartcx na Cnxrym Pyct renept nao ncem: n
nonomy opasonannomy cnom (tnme conercxo n nono nnrennn-
rennnn), n rax nastnaemomy npocromy napoy. Tax xax (n ornnune or
npemenn ncrnnntx cnanxno]nnon) npocro napo n macce cnoe ne
oepxancx, nynnxa ne nepnynact, a Poccncxax ueepannx
crana nx conpemenno Vxpannt cenepntm coceom.
144
2009, N 1 (15)
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Co.oeiee B.C. Counnennx. B 2-x r. M., 1989. T. 2.
2. Hnan Cepreennu Axcaxon n ero nnctmax. B 2-x u. B 4-x r. M., 1888-1896.
3. Xo+roe A.C. Honn. cop. cou. B 8 r. M., 1900.
4. Pannne cnanxno]nnt. M., 1910.
5. Uopuu .M. Ho ninn ix ninpa. Xapxin, 2007.
6. Bncnirnennx icropi nanionantnnx menmnn n xypcax icropi Vxpann ra Poci.
Mar-nn xpyrn. cr. Xapxin, 2006.
7. Bcecomsnn nepennc nmnocri 1926 poxy. T. XXII. M., 1929.
8. Cepaqu+ (Cooo.ee), apxuen. Pyccxax neonornx. CH., 1994.
B HEPHOBHAX OTMETHAH 650-AETHE
MOAABCKOH IOCYAPCTBEHHOCTH
20 max 2009 r. n uepnonnax npomna mexynaponax nayuno-npaxrnuecxax
xon]epennnx 650-nerne opasonannx Monancxoro rocyapcrna. Oprannsaro-
pamn meponpnxrnxmn ntcrynnnn mexpaonnoe omecrno monancxo xyntry-
pt Fyxonnnt (npecearent R. Crannuyx) n ncropnuecxn ]axyntrer uepno-
nnnxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera nm. R. uetxonnua. B xon]epennnn
npnnxnn yuacrne upesntuant n Honnomount nocon Pecnynnxn Monona
n Vxpanne H. Iymennt, npesnenr Bceyxpanncxo monancxo nannonantno-
xyntrypno acconnannn A. uerecxy, nepnt samecrnrent uepnonnnxo roca-
mnnncrpannn B. Hannmx, nccneonarenn ns uepnonnn (oxropa ncropnuecxnx
nayx C. Hnnonapon, I. Koxonxnxo, M. uyuxo n p.), Knmnnena (oxropa xannnrar
ncropnn B. Crenanon, E. Knnnnnxona, H. Pyccen, oxropa ncropnn H. Bopnnxon,
C. Cynxx n p.), Tnpacnonx, Kompara, Oecct, Kamenen-Hoontcxoro, Hnano-
upanxoncxa. Bcero tno saxnneno 69 ntcrynnenn.
B cnonx ntcrynnennxx H. Pyccen n H. Bopnnxon nopono ocranonnnnct na
nauantnom +rane ]opmnponannx Monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn, na yuacrnn
xopennoro nocrounocnanxncxoro nacenennx Kapnarcxnx sement - pycnnon (pyc-
naxon) n cosannn Monancxoro xnxxecrna, ]opmnponannn monancxo napo-
nocrn n oraro monancxo xyntrypt. H. Bopnnxon nanomnnn, uro pyccxn
(pycnncxn) xstx tn o]nnnantntm xstxom xnxxecrna o nauana XVIII n.
O rparnuecxnx cotrnxx nocnennx ne cymecrnonannx Monancxoro xnx-
xecrna paccxasan rnannt peaxrop mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana
Pycnn C. Cynxx n cnoem oxnae Boccranne monanan npornn oennennx c
Banaxne (o cotrnxx 3 anpenx 1866 r. n ccax). B ror ent nanamcxnm nonxom
tna paccrpenxna mnpnax emoncrpannx monanan no rnane c mnrpononnrom,
nporecrymmnx npornn oennennx xnxxecrn. Hponecc oennennx xnxxecrn,
nouepxnyn ncropnx, tn ne raxnm npocrtm, xax ero onnctnaer pymtncxax
ncropnorpa]nx. 3naunrentnax uacrt monancxoro omecrna ntcrynana sa co-
xpanenne Monancxoro xnxxecrna n ne xorena oennennx c Banaxne.
Hecomnenno, xon]epennnx, nponeennax n uepnonnax, npnneer x axrnnnsa-
nnn antneme paspaorxn ncropnn Monannn.
nonoc1n * nonoc1n * nonoc1n * nonoc1n * nonoc1n * nonoc1n
145
,
Hnxonan PYCCEB
PYCCKHH MHP H
PYCCKAR EPABHOCTL
Bcauaa ucmopuuecuaa uayua emuucuaem epayuee
us ceoux onpeeueuumx uacmoauu+ opasoe npoueuux.
Mapmuu Xaeeeep
Hcropnx xaxoro napoa yxonr ncroxamn n rnyoxym pennocrt.
Onaxo nnmt c noxnnennem omamnnx nnctmenntx namxrnnxon cnox-
nt omecrnennt nponecc ocnannaercx, npnoperaer cmtcn ncropnn
nx cex. Co npemenem o]opmnxercx camocosnanne, xoropoe uepes ca-
monasnanne sanycxaer nporpammy pasnnrnx na nexa. Bnepnte orme-
uennoe n Honecrn npemenntx ner ocosnanne pyccxocrn arnpyer-
cx cepenno IX n. 3ror ]axr, ntrexammn ns rexcra penneme ne-
ronncn, ncera anan nccneonarenxm ontmo npocrop nx namer-
pantno npornnononoxntx nocrpoenn. Xorenoct t eme pas oparnrt
nnnmanne na nonxrnx Pyccuaa se+ua, Pyccuoe +ope, pyccuue
uuasoa, a panno n na annte o rom, uro napxrn nastnannct pyctm n
ne nce ronopxr no-cnanxncxn na Pycn (HBH 1950: 206-216). Ena nn
+ry npornnopeunnym xaprnny cneyer cunrart nnoom ymospnrentntx
paccyxenn neronncna. Cxopee ona npecrannxer cxaroe onncanne
nauantno ]ast xonconnannn pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, xoropax sanepmn-
nact rontxo c npnnxrnem xpncrnancrna.
Cornacno O.A. Hnaronony, Pyccuaa uueuuusauua ueuocmuaa
coeouynuocmo yxoeuo-upaecmeeuumx u +amepuauoumx qop+ cy-
uecmeoeauua pyccuoeo uapoa, onpeeuueuaa eeo ucmopuuecuym
cyoy u cqop+upoeaeuaa eeo uauuouauouoe cosuauue (Hnaronon
http://www.netda.ru/belka/texty/ruscivil.htm). Heneno orpnnart, uro +rn
]opmt cxnatnannct ncropnuecxn n, esycnonno, +nonmnnonnponann.
B coornercrnnn c npecrannennxmn o npoennom nyrn (or xnaccnuec-
xnx o nonemnx) ntenxmrcx necxontxo +ranon pasnnrnx pyccxo o-
mnocrn, rax nnn nnaue nsmenxnme cnon xon]nrypannn no npemenn n
npocrpancrne.
B.O. Knmuencxn nnen n uertpex ntenenntx nm nepnoax pyc-
cxo ncropnn ne rontxo euaeume +o+eumm uououusauuu, no n ue-
rtpe Pycn:
1) uenpoecuym, eopooeym, mopeoeym VIIIXIII nn.;
146
2009, N 1 (15)
2) Bepxueeouxcuym, yeuouo-uuaxecuym, eououo-se+ueeuouec-
uym XIII cepenna XV n.;
3) Beuuuym, Mocuoecuym, uapcuo-oapcuym, eoeuuo-se+ueeua-
euouecuym co nropo nononnnt XV o nroporo ecxrnnernx XVII n.;
4) Bcepoccucuym, u+nepamopcuo-eopaucuym nauano XVII
nropax nononnna XIX n. (Knmuencxn 1987: 51-53).
Conpemennt nccneonarent E.C. Hxnnn ronopnr o rpex nocueo-
eameuoumx uuuuax Poccucuo uueuuusauuu:
1) Kueecuo+, nauanmemcx eme no npemena anron n VI-VII nn.;
2) Mocuoecuo+, sanepmnnmemcx napcrnonannem Hnana Iposnoro n
Cmyrntm npemenem;
3) Hemepypecuo+, pexayn xoroporo sanxn npaxrnuecxn nect
XX n.
Hpn +rom yrnepxaercx, uro npn nannunn recno cnxsn mexy nnx-
namn uaxm us uux ece xe cocmaeuaem ocoym omeuouym uu-
euuusauum. Haxonen, saxnneno: Hemepypecuu uuuu Poccucuo
uueuuusauuu cueyem npusuamo ycmuoeueuuo no omuoueuum u
3anauo uueuuusauuu (Hxnnn 2007: 535-536).
Pasymeercx, npnmepon necornacnx n, nepoxrno, neononnmannx mox-
no npnnecrn ontme. Poccnx eme n 1836 r. ycntmana or H.. uaaaena
cnona, ne ocrannxmmne mecra nx pannoymnx: Mm uuuoea ue uuu
pyua o pyuy c npouu+u uapoa+u; +m ue npuuauexu+ uu u ouo-
+y us eeuuuux ce+ecme ueuoeeuecuoeo poa; +m ue npuuauexu+
uu u 3anay, uu u Bocmouy, y uac uem mpauuu uu moeo, uu pyeo-
eo. 3rnmn necxontxnmn crpoxamn anrop ro nn nocrannn narnos, ro nn
nponsnec npnronop uaue ceoeopasuo uueuuusauuu (uaaaen
1991: 34). Kax nsnecrno, ncxope pyccxax omecrnennax mtcnt pasenn-
nact na na narepx sanannxon n cnanxno]nnon, ocrannnmnx ont-
moe nnreparypnoe nacnene no nonpocy o nosmoxnocrxx connantno
+nonmnnn.
Hcropnx Conercxoro Comsa nospoxenno n nnont nornme n re-
uenne menee cronernx nmnepnn noponna neonornm enpasncrna.
Ee xpecrnt oren H.H. Cannnxn nonaran, uro cosanne Poccnn-Enpa-
snn nponsomno n nepxnenonxcxo Pycn XII-XV nn., re uaueeuu pye
ua pyea u conpaeuuco pye c pyeo+ cuou yxoeuo-uyuomypuoeo eu-
saumucuoeo u eocyapcmeeuuo-eoeuuoeo +oueouocuoeo euuauua
(Cannnxn 1997: 154, 304). pyro enpasnen, I.B. Bepnacxn, yrnepx-
an: Moueouocuoe uacuecmeo oueeuuuo pyccuo+y uapoy cosa-
uue nuomu eepasucuoeo eocyapcmea. Busaumucuoe uacuecmeo
eoopyxuuo pyccuu uapo uyxum+ ua cosauua +upoeo epxa-
em cmpoe+ ueu (Bepnacxn 1927: 17). B CCCP eno tno noxna-
ueno n nstcxannxx H.H. Iymnnena (cm., nanp.: Iymnnen 1989) n npoon-
147
,
xeno n nocrconercxym +noxy ero anexo ne cront opnrnnantntmn n ra-
nanrnnntmn nocneonarenxmn.
Hcxan xnmun x pasraxe pyccxo nen n H.A. Fepxen. Hmom
nouamo +my mauy, uyxuo mmo e ue+-mo mpemoe+, uyxuo eos-
uecmuco ua npomueonouoxuocmom eyx uauau eocmouuoeo u
sanauoeo, saxnnn on, nonarax, uro Poccnx noacr npnmep npeopa-
xennx n nepexoa n nonoe Hoeoe Cpeueeeuoeoe (Konanen http://
www.kkovalev.ru/Berdiaev.htm).
Crapt cnop o nnnnnnsannonnom onnxe cpeuuuoeo +upa o cnx
nop ne cran ncropnorpa]nuecxnm ]axrom. Bnyrpn n nns uertpexy-
rontnnxa A]nnt Canxr-Herepypr Exarepnnypr Hepycannm no-
npexnemy napcrnymr n npornnoopcrnymr pyr c pyrom Bepnoc1t
Tpannnn n Anepantnmn 3n1ysnasu. 3ect n n Mocxne, n n Ka-
sann, n n Knene, n n Tnnncn, n n Anxape, n n Tent-Annne, n n Co]nn, n
n Fyxapecre, n n Knmnnene, n n axe n cocrnenntx rnasax ntrnxxr
ueuacmoaue Eepono u ueuacmoaue Asue. 3ect xe pennrn-
osnax n xstxonax neonoponocrt c nenpemenntm npncyrcrnnem npa-
nocnannx n cnanxncrna xapaxrepncrnxn, ne ncera yronte mecrntm
npannrenxm, no ouennnte
Hcxox ns peantnocre anno cnryannn, nentsx ne samernrt, uro n
nayuno nnreparype n ocoenno n nynnnncrnxe pexo nponoxrcx uer-
xne rpann mexy repmnnamn pyccxan nnnnnnsannn n poccnncxan
nnnnnnsannn. Hoxasarentno, uro H.. annnencxn, nnepnte sarono-
pnnmn o camocroxrentntx xyntrypno-ncropnuecxnx rnnax omecrnen-
noro pasnnrnx, ntenxn xax orentnym ennnny ropaso onee mnpo-
xoe xnnenne, rouno nmenyemoe cnannncxan nnnnnnsannn (cm. ann-
nencxn 1991). Kaprnna cranonnrcx eme cnoxnee, ecnn yuecrt nonxrne
Pyccxnn unp, n xoropom +up rpaxryercx n snauennn omnna nnn,
nepnee, omnocrt. Hpnuem, ecnn n ntpaxenne Pyccxnn unp nxna-
tnart cmtcn onee mnpoxn, uem n cnonocoueranne pyccxan nnnn-
nnsannn, rora nao yer npnsnart, uro no ono centm oxaxyrcx
oxopmnxemte ns onoro nenrpa nepyccxne n axe necnanxncxne om-
nocrn. B +ro nonxrnno neonpeenennocrn cnacnrentntmn ncxont-
mn rouxamn moryr cnyxnrt raxne uerxo ntxpncrannnsonanmnecx rep-
mnnt, xax npanocnannan xynt1ypa n pyccxan epaannoc1t.
Topxecrno npanocnanno xyntrypt na Pycn npxmo cnxsano c ycne-
xom ena cnxrtx Knpnnna n Me]onx n Fonrapnn, re exrentnocrt
yxonntx nacnennxon conyncxnx parten nmena rnepo saannym
rocyapcrnom neno-nonnrnuecxym nanpannennocrt. Ona tna npn-
snana nnepnrt n cosnanne conpemennnxon xpncrnancxne nennocrn nn-
sanrncxoro ronxa n nono nx ncero mnpa cnanxncxo cnonecno oo-
nouxe. 3ro npnnnnnnantnoe npeopasonanne nnonno Fonrapnm n nnnn-
148
2009, N 1 (15)
nnsonannym Enpony, no n ro xe npemx ycranannnnano esonacnym nc-
rannnm n or sanano (xaronnuecxo), n or nocrouno (nnsanrncxo)
nepxne. B pesyntrare na ocnooxennom yxonnom npocrpancrne nos-
nnxana nonax nenrnunocrt, oxnartnanmaxcx nce yponnn xnsnn nme,
or nnsmero (tronoro) o ntcmero (pennrnosno-]nnoco]cxoro).
Hpomno onee cronernx, npexe uem ananornunte rpanc]opmannn
nponsomnn na Pycn. Vcnemnoe npnmenenne onrapcxo moenn n Boc-
rouno Enpone, nne ncxxnx comnenn, oycnonneno rnnonornuecxnm cxo-
crnom nenenanpannennax nonnrnxa rocyapcrna, pyxononmoro cnx-
rtm Bnanmnpom, nenact n pocrnenno cnanxncxo cpee. Pyccxan
epaannoc1t ncera necna n cee cnannncxoe npanocnanne, n cym-
noc1nmx uouen1ax 1oaec1nennoe 1ouy, u1o rocnoc1nonano n
Bonrapnn, Cepnn, Banaxnn, Monannn nnn Bennxou xnnae-
c1ne An1oncxou (cm. Hasapon, Hannon 1992: 228-232).
Baxnemne rpann nsanmoecrnnx rocyapcrn, napoon, xyntryp Fan-
xan n Bocrouno Enpont n cpenne nexa +ro ncropnx o omem n
ocoennom npanocnanno omnocrn xax nnnnnnsannn. Ecnn npannrenxm
3anano Enpont rax n ne yanoct noccranonnrt Pnmcxym nmnepnm,
ro n Bnsanrnn anrnunoe nacnene coxpannnoct xax ocnona n nonyunno
antnemee pasnnrne, nnnort o nauana XIII n. omecrno pomeen xnnx-
noct nnnnnnsannonno nanonee nentntm n nponnnyrtm. Hepxonnt
pacxon 1054 r. cran rpynonpeoonnmtm nocne coxpymennx Koncranrn-
nononx xpecronocnamn n 1204 r. Hancera nnmennax tnoro necxa
nmnepnx crana menenno yracart n nepyxenmnom mycyntmancxom n
xaronnuecxom oxpyxennn. Hepnonauantno nmnepcxym neonornm Bn-
sanrnn po+ecuu ouy+euus+ n nanonee nonnom nne nocnpn-
nxna Fonrapnx. 3ect eper nauano crpemnenne no-cnanxncxn nepenn-
nenart Koncranrnnonont sanoenart Hoem Pu+ nnn xorx t npo-
nosrnacnrt cnom cronnny eme onnm Haptrpaom. 3ra yuacrt ne mn-
nonana nn Cepnm, nn Monannm, nn Mocxonnm...
Hocne xparxoro pacnnera npanocnanno Pycn c nenrpom n Knene pyc-
cxne xnxxecrna ncrynnnn n onroe n rynrentnoe npornnoopcrno pyr
c pyrom. A n pesyntrare crann nerxo otue monrontcxnx sanoena-
rene. Onaxo no nnacrtm Opt onn n ocnonnom coxpannnn pennrnos-
no-nonnrnuecxym nenrnunocrt. Hcnam n Vnyce xyun cran rocyap-
crnenno pennrne nnmt xo npemenn, xora npannrenn Pyccxo 3emnn
saxnnnn o cnoe roronnocrn orcrannart cnon npana, nycrt axe n ponn
xancxnx naccanon. Hmenno cenepo-nocrox nocrenenno npenparnncx n
necrnaemt nepxonnt nenrp npanocnanno Enpont rora, xora xo-
nenmmncx mro-sana nce ontme ynxsan n onacntx cnxsxx c xaronn-
uecxnm mnpom.
Co nropo nononnnt XIV n. nnyrpennee pasnoopasne n npanocnan-
nom mnpe crpemnnoct x romy yponnm, xoropt enaer omecrna xynt-
149
,
rypno esopnenrnponanntmn. Fopta no pennrnosntmn snamenamn, nce
uame npnnnmanmax cmtcn nnyrpenne, rposnna nsmennrt nanpannen-
nocrt nnxennx npanocnanno nnnnnnsannn n cropony rnenn. Hcxnm-
uennem crana Cenepo-Bocrounax Pyct, re orcyrcrnne cnacnrene ns-
nne coxpanxno or pacxona ymn n cnococrnonano xonconnannn na-
cenennx na npanocnanno ocnone. Hpana, n 1393 r. nocne nocrannennx
mnrpononnrom Knnpnana nennxn xnxst mocxoncxn Bacnnn mnrpne-
nnu cooman narpnapxy Anronnm: Mm u+ee+ Hepuoeo, a uapa ue
u+ee+ u suamo ue xomu+. Hs Koncranrnnononx nocneonano pasxc-
nenne: Heeos+oxuo xpucmuaua+ u+emo uepuoeo u ue u+emo
uapa! (Kapramen 2009: 412).
Pasnxsxa nnsanrncxo rparenn 29 max 1453 r. npnnena n cmxrenne
Enpony. Bor cnnerentcrno anropa Cmoauua ua Vepe, cosannoro
necxontxnmn ecxrnnernxmn nosxe: E-oey, eueu a ceou+u epeu-
um+u oua+u eeuuuux eocyape, exaeuux om mypou c u+euue+,
u cuumamuuxca, uau cmpauuuuu, u c+epmu y oea npocauux, uau
usaeueuua om mauo em (BHP 1985: 297/293). ecrnnrentno,
orpomnoe xonnuecrno rpexon, ocoenno npecrannrene cnercxo nep-
xymxn n xnnpa, cnemno noxnnyno ponny. Hemano ns nnx npntnano n
pyccxne semnn nyrxmn, yxe nponoxenntmn cnanxncxnmn exennamn c
Fanxan.
Hocne naennx Koncranrnnononx no nnacrt ocmanon monancxn
rocnoapt Cre]an Bennxn (1457-1504) nsxn na cex mnccnm samnrnn-
xa npanocnannx. nx ocnporenmnx npecrannrene npanocnannoro
xpncrnancrna, n uacrnocrn, npn coecrnnn monamecrna A]ona, npann-
rent Monannn cran semntm nonnomennem cnxroro nonna n enncrnen-
ntm ns npannrene, ocrontm napcxoro rnryna. On cran axrnnno pas-
nnnart xyntr cn. Ieoprnx n nmenonartcx napem. Onaxo nocne
1484 r., xora rypxn nsxnn monancxne noprt Fenropo n Knnnx, on or-
xasancx or cnonx namepenn, nanpannn nemano ycnnn nx npnroronne-
nnx x oxnanmemycx n 1492 r. Cynomy nm. B rom xe roy n noan-
nom mocxoncxomy coopy Hsuoxeuuu nacxauuu mnrpononnr 3ocn-
ma yrnepxan, uro cam For npocnannn e npaeocuaeuu npocuaeueeo,
uaeoeepuoeo u xpucmoumueoeo eeuuuoeo uuasa Heaua Bacuuoe-
euua, eocyapa u ca+oepxua ecea Pycu, uoeoeo uapa Koucmaumu-
ua uoeo+y epay Koucmaumuuy Mocuee u ece Pyccuo se+uu u
uum+ +uoeum+ se+ua+ eocyapa (Kasaxona, Hypte 1955: 190; Cxptn-
nnxon http://www.rus-sky.org/history/library/skrynnikov.htm; Vxanxon http:/
/www.pravoslavie.ru/archiv/letopis.htm).
3aounoe conepnnuecrno monancxoro noenot c Hnanom III sa npano
na napcxoe ocronncrno cmennnoct onee xoncrpyxrnnntmn nycro-
ponnnmn ornomennxmn. He nosnee mapra 1486 r. Cre]an Bennxn npe-
noxnn Hnany Bacnntennuy saxnmunrt coms npornn ocmanon, nocxont-
150
2009, N 1 (15)
xy nnen n nem cynocmama upenuaeo npomuey noeauocmea. Hoxa-
sarentno n ro, uro monancxn rocnoapt npnsnan crapmnncrno nenn-
xoro mocxoncxoro xnxsx, nmenyx Hnana Bacnntennua eocnouu +o,
eocyapo eeuuuu, eaua +uuocmo (Kasaxona, Hypte 1955: 387-
388; HC 1965: 61-62).
Bepoxrno, oruacrn uepes Monannm n Mocxny nepemnn napcxne nen
n arpnyrnxa nnsanrncxoro nponcxoxennx. B +rom, cyx no ncemy,
nemanym pont ctrpana ne xena eocyapa Bcea Pycu Co]nx uomn-
nnuna Haneonor, a ero nenecrxa-monananxa n nmn ns nnsxoro e ox-
pyxennx. He cnyuano n 1498 r. ropxecrnennax xoponannx n Vcnencxom
coope Kpemnx 15-nernero ctna Enent Bonomanxn n nnyxa Cre]ana
Bennxoro mnrpnx Hnanonnua, ne nmenmero nnxaxoro ornomennx x rpe-
uecxo nernn nnacrnn, tna nponeena no opasny nenuannx pomec-
xnx nmneparopon. Tora xe na poccncxom repe nnepnte noxnnncx
nyrnant nnsanrncxn open (Kasaxona, Hypte 1955: 190; Cxptnnnxon
http://www.rus-sky.org/history/library/skrynnikov.htm; Vxanxon http://
www.pravoslavie.ru/archiv/letopis.htm).
B +ro xapnnantno nepemennnmecx ocranonxe cxnatnanoct no-
noe nonnmanne npenasnauennx Pycn n antnemnx nepcnexrnn npano-
cnannoro mnpa. B nmemme cnntnt ocmanoopuecxn axnenr Hoee-
cmu o pauyue xonna XV n. (raxxe cnxsanno no nponcxoxennm c
Monanne) noxnnncx npnmeuarentnt mornn ncemorymemy cynrany
moxno npornnocroxrt rontxo npn ycnonnn onaannx raxo xe nenpe-
pexaemo nnacrtm. Huau o naeuuu Hapoepaa coepxnr mtcnt o
rom, uro napcrna moryr nospoxartcx, nsmenxx cnoe mecrononoxenne
(Cononten 1989-III: 208; Xp. 1952: 231-236; OHC 1984: 241). Hecropy
Hcxanepy, opamennomy rypxamn n ncnam pyccxomy uenonexy n yuac-
rnnxy sanoenannx nnsanrncxo cronnnt, npnnanexnr Hoeecmo o
Hapoepae. 3ro nponsneenne npnopeno nsnecrnocrt naroapx nn-
rare-npopouecrny o pyco+ napoe, yymem saxonnom nnaerene
Koncranrnnononx. Hex nensexnoro ropxecrna pyccxnx na mycynt-
manamn (eceeo Hs+auua noeam) cranonnnact naxno nexo n ]op-
mnponannn rocyapcrnenno-nonnrnuecxo xonnennnn Mocxoncxo Pycn.
Bo mnornx cnyuaxx n n antnemem ocnoenne xpncrnancxnx nennocre
Fanxan nponcxonno uepes nocpennuecrno Monannn (Xp. 1952: 199-
209; OHC 1984: 241-242).
Bcero sa cronerne ncnam cran na mro-nocroxe Enpont ne npocro
rocnocrnymme pennrne, no n ena nn ne enncrnenno ecrnym-
me connantno-nonnrnuecxo oxrpnno. Hennocrn, naxonnennte npa-
nocnannem, oxasannct orpomenntmn na nepn]epnm xyntrypno xns-
nn, n nx pecypct nnmt nsnparentno ncnontsonannct Ocmancxo Hop-
ro. Ha nocroxe Enpont, yxe onosnauno onnnernopxemom Mocxno,
151
,
nce nponcxonno ponno naoopor. B nonom pacrymem rocyapcrne my-
cyntman oxnana cyta nonepxenntx nnonepnen. Hpana, neno +ro
noet crann ontmne norepn, cocrannnmne, rnanntm opasom, npn-
operennx Hnrnt n Hontmn. Pasenennt nee ynnn npanocnannt
mnp eme ne nnonne ocosnan, uro n mxnopyccxnx semnxx or Iannua o
Knena onxnte ycnonnx nx rocnocrna cnanxncxoro npanocnannx yxe
orcyrcrnonann.
Onaxo n Poccnx saxnnna o cee xax o nacnennne Bnsanrnn, cnoco-
no nsxrt penanm n opte c rypxamn, nnmt x nauany XVII n. Heant-
nym ]nrypy npanocnannoro napx-ocmanoopna cosanann ne rontxo n
Bocrouno Enpone n na Fanxanax. Bxna n +ro eno nnec n crpemnn-
mncx x saxnmuennm nepxonno ynnn xaronnuecxn mnp. Mocxny n 1595
n 1597 rr. nocernn nocon nant Knnmenra VIII c nentm cxnonnrt napc-
xoe npannrentcrno x none c rypxamn. Emy npennctnann nanomnnart,
umo Busaumua ecmo uacuecmeeuuoe ocmoauue eocyape +oc-
uoecuux, umo uapom, yeuemae+me mypua+u, pocmeeuum pyccuu+
no asmuy u eepe (Cononten 1989-IV: 208).
Btxox na ncropnuecxym apeny n xauecrne ocnonnoro conepnnxa
Ocmancxo nmnepnn, Poccnx xax t cranonnnact ee nonnxom. 3ro
samernnn n Enpone. Anrnnuannn xnnc uneruep npxmo nncan o pyc-
cxnx rocyapcrnenntx nopxxax: Opas npaeueuua y uux eeco+a no-
xox ua mypeuuu, uomopo+y ouu, no-euu+o+y, cmapammca no-
paxamo, cuououo eos+oxuo no nouoxeuum ceoe cmpaum u no +epe
ceoux cnocouocme e euax nouumuuecuux (uneruep 1991: 43).
To xe, nepoxrno, nouyncrnonann n n Cramyne. C cepennt XVII n. n
ornomennxx c Hopro Poccnx nocrenenno opena craryc neyme cro-
pont. Typxn ne es ocnonannx nce c ontme noospnrentnocrtm orno-
cnnnct x noesxam npanocnannoro yxonencrna sa mnnocrtne n Moc-
xny. Mnorne ns ennonepnen oponontno cranonnnnct pyccxnmn aren-
ramn nnn axe cxnonxnn napx x ocnoonrentnomy noxoy na Fanxant.
Hanpnmep, n +rom npoxnnn nacrounnocrt cepcxn narpnapx Ianpnnn,
xoroporo no nosnpamennn omo n 1656 r. rypxn xasnnnn (Tnxomnpon
1947: 196; Horpacxax 1991: 222).
C ycranonnennem ennonnacrnx Herpa Bennxoro n Poccnn nauanact
tcrpax necrepnnsannx: 3ma uemeauaa peeoumuua paseuuyua
epauuum sanauoeo +upa om eocmouumx epauuu Hououu u Hee-
uuu o epauuu Mauouxypcuo u+nepuu (cm. Tonn 1991). Bmecre
c rem, maxcnmym ycnnn Poccnx npnnarana nx maccnponannoro na-
crynnennx na Ocmancxym nmnepnm. Ho paccxasam Herpa I, eme n mno-
crn y nero noxnnnact meura omo+cmumo mypua+ u mamapa+ sa
ece oum, uomopme ouu uauecuu Pycu. 3a Asoncxnmn noxoamn 1695-
1696 rr. nocneonana uepea anexo ne ncera noentx pyccxo-rypen-
152
2009, N 1 (15)
xnx non: 1710-1713, 1735-1739, 1768-1774, 1787-1791, 1806-1812, 1828-
1829, 1853-1856, 1877-1878 rr. Onaxo Hopra, axe nonyuax noepxxy
3anaa, canana ony nosnnnm sa pyro. Boennte ecrnnx ns yxpa-
nncxnx sement nepexnnynnct n Monannm n Banaxnm, a sarem n sa y-
na, ocrnrnyn oxpecrnocre Cramyna (CH3-12 1969: cr. 374-390).
Honoe npemx osnamenonanoct ynaxom Ocmancxo epxant n net-
nantm noemom Poccncxo nmnepnn, xoropax ntpocna ns Mocxo-
nnn, xnnxnmecx ua eeponeua uouuo+ ceema eme n XVII n. (Fpo-
ent 1992: 19). Honopor x 3anay conepmenno ntxonocrnn t xonnen-
nnm Tpertero Pnma, nsmennn o neysnanaemocrn nocrount onnx
Poccnn. Onaxo na +ror pas n coxpanenne rpannn nesamennmt nxna
nnec onronernn pyccxn narncx na mr. Canxr-Herepypr n opte c
rypxamn onapyxnn na Fanxanax nonoro npara Enpony, or nmenn xoro-
po n nepntx pxax ecrnonann upannnx n Anrnnx. Tora-ro noounm
orxptnoct, uro uueuuusauua e Poccuu uocuua npeu+yuecmeeuuo
yxoeum, a ua 3anae npeu+yuecmeeuuo +uouo+uuecuu, nompe-
umeuocuu, axe aepeccueuo-nompeumeuocuu xapaumep (Hna-
ronon http://www.netda.ru/belka/texty/ruscivil.htm). Ocosnanne +roro npa-
nocnanntmn nnrennexryanamn Poccnn npoxonr xpacno nnrtm n ue-
pes ncropnm XX n. H.A. Fepxen, xoropt n rot Bropo mnpono
nont yxnantno penn pyccuo uee, n nexnnn o mnccnn Poccnn
(xnnapt 1945 r.) cnpamnnan n orneuan: Hmo Poccua aem +upy? B
uoeo+ oeauuu mpauuuouuoe ymeepxeuue pyccuo eepm: +up u
pamcmeo uapooe.... On ne mor npenonarart, uro npoer ncero
necxontxo ecxrnnerne omecrnennoe pasnnrne Poccnn yer sarene-
no, a omecrnennoe cosnannem saremneno snamenem reremonnn sana-
ntx nennocre (Konanen http://www.kkovalev.ru/Berdiaev.htm).
Conpemennax 3ananax Enpona nnont cosaer cocrnennte Coen-
nennte Brart. 3a cuer nocroxa Enpont, n rom uncne ero cnanxncxo n
npanocnanno uacre. A no Poccnn nanponanym, xax nonrcx, rynxmr
eupuuocmo ueauoe n couuouyuomypum pacuou (cm. Axne-
sep 1991). Onn, nao npnsnartcx, eme ne crann ncropne. Kmo euuo-
eam? n Hmo euamo? rpynte nonpoct, na xoropte pyccxne
anno ne amr onosnauntx orneron. H +ro onosnauno nerarnnno cxa-
stnanoct n cxastnaercx na cytax Pyccxoro mnpa n pyccxo epxan-
nocrn.
Hopa, naxonen, pasopartcx: B HEM EAO? B.O. Knmuencxn cra-
nnn +ry nourn acrpaxrnym saauy n npocro, no opasno ]opme. Hao
nnmt nonxrt: ro nn nepno, uro pyccxn napo nempoecuu nouu-
mu eeponecuo uueuuusauuu, ro nn ncrnna cnyx n napoe, uro cam
Herp ctn Baqepma a ue+uu essauouuo, noxnnyrt pyccxo
napnne Harante? (Knmuencxn 1990: VIII, 395; IX, 425).
153
,
Ha mo nsrnx, pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, xoropo onn conpemennte
mtcnnrenn npepexamr cxopt n nemnnyemt pacnner, a pyrne cront
xe tcrpym n nensexnym rnent, ne ocraercx nnoro ntopa, xax ca-
moonpeennrtcx poccncxo epxannocrn. Ecnn ee pyxononrenn e-
crnnrentno crpemxrcx x morymecrnennomy nennunm, nao o1pocn1t
nancera nnnnnnsannonnme ue1annn c nepnonuecxnun ncnmm-
xaun arpeccnnnoc1n n reononn1nuecxon ana1nn. Heoxonuo
nocneona1entnoe ocymec1nnenne ennon cosna1entnon c1pa-
1ernn, nenosuoanoe es cxopenmen xonnen1pannn nny1pennnx
n nnemnnx pecypcon na ocnone 1pannnn omen xynt1ypm. Kynt-
rypt cnanxncxoro npanocnannx. 3ro cnacer pyccxym nnnnnnsannm or
yronnennx n oxeane uyxepontx nennocre. 3ro npnneer x nospoxe-
nnm Pyccxoro mnpa no ncem mnpe.
Bnpouem, or saxnnnann npoxy mano. 3ect nao yunrtnart ocoen-
nocrn nannonantnoro xapaxrepa. Ha nporxxennn nocnennx nexon npu-
poa u cyoa eeuu eeuuuopocca mau, umo npuyuuuu eeo emxoumo
ua npa+ym opoey ouououm+u nyma+u. Beuuuopocc +mcuum u e-
cmeyem, uau xoum (Knmuencxn 1987: 316-317). uem +ro upenaro n
ycnonnxx rnoannsannn, eme npecronr ocmtcnnrt. Ho xax trt, ecnn
sect nnuero nentsx ntuncnnrt? Hnn no-npexnemy e Poccum +oxuo
mououo eepumo?
AHTEPATYPA
Axuesep A.C. 1991. Poccnx: xpnrnxa ncropnuecxoro ontra. T. 1. M.
Bpooe.i 4. 1992. Marepnantnax nnnnnnsannx, +xonomnxa n xannrannsm.
T. 3. M.
Bepuaocru I.B. 1927. Haueprannx pyccxo ncropnn. uacrt 1. Hpara.
BHP 1985. Bonncxne nonecrn penne Pycn. Hennnrpa.
Iv+u.ee H.H. 1989. pennxx Pyct n Bennxax crent. M.
auu.eecru H.B. 1991. Poccnx n Enpona. M.
HC 1965. Hcropnuecxne cnxsn napoon CCCP n Pymtnnn. T. 1. M.
Kasaroea H.A., Hvpie B.C. 1955. Anrn]eoantnte epernuecxne nnxennx na
Pycn XIV nauana XVI nexa. M.; H.
Kapmauee A. 2009. Ouepxn no ncropnn pyccxo nepxnn. T. 1. M.
K.m:eecru B.O. 1987. 1990. Counnennx n 9-rn r. T. I, VIII, IX. M.
Koea.ee K. Pyccxax nex xammerocx apncroxpara. H.A. Fepxen // http://
www.kkovalev.ru/Berdiaev.htm
Hasapoe H., Hae.oe H. 1992. Bnacrt n anropnrer n cpenenexono Fonrapnn
XIIXIV nn. (n xonrexcre nnnxnnx Bnsanrnn) // Byzantinoslavica. T. LIII. N 2. C.
228-232.
Hnuu E.C. 2007. nnamnxa nnnnnnsann. CH.
OHC 1984. Ocmancxax nmnepnx n crpant Henrpantno, Bocrouno n Rro-
154
2009, N 1 (15)
Bocrouno Enpont n XV-XVI nn. Inannte renennnn nonnrnuecxnx nsanmoorno-
menn. M.
HBH 1950. Honecrt npemenntx ner. u. I. M.; H.
H.amouoe O.A. Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx // http://www.netda.ru/belka/texty/
ruscivil.htm
Hooepaocra E.M. 1991. 3xonomnuecxne cnxsn Monont co crpanamn Henr-
pantno n Bocrouno Enpont n XVI-XVII nn. Knmnnen.
Caeuru H.H. 1997. Konrnnenr Enpasnx. M.
Crpiuuuroe P.I. Tpern Pnm // http://www.rus-sky.org/history/library/
skrynnikov.htm
Co.oeiee C.M. 1989. Counnennx. Kn. III, IV. M.
CH3-12 1969. Conercxax ncropnuecxax +nnnxnonenx. T. 12. M.
Tuxo+upoe M.H. 1947. Hcropnuecxne cnxsn pyccxoro napoa c mxntmn cna-
nxnamn c pennemnx npemen o nononnnt XVII n. // Cnanxncxn copnnx. M. C.
125-201.
Touou A.r. 1991. Hocrnxenne ncropnn. Copnnx. M.
Vrauroe A.H. Pyccxoe neronncanne n Crpamnt Cy (Conecrnte xnnrn
penne Pycn) // http://www.pravoslavie.ru/archiv/letopis.htm
4.em:ep r. 1991. O rocyapcrne Pyccxom // Hpoesxax no Mocxonnn (Poc-
cnx XVI-XVII nexon rnasamn nnocrpannen). M. C. 25-138.
Xp. 1952. Xpecromarnx no penne pyccxo nnreparype XI-XVII nexon. M.
Uaaoaee H.B. 1991. Hena nexon. M.
Can1 noxapna1cxoro omec1na nuenn
Knpnnna n Meqonn
http://karpatorusyns.org
155
,
Bn1annn APEHCKHH
OHPHHHOCTL B PYCCKOH HCTOPHH
H COBPEMEHHOCTH: YHHBEPCAALHAR
CTPATEIHR BLHBAHHR
Myunrentno pasmtmnxx o ntnemnem cocroxnnn namero napoa, npo-
onxammero erpanponart npancrnenno n ]nsnuecxn n yxe anno
croxmero na rpann ncropnuecxoro netrnx, mtcnenno mt nensexno
opamaemcx x namemy nennxomy npomnomy c onnm rnanntm nonpo-
com: uro xe nosnonxno namnm npexam npeoonenart rnentnte npe-
mena, noonte ntnemnemy, n nocne +roro cranonnrtcx nnmt eme cnnt-
nee? Honxrno, uro n nepnym ouepet nx yxpennxna nestnemocrt npa-
nocnanno nept n nepnocrt cnoemy semnomy Oreuecrny n rocyapcrny,
n xaxom t cocroxnnn ono ne npetnano. Ho uro xe nam enart re-
nept, xora ena nn ne aconmrnoe ontmnncrno napoa pannoymno x
nepe (uacro axe n ne orpnnax ee ]opmantno, no nnxax ne cnxstnax co
cnoe peantno xnsntm), a x rocyapcrny ornocnrcx ena nn ne npax-
eno? Taxnx cnyuaen n name ncropnn eme ne tno. 3ro snaunr, uro
nyxno noncxart xaxne-ro nnte ypoxn namero ncropnuecxoro ontra, na
xoropte pantme mano opamann nnnmanne nno npenparno nx nonnma-
nn.
Kaxercx, uro n ncropnn Pycn ecrt ona nonropxmmaxcx cnryannx
(apxernn,ntpaxaxct nonomontm xapronom), n pasnte +noxn nosno-
nxnmax napoy ntxonrt ns rxxenemnx xpnsncon, ena nn ne ns camo
nornenn. Hecomnenno, uro ona cocrannxer naxnemym uacrt pyccxo-
ro ncropnuecxoro ontra. Peut ner nor o uem. anno yxe sameueno,
uro pyccxax ncropnx xaracrpo]nuna n npeptnncra n mnoroxparno na-
unnanact xax t sanono. Houemy xe ona ne optnanact? Horomy,
uro +rn pasptnt tnn ne rontxo cnecrnnxmn nnemne arpeccnn, no n
axramn nnyrpennero ycnnnx camoro napoa ero cnoconocrn nopnart
co craptm, co craptmn rpexamn n npnntuxamn, xax t ponrtcx sa-
nono n xnrt no-nonomy. Kaxercx, n ncropnn mt ne ncrpeuaem ontme
napoon c raxo xe crenentm nnyrpenne nonnxnocrn, cnexecrn yxa
n cmenocrn pemenn. Vxe camo poxenne Pycn xnnxer nam noont
npnmep. Vcran or yconn, cnanxne camn npnrnacnnn cee npannrene co
cropont, rem camtm npoxnnn nemxnnnym mypocrt n nonnnnoe cmn-
penne. A net noncmy n Enpone re xe camte napxrn (nopmannt)
saxnartnann cee semnn cnno. Ham cnyua ynnxanen.
156
2009, N 1 (15)
uro xe +ro snaunr? 3ro snaunr, uro re cnonene npnanrncxne,
xoropte cymenn oropnartcx or cnonx poontx pacnpe, menxo mex-
oycono snot n cnenort n noymart o yymem, nauann xnrt xax
t sanono, onpnut cnoe sacxopysno n menouno poono cpet:
n nmenno rax onn ocnonann Pyct n nauann namy ncropnm. H anee mt
nnnm ro xe camoe. Honopoxennax Pyct nerxa na noem n nepeno-
cnr nenrp na mr, n Knen (a Cnxrocnan xoren nepenecrn eme antme na
yna). Hmenno +ror nont ntxo onpnut npnntunoro nx napxron
xpyra sement n cosan rora Pyct Bennxym. A yxe n XII n. cn. An-
pe Foronmcxn ynnen nonoe naponoe nnxenne ncxo na cenepo-
nocrox or nepenacenenntx xnencxnx sement n ocnonan ram nont
nenrp Pycn, xoropt cnacer ee n yymem. Cenepo-nocrox noromy n
cnac Pyct nocne nnosemntx norpomon c nocroxa n sanaa, uro cymen,
xax n nepnte cnonene, crart onpnut menxoxnxxecxnx pasopon,
norynnmnx Pyct Knencxym. Cn. Anexcanp Hencxn cnan onpnut
roptnn xnxse n cmnpenno noxopnncx rarapcxo nomomn n orcroxn
Pyct or nornomennx +xcnancne 3anaa. H, naxonen, yxe n XVI n. napt
Hnan Iposnt, uyom ntxnnmn n oxpcxnx cmyrax cnoe mnocrn, cran
onpnut nonoro mecrnnuecrna, rposnnmero nonropennem cytt Pycn
Knencxo. On nomen na oruaxnnt mar, xoropt peman nce: nno nn-
mnrtcx napcrna n nornnyrt, nno noccranonnrt Pyct cnntnym n en-
noepxannym, xoropax npocymecrnyer nexa. Ecnn t on +roro ne ce-
nan, ro Cmyra nauanact t na nonnexa panee n noxoponnna t Pyccxoe
rocyapcrno nancera.
B Cmyry naponoe ononuenne Mnnnna n Hoxapcxoro crano onpnut
ncex nnyrpennnx pasopon n ne nnnynoct na Mocxny o rex nop, noxa
ne nounnnno cee nce pyccxne cnnt. A uepes necxontxo ecxrnnern
na mre Pycn, na 3anopoxte, napo cran onpnut cnoero rocyapcrna,
nonxn nony sa nepy n nontnocrn, a sarem coennnncx c enno Pyctm
Mocxoncxo. Eme nonnexa cnycrx Herp Bennxn, xax n n cnoe npemx
Hnan IV, cran onpnut oxpcxo nnacrn, cran ntcrpannart cnom ap-
mnm n rocyapcrno, nepnoe npemx xax t napannentno cymecrnonan-
mne, n rontxo rax ononnn Pyct.
He yem paccmarpnnart nosnemne, onee rparnuecxne cotrnx,
net n rax ouennno, uro pyccxax Cmyra XX n. roxe npecrannxna
coo ne uro nnoe, xax nontrxy pasntx cnn crart onpnut conepmam-
mecx xaracrpo]t n nauart xnrt no cnoe npane, sanono. H noe-
nna n XX n. ra cnna, ute onpnut tno camtm panxantntm n aco-
nmrntm, nepnoe npemx orpnnanmnm axe camte ocnont pyccxo xynt-
rypt n rocyapcrnennocrn. H sect cpaorana ra xe moent, xoro-
pax paorana yxe rtcxuy ner.
H uro xe mt nmeem renept? Vxe nocne naennx esoxno nnacrn
Pyct ntmnpaer ]nsnuecxn n paspymaercx xax ennt napont opra-
157
,
nnsm. Ona no-xnnomy nepepesana nontmn rocyapcrnenntmn rpannna-
mn, nepenonnxercx nnoponamn n oypmannnaercx neonorne cxorcxo-
ro cymecrnonannx n amepnxannsnponannom norpenrentcxom ome-
crne. Monoext ntpoxaercx npancrnenno or nycrort xnsnn n rn-
ner ]nsnuecxn or anxoronx n napxornxon. axe ntnemnee noccranon-
nenne n yxpennenne poccncxo rocyapcrnennocrn +ro nnmt nnemnxx
ponx, no xoropo nponecc rnnennx napoa npoonxaercx. Ona-
xo, samernm, noxnnenne +ro ponn ror ]axr, uro Poccnx ne pacna-
nact n ne oxonuarentno pasrpanena n 1990-e, ecrt noncrnne snax
Hponnennx. 3rnm Iocnot noxastnaer, uro aer nam npemx n manc
nx nospoxennx. Ho xax xe nm nocnontsonartcx, rnxx na nce nponc-
xoxmee?
Ontr ncropnn nocxastnaer: crart onpnut. uaxrnuecxn Pyct
Hpanocnannax n rax xnner onpnut conpemennoro omecrna c pan-
xantno nntmn nennocrxmn n nonnmannem xnsnn. Ho npnmno npemx, xora
nepxont moxer crart enncrnenntm npnexnmem mnornx mnnnnonon
npancrnenno, a ornmt ne rontxo n ne crontxo marepnantno, oeso-
nenntx nme, xoropte n nnom cnyuae npocro erpanpymr n norn-
nyr. Htne npnmno npemx npnnnnnnantno camooprannsannn npanocnan-
noro napoa. H nepnte snaxn +roro yxe ecrt. Hanpnmep, rontxo npano-
cnannte nosnpamamrcx n onycrenmne epennn, a net nmenno ram xo-
pent napoa. Ho n n ropoax cxonnnoct orpomnoe xonnuecrno nenpnxa-
xnntx nme, ocoenno espaorno monoexn. Bce +rn nmn moryr
npnrn n nepxont uepes pasnnunte nnt exrentnocrn, n nepnym oue-
pet, +xonomnuecxne. Hanpnmep, ecnn n manom n cpenem nsnece n
pasnnuntx c]epax +xonomnxn cnoxnrcx snaunrentnt cexrop ns npa-
nocnanntx npenpnnnmarene n paornnxon, on cmoxer nnpart n cex,
cnacart or erpaannn n nocrenenno nonepxonnxrt ontmne macct
nme. Ha +ro ocnone co npemenem moxer cnoxnrtcx n mnpoxax cert
npanocnanntx cnercxnx yuentx saneenn n npanocnanntx CMH.
Haxonen, ecnn na +ro xe noune nosponrcx rpannnonnax mnoroer-
nax cemtx, ro xopent napoa coxpannrcx n noccranonnrcx. Xnnx on-
pnut ncenonennocre conpemennoro ntmnpammero norpenrentc-
xoro omecrna, npanocnannte nmenno noromy n xnnxmrcx camo na-
exno onopo Iocyapcrna Poccncxoro, uro nnxr n nem ne npocro
copmnxa nanoron, a reno semnoro Oreuecrna. Ho+romy n rocyap-
crno xora-ro craner cnona npanocnanntm.
158
2009, N 1 (15)
Cepren CYARK
PYCHHL KAPHATCKOIO PEIHOHA
H PYCCKAR HHBHAH3AHHR
Mne npnxrno npnnnmart yuacrne n saceannn namero xpyrnoro cro-
na, npoxoxmero n Canxr-Herepypre, n crenax Canxr-Herepyprcxoro
ynnnepcnrera, utnm nepntm pexropom tn ntxoen ns Vropcxo Pycn,
pycnn Mnxann Anpeennu Fanyrtxncxn (Fanyxncxn) (1769-1847). B
1916 r. Iannnxo-pyccxoe omecrno n Herporpae nsano nepnt rom
ynnxantnoro nccneonannx u.u. Apncrona Kapnaropyccxne nncare-
nn. B Kponmrare noxoponen onn ns axrnnntx exrene Hepnoro
pycnncxoro Bospoxennx Mnxann Anexceennu Kauxoncxn (1802-1872).
Hacenenne Kapnarcxo Pycn oxasanoct n cocrane pyrnx rocyapcrn:
Hoxapnarcxax (Vropcxax) Pyct n cocrane Benrpnn x XIII n., Iannnxax
Pyct n cocrane Hontmn c xonna XIV n. o nauana XX n. pycnnt xax
+rnnuecxax rpynna coxpanxnnct n Cemnrpate (Tpancnntnannn).
Pycnnt Fyxonnnt nmecre c nonoxamn n pycnnamn ns Mapamopoma
(Mapamypema) cosann npanocnannoe Monancxoe xnxxecrno (1359).
Ero cranonnenne npnxonrcx n nepno oocrpennx optt Hontmn,
Benrpnn n Bennxoro xnxxecrna Hnroncxoro n Pyccxoro sa Iannnxoe
nacnecrno. Knxxecrno tno cosano no pennepyccxnm opasnam,
pyccxn xstx tn o]nnnantntm xstxom xnxxecrna o nauana XVIII n.
onroe npemx pyccxne (pycnnt) cocrannxnn snaunrentnym uacrt xn-
rene xnxxecrna (n cepenne XIV n. nx uncnennocrt oxonna o 40%
nacenennx). onroe npemx Monancxoe xnxxecrno oxastnano noep-
xxy n coxpanennn npanocnannx n Iannunne n Hoxapnarcxo Pycn.
Hecmorpx na ro, uro Kapnarcxax Pyct oxasanact n cocrane xaronn-
uecxnx Benrpnn n Hontmn, npanocnannoro Monancxoro xnxxecrna,
mecrnoe pyccxoe nacenenne mnoro nexon npoonxano ocosnanart cex
Pyccuaa uueuuusauua - ueuocmuaa coeouynuocmo yxoe-
uo-upaecmeeuumx u +amepuauoumx qop+ cyuecmeoeauua
pyccuoeo uapoa, onpeeuueuaa eeo ucmopuuecuym cyoy
u cqop+upoeaeuaa eeo uauuouauouoe cosuauue*.
* Cnxrax Pyct. 3nnnxnonenuecxn cnonapt pyccxo nnnnnnsannn. Cocrann-
rent O.A. Hnaronon. M.: Hpanocnannoe nsarentcrno 3nnnxnonenx Pyccxo
nnnnnnsannn, 2000.
159
,
uacrtm enno pyccxo nnnnnnsannn. Ero npecrannrenn nnecnn snaun-
rentnt nxna n cranonnenne pyccxoro npanocnannx, rocyapcrnennoc-
rn, nayxn, xyntrypt, nnreparypnoro pyccxoro xstxa. Hpnney px npn-
mepon. Vropcxne pycnnt Ieoprn n Monce (npenoont Monce Vr-
pnn, Heuepcxn) n nauane XI n. nocrynnnn na cnyxy x cn. naronepno-
my xnxsm Fopncy. Mycnnt-Hymxnnt ne es ocnonannx cunrann, uro nx
npeox Parma (XII n.) - ntxoen ns Cemnrpatx (Cemnrpacxo Pycn)
[1. C.12]. Btxoen ns Monancxoro xnxxecrna Hamna (mnpcxoe nmx
Hanen) Feptna (mexy 1555-60-1632), nearor, nncarent, ]nnonor,
neuarnnx, rpanep, apxnrnnorpa] Poccxnx nepxnn nsan sa cnon cpe-
crna Hexcixon cnanenopocxi n nmen rnxonanie (Knen, 1627) onn
ns nepntx neuarntx pyccxnx cnonape, nacunrtnammn onee 7 rtc.
cnon. Ha ero cocrannennem on paoran onee 30 ner. Ero par Crenan
(Cre]an, ? ym. nocne 1634), neuarnnx, rpanep, no+r, paoran nmecre c
Hamno n rnnorpa]nxx n Crpxrnne, Htnone, a sarem n rnnorpa]nn Kn-
eno-Heuepcxo Hanpt [2. C. 84-85].
Ocoenno xpxo npnnanexnocrt pycnnon x pyccxo nnnnnnsannn npo-
xnnxercx no nropo nononnne XIX nauane XX n. K romy npemenn Ia-
nnnxax, Fyxonnncxax, Hoxapnarcxax Pyct nomnn n cocran Ancrpnc-
xo (c 1867 r. Ancrpo-Benrepcxo) nmnepnn.
B +ro npemx naunnaercx Hepnoe pycnncxoe Bospoxenne. Ono noc-
npnnnmanoct xax nosnpamenne x omepyccxo ncropnn, xyntrype n xst-
xy. Taxxe n +ro npemx mnpnrcx opxonoe nnxenne, onnm ns nne-
pon xoroporo cran cnxmennnx Hoann Haymonnu. Tax xax nmte nontr-
xn nepnyrtcx n npanocnanne n Iannunne npecexannct nnacrxmn, ro +ro
nnxenne crannno nentm ouncrnrt ynnarcxn opx or xaronnuecxnx
ncxaxenn, r.e. noccranonnrt npanocnannoe orocnyxenne. Bet ynnx
1596 r. npeycmarpnnana nonnoe coxpanenne npanocnannoro orocny-
xennx npn nepexoe no nnacrt nant. Onaxo no annennem Pnma
nnxenne ncxope tno sanpemeno.
Hepexo xnrene rannnxoro cena Innnnuxn n xonne 1881 r. n npano-
cnanne ntsnan rpomxn cyent nponecc. K cyy npnnnexnn nyx xpe-
crtxn n nsnecrntx exrene pycnncxoro Bospoxennx: A.H. opxnc-
xoro, ero out Ontry Ipaapt, o. Hoanna Haymonnua, ero ctna Bnan-
mnpa n pyrnx. uertpex onnnxemtx npnronopnnn x pasnnuntm cpo-
xam saxnmuennx, or rpex o noctmn mecxnen. O. Hoann Haymonnu tn
npnronopen x noctmn mecxnam rmptmt [3. C. 312-313].
B nauane 1904 r. n Vropcxo Pycn nauancx Hepnt Mapamopom-Cn-
rercxn nponecc npornn xnrene noxapnarcxoro cena Hst (neanexo
or Xycra). Hx onnnnnn n rom, uro onn monxrcx sa pyccxoro napx n
nocrpexamr napo npornn ynnarcxo nept. 7 xpecrtxn tnn npnrono-
pent x cpoxam saxnmuennx or enxrn ne o 14 mecxnen n xpynntm
160
2009, N 1 (15)
enexntm mrpa]am [4. C. 441]. 29 exapx 1913 r. nauancx Bropo
Mapamopom-Cnrercxn nponecc. Hepnonauantno x cyy npnnnexnn 189
uenonex, npenmymecrnenno xpecrtxn cen Hst (c. Hst n nauane XX n.
ano onee 160 npanocnanntx monaxon n monaxnnt) n Bennxne Hyuxn
(nns Myxauena). Bo npemx apecra n saxnmuennx xpecrtxne nonepra-
nnct nsenarentcrnam n nsnennxm co cropont nenrepcxnx xanap-
mon. Bnocnecrnnn npoxypop ymentmnn uncno onnnxemtx o 94 xpe-
crtxn, onnnnn nx n nocrpexarentcrne npornn matxpcxoro napoa,
rpexo-xaronnuecxoro neponcnoneannx n yxonencrna, n napymennn sa-
xonon. 3 mapra 1914 r. tn ntnecen npnronop 32 onnnxemtm. Hx npn-
ronopnnn n ome cnoxnocrn x 39,5 roam rmptmt [5. C. 35].
Maccont nepexo n npanocnanne pycnncxnx cen na Hemxonmnne (nem-
xn - ona ns +rnorpa]nuecxnx rpynn pycnnon, npoxnnammax n 3anano
Iannnnn), n Coxantmnne n Konomtmnne (Bocrounax Iannnnx) roxe
ntsnan penpeccnn co cropont ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre. 17 mapra
1911 r. tnn apecronant na npanocnanntx cnxmennnxa - Hrnarn Iy-
nma n Maxcnm Canonnu, a raxxe Cemen Rptennu Fenacmx n cry-
enr-mpncr Bacnnn Anpeennu Konpa. Hx epxann n rmptme na c
nononnno roa, ne npexnnxx onnnenn. Hepe camo nono no
Htnone nauancx nponecc o rocyapcrnenno nsmene n mnnonaxe.
Hocynmte tnn onpanant npncxxntmn sacearenxmn, necmorpx
na annenne co cropont cytn [6. C. 104].
C nauanom Hepno mnpono nont tnn saxptrt nce pycnncxne opra-
nnsannn. Ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn cosann nx pycnnon nepnte n En-
pone xonnnarepx Tanepro] n Tepesnn. uepes Tanepro] npomnn ne me-
nee 20 000 pyccxnx rannuan n yxonnnnen. Mnorne tnn xasnent es
cya n cnecrnnx. B 1915 n 1916-1917 rr. n Bene npomno na nonnrnuec-
xnx nponecca, na xoroptx onnnxnact cama nex enncrna pyccxoro
napoa n pyccxoro nnreparypnoro xstxa. Ha cxamte nocynmtx tnn
enyrart ancrpncxoro napnamenra, cnxmennnxn (9 - no nropom npo-
necce), nnrennnrenrt, xpecrtxne. Fontmnncrno onnnxemtx (cpen nnx
. Mapxon, B. Kyptnonnu, K. Forartpen, H. Hypxanonnu) tnn npnro-
nopent x cmeprn. Bnocnecrnnn cmeprnym xasnt samennnn na noxns-
nennoe saxnmuenne, a necno 1917 r. saxnmuenntx amnncrnponann (no-
ponee o renonne npornn pycnnon n rot Hepno mnpono nont cm.:
[7, 8]).
B +rom roy ncnonnxercx 95 ner c nauana renonna pycnnon n cosa-
nnx nepntx n Enpone xonnnarepe. Camt crpamnt ns nnx tn Tanep-
ro]. Hepnax naprnx saxnmuenntx tna npnrnana n narept 4 cenrxpx
1914 r. K coxanennm, o cnx nop renonn pycnnon n rot Hepno mnpo-
no nont ne nonyunn onxnoro ocnemennx n ncropnorpa]nn. Tanep-
ro] cran nx pycnnon Pyccxo Ionro]o, cnxmenntm mecrom myuenn-
161
,
uecrna sa pyccxym nem. Hamxrnnxn xeprnam Tanepro]a o cnx nop
coxpannnnct no mnornx nacenenntx nynxrax Iannunnt.
Mt ne onxnt satnart cnoe npomnoe. 3ro n ant namxrn namnm
npexam, +ro n xenanne, urot nanonee rparnuecxne n xponante crpa-
nnnt name ncropnn nnxora ne nonropnnnct nnont. Mne xaxercx yme-
crntm nponeenne mexynapono nayuno xon]epennnn, nocnxmen-
no 95-nernm nauana Hepno mnpono nont, re tna t nonxra n
rema renonna pycnnon n Ancrpo-Benrpnn. Hennoxo tno t nponecrn
raxym xon]epennnm ocentm na ase ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera Canxr-
Herepyprcxoro ynnnepcnrera.
Ecnn nnannpyercx nponeenne nayuntx meponpnxrn, npnypouenntx
x 240-nernm co nx poxennx nepnoro pexropa Canxr-Herepyprcxoro
ynnnepcnrera M.A. Fanyrtxncxoro, ro nennoxo tno t ocnernrt n pam-
xax +rnx meponpnxrn nxna nacenennx Kapnarcxo Pycn n pasnnrne
pyccxo nayxn n xyntrypt.
Mnoro nexon pycnnt Kapnarcxo Pycn, oxasanmnecx n cocrane Ben-
rpnn n Hontmn, oponnct sa coxpanenne cnoe +rnnunocrn n npanocnan-
no nept. B cpenne nexa conpornnnenne pycnnon nontcxo-xaronnuec-
xo arpeccnn nomorno cranonnennm nono pyccxo rocyapcrnennocrn
na cenepo-nocroxe Pycn.
Hocne npexpamennx cymecrnonannx Iannnxoro xnxxecrna pycnnt
nmecre c nonoxamn cosann npanocnannoe Monancxoe xnxxecrno.
Heonoxparno npenpnnnmannct nontrxn cosannx pycnncxo rocyap-
crnennocrn nocne Hepno mnpono nont.
Co nropo nononnnt XIX n. o nauana Bropo mnpono nont npo-
mno na pycnncxnx Bospoxennx. Tperte pycnncxoe Bospoxenne na-
uanoct n xonne XX n. Hocrenenno ono cranonnrcx maccontm nnxenn-
em, nentm xoroporo xnnxercx nosnpamenne noromxam pycnnon ncropn-
uecxo namxrn, coxpanenne +rnoxyntrypntx ocoennocre.
Cnona, cxasannte Ocnnom Anpeennuem Monuanoncxnm (1858-1906),
axrnnntm yuacrnnxom Hepnoro pycnncxoro Bospoxennx, n ero paore
Cnxrax Pyct, ne norepxnn axryantnocrn n ceronx: Her, uecrnt
ctn Pycn, yt ona Iannnxax nnn Fyxonnncxax, ne rontxo ne moxer
trt nparom cnoe oporo Marepn, Cnxro Pycn, no n onxen ncemn
saxonntmn n naropontmn cpecrnamn noenrt paspymammnx na-
nnonantnoe n xyntrypnoe enncrno pyccxoro napoa A nx optt
mt nmeem nenoenmoe opyxne: ncrnny Xpncrono nept, npononeye-
mo cnxro nepxontm, n ee uynt opx, c xoroptmn nexamn cxnncx
pyccxn napo; ncropnm Pycn n pyccxym nnreparypy c orartm pyc-
cxnm xnnxntm xstxom, xoropte cocrannxmr nannonantnoe n xyntryp-
noe n ntpaxenne ncero pyccxoro napoa, n pesyntrar ero rtcxuenerne-
ro rpya; npoyxenne, yxpennenne pyccxoro naponoro camocosnannx
n maccax napoa npn nomomn naponoro xstxa [9. C. 108-108].
162
2009, N 1 (15)
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Bece.oecru C.B. Po n npexn A.C. Hymxnna n ncropnn // Po n npexn
A.C. Hymxnna. Cocr. n npencnonne O.B. Ptxono. M.: Bacanra, 1995. - 448 c.
2. Cv.r C. Hmn ropnrcx Monannx // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xyp-
nan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2006. N 3 (5). C. 81-148.
3. Ceucmvu 4.H. Hpnxapnarcxax Pyct no nnaennem Ancrpnn // Hpnxapnarc-
xax Pyct no nnaennem Ancrpnn. Bropoe ononnennoe nsanne. Hsarent
H.C. Iapt. Trumbull, Connecticut 06611, 1970. C. 13-446.
4. Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+auopum. Hcropnx Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3axap-
narte. Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn Myxauencxn monacrtpt: OPH 4iokuiu. -
528 c.
5. Ipaoe M. K ncropnn Mapmapomcxoro nponecca (eno 94-x 29/XII 1913 -
3/III 1914). Vxropo: Hsanne Kapnaropyccxo rpyono naprnn, 1934. - 56 c.
6. Hauaeea H.M. Ouepxn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX-XX nn. M.:
Hmnepcxax rpannnx, 2007. - 192 c.
7 . Cv.r C. Pycnnt: ypoxn rparnuecxo ncropnn // Mexynapont ncropn-
uecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2008. N 3-4 (13-14). C. 7-34.
8 . Cv.r C. Tanepro] n Tepesnn: satrt renonn // Mexynapont ncro-
pnuecxn xypnan Pycnn [Knmnnen]. 2008. N 3-4 (13-14). C. 69-75.
9. Mou:a.oecru O.A. Cnxrax Pyct // Hpnnoxenne x Iannuannny. Htnon:
Tnnorpa]nx Cranponnrncxoro nncrnryra, 1903. - 110 c.
163

Anexcanp KOHYBHHCKHH
HACTHLE MOAABCKHE H3AHHR
AR PYCCKOH mKOAL.
(BHBAHOIPAmHHECKHE 3AMETKH)*
I
Kpynnax nonoca semnn, asnc xoropo necuant n osepnt eper uep-
noro mopx or ycrtx ynax (Knnncxoe rnpno nnn xepeno) o ycrtx ne-
crpa, rxnymaxcx cnauana mnpoxo, sarem nce onee n onee cyxnnammecx
nenro, nourn n neprnxantnom nanpannennn or mra na cenep, mexy cner-
ntx no nsnyuncroro necrpa n ronytx no tcrporo Hpyra (na mre +ra
nonoca n 150 nepcr, a na cenepe n 30-40), opasyer namy norpannunym na
mro-sanae Feccapacxym ryepnnm nnn, xax npnnxro ronopnrt n ome-
xnrnn, Feccapanm. Ho, c rouxn spennx ncropnn nnn ncropnuecxo reorpa-
]nn, repmnn Feccapanx ornmt ne oxnartnaer ncero roro npocrpancrna
mexy necrpom c nocroxa n Hpyrom c sanaa, xoropoe mt nastnaem Fec-
capacxo ryepnne.
Htnemnxx Feccapacxax ryepnnx, uro xacaercx nna nnn ]opmt ee no-
nepxnocrn, pacnaaercx na ne nepannomepnte n nenoxoxne cnonmn ]nsn-
uecxnmn uepramn uacrn. Ha mre mexy nnxnnm reuennem necrpa n Hpyra
rpannosnax, nonnncrax, nnmennax neca crent, ra crent, xoropax n nernne
mecxnt nponsnonna raxoe xe uapymmee nneuarnenne na namnx nepntx
noenntx ronorpa]on, ncxope nocne npncoennennx x nmnepnn Feccapann,
xaxoe, nemnoro nosxe, na nennxoro nontcxoro no+ra, ntpnanmax nenontno
ns rpyn ero ne npocro nocxnnnanne-mexomerne, a nocropxennt npnner
n nsxmnom conere ntnntn na npocrop cyxoro oxeana, Honosxa n sene-
nn ntpxer yro uenn... H x n moe mnocrn ne pas +ror mnpoxn cyxo
oxean nepenntnan n raxo xe nonosxe - n xonne 50-x n nauane 60-x roon
npomnoro cronernx, n n moe namxrn nensrnanmo saneuarnenact ra xe xap-
rnna, naroyxanno onnnt, neoxrnoro nnerncroro xonpa, xonpa co-
ncem n monancxom crnne. Tenept, c neotxnonenntm ymnoxennem nace-
nennx, nce nepenaxano, n or tno crenn ono nocnomnnanne, npeanne,
nerena (no nocnennm crarncrnuecxnm cneennxm, n onom Axxepmanc-
xom yese xnrene 257 rtcxu ym ooero nona).
Crennax uacrt notmaercx na cenep or epera mopx, re na cro, re n na
necxontxo ontme nepcr, o mnpoxo, onorncro onnnt Fornt, npnroxa
necrpa na nocroxe. Ecrecrnennax rpannna crenn na cenepe connaaer c
pacnonoxennem saraounoro, rax nastnaemoro nepxnero Tpoxnona nana,
* Crartx tna onynnxonana n pypnxe Kpnrnxa n nnnorpa]nx.
164
2009, N 1 (15)
xoropt rxnercx nourn ropnsonrantno nnnne c sanaa na nocrox or mec-
reuxa Heona na Hpyre o mecreuxa Kayman y onor Fornt, nnnsn necrpa
ocroxrentcrno, xoropoe onpeenxer crparernuecxoe, ooponnrentnoe sna-
uenne camoro nana. Bnyrpn +ro crenno uacrn ner nenax cepnx napannent-
ntx peuex, npopestnammnx crent c cenepa na mr n nnaammnx ro n cone-
nte, ro n npecnte uepnomopcxne osepa. Texyr onn menenno, cpen nns-
xnx, ena samerntx eperon npexpacnoro uepnosema, nouemy n noa n nnx
uepna, no n raxnx peuxax, xax nnyx, ne ntctxammax axe n cyxoe nero.
Hnomat ncroxa nce +ro cern crenntx peuex xcno ormeuaer cenepnym
rpannny crenno nnn mxno uacrn ntnemne Feccapann n n ro xe npemx
mxnym rpannny ee nropo uacrn, a camo nanpannenne reuennx nx yxast-
naer nam na nno, necrenno, xapaxrep reppnropnn +ro nropo uacrn.
ecrnnrentno, ocrannn cyxo oxean, sannmammn npocrpancrno ncero
Axxepmancxoro yesa n oruacrn yeson Hsmanntcxoro n Fenepcxoro, mt
cpasy ncrynaem na reppnropnm conepmenno nnoro xapaxrepa. Hepe namn
na xaxom mary nnn ropt, neanno eme noxptrte orartmn, rycrtmn ne-
camn, npopestnaemte rnyoxnmn onnnamn, neanno eme c orartm opo-
mennem, nnn eneconarte ronte xamnn-cxant rycro nsnecrxono nopo-
t. Kax nn pasnoopasno pacnonoxenne ncex +rnx nsanmno cxpemnnam-
mnxcx ropntx orporon, no onn n cnoe conoxynnocrn opasymr ony cnc-
remy noopasen necrpa n Hpyra n, npecrannxx ns cex nocnenn mro-
nocrount ornptcx Kapnarcxoro xpera, na cenepe, sa rpannne nmnepnn,
npnmtxamr x ocnonnomy xpxxy x ancrpncxo Fyxonnne. Fyxonnna
npxmoe, nenocpecrnennoe npoonxenne Feccapann: omax +rnorpa]nuec-
xax n neanno eme ncropnuecxax cyta oenx +rnx sement naxonr nonnoe
couyncrnne n onnaxonom reorpa]nuecxom xapaxrepe. Hnxe mt ncrpernm-
cx n c omnocrtm camoro nmenn. Ecrecrnenno, necncrte ropt cpene
Feccapann yxe n nepnym namy nony c Typnne ann cex nenpnxrno
uyncrnonart. upes Kanapcxne ropt, - nncan Mnnnx, oxcnxx neyauy
noxoa n Fyxax, - nepenpannxrtcx nectma rpyno... n ropncrtx mecrax n
cner cran noxastnartcx. Eme cnntnee nneuarnenne nponsnenn onn nosxe
na Pymxnnena: Harypa, - onocnn on, - crontxo neotuantx ntcor c rny-
nnamn sect nomecrnna...
Cama rononnmnx, reorpa]nuecxax nomenxnarypa nropo, ropncro uacrn
Feccapann ormeuaer ee xapaxrep xax reppnropnn, onnymme o neanna
necom, ropamn. Taxont mecrnte nmena Kopy, Kerpoc, Ioxna: nepnoe or
monancxoro uopy - ropa, pemyun nec; nropoe or monancxoro uempoc
(napnanr nx npnnar. nerpoc) - xamenncrt; rperte or cnanxno-monanc-
xoro eou, orxya rnaron ronecx - oronxrt, onaxart, c saxonntm, no cno-
crny monancxoro xstxa, nponycxom mxrxoro rnannoro u mexy rnacntx,
r.e. Ioxna ronoe xamenncroe mecro, onaxennax ropa, cxana
1
.
Ecnn mt renept oparnmcx x reorpa]nuecxnm xapram name Feccapann
n crapoe npemx, x xapram XVII n XVIII cronern, ro nam ne rpyno yenrt-
cx, uro ns oenx uacre ee rontxo mxnax nnn crennax nocneonarentno n
165

nensmenno nocnr nasnanne Feccapann; nropax xe uacrt xpax ncera oo-


snauaercx nnn npocro Monanne, nnn c npnanxo 3anpyrcxo. Cctna-
emcx na xaprt 1687 roa (Totius regni Hungariae et adjecentium regionum
Tabula... de novo correcta ac innumeris locis aucta per Nic. Visscher. Belgii
Foederati Bessarabia Tartari Bialogrodenses), 1716 r. (Le Theatre de la
guerre sur les limits de deux empires.., par N. de Fer, a Paris), (Le R. de
Hongrie et les Etats qui ont este sujets... dresse sur les Memoires les plus
nouveaux par le Sr. Sanson), 1744 r. (Hungariae... Tabula a I. M. Hasio, na
xoropo cenepnax uacrt ntnemnero Axxepmancxoro yesa n mxnax Fen-
epcxoro ntenent n ocoennym reppnropnm Deserta inaquosa, n yxe
mxnee +ro nycrtnn, y mopx, noxasana: Bessarabia Tartaria Bielogrodensis
Budziakensium sedes ad tempus) n mnorne pyrne
2
.
Bnonne nonxrno n nnonne ocnonarentno namn nepnte ronorpa]t, npo-
nsnonnmne no nauantcrnom nonxonnnxa C.H. Kopnnnonnua cemxy cren-
no uacrn Feccapann, cnycrx nemnoro ner no npncoennennn ee x nmne-
pnn (1818-1822), cno omnpnt n nennt n reorpa]nuecxom n crarncrn-
uecxom ornomennxx rpy nasnann Crarncrnuecxoe onncanne Feccapann
cocrnenno rax nastnaemo, nnn Fyxaxa
3
.
uro xe xacaercx nropo nnn necno uacrn Feccapann, ro ona y nnx
cntna no nmenem Poccncxo Monannn. Honxrno, uro n na xstxe namnx
o]nnepon, no npemx rypenxnx y nac non npn nmneparpnne Exarepnne II,
Feccapanx oosnauana Fyxax nnn crennym uacrt. Tax, nonxonnnx Carnn
na nnctme nmneparpnnt or 1 exapx 1770 roa cenan narepnym ormerxy:
nonyueno 21 nx ]enpanx (r.e. 1771 roa) na xnaprnpax n Fesopann n
rarapcxo epenne Ennxno, nns mecreuxa Tarap-Fynapy
4
.
II
Hacenenne cocrnenno Feccapann nnn Fyxaxa (no-rarapcxn yron)
tno n XVIII cronernn n n nauane XIX, xax noxastnamr conpemennte xap-
rt, mnorouncnennoe n onoopasnoe: ero cocrannxnn naracxne rarapt,
ouncrnnmne xpa ncne sa oxnnennem namn nont Typnnn n 1806 roy.
Iycro certm tnn pacnonoxent no cyxomy oxeany rarapcxne xyropa
nnn xnmna; mnorne nasnannx nx nepexnnn cnonx xosxen n xnnyr ceuac.
Tontxo n onom mecre onoopasne +rnorpa]nuecxo xaprnnt craporo Fy-
xaxa optnanoct: +ro nont npanoro epera nnxnero necrpa. 3ect mt
nnnm, xax cnnerentcrnymr xaprt craporo npemenn, nent px nocene-
nn, onnx n rex xe na nporxxennn mnornx cronern, c cnanxno-monanc-
xnmn nnn uncro monancxnmn nasnannxmn: Ptcxant, Ononemrt (Ananc-
xn?), Hypxapt n p. Or monancxnx nasnann +rnx nocenenn nosnonn-
rentno saxnmuart n x monancxomy nacenennm n nnx, n ncrapt, xax n ce-
ronx, nacenennm, xoropoe n nacroxmym mnnyry (cnnerentcrnyem ns na-
mnx nnuntx nanmenn) ornnuaercx xpenocrtm cnoxennx n uncro pnmc-
xnm xonrypom uepr nnna.
Cnopanuecxn raxne xe monancxne nocenxn npnnerann n x nenomy e-
pery nnxnero necrpa, cpen rex xe rarap, nspexa axe yrnynxxct nnyrpt
166
2009, N 1 (15)
xpax. Onn rxnynnct anee no nenomy epery necrponcxoro nnmana n epe-
rom mopx uepes Kouye, uro ntne Oecca, nnnort o Ouaxona (Osy). Bnnsn
+rnx nocenenn men n ropront rpaxr or Axxepmana (Fenropo) o Ouaxo-
na. Mnnnx nocne nsxrnx Ouaxona n 1737 roy, n saore o ycrpocrne npa-
nocnannoro npnxoa n nonom pyccxom ropoe y mopx, onocnn cenary, uro
n npn rypxax n Ouaxone nx xyneuecrna onontnoe uncno rpeuecxoro,
+yumaucuoeo n eouoxcuoeo napoa tnano, xoroptx nnpet n nanonee
trt ynonaercx
5
, r.e. monanan.
Taxnm opasom, nacenenne cyxoro oxeana, r.e. cocrnenno Feccapa-
nn, no npemx nnatuecrna rypox (nocne 1484 roa), cocrannxnn rarapt, sa
ncxnmuennem eperono necrponcxo nonoct. B ro npncoennennx x
Hmnepnn ntnemne Feccapacxo ryepnnn xpa tn uncr or nnx; no on n
nenpoonxnrentnoe npemx sacennncx ntnncanntmn nemnamn, ]pannysa-
mn, erntmn onrapamn, cepamn, nennxopoccamn, manopoccamn; crapt
rarapcxn Fyxax noxptncx npyr rycro certm nmen, nonropxnmnx mecro
nennxnx nrn 1812-1814 roon, or Manoxpocnanna n o Hennnra, Hapn-
xa
6
. Hosxe noomnn ntrane ns-sa Hpyra, nocenennte xasaxn. Crapt mon-
ancxn +nemenr or epera necrpa cran cnoono nporxrnnartcx n rnyt
xpax, pacnpocrpanxx snanne cnoero xstxa, ocoenno cpen pyccxnx noce-
nennen, ne rporax nemenxnx; ontmax xe uacrt onrap tnn oxpanxemt or
monancxoro nnnxnnx nx rypenxnm xstxom (rarayst).
uro xe xacaercx +rnorpa]nuecxoro xapaxrepa nropo nnn ropncro uac-
rn Feccapann 3anpyrcxo Monannn, ro n ne neoxonmo crporo pasnn-
uart na nepannomepntx noxca: mnpoxn noxc +ouaecuux nocenenn n
ysxn noxc nocenenn pyccuux, r.e. manopyccxnx.
Monancxn noxc onnmaer cnnomt nenrpantnym Feccapanm n nexoro-
pym uacrt cenepno, nnaue Xornncxn yes, npnuem on saxnartnaer nce
noepexte Hpyra nnnort o Honocennn nnn ancrpncxo rpannnt n Fyxo-
nnne, xya on n cnom ouepet n nepexonr. Taxnm opasom, reuenne Hpyra
ecrt +rnorpa]nuecxax asa monancxoro nacenennx, rora xax accen ne-
crpa n cnoe cenepno uacrn or ancrpncxo rpannnt nnn or c. Fanamy-
ronxn y nnaennx norpannunoro uepnoro noroxa n necrp n nourn o ropo-
a Copox eme saepxancx no nnaennn crapemero +rnorpa]nuecxoro
+nemenra Feccapann pyccxoro (pycnnt, pycnaxn), roro xe, xoro-
pt sacenxer n nenocpecrnennom cocecrne cenepnym nononnny ancrpn-
cxo Fyxonnnt. unrypa +rnorpa]nuecxnx reppnropn monancxoro n pyc-
cxoro +nemenron n ropncro uacrn Feccapann yxastnaer, orxya n n xaxom
nanpannennn cnpanennno necrn n paccmarpnnaemo uacrn Feccapann no-
crynarentnoe xononnsannonnoe nnxenne monanan, nmenno or Hpyra x
necrpy, a ne naoopor. Axrnnnt +nemenr monancxn, naccnnnt, yc-
rynammn pyccxn (mano-). To xe +rnorpa]nuecxoe xnnenne anno orme-
ueno n cocene Fyxonnne.
Hrax, nropo nnn pyccxn +rnorpa]nuecxn noxc cnr nnn cxomxan n
nacroxmym mnnyry na neontmom npocrpancrne cenepa Feccapann, y npa-
167

noro epera necrpa. uro xe xacaercx ero emapxannonno nnnnn y Hpyra,


ro ona ne oxonr o nero axe y Honocennn n Mamantrn, uem anee na mr,
rem onee n onee yanxercx n rnyt xpax, onee n onee ocrannxer Hpyr.
Ecnn na cenepe, mexy Xornnom n crannne Mamantro na Hpyre, paccro-
xnne no npxmomy nouronomy (tnmemy) rpaxry 30 nepcr (y camo ancrpn-
cxo rpannnt, n nny nsnyunnt necrpa, +ro paccroxnne ynennunnaercx
nepcr na ecxrt), ro mxnee nnn, rounee ronopx, anee na mro-nocrox nono-
ca pyccxnx nocenenn cyxnnaercx o necxontxnx ennnn nepcr, nmenno
ram, re cama Feccapanx nce onee n onee pacmnpxercx Hpyr cnopaun-
naer npxmo na mr, a necrp orxonr x mro-nocroxy.
o camonontnoro saxnara Ancrpne or Monannn Fyxonnnt n 1775 roy
(ns sanncrn x pyccxnm noeam n nepnym rypenxym nony nmneparpnnt
Exarepnnt II n x ycnonnxm Kyuyx-Kanapxncxoro oronopa) Fyxonnna
n nam Xornncxn yes nonnrnuecxn n +rnorpa]nuecxn npecrannxnn ono -
pyccxn xpa rocnoapcrna Monannn. He nnmeno nnrepeca ro ocroxrent-
crno, uro n n nacroxmym mnnyry rpn nonocrn Xornncxoro yesa, npnneram-
mne x camo ancrpncxo rpannne, r.e. x Fyxonnne: Iposnncxax, Knamxon-
cxax n Poxnrnxncxax, cpen mecrnoro nacenennx nsnecrnt no nmenem Fy-
xonnnt (c yapennem na nepnom cnore). B cosnannn napoa saepxanact
namxrt o tno cnxsn oonx xpaen, ncropne pasnecenntx pontx part-
xx
7
.
Iycrora pyccxnx nocenenn, otxnonenno pacnonoxenntx n rnynne
onnn, ne moxer ronopnrt o neannocrn nx cymecrnonannx. Mnorne nasna-
nnx nx neyr cnom ncropnm, no mentme mepe, or nauana XVIII cronernx.
Bcnomnnm xort nocneonarentnte +rant apmnn Mnnnxa n anrycre 1739 roa:
Paxnrny, Canxaynt, n ee nnxennn x snamennrtm Cranuanam. Ipannosnt
npy, no mecrnomy cran, nenoe orpomnoe osepo c ntcoxnmn eperamn n c
paxonnnamn n eperonom necxe, y mxno cropont xoroporo pacnonoxent
Cranuant, c ncuesnynmnm npyontm npnroxom Xynanen, a y cenepno
ceno 3apoxant, ecrecrnenno, onxen tn xnnrtcx pantme, uem nasnanne
camoro cena, rax xax nasnanne Cranuant xcno nomno or cnona cran. B
mecrntx nasnannxx cnor an, on uacro samenxercx na xaprax noernac-
ntm nnn cnoramn ay, a+y, oy, o+y: orcma n Crayuant n axe Cranyuant.
3rn ]opmt oxsant monancxomy ntronopy pyccxnx nasnann. Orcma n
]opma nsenounoro nposnnma nx pyccxoro na mecre nacenennx uecno-
xoynt, r.e. uecnoxonnt: nocen uecnoxa, a ocentm pasnos ero no Feccapa-
nn nmnmoe sanxrne mecrntx pyccxnx nocenxn, noome +xonomnuec-
xnm narococroxnnem ne ornnuammnxcx.
Or XV-XVII cronern mt nmeem ne mano eccapacxo-monancxnx rpa-
mor o noxanonannxx norunn. Hx rax nastnaemt cnanxncxn xstx na-
cxnost nponnsan manopyccxnmn +nemenramn; moxer trt axe nnora yxa-
san +nemenr rynyntcxn, r.e. nocrounorannnxn. Ho nx nac ocoenno nax-
nt rpamort na cena y cpenero necrpa n npeenax ntnemne monancxo
+rnorpa]nuecxo reppnropnn: nasnannx +rnx cen nnn ypounm oxono nnx
168
2009, N 1 (15)
npernanrno-manopyccxne, npoe uepnonnt nepx, Kament. Cnpanennno
or +auopyccuux nasnann onraemtx mecr saxnmuart x +auopyccuo+y xa-
paxrepy n camnx onrarene
8
. Ho nocrynarentnoe nnxenne or Hpyra x ne-
crpy monancxoro +nemenra mano-nomany oxnartnano mecrnte pyccxne no-
cenennx, pomannsonano nacenenne nx, n raxnm opasom, no ncreuennn ne-
xon, crapt xosxnn semnn, orcrynax nepe narncxom sanpyrcxo crnxnn,
ouyrnncx n nonoxennn sarnannoro n yron n npnneproro x necrpy +rnorpa-
]nuecxoro +nemenra mexy Fyxonnno, Iannnne n Hoonne.
Taxona n nemnornx cnonax cyta pyccxoro +rnorpa]nuecxoro noxca no
nropo uacrn ntnemne Feccapann. Hntmn cnonamn, nsnecrnax uacrt
ntnemnnx monanan cpene Feccapann +ro po+auusoeauume +auopoc-
cm. Ho +ro xnnenne n ncropnuecxnx cytax Feccapann ne cronr nsonnpo-
nanntm n ome ncropnn ]opmannn pymtn n xpynnym, na rnasax nmcxnx
opasonanmymcx +rnorpa]nuecxym ocot. To xe xnnenne pasnnrne, ca-
moycnnenne na cuer nntx napoon, npexe ncero, na cuer cnanxn, nmeno
mecro, no n pasnte npemena, na ncem rpomanom npocrpancrne, xoropoe n
nacroxmym mnnyry opasyer +rnorpa]nuecxym reppnropnm pymtn: n na
cpenem ynae, n na nnxnem, na Tnce, Fopore, n Tpancnntnannn n Fyxo-
nnne. Moxno cxasart onee ne rontxo nmeno mecro, no nmeer n ceuac.
Tpancnntnannx renept, sa ncxnmuennem nemenxnx c XIII nexa xononncron
n cexnepon, cnnomt pymtncxax; no eme n nauane XIX nexa ee +rnorpa]n-
uecxax xaprnna tna necxontxo nnax: nnyrpn crpant eme rontxo ntmnpann,
no ne ymepnn nocnenne npecrannrenn ee tnoro anroxronnoro nacenennx
cnanxne, n nmenno pyccxne, no c ocoenntm, ornnuntm or namero xst-
xom, a sa rpn c nononnno nexa nepe rem, n nepno nononnne XVI crone-
rnx, +rn ntmnpanmne cnanxne npecrannxnn ns cex eme samernym +rnor-
pa]nuecxym ocot nnemx, napo. Hoponocrn n namem oxnae na Ap-
xeonornuecxom cese n pocnanne 1887 r.
Bocrounax Benrpnx, or ymenn Kapnar n o ynax, renept raxxe cnnomt
pymtncxax; +rnorpa]nuecxn nponecc n ceuac ne ocranonnncx sect; py-
mtncxn +nemenr ner nce nnepe n nnepe sa cuer pyccxnx n cepon, n
npannrentcrnennte mept ns Hemra eccnntnt npornn +roro crnxnnoro
pocra pymtn. Haoopor, n Fyxonnne nce mept ancrpncxoro npannrentcrna
ns Bent nanpannent nceneno x enno nenn npn nomomn nepxnn, mxont,
ynnnepcnrera n uepnonnax, semcxoro ynpannennx, npecct ocrnut xax mox-
no cxopee pymtnnsannn cenepno, eme pyccxo (mano-) nononnnt onac-
rn. Eme n nauane npomnoro cronernx onn ns nyumnx +rnorpa]on Benrpnn,
uannonnu, nomernn n try mecrntx cepon nmontrnoe xnnenne, uro ona
xpacnnax pymtnxa, ntmemn samyx n cepcxoe ceno, uepes necxontxo ner
nayunr n nsnecrno mepe cnoemy xstxy mnornx n mnornx onocentuan, no
cama ocranercx uyxa cepcxomy xstxy.
He epemcx pemart nonpoc, re npnunna +roro noncmy rpnym]antnoro,
noenoro mecrnnx pymtncxoro +nemenra. Menee ncero, xoneuno, moxno
sect ymart o npenocxocrne xyntrypt. Cctnamrcx otxnonenno na ry-
169

rocrt, necnoconocrt monanana x ycnoennm uyxoro xstxa. Ho ena nn +ra


cctnxa ocnonarentna. Herom mnnynmero roa nam yanoct npocrpancrno-
nart no Tnmoxy, n nocrountx oxpyrax Cepcxoro xoponencrna Payenan,
Herornn, 3auap. Hsnecrno, uro +rn oxpyra tnn sacenent pymtnamn n
nmenno, xax oxasann nonemne +rnorpa]nuecxne nccneonannx nemenxnx
yuentx, ntxonamn, npenmymecrnenno nacryxamn ns-sa ynax, no ne ns
cocene Banaxnn, a ns onee anexoro xpax nenrepcxoro Fanara. Ham
tno raxxe nsnecrno, uro cepcxoe mnnncrepcrno naponoro npocnemennx
c camtm xnntm nnnmannem ncera ornocnnoct x nonpocy o npnnnxennn
nnocepcxoro +nemenra na cnoem nocroxe x +nemenry rocyapcrnennomy.
Ecrecrnenno, uro name nmontrcrno tno nanpanneno n cropony, nacxont-
xo ycnnnx cepcxoro mnnncrepcrna pasnrt yxonnym oruyxennocrt, sam-
xnyrocrt cnonx monanan ynenuannct ycnexom.
Mt mornn xoncrarnponart onn ]axr, xax nenen npannrentcrnenntx ycn-
nn: ncemy myxcxomy pymtncxomy nacenennm npnrnmoxcxnx oxpyron (Tn-
mox norpannunax pexa c Fonrapne) rocyapcrnennt cepcxn xstx n
nonno mepe nsnecren; n epenencxnx xnyax-xasnno, unrantnxx, re con-
pamrcx no neuepam ronxonart o cnonx nyxax, nonnrnxe, rasernom coo-
mennn, cntmnrcx cepcxn xstx; no xencxo nononnne nacenennx cepc-
xn xstx mano nsnecren; oma, n cemte, mex ere pasronop neercx nc-
xnmunrentno no-pymtncxn. Mt narxnynnct sect n Cepnn na xnnenne,
xoropoe anno snaxomo nam n try mnornx npnnecrponcxnx cen Xepconc-
xo ryepnnn: nacenenne xax yro uncro manopyccxoe; myxunnt ronopxr
no-pyccxn; no xenmnnt mexy coo, n pasronope c myxtxmn n ertmn,
noome n cemte ynorpenxmr ncxnmunrentno monancxn xstx.
Taxnm opasom, npnmep ns xnsnn Cepcxoro xoponencrna noxastnaer,
uro o xaxo-ro aconmrno necnoconocrn monanan x ycnoennm uyxoro
xstxa ceptesno peun trt ne moxer. Cepcxax naponax mxona cenart
ycnena ne mano no nyrn yxonnoro oennennx cnoero nnocepcxoro na-
cenennx. Ho, ouennno, ocoennoe nnnmanne onxno trt opameno na
naponym mxony nx enouex, rax xax nmenno pymtncxax xenmnna orme-
uena neotxnonenntm xoncepnarnsmom, samxnyrocrtm, ynopno npnnxsan-
nocrtm x crapnne n onnaxono, xax na eperax Tnct n ynax, rax n na
xepconcxom noepexte necrpa.
III
Kaxont t nn tnn cytt Feccapann n npomnom, no nacenenne ee n
nacroxmym mnnyry mnoro onee uem na nononnny monancxoe. Pyccxn
+nemenr npecrannen n ee nyx xonnax: na cenepe anroxronntm, pycnnc-
xnm, na mre, n Fyxaxe npnmntm, nennxo- n manopyccxnm, or neanne-
ro npemenn. 3nanne pyccxoro xstxa nacenennm monancxnx cen ne rontxo
nenrpantntx yeson Feccapann, no n Fyxaxa concem nourn nensnecrno.
Homnmo opasonanntx n o]nnnantntx nnn, rontxo enpe co cnonm nonn-
rnornsmom n xopennom eccapacxom cene mxno n snaunrentno onn
170
2009, N 1 (15)
cenepno uacrn ryepnnn xnnxercx enncrnenntm snaroxom pyccxoro
xstxa, a noromy yontm n nensexntm nocpennxom.
uepes enxrt ner ncnonnxercx cronerne Fyxapemrcxomy oronopy
(16 max 1812 r.), no xoropomy mt, naxonen, npnnnsnnnct x sanernomy
ynam n namxrnomy Hpyry, nonyunn or Typnnn Feccapanm. Hourn crontxo
xe ner nacunrtnaer cnoe xnsnn n nourn rora xe orroprnyroe or ro xe
Typnnn ntnemnee Cepcxoe xoponencrno. Ho ocrnrnn nn mt n name Fec-
capann, n ee monancxo uacrn, rex xe pesyntraron ornocnrentno npnnn-
xennx namero rocyapcrnennoro xstxa x ee rpomanomy monancxomy na-
cenennm, xaxnx ocrnrna manentxax Cepnx n rom xe nonpoce no ornome-
nnm x cnoemy monancxomy nacenennm?
Koneuno, n nny yxasannoro ntme, orner moxer trt onn - orpnnarent-
nt. B xopennom eccapacxom cene xapaxrep xnsnn nourn ror xe, xaxo
tn cro ner nasa, o npncoennennx Feccapann. Kax pyccxn ypoxenen
Feccapann ne mory es nexoropo yntxn ncnomnnrt npnem mecrnoro enap-
xnantnoro nauantcrna, npn apxnenncxone Anronnn, yxe n 60-x roax npo-
mnoro cronernx no nce nepxonnte npnxot, n pyccxne, pacctnart merpn-
uecxne xnnrn, naneuarannte na monancxom xstxe...
Hpana, n nacroxmee npemx Feccapanx noxptra macco napontx mxon
mnnncrepcxnx, semcxnx, nepxonntx. Bxona enaer cnoe eno, paoraer
na rocyapcrno. Ho sa nepxmn mxont xnsnt enaer raxxe cnoe eno, n
mantunx c arrecrarom n pyxax no oxonuannn xypca n mxone roruac xe sat-
naer ry osy snannx pyccxoro xstxa, xoropax c neotxnonenntm rpyom
ocranact emy n ero mxone, c rpyom, noromy uro on nxonn n nee es
ncxxoro snannx roro xstxa. Tontxo nosxe noennax cnyxa necxontxo noc-
xpemaer n namxrn monancxoro mantunxa ero mxontnoe snanne. Heoxon-
mo onerunrt rpy mantunxy, neoxonmo nomout n camo mxone n ocrn-
xennn nosmoxno nyumnx pesyntraron, n npountx. Ho re cpecrna? Ie
nomomnnxn nam n +rom naxnom ene?..
Cnxmennnx r. Knmnnena oren Mnxann uaxnp, mecrnt ypoxenen n ontr-
nt npenoanarent n nnsme nnn napono mxone, n saancx npexpacno
nentm nomout nyxnomy eny npnnnsnrt pyccxn xstx x mecrnomy mon-
ancxomy nacenennm, onerunrt ero ycnoenne monancxnm mantunxam n
camo mxone, onerunrt yepxanne snannx ero nocne mxont, noome or-
xptrt ocryn x pyccxomy xstxy xaxomy oxornnxy. B +rnx nenxx on na
cnon cpecrna cenan n Knmnnene nmontrnoe nsanne no cxpomntm
nasnannem: Homomnnx monanan npn nepnonauantnom nsyuennn pyccxoro
xstxa. nx monanan Feccapann, crpemxmnxcx nsyuart pyccxn xstx. uacrt
I. Pyccxo-monancxn yxnapt. Cocrannn yunrent-cnxmennnx Mnxann ua-
xnp. Knmnnen, 1900 r., nena 10 xon.. Tor xe rnryn napannentno no-mon-
ancxn: Axyropmn Mononennnop tn npeme uene ma tnrte tnnanary-
pt nnme pyccacxt. Henrpy Mononent a Feccapan (nn Faccapanx),
xapn (ue) ct ce ctneca ] tnnana nnma pyccacxt. Hapre (x) I. Ay anxtrynr
(ay xomnyc) tnnantropmn-npeoryn M. uaxnp (y).
171

uacrt II. Camoyunrent pyccxoro xstxa. Hapre (x) II. Ctnryp-tnannt-


rop nnme pyccacxt.
uacrt III. Hepnonauantnte cneennx ns pyccxo rpammarnxn. Hapre (x)
III. Kynomrnnnnene uene tnrte nn rpammarnxa pyccacxt. (Hena +rnx
oenx uacre 30 xon.).
3romy uacrnomy xnmnnencxomy yuennxy pyccxoro nnctma n xstxa nx
mecrno napono mxont n camocroxrentnoro nsyuennx npnnanexnr nep-
nencrno nounna. Vxe nnny +roro onoro ocroxrentcrna nsanne cxpom-
noro yunrenx-cnxmennnxa sacnyxnnaer nnnmannx, sacnyxnnaer, urot
emy, nonomy nnreparypnomy xnnennm, tno nocnxmeno necxontxo cnon.
He nxox n onenxy camo nearornuecxo cncremt yueno xnnrn orna
uaxnpa (samernm, uro ona, xax yxastnaer cam anrop, nennxom nsxra ns ana-
nornuntx nsann noxonoro Hntmnncxoro nx nocrountx nnoponen),
npexe ncero c yonontcrnnem ormernm npaxrnuecxn xapaxrep xnnrn: xax-
oe pyccxoe cnono, xaxoe oxcnenne ryr xe npenaraercx n na monanc-
xom xstxe. Pyccxne cnona n ome cnoxnocrn cocrannxmr nopxount
cnonapunx nonesnoro nx onxoa marepnana, xoropt samtxaercx (uacrt
II, or crp. 71 n o xonna) pyrnm rnoccapnem monancxo-pyccxnm, nect-
ma nonesntm nx cnpanox, nx camonponepxn, npnrom n nonom nopxxe
no uacrxm peun n asyunom. Bcx rpertx uacrt Homomnnxa, nocnxmen-
nax pyccxo rpammarnxe, cocrannena c npnmenennem roro xe npaxrnuecxo-
ro npnema: neno crpannne c pyccxnm rexcrom orneuaer monancxn rexcr
na npano. Haxonen, n rex xe npaxrnuecxnx coopaxennxx xaxoe pyccxoe
cnono nmeer snax yapennx, xorx, x coxanennm, yapenne ne nese npa-
nnntno ormeueno (cp. III u., crp. 64) nnn mecramn nponymeno (cp. ram xe,
crp. 62, nropo cronen). Ho crapomy nepxonnomy otuam, n monancxne
cnona c yapennem.
Bropoe cymecrnennoe ocronncrno rpya orna uaxnpa +ro ero uncrt,
napont monancxn xstx, r.e. mecrnt eccapacxn monancxn xstx.
Vxe n camom rnryne xnnrn nemecrnte monancxne ntpaxennx nocrannent
n cxoxax, nanpnmep, ay xomnyc - cnono xnnxnoe, cenannoe no narnnc-
xomy compositus.
Pyccxn unrarent narononnr nmert n nny, uro rax nastnaemt nnrepa-
rypnt pymtncxn xstx, r.e. ynorpenxmmncx no ry cropony Hpyra, n
Koponencrne, +ro nopoxenne nannonantnoro monnnnsma n nonnrnuecxoro
]anarnsma, eno nocnenero nonynexa, mecrntx nonnrnxon nocne Hapnxc-
xoro rpaxrara 1856 roa, nonoxnnmero nauano oennennm rocnoapcrn
Monannn n Banaxnn n ornxnmero nx nnx npnynacxym uacrt name Fec-
capann, xax t nx nounna (cp. crartn XXIV n XXVI). Ftna oxnnena
uncrxa naponoro xstxa or ncero cuaeaucuoeo, r.e. or ero nexonoro xynt-
rypnoro +nemenra, c xoroptm on rax cxnncx, rax cpoccx nnortm. urot
onpeennrt cee pasmept +ro orxptnanmecx uncrxn, +ro oxnnenno
nont ncemy cnanxncxomy n xstxe, nao nmert n nny, uro, no nocuery
nsnecrnoro pymtncxoro, no rpesnoro nexcnxorpa]a r. unxaxa, n ero
172
2009, N 1 (15)
Dictionnaire detymologie daco-roman..., Francfurt s. M. 1879 r., narnnc-
xn +nemenr pymtncxoro xstxa npecrannxer n nacroxmym mnnyry nnmt
ony nxrym uacrt ero cnonapx, rora xax cnanxncxn +nemenr nnoe ont-
me, ne nxrtx
9
. Ho urot xcno npecrannrt cee npnemt, cam xapaxrep
+ro uncrxn n ero nocnenne nenn, mt yxaxem onn npnmep npoenan-
nym pymtncxnmn xnnxnnxamn mannnynxnnm c opornm nx ncex npocrtx
monanan, cront croxnx ctnon npanocnanno nepxnn, nexontm n nx xst-
xe xpncrnancxnm repmnnom cntnr - cnxro, orxya rnaron a c]nnnn
- ocnxmart. Hpenapnrentno samernm, uro expernponannax uncrxa mon-
ancxoro xstxa sa Hpyrom crpemnnact nomout cee mexannuecxo nome-
no cnon cnanxncxoro nponcxoxennx cnonamn ns xstxon pomancxo ce-
mtn, a npexe ncero ns xstxa-poonauantnnxa narnncxoro.
Cnono cntnr ns nepxonnocnanxncxoro xstxa, ns npnnararentnoro
cn r (c nocontm en). Ho narnncxoe sanctus no snyxam conasnn-
rentno nnsxo, no snauennm roxecrnenno c ero cnanxncxnm nnn pymtn-
cxnm xoppecnonenrom; ]opmantnax pasnnna n onom rnannom snyxe, n
nnmnem cnanxncxom e. Ho cronr nn ocranannnnartcx nepe raxnm nnurox-
ntm npenxrcrnnem? Hnmnn snyx n nexonom cntnr ntpactnaercx, n
nonyuaercx ]opma, concem aexnarnax c xenanntm narnncxnm sanctus
ctnr, n narnncxo rpancxpnnnnn snt, n +ro sanono c]apnxonannoe
cnono, no pacnopxxennm npannrentcrna, noncmy samenxer nexonoe na-
ponoe cntnr, ne ncxnmuax n orocnyxentx rexcron, o uem c raxnm
roptxnm uyncrnom xora-ro n Fenrpae ronopnn n ecee c namn cepcxn
mnrpononnr noxont Mnxann.
Hoonte xe mannnynxnnn nmenn mecro n c pyrnmn ananornuntmn
cnonamn cnanxncxoro nponcxoxennx. Ho ontmax uacrt cnanxncxnx cnon
npocro nomenxnact narnncxnmn: npeme samennnoct timpu nnn nepe-
nonnoct: nn (ns nepxonnocnanxncxoro tn - tnmn) fost n
r.. Heuart, mxona nenocpecrnenno nomorann npannrentcrny n +rom noxo-
e npornn crapnnt, n n na-rpn ecxrxa ner xstx cran neysnanaem. uepes
mxony on nxonr n ynorpenenne monooro noxonennx, n macct
10
. Ecnn xe
xaxoe cnanxncxoe cnono tno yxe cnnmxom nonynxpno nnn ns onacrn
cnon, ocnxmenntx nepxontm, a noromy nomena ero npecrannxna onac-
nocrt, ono ocrannxnoct n nnreparypnom n o]nnnantnom ynorpenennn, no
npo]eccopa, npoe Haypnany, Maccnmy (anropt orpomnemero cnonapx
nexcnuecxnx sanmcrnonann n pymtncxom xstxe, 80-x roon), oxnnxnn
noonte cnona camtm yuentm n n ro xe npemx camtm ercxnm opasom
narnncxoro nponcxoxennx, cneonarentno, pontmn, nanpnmep, cnona y-
xyn, rpemecx n p. Conecrt crpornx nypncron morna trt noxona
axe camt ntronop nouncrnnn, npnnnsnn x 3anay: ncuesno, nanpnmep,
nponsnomenne u rneporo n sameneno cpennm u (yxe ne naca, a n`aca
= ocrant).
Anrop xnmnnencxoro pyxonocrna, oren uaxnp, cnpanennno ornepraer
monancxn ns-sa Hpyra xstx, xax ]antmnnym monery, n onepnpyer nacro-
173

xmnm monancxnm xstxom, xax on cnoxnncx ncropnuecxn n xax on nsnec-


ren macce nacenennx nenrpantntx yeson Feccapann. Hosnonxem cee y-
mart, uro nacrynnr npemx, xora yuente sa nacroxmnm monancxnm xstxom
yyr nanpannxrtcx nmenno n Feccapanm. Ho, oranax onxnoe orny ua-
xnpy, mt ne moxem c coxanennem ne ormernrt, uro anrop Homomnnxa
mecramn nmenno n rpammarnuecxo repmnnonornn orcrynaer or cnoero npnn-
nnna: n +ro repmnnonornn on nontsyercx ycnyramn c]apnxonannoro no
penenram, yxasanntm ntme, sanpyrcxoro nnreparypnoro xstxa. K uemy, na-
npnmep, nx monancxoro mantunxa n pyccxo napono mxone n no ntxo-
e ns nee nce +rn: xonxyrape, moyn, nymepyn? nx napono mxont n
Poccnn noont rpammarnuecxn annapar conepmenno neymecren. B yue-
nnxe monancxax repmnnonornx onxna trt cnnxena c otuno pyc-
cxo
11
. Ham nentsx nropnrt acnnpannxm, nymnm npornn namnx nepntx
nnrepecon, a rnannoe sauem mxontnnxy nonax repmnnonornx rpammarn-
uecxax?..
Tperte ocronncrno monancxoro yuennxa orna uaxnpa - +ro npnnxrax
nm pyccxax rpa]nxa nx snyxon monancxoro xstxa. Ho-nnnmomy, non-
poc ]opmt, nesnaunrentnt, no n ecrnnrentnocrn ntcoxoro omero
nnrepeca, nnrepeca rocyapcrnennoro.
3naxomte c ncropne pymtncxo nnctmennocrn xopomo snamr, uro rnan-
ntm opranom ee nente nexa xnnxercx nepxonnocnanxncxn xstx, n co-
crnenno Banaxnn c nanerom cpeneonrapcxnm, n Monannn c +nemen-
ramn manopyccxnmn. Tax tno o nononnnt XVII cronernx. Hepnax nontr-
xa samennrt cnanxncxn xstx n nepxnn npnnanexana nponarane xantnn-
nnsma n xonne XVI nexa, meme or matxp ns Tpancnntnannn. Honxrno,
uro nepxonnocnanxncxn xstx nnen n xnpnnnoncxn cnanxncxn mpn]r n
omee ynorpenenne, xax nx nnctmennocrn nepxonno, rax n cnanxncxo,
n xnpnnnoncxoe nnctmo crano raxnm xe nannonantntm ocroxnnem mona-
nan, xax n ncex cnanxn npanocnanno nepxnn. B 30-40-x roax mnnynmero
cronernx no nnnxnnem nnxamnx cnomenn c Poccne cnanxncxn mpn]r
n xnnrax nx nyumero omecrna, nanpnmep, n onacrn no+snn, cran same-
nxrtcx namnm pyccxnm, rax nastnaemo rpaxanxom (comnemcx na xccxoe
nsanne crnxornopenn Anexcanpn).
Ho mexy rem n Ancrpnn, nmenno n pymtncxo Tpancnntnannn, anno
yxe ncnornmxa roronnncx yap npornn ncropnuecxoro, xnpnnnoncxoro
nnctma y monanan uepes sameny ero narnncxo aeneo. Mecrnte ynna-
rt, nacropt tnn ropxunmn aenramn ancrpncxo nen, xorx nepnoe npe-
mx nenn eno ocropoxno, es nacnnnx. Tax, n Banamcxo-nemenxom cnona-
pe Anpeaca Knemenca (o nem ncxontst tno ynomxnyro ntme), nsan-
nom n Fye (Ofen) n 1821 roy, na nepnom mecre cnono n xnpnnnoncxo
nepeaue n rontxo na nropom mecre n narnncxo rpancxpnnnnn. Ho nocne
Hapnxcxoro rpaxrara ancrpncxax nex namna n Fyxapemre ropxun npn-
em, n c +roro npemenn c]apnxonannoe na cropone narnncxoe nnctmo n c
pacuerom ncxuecxn npnnnsnrt n ]opme pymtncxoe cnono x ero narnncxo-
174
2009, N 1 (15)
my xoppecnonenry (tara, unra napa, ns narnncxoro terra) cenanoct
sa Hpyrom nontm nannonantntm nnctmom, noxasarenem conpemenntx ram
acnnpann na 3ana, npout or cnanxncrna
12
.
Hsnnmne ronopnrt, uro mt n monancxo xnnre, npenasnauenno nx
monancxoro mantunxa napono mxont n nenrpantntx yesax Feccapa-
nn, moxem osnonnrt rontxo nam pyccxn mpn]r. Bnny +roro npnem,
ynorpenennt anropom nepnoro y nac yuennxa na monancxom xstxe
Homomnnxa monanan, mt ne moxem ne cunrart nnonne pasymntm n n
ro xe npemx ne moxem ne npnnercrnonart ero, xax cnmnarnunt nosnpar x
pono crapnne, eme cront cnexe axe sa Hpyrom. Honropxem, npnem
orna uaxnpa ne pyccxax rpancxpnnnnx, n nonoro on nnuero ne nnocnr.
Koneuno, nx Fyxapemra n annym mnnyry mpn]r orna uaxnpa ecrt pyc-
cxax rpancxpnnnnx n ro rontxo noromy, uro ram nacnntcrnenno npnxonunnn
co cnoe crapnno.
Hpn emeno nene (40 xon. sa nce uacrn) yuenax xnnra orna uaxnpa
nnonne ocrynna macce. Ho anrop xax yro ynycrnn ns nna ro ocroxrent-
crno, uro n xnnxxe nx napono mxont, nx macct neonycrnmt oneuar-
xn, omnxn: rexcr raxo xnnxxn uro rexcr xanonnuecxn. B nsannn xe
orna uaxnpa n oneuarox, n omnox cnnmxom ocrarouno (mopoxax, tnrycr
nmecro tnrycr, II, 14 n p.).
anee tno t ne nnmnnm onee ecrecrnennoe pasmemenne npnmepon: x
uemy, nanpnmep, II, crp. 14-15, es ncxxo cncremt cnona, oosnauammero
pocrno? Comnenaemcx n n pasentnom cymecrnonannn n c pasentntm
snauennem monancxnm cnon axnaxenn n narnaxenn, nnrapt n xn-
rapt (II, crp. 16), n camom cymecrnonannn n ycrax npocroro eccapacxo-
ro monanannna raxnx xnrptx reorpa]nuecxnx nasnann nx nnsxnx n
concem anexnx npemeron, xax Herpxncypr, r.e. Herepypr, Poma,
r.e. Pnm, Mape menrepant, r.e. Cpensemnoe mope. uro xacaercx nocne-
nnx nyx nasnann, ro enannocrt nx ouennna: net narnncxoe terra, n
raxo nmenno ]opme, n monancxom xstxe ne cymecrnyer, xax ne cyme-
crnyer n uacrnna medi, n oa nasnannx nepaccynrentno nsxrt anropom
ns xstxa, uro c]apnxonan n Fyxapemre. upannyscxax reorpa]nuecxax rep-
mnnonornx, xax n ncropnuecxax, maremarnuecxax, nennxom nepenecena n
monancxn xstx no ry cropony Hpyra rocnoamn ns Fyxapemra. K uemy
xe nam cnonx mantunxon noprnrt, nnuxart nx ronont nenyxntm xnamom?..
Haxonen, ormernm ncrpeuammnecx mecramn nerounte pyccxne ooport nnn
nenpannntnte cnona. Tax, ena nn ronopxr no-pyccxn: xro uyuaem ceno
n rpany (u. II, 36); ecrt cnono cxnpa, no ne cxnp n p.
Boome, menxnx, no ouent nexenanntx neoueron n Homomnnxe mon-
anan onontno. Ho, xax nepnt ontr n uacrnoe nsanne, rpy orna uaxn-
pa sacnyxnnaer ncxuecxo npnsnarentnocrn c noxenannem, xoneuno, urot
+ro nonesnoe pyxonocrno nx napontx mxon Feccapann, ee yeson c
monancxnm nacenennem npn nonom nsannn tno rmarentno sanono npo-
xoppexrnponano, nponepent tnn ee n pyccxn, n monancxn rexcrt, yc-
175

rpanent nce omnxn, oneuarxn, nenocneonarentnocrn, ocoenno enan-


nte, ns-sa Hpyra sanecennte cnona.
Hpn omecrnenno noepxxe naromy naunnannm xnmnnencxoro yun-
renx-cnxmennnxa mt moxem oxnart or roro xe +neprnuecxoro anropa n
nonoro, antnemero mara n nnrepece rex xe monancxnx mantunxon Fec-
capann ronxono, c monancxnmn rnoccamn pyccxo xpecmo+amuu,
xnnrn nx urennx, xax +roro poa xnnrn nastnannct n crapnny, n nx mxo-
nt, n sa noporom ee. Fes urennx n es ocnexennx npemenamn npnoperen-
ntx eccapacxnm mantunxom cneenn n napono mxone no pyccxomy
xstxy nocnenne cxopo satnamrcx, rax xax mnorne ycnonnx xnsnn n cene
n cocroxnnn rontxo napannsonart re pesyntrart, xoropte c ontmnm rpy-
om nonyuamrcx n napono mxone no cront cymecrnennomy nx nac non-
pocy, xax nonpoc o nsnecrnocrn rocyapcrnennoro xstxa mexy nnopyc-
cxnm nacenennem Hmnepnn.
IV
Mt rontxo uro ntpasnnn xenanne, urot anrop Homomnnxa monanan
npoonxnn cnoe yueno-nnreparypnoe eno n nsan nroporo Homomnn-
xa, n nne cnennantno pyccxo xpecromarnn. Ho name xenanne, moryr
nospasnrt nam, sanosano n nsnnmne: xpecromarnx nx yuennxon monanan
yxe nmeercx n name yueno nnreparype, n ntmna ona n cner ononpe-
menno c Homomnnxom orna uaxnpa, n n rom xe Knmnnene, n +ro raxxe
rpy ontrnoro mecrnoro yunrenx napono mxont, xorx n cnennantnoro, a
ne omero xapaxrepa.
3ro Feccapanx. Hcropnxo-reorpa]nuecxn ouepx nx xenammnx os-
naxomnrtcx nnxamnm opasom c mecrntm xpaem. Knnra, npnronax n
nx nnexnaccnoro urennx yuennxam monananam, Knmnnen, 1901 roa,
nena 60 xon. Anrop +ro xnnrn Ieoprn Kopxn, yunrent napono mxont n
Fymxanax, npemecrte r. Knmnnena.
Tpy r. Kopxna no cnoe cnennantno nenn ornocnrcx x onacrn pon-
noneennx. Anrop saancx optm namepennem cnonx nosnaxomnrt co
cnonm. Ho eno n rom, uro xaxax crartx n xnnre r. Kopxna, napannax
uerxnm, xpynntm mpn]rom, nx xaxoro cnoero onee nnn menee rpynoro
ntpaxennx, oopora, nx orentnoro, cxontxo-nnyt sarpynnrentnoro
cnona, cnaxena rountmn rnoccamn na monancxom xstxe. Cneonarent-
no, n nnrepect pyccxoro xstxa n nonno mepe oecneunnamrcx ncropnxo-
reorpa]nuecxo xpecromarne r. Kopxna. Ho nect nonpoc xax ona co-
crannena n n cocroxnnn nn ona ne crontxo cocranom, cxontxo cnonm nsno-
xennem npnoxornrt mxontnnxa n mnomy monanannna, ocrannnmero mxo-
ny, x pyccxomy urennm, npoonxart oma ynpaxnxrtcx n pyccxom xstxe?
K coxanennm, xnnra cxpomnoro naponoro yunrenx n Fymxanax mano
npnrona n xax nocone no ponnoneennm, n xax xnnra nx pyccxoro ure-
nnx, nx ynpaxnennx n pyccxom xstxe nx nnexnaccnoro urennx yuenn-
xam monananam, xax na ro paccunrtnan anrop (cm. sarnanne).
176
2009, N 1 (15)
Knnra r. Kopxna ne moxer trt nnrepecna nx mxont. Eme menee nx
xnsnn, no cnonm mnorouncnenntm ]antmnntm coomennxm ns reorpa-
]nn, +rnorpa]nn n ncropnn xpax, ne ronrcx n no cnonm nsnnmecrnam,
menouam. Hosnonxem cee orpannunrtcx nemnornmn crpannnamn xnnrn, urot
ormernrt ro neneenne anropa, xoropoe nnmaer xnnry ceptesnoro nearorn-
uecxoro snauennx n nnrepecax ponnoneennx, cneonarentno, nnxax ne moxer
noconrt npn ocrnxennn npexpacno nenn anropa trt n nomomt xe-
nammnm osnaxomnrtcx nnxamnm opasom c mecrntm xpaem. Hepen-
part xe nce nsanne tno t nnmnnm rpyom.
Crp. 2. Concem nponsnontno yrnepxenne, uro Feccapanx nocnr cnoe
nasnanne c XIII nexa. Ftno yxe yxasano pantme, uro n na xaprax, n n o-
mem ynorpenennn o 1812 roa, a axe nemnoro nosxe, no Feccapane
nonnmanact rontxo mxnax uacrt; uro na cenep or onorncro onnnt pexn
Fornt, nnaamme n necrp y Fenep, ro tna 3anpyrcxax Monannx nnn
npocro Monannx.
Crp. 5. Cenepnym uacrt Feccapann anrop xapaxrepnsyer xax xpa, ora-
rt rycrtmn necamn. Ho neanno nam npnmnoct notnart n Xornncxom
yese, npopesart ero or necrpa o Hpyra - n ynt! Hnre rycroro neca nn
cnea. B nny xaprt Feccapann F. 3rnepa 1843 roa, na xoropo rma-
rentno ormeuent neca, moxno ymart, uro n 60 ner romy nasa cenep Fecca-
pann necamn ocoenno orar ne tn, sa ncxnmuennem cxpomnoro yrna
mexy necrpom n uepntm Horoxom, r.e. y rpannnt c Iannnne. Tontxo
cpenxx Feccapanx, ocoenno Opreencxn yes, eme nonnexa romy nasa
tna cnnomt onn nec; no renept n sect xanxne ocrarxn, namxrt o tnom
nennunn n orarcrne xpax n cnnerent xnmnnuecxo conpemenno xyntry-
pt.
Crp. 5. Ecnn necrp y rypox nastnaercx Typna (uro cnpanennno), ro
xcno, uro +ro nasnanne pexn ne n pennocrn.
Crp. 7. Concem pncxonanno yrnepxart, urot axnnt n I cronernn o
P. Xp. nacenxnn Feccapanm, n urot nmenno onn Hpyr nastnann Hopa-
ra.
Crp. 10. Ionopx o nacenennn Xornncxoro yesa, anrop yrnepxaer, uro
ero cocrannxmr ne rontxo pycnnt (n axe c nymx c), pesxo ntenxemte
or manopoccon, no n nonxxn. Ho re +ro nocnennx anrop nnen? Hecxontxo
ceme nnaerene n apenaropon nomecrn, ynpannxmmnx sanoamn, un-
nonnnxon - nor n nect nontcxn xonrnnrenr. a pasne o +rom ceptesno
ronopxr, pas peut ner o +rnorpa]nn xpax?
Ha ro xe crpannne px nenepnocre o ropoe Xornne. Hnxora reny+snt
ne tnn n Xornne n snamennro ero xpenocrn ne crponnn. nx anropa +rn-
monornx nasnannx ropoa ro axcxax, ro ranntcxax; no nce +ro cnononpons-
nocrno neocnonarentno, a rnannoe neymecrno n xnnre, npenasnauenno
nx monancxoro mantunxa, nx mxontnnxa, nacroxmero nnn tnmero.
Ha crp. 11 yxe npxmo nenenocrt n yrnepxennn, uro Xornncxax xpenocrt
n Feccapanx npncoennent nancera x Poccnn no Fepnnncxomy rpaxrary.
177

3ror peecrp omnox moxno t npoonxart o orpomntx pasmepon. Ho


n npnneennte mecra ns nepnoro ecxrxa crpannn ocrarouno onpeenxmr
nayunym, n npeenax ncropnn, +rnorpa]nn n reorpa]nn, ronocrt xnnrn
nx npocnemennx mecrnoro monancxoro nacenennx Feccapann. Koneuno,
ecrecrnennoe xenanne anropa nnert cnoe yuenoe nocone n nnnorexax
napontx mxon Feccapann ena nn moxer trt ocymecrnnmo.
Hepeem xo nropomy nonpocy nacxontxo xnnra r. Kopxna moxer trt
nnrepecna cnoe nnreparypno cropono, npnnneut x cee nnnmanne mant-
unxa-mxontnnxa n mnomy nne mxont?
K coxanennm, n nx +ro nenn ona mano npnrona. Bce ee crpannnt
ncnempent nmenamn n nmenamn, ncropnuecxnmn n reorpa]nuecxnmn; sa-
rem ner nepennna nn]p, concem neymecrntx, ne morymnx nnuero nones-
noro cxasart nn ymy, nn uyncrny eccapacxoro mantunxa. Honxrno, xaxym
cxyxy moxer nanecrn na npocroro mantunxa noonoe cyxoe, neyxnmxee
nsnoxenne: ono nmenno moxer orronxnyrt ero or pyccxoro urennx, a ne
saoxornrt. Haxonen, cam pyccxn xstx orptnxon crpaaer orcyrcrnnem npo-
crort, nerxocrn; nnora on npocro n nenonxren n nenpannnen. Tax, concem
ne cpasy oepemtcx o cmtcna ]past: xnrenn nontsymrcx npanom npo-
nsnonrt ptnym nonnm n noax npnmtxamme rnpnt ynax. 3ect an-
rop cym. rnpno (xepno nnn xepeno) nepenen n cnona xencxoro poa;
nenpannntno nomecrnn onpeenenne npnuacrne, n nce +ro nx roro, urot
ne cxasart npocro n xcno n noax Knnncxoro rnpna ynax.
Oopxx nnnmarentnoe ornomenne anropa x xoppexrype cnoe mxontno
xnnrn, mt nonarann t, uro nx monancxoro mantunxa nsnnmnx nocranon-
xa yapennx na xaxom cnone ero ponoro xstxa: net on npn monancxom
urennn ne omnercx Haoopor, tno t nnonne ymecrno yapenne na xax-
om pyccxom cnone, a +roro-ro n ner, uem rax rpyo napymeno nepnoe rpe-
onanne n napono mxone c nnopyccxnm cocranom yuennxon Koneuno,
n npn urennn na omy ocraercx n cnne ro xe nearornuecxoe rpeonanne.
Haxonen, npncoennennax x xonny name reopra]nxo-ncropnuecxo xpe-
cromarnn neontmax xapra Feccapann oannenne, esycnonno, neoxo-
nmoe concem xanxa, nycra n ncnonnena concem npnmnrnnntmn nnror-
pa]cxnmn cpecrnamn nponnnnnn, xorx cama xapra ne n nne npocrtnn, n
xaxom nne nsana xapra mxno Feccapann axxepmancxnm semcrnom, npn
ynomxnyrom ntme Onncannn +ro onacrn or nauana npomnoro cronernx.
Bxona rpeyer xopomo ncnonnenno n onee nnn menee ocroxrentno xap-
rt, pas mxontnoe nocone rpeyer ee, cneonarentno, n n +rom ornomennn
xpecromarnx r. Kopxna cnoe nenn ne yonnernopxer.
Hepexonm x rpertemy monancxomy nsannm, n nsnecrnom cmtcne npe-
nasnauennomy n nx pyccxo mxont, no yxe x nsannm ne nponnnnnantno-
my, a cronnunomy, ne Knmnnena, a Fyxapemra.
V
Eme n 1895 roy npo]eccop pyccxoro xstxa n Boenno (de razboiu)
Axaemnn n Fyxapemre oxrop 3mmanynn Ipnroponnna (Em. Grigorovitza),
178
2009, N 1 (15)
no nopyuennm mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx n ncnoneann, co-
crannn n nsan, n Fyxapemre xe, omnpnt Pyccxo-pymtncxn cnonapt
(Dictionar rus-roman). 3ro ontmax xnnra n 768 crpannn, n na cronna,
]opmara in oct. lex., c nocnxmennem Ee Hmneparopcxomy ntcouecrny Ma-
pnn Anexcanponne, repnornne Koypr-Iorcxo.
Bnemnxx cropona nsannx, xax noome n nsannxx cronnnt Pymtnnn,
nnonne yonnernopnrentnax, axe meronenarax: npexpacnax, uerxax neuart
xnpnt pyccxn mpn]r, xpynnt pymtncxn; ymara xopoma. Ho anee
nnyrpennxx cropona rpya np. Ipnroponnnt concem ne orneuaer nnemne, n
yxapemrcxn cnonapt cronn mnoro, a cronr mano. Hennocrt ne nennxa.
Bnnmanne unrarenx ocranannnnaer na cee orpomnoe xonnuecrno omnox
n oneuarox n pyccxnx cnonax, ne ronopx yxe o nerounocrxx n yxasannn
poono xareropnn pyccxnx cnon nnn o raxnx omnxax, xoropte osnonx-
mr npenonarart, uro cam anrop ne ncera npannntno ymeer unrart pyccxn
neuarnt rexcr. Moxno cxasart, uro ne uacro ncrpernrcx cronen n cnonape
es 2, 3 oneuarox omnox. Cnpamnnaercx, xax xe pymtny Koponencrna
yunrtcx pyccxomy xstxy ns noonoro cnonapx? B raxom xe sarpynnrent-
nom nonoxennn ouyrnncx t n nam eccapacxn mxontnnx, ecnn t npn-
er x ycnyram r. Ipnroponnnt. Hpnneem na ntepxxy necxontxo npnme-
pon ns pyccxnx cronnon cnon necymecrnymmnx n nenosmoxntx nnn
neynorpenxmmnxcx
13
.
a) Cnona necymecrnymmne:
enep, sau (r.e. nnn) mnep. (Honnma enept?).
epsxonenne. (Hponsn. or npnn. epsxn?).
epa, sau epnna s. m. locul exploatat?
nonsaurt, verb. aimpinge. Hao ymart, nm. nonsart.
nonnt, adj. exterior. Ouennno, or uacrnnt non.
naxncrno, s. n. si naxnnnnocrt s. f., impertinenta, obraznicia.
Hoxasano n pyccx., npnnar. naxnnnnt impertinent, cym. naxn s. m. pop.,
r.e. n napono peun nega rea (r.e. yxnantno sno ynpxmen).
ornosnrt, v., a arata ciuva (r.e. pannrt, ntrtxart), n mnoro nntx.
) Cnona nenosmoxnte nnn neynorpenxmmnecx:
ecxrnpnnem, adv., de zece ori. Ouennno, nm. ecxrnpnnem.
oporonpono, s. v. viaductul. Orxya anrop nsxn?
opxart, s. m. laptele de migdala. Ouennno, nm. opma.
oren, s. m. timpul fatarei vacilor, r.e. npemx orenentx. Orxya anrop nsxn?
orxnert, verb., a se subtia, a deveni putin, lichid, r.e. enartcx xnxnm,
n mnoro nntx.
C pyro cropont, nerounte yxasannx ntamr neocrarounoe snaxom-
crno c pyccxnm xstxom camoro anropa. Tax, cnono rasent r. Ipnroponn-
na nnmer ne rontxo rasen, no n oxcnxer s. m., r.e. cymecrnnrentnoe
myxcxoro poa. Ho eme xyptesnee y anropa c npanonncannem cnona rann-
or (cyno): on unraer ero xax ranmr, snaer nponsnonoe ranmrunx n
no nsexanne ncxxoro neopasymennx eme ormeuaer yapenne na netna-
179

nom m; camo xe cnono oxcneno npannntno galoita, corabie mica,


r.e. cyno. Hexoropte nexcnuecxne noxcnennx anropa npocro nn nonxrt
nentsx, nn oraartcx, uro anrop nmen n nny. Tax, npn cnone ropa unra-
em: ropom, adv., forte corpulent, gros, uro snaunr ouent eeno, roncro.
Hnuero noonoro n xstxe ner.
Taxnm opasom, Pyccxo-pymtncxn cnonapt yxapemrcxoro npo]ec-
copa nx pymtn, xenammnx osnaxomnrtcx c pyccxnm xstxom, ne ronrcx:
y anropa cno pyccxn xstx, xoropomy ecnn xaxo pymtn n nayunrcx, ro
ero pyccxax peut yer nponsnonrt eme onee xomnuecxoe nneuarnenne na
cnymarenx, uem peut sananoro cnanxnnna, saornnno oruexannnammero
cnoe xapamo Ho ecnn rpy Ipnroponnnt n nmeer nexoropoe npaxrnuec-
xoe snauenne, ro rontxo nx nac, pyccxnx, npn neoxonmocrn uro-nnyt
nanncart no-pymtncxn, na nnreparypnom xstxe. nx nac, xoneuno, cnoeo-
pasnt pyccxn xstx npo]eccopa Boenno Axaemnn onacnocrn ne npe-
crannxer, a cnona es cmtcna ocrannm n cropone.
Hs npenoxenntx sameuann nentsx ne nnert, uro rpyonmnnt npo-
]eccop Fyxapemrcxo Boenno Axaemnn nnaeer rontxo n nexoropo mepe
pyccxnm xstxom, snaer xstx naccnnno. H c raxnm naccnnntm snannem pyc-
cxoro xstxa moxno t tno cocrannrt r. Ipnroponnne onee n menee yon-
nernopnrentno pyccxo-pymtncxn cnonapt, ecnn t rontxo anrop tn o-
nee nnnmarenen n crpor x cee.
He snaem, xaxne npaxrnuecxne pesyntrart npnnecno noxnnenne n cner
Pyccxo-pymtncxoro cnonapx; no anrop ne ocranonnncx na nepno npoe
n uepes nxrt ner ntnycrnn nropo cnonapt, n oparnom nopxxe rex xe
xstxon.
B 1901 roy n rom xe Fyxapemre npo]. Ipnroponnna nsan Dictionar
roman-rus, n raxxe no nopyuennm roro xe mnnncrepcrna naponoro npo-
cnemennx, npnuem xax nnonax uacrt x cnonapm npnnoxen un studiu
introductiv asupra gramaticei limbei romane, rax xax cnonapt npenasnauan-
cx n nx nac, pyccxnx. 3a pymtncxnm rnrynom cneyer pyccxn: Pymtnc-
xo-pyccxn cnonapt, c npnnoxennem nsnneuennx ns pymtncxo rpammarn-
xn, cocrannn no nopyuennm pymtncxoro mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocne-
mennx n ncnoneann -p 3m. Ipnroponnna. Hena 25 nenon, r.e. ]panxon.
Hsanne nocnxmeno Anrycrememy npesnenry Hmneparopcxo Axaemnn
nayx, nennxomy xnxsm Koncranrnny Koncranrnnonnuy.
Vcnonnx nx ntnonnennx +roro nroporo rpya y anropa yxymnnnct: npn
paorax raxoro poa neoxonmo snart xopomo, aumueuo, nropo, uyxo
xstx; a mt nnenn, r. Ipnroponnna anee naccnnnoro snannx pyccxoro xst-
xa npnrxsart ne moxer. Moryr nam nospasnrt, uro n reuenne nxrn ner, pase-
nxmmnx noxnnenne oonx cnonape, anrop mor norn anexo nnepe n yc-
noennn pyccxoro xstxa; no, x coxanennm, nosmoxnocrt ne nepemna n e-
crnnrentnocrt, n pesyntrar or nropo nexcnxorpa]nuecxo npot yxapem-
rcxoro npo]eccopa oxastnaercx cront xe mano yonnernopnrentntm, xax n
or nepno, noxany, n menee.
180
2009, N 1 (15)
Bnemnn exopym conmen, ecrecrnenno, ror xe, uro n n nepnom cnona-
pe, 1896 roa: re xe mpn]rt, cronnt, ]opmar; no conmen, x coxane-
nnm, n ror xe, npexe ncero, nnemnn neouer, macct n macct oneuarox
omnox n pyccxom rexcre. Vnnnrentna nacrounnocrt anropa nx xop-
pexrypt neocrarouno nnsxo snaxomoro emy rexcra, r.e. pyccxoro, ne nc-
xart nomomn na cropone, a nomomt +ra rax ne rpyno namnact t. He rono-
px o unenax Koponencxo pymtncxo axaemnn nayx rr. Tounnecxy, For-
ane n pyrnx, n noprontx ropoax Pymtnnn mnoro unnonnnxon, oxro-
pon, arenron, npexpacno ronopxmnx no-pyccxn: cnnerentcrnyemcx namnm
nyremecrnnem no npnynacxo Pymtnnn nerom mnnynmero roa. uro xe
n xonne xonnon ntmno y r. Ipnroponnnt or ero ynopcrna nonarartcx rontxo
na camoro cex n xoppexrype xnnrn, n xoropo rpeyercx ocropoxnocrt,
nnnmanne n oruernnnoe snanne? Cnonapt ne nonecrymxa.
Fepem nayauy ne cocenne crpannnt cnonapx, npnrom nepnt cronen
xaxo.
Crp. 76, I: neuarnte norpemnocrn: Tpane (r.e. c.), nonymyox es pyxa-
nou, nmecro, nepcxynmnx, yunonon, ocxenox, r.e. 6 oneuarox.
Crp. 77, I; nonymyox, mexoumnx, cxopnux, mexonunxa, cxpomnu,
cxporocrt(!), xupannncnooenaxctnt (ono cnono n rexcre, nepoxrno, nao
unrart xpannnonoonax ctnt), nnsrontm, napont, pacxasnn, r.e. 13
oneuarox.
Hourn ner pyccxoro cronna es oneuarox. Ecnn nonoxnrt 4 oneuarxn na
cronen, ro npn 640 crpannnax Cnonapx nnn 1 280 cronnax omee uncno
oneuarox yer oxono 5 rtcxu, nponopnnx nx cnpanounoro cnonapx, yue-
noro pyxonocrna nenosmoxnax, r.e. neonycrnmax. Ecnn n namem nocue-
re mt n rpemnm, ro rontxo n nontsy anropa. Mt yxe ne ronopnm o nxnx
nepenocax pyccxnx cnon (onox-mennrtcx s. v. desameti), o snaxax npenn-
nannx.
Ho crpamnax xoppexrypnax nepexnocrt conponoxaercx pyro, n ona
eme xpue cnnerentcrnyer o nepexnocrn anropa Cnonapx, xax t o ero
npnpoxennom nopoxe. Mt nmeem n nny nente cepnn pymtncxnx cnon,
ocrannenntx es cnoero pyccxoro xoppecnonenra: uro xe nocne +roro Py-
mtncxo-pyccxn cnonapt yxapemrcxoro npo]eccopa? Taxont: alimori c.
m. mn. u (r.e. myxcxoro poa, mnoxecrnennoro uncna), corla c.x., cosara
c.x. (saron?), costrus c.m. (ns Tpancnntnannn), covasit, npnu. crescatura
(pocr?), crucea-voiniculiu (conarcxn xpecr?), cucoara c.x., cupa, vacei
c.x., curalice, c.x., detipt, npnnr., godac, gogotar, grasatoare c.x., c cctn-
xo na +ro cnono nnxe n r..
3ect anrop ne y mecra monuannn. Ho nnora on ne y mecra peuncr, c
nsnnmecrnamn. Conepmenno nsnnmnn rypenxne cnona, nnora c omnpnt-
mn ronxonannxmn na yncrnennom pyccxom xstxe. Tax, no delii unraem:
c. mnoxecrnennoro uncna, rax nastnanmncx orpe (!) xonnnnt, c]opmn-
ponanno npn Mnxanne Xpapom, xoropax (!) n n cnom (!) ouepet npocna-
nnnact cnonmn nonnramn Hnn rypenxoe cnono nannno nporonxonano, no
181

es ormerxn ero nponcxoxennx: ulema, c.m., xnnxnnx, yuent, orocnon.


Btxonr, uro n anropa namero cnonapx moxno nasnart ynemo
Hspexa, es cncremt, cnyuano anrop ormeuaer, uro cnono nonoe nnn
ycrapenoe (n nocnenem cnyuae otxnonenno cnono cnanxncxoe), a cornn n
cornn cnon, xax: a confruntu (trt na ouno cranxe), a confunda in scuze
(ns ]p. excuser), deja (no-pyccxn nepeneeno nxe nmecro yxe),
derma, torent, tren, univers n np. n np., ocrannent es ormerxn,
cnonno onn n xstxe ne co nuepamnero nx. Hspexa ncrpeuaercx axe raxax
pocxomt, xax yxasanne na mecrnt ronop, na Tpancnntnannm, Fanar, Mon-
annm, Fyxonnny n Honopoccncxn xpa (cm. no cnonamn coptura, corasla
n np.). Hepe namn yuenoe nocone, cnpanounax xnnra, ne onee.
Ho opamaemcx x rnanno cropone Pymtncxo-pyccxoro cnonapx
r. Ipnroponnnt, x ero pyccxomy xstxy, xorx, onxnt oronopnrtcx, ne rax
nerxo penensenry pasopartcx n +rom nonpoce npn yxasanno nannunocrn
macct oneuarox, uro ecrnnrentno rnnorpa]cxax norpemnocrt, n uro
onxno trt orneceno x neocrarounomy snannm pyccxoro xstxa y anropa,
noxany, x cnoeopasnomy snannm. Bor, no cnonom bate unraem: no-
o ero (,) cnna Foxtx. Ho xax pemnrt, uro raxoe nenenoe cnono noo,
- pesyntrar nn oneuarxn nnn cnoeopasnax ]opma nonennrentnoro naxnone-
nnx cnoeopasnoro pyccxoro xstxa anropa? Bet anrop treeriste pymtncxoe
oxcnxer: onx nonyuammn nnaenen, nomant xoroporo paorann na
rymne
Hpexe ncero, ocranonnmcx na nocnxmennn, nmemmem necxontxo crpox.
Ono nnrorpa]nponano, cneonarentno, naopmnx ena ne nmen. Hemnoro
crpox, no mnoro omnox, xoropte n cnnerentcrnymr, uro ror, xro nxrt ner
romy nasa yunn cnonx pymtn cxnonxrt no-pyccxn: rasen, rasena, raseny,
ocrancx nepen cee, ocrancx npn cnoem crapom snannn pyccxoro xstxa.
Pyccxn xstx nocnxmennx: xnxsy, rnyouanmnm, Hpncearenm (r.e.
Hpecearenm, Hpesnenry); omnxn, ne ncnpannennte npn xoppexrype,
ram xe: Axaemin, naroronznnem. H rax n crapoe snanne, n crapax
nepexnocrt yxe na nepnom mary. Ho opamaemcx x camomy rpyy.
Ecnn n camom cnonape n ero pyccxom rexcre cornn n cornn nepyccxnx
]opm moxno ornecrn x nenpocrnrentno nepexno xoppexrype (n nepnom
cronne nepno crpannnt ocnexaem crapoe yxasanne mt unraem: x ne
npnnomnam, nxnxa; nropo crpannnt: abatut, yyrt, xnor, nyso;
nropo cronen nropo crpannnt: onecrnocrnoe, nayrax onesnt,
abras nomat, xoropax, nonaramr, npnnocnr necuacrte ceoxy), - ro
ram xe mt nmeem ne mentmee xonnuecrno pyccxnx cnon nnn concem neno-
nxrntx n annom couerannn, nnn nanexamym rpammarnuecxym ]opmy
xoroptx moxno ycranonnrt rontxo no oraxe, uenonexy, xopomo snamme-
my pyccxn xstx, nnn nsnecrnocrt xoroptx onxna trt ornecena x nnu-
nomy nexcnuecxomy sanacy anropa, x ero nsoperennm. Hpnneem necxont-
xo npnmepon xaxo ns rpex xareropn, ocrannxx cornn es nnnmannx.
I xareropnx:
muratura, c.x. eouu nnn nnot ntepxannte n pascone.
182
2009, N 1 (15)
uro +ro sa orxptrne? Ipammarnuecxax ]opma ne npornnopeunna t pyc-
cxomy xstxy r. Ipnroponnnt.
ysxart, rn. sub v. gsi.
mxnn rart s.v. ferestruica.
naopnax neperart s.v. vinqalac.
pexox, c., s.v. vtaf.
exa naneunax rpana s.v albeiu.
opnx open (n napontx npeannxx) s.v- albele, n ro xe cnono nnxe
open nonmentx - ale frumoase. uen?
sanrpa c mnmxam s.v. asteapt.
nsnxannt nxyc s.v. aticism.
paser, nopen s.v. avint.
nnnernopenne npasnnxa s.v. crciun.
cptct s.v. darimat.
opyrart xenno s.v. imbla (a).
naert naxmn s.v. impotila.
nnennrt sepno s.v. griu.
nmapa no xonrpaxr s.v. contractare.
II xareropnx:
na nxyc n nner ronapnme xem (r.e. ner), s.v. gust.
yannnart s.v. gtui, r.e. yannnnart.
ropo s.v. gt, r.e. ropno.
npoy nonty s.v. copc, r.e. npopyt no nty.
ercno, ecrno s.v copilari, r.e. ercrno.
yxnntxa s.v. apucatura, r.e. yxnmxa.
onsax uepra s.v. asemanatura, r.e. omax.
xecroxn, mepoxart, nemnnonepnt s.v. aspru, r.e. xecrxn, mepo-
xonart.
anuymn, xaxymmn s.v. ahtiat.
sartxart, sarnnrt, sanarpomoxart s.v. astupa, r.e. sartxart, saranrt,
sarpomoxart.
III xareropnx:
pe esy+ue s.v. aiurire.
ecno+ouecmeauue s.v. ajutorie.
emeauue s.v. aspiratie.
opt ocuu s.v. ager (nnxe enartcx ocxnm - ageri).
asuuuu: ace, nmecro aduce (n nap. no+snn), si elti ace (aduce) busuioc,
n on ree npnnocnr asnnnxa. Hpocro nacnnex, nsnecrnt nnerox.
m+euue s.v. afumare.
muuuem s.v. gafait.
uosuumoca s.v. meca.
omepamuuoum s.v. gretos.
nueeumo sepno s.v. grui.
183

oeupuuem s.v. crezator.


epe+o+up s.v. cronometru.
nuooeumoca s.v. fttoare.
K +romy xe copry ocoenntx cnon r. Ipnroponnnt moxno ornecrn n ero
ocoennte ntpaxennx npoe: trt rnyntm, xax nout (cm. s.v. groapa).
Houemy nout rnyna? Ocrpoymnx ne mnoro. Bepoxrno, anrop Pymtncxo-
pyccxoro cnonapx nepenyran pyccxne npnnararentnte rnynt n rnyxo
(otxnonennt +nnrer cnona nout) n cosan cnoe nspeuenne. Ftrt mo-
xer, ro xe nyrannne cnnxammnxcx no snyxam pyccxnx cnon oxcnxer-
cx es cmtcna ntpaxenne n I xareropnn: sanrpa c +uuua+ - r.e. sanrpa
c memxom?.. Bce +ro ronopnr o onom neocrarounom, cmyrnom snannn
pyccxoro xstxa, neocrarounom, urot trt anropom nopxounoro cnona-
px. Onoro rpyonmnx n nmnn neuarartcx mano.
Taxnm opasom, xpane nennnmarentnoe ornomenne x nsannm, esyc-
nonno rpeymmemy orcyrcrnnx nnn minimum norpemnocre, n neocrarou-
noe snanne y anropa nroporo, r.e. pyccxoro, xstxa nnmamr Pymtncxo-
pyccxn cnonapt r. 3m. Ipnroponnnt snauennx nonesno cnpanouno xnnrn:
npexe uem nontsonartcx rpyom yxapemrcxoro npo]eccopa, neoxon-
mo nnaert pyccxnm xstxom n ontme mepe, uem n xaxo nnaeer cam
cocrannrent cnonapx. Hpo]eccop, cryenr pyccxoro ynnnepcnrera, yxon-
no axaemnn, cnyxamn no nnnomarnuecxo uacrn, anoxar, yunrent,
ropronen, nnreparop n norpentx cnyuaxx moryr nocnontsonartcx rpyom
r. Ipnroponnnt n trt anropy npnsnarentntmn sa ocrannxemym nosmox-
nocrt snaxomnrtcx c ero pontm, pymtncxnm xstxom, r.e. c ero nexcnuec-
xnm cocranom, necxontxo c nnornsmamn n ]paseonorne ero. Ham neoxo-
nmo nomnnrt, uro xpome npnnoxennoro Pymtncxo-pyccxoro cnonapx x
rpyy nox. . Innxynona Copanne counnenn n nepenoon, n npose n
crnxax, nx ynpaxnennx n nanaxo-monancxom xstxe, n 173 crpannnt,
rounoro, no xparxoro n c npnxnantm xapaxrepom, n name yueno nnre-
parype ner pyroro noonoro nsannx. Ho xnnra Innxynona nnnorpa-
]nuecxax pexocrt, xax nsannax n C.-Herepypre eme n 1840 roy. Hsan-
nte n 1853 roy, nepe xomnanne y ynax, Pasronopt pyccxo-pymtnc-
xne (C.-Herepypr) cnaxent rontxo Cnonapem pyccxo-pymtncxnm ynor-
penrentntx cnon. Ho nrn anee nnn yxasanntx npo]eccn rpy r. Ipn-
roponnnt ena nn nmeer xaxoe-nno npano npnrxsart, xorx nn mano ne co-
mnenaemcx, uro anrop Pymtncxo-pyccxoro cnonapx yxe nnny coopa-
xennx ono marepnantno nontst meuran n o name mxone npn ntnycxe n
cner cnoero yuenoro noconx. Bcnomnnm n nocnxmenne Anrycrememy
npesnenry Hmneparopcxo Axaemnn nayx. Ho +ror cnonapt menee ncero
moxer trt npnrontm nx name monancxo mxont n nenrpantntx yes-
ax name Feccapann. He ronopx o oporonnsne cnonapx (25 ]panxon),
ero nenosmoxnax neuart n nenosmoxnt pyccxn xstx ne osnonxmr nn na
mnnyry ocranannnnartcx nepe orpnnarentntm ornerom na nonpoc: onyc-
rnm nn cnonapt r. Ipnroponnnt n eccapacxo nnopyccxo mxone? Herxo
npecrannrt cee, xaxo pyccxn xstx ycnonn t cee nam monanancxn
184
2009, N 1 (15)
mxontnnx ns noonoro yuenoro noconx nx +rnx encrnenntx c]ep
cnonapt yxapemrcxoro npo]eccopa nepecraer trt cnonapem. Ho mt no-
snonxem cee norn n antme.
Hpenonoxnm cee, uro Pymtncxo-pyccxn cnonapt r. Ipnroponnnt
tn t conepmenno cnooen or ncex rex neocrarxon, xoropte yxasant
ntme Ho n rora, pas eno ner o monancxo mxone Feccapann n cepo-
esuo, narnncxax rpancxpnnnnx, narnncxn mpn]r pymtncxnx cnon n ex-
pernponannax n Fyxapemre conpemennax rpa]nxa pymtncxoro xstxa n rpy-
e r. Ipnroponnnt nocnpenxrcrnonann t nam pexomenonart n xaxoe-nno
ropocxoe yunnnme nnn naponym mxony monancxo uacrn Feccapann
ero Pymtncxo-pyccxn cnonapt. Hama eccapacxax mxona nmeer cnoe
nepno saaue npnnnsnrt mantunxa-monanannna x omemy oreuecrny, a
ne orannrt or nero. O snauennn rpa]nxn n annom, no-nnnmomy, nycrom,
]opmantnom nonpoce mt ronopnnn ntme. B +rom nonpoce namn rocyap-
crnennte nnrepect n nnrepect yxapemrcxoro npannrentcrna namerpant-
no npornnononoxnt. Bocnoconxrt acnnpannxm ns-sa Hpyra mt ne moxem.
B xonne cnonapx r. Ipnroponnnt npnnoxen Vocabularul numelor de botez
romne, r.e. yxasarent pymtncxnx xpecrntx nmen. Kax mxnocnanxncxn,
rax n pymtncxn nmenocnon nnrepecen nx ncropnxa tra no cnonm uncro
napontm nmenam, no xoropte, xax n ecrecrnenno oxnart, yxnantno noc-
nponsnoxr mxnocnanxncxne. Taxont: Nedelea, Neagu, Valcu (r.e. Bonx),
Craciun. Ho orxya y npanocnanntx pymtn xxot xpecrnte nmena: Alfred,
Amalia, Clara, Francisc n axe Elisabeta (nocnenee c xoneuntmn cnora-
mn beta)? Ecnn t pymtnt tnn rpexn, nonpoca, noxany, ne tno t.
Vxenn n sect nepe namn renennnx? Anrop namero cnonapx ne coopa-
snn, uro pas y nero xe noxasana nacxarentnax ]opma nx ero Elisabeta
Veta, ro, cneonarentno, pymtncxn napo snaer ono nmx Enncaeema,
a ]opma n cnonape nsoperenne, n rexnnuecxoe, namero anropa nnn ner
espasnnuno.
HPHMEHAHHE
1. Bo nsexanne neopasymenn npn onpeenennn snauennx cym. uopy mt
cctnaemcx npexe ncero na rnoccapn x crapopymtncxnm namxrnnxam, npenoc-
xono nsanntm, n nne nsopnnxa, nsnecrntm M. Iacrepom (Gaster)
Chrestomatie Romna. Texte tiprite si manuscrise, sec. XVI-XIX... vol. II.
Bucuresti, 1891. B crapom cnonape rpancnntnancxoro nemenxoro nacropa Kne-
menca: Kleines walachischdeutsch und deutsh-walachisches Wrterbuch, verfasst
von Andreas Clemeus, Ofen 1821, cym. uopy co crpanntm snauennem die
Heide, Flur, Steppen. Ena nn +ro nexcnuecxax ocoennocrt xstxa pymtn n
Tpancnntnannn, y Kponmrara (Fpamena)... Ho n pyccxom cnonape Innxynona (o
uem cm. nnxe): xopy op, pemyun nec; n nonemem Pymtncxo-pyccxom
cnonape np. 3. Ipnroponnnt (o nem cm. nnxe) roxe: codru nec, poma, (yc-
rap.) ropa.
185

2. Foraroe n rmarentno cocrannennoe copanne neuarntx xapr namero xpax,


or camoro pannero npemenn, nmeercx n reorpa]nuecxom orenennn Kopon, uem-
cxoro mysex n Hpare. 3ror namxrnnx ecnennt rpy snamennroro Ba]apnxa,
na xoropt on nocnxrnn mnorne n mnorne rot n no npemx cosannx cnonx
Cnanxncxnx pennocre, n nosxe. B nacroxmym mnnyry mt n nontsyemcx
anntmn ns roro copannx. Hopxounoe copanne rex xe xapr naxonrcx n n
nnnorexe Hmneparopcxoro Oeccxoro Omecrna Hcropnn n pennocre, xara-
nor xoroptx nsan A. H. Feprte-ena-Iapom, ero nnne-npesnenrom.
3. Pyxonnct onee 70 ner xpannnact n apxnne ryepncxoro npannennx n Knmn-
nene n rontxo n 1899 r. nsana na cpecrna axxepmancxoro semcrna, c xapro, n
Axxepmane. Heanno orxptrax n Knmnnene Apxeonornuecxax xomnccnx nonena
+neprnuecxn eno, naroapx pexomy rpyonmnm ee cexperapx, r. Xannnnt.
Ho cpecrn mano. Ecnn t mecrnte semcrna npnmnn na nomomt xomnccnn, mno-
ro t marepnana xnnnoct na cner nx ncropnn xpax.
4. Pyccxn Apxnn. 1896 r., I, crp. 187. Mecreuxo +roro nmenn n ceuac cyme-
crnyer, xoneuno, es rarap, n Axxepmancxom yese, na rpaxre x Hsmanny. Fynap
no-rarapcxn xonoest. Cp. ry xe reorpa]nuecxym nomenxnarypy: Feccapanx
ecrt na mre or pexn Fornt, a na cenep or nee Monannx, n n nnctmax maopa ]on-
Paana, yuacrnnxa Typenxo nont 1787-1791 r. (xnmnnencxoe nsanne 1892 r.),
crp. 24, 46 n p. B camom rexcre Kyumx-Kanapxncxoro oronopa no Feccapa-
ne pasymeercx nmenno Fyxax (Aprnxyn 16).
5. Cm. namy monorpa]nm Ipa] A. H. Ocrepman n pasen Typnnn, Oecca,
1899, crp. 235. Crapte xaprt na mecre ntnemne Oecct nocneonarentno sna-
mr nopr Kouye nnn Koune n ne snamr nnxaxoro Xaxnex nnn Iaxnex.
Heanno, no nonoy cronernx Oecct, oeccxne ncropnxn npenoxnnn cepnm
cnonx ronxonann nmenn Xaxne, no +rn ronxonannx nnxaxoro snauennx ne
nmemr.
6. Cam Hmneparop Anexcanp I yuacrnonan n cosannn +rnx mecrntx nmen.
Cm. C. Cepeonnn, Hcropnuecxn osop exrentnocrn xomnrera mnnncrpon, r. I,
203. 3ro ne memano t nmert n nny nexoroptm monnnncram, nx xoroptx ne-
pyccxoe nmx xaxoro-nnyt nocenennx na mre, ocoenno nemenxoe, - yxe yxac.
7. Cp. oxna nam (n A. H. Mapxennua) o noesxe nerom 1901 r. n cen. Feccapa-
nm nx ocmorpa Xornncxo xpenocrn, n XXVI r. 3anncox Hmn. Oec. Om.
ncropnn n pennocre.
8. Cp. noponocrn n name axaemnuecxo penensnn cou. I. Xnrenxoro
Ouepx nnreparypno ncropnn manopyccxoro napeunx, orrncx CH., 1892 r.,
crp. 25-29, n n namem rpye Typa-Fenropo-Axxepman n ero nonax nannapnax
nannct or 1454 roa, Oecca, 1901 r., orrncx ns XXIII r. 3an. Hmn. Oec. Om.
Hcr. n p., 77-80, n npnnoxennx, ne rpamort 1471 n 1617 roon, r.e. nonnnnnx
n ee onee nosnxx xonnx. Ocroxrentcrno, xoropoe aer nosmoxnocrt npocne-
nrt crenent naennx snannx y monancxnx nncnon pyccxoro xstxa nocne nony-
ropanexono npaxrnxn, r.e. omn ycnex pomannsannn n rocnoapcrne Mona-
nnn. Heanno nsano Feccapacxo Apxnnno Komnccne, no 2 rome ee Tpy-
on. Hnrepecnoe copanne rpamor no ncropnn Knmnnena na cnanxncxom xstxe
n nexoropte napannentno c crapnnntm monancxnm nx nepenoom. Ipannos-
noe copanne r. u. Kopecxy Uricarul romn n 17 romax, cct, 1875-1891, nam
nsnecrno rontxo no nmenn.
186
2009, N 1 (15)
9. Cp. namy xnnry Hrorn cnanxncxo n pyccxo ]nnonornn, Oecca, 1882 r.,
crp. 104.
10. Hpana, ne oomnoct es nporecron npornn yrononnoro nsrnannx ncero
cnanxncxoro ns xstxa, no onn tnn ena cntmnt, ncxox or nme cxpomntx, n
mnn ns Tpancnntnannn. Anrop ronopnr n npencnonnn cocrannrent nyume
npaxrnuecxo rpammarnxn pymtncxoro xstxa, npanocnannt cnxmennnx Canna
Hononnu-Fapuany orxptro npnsnaercx, uro on uyx crpemnennx ns-sa nontx
cnon cenart xstx nenonxrntm n onee pnmcxnm, uem xaxnm on xnnxercx n na-
croxmee npemx (Theoretisch-praktische Grammatik der romanischen Sprache
von Sab. Pop. Barciann, II Ausg., Hermanustadz, 1862, V).
11. B +ro onacrn anrop Homomnnxa mor trt nnonne cnooen n no
conemannn c Innxynontm, c ero Haueprannem npannn nanaxo-monancxo rpam-
marnxn, C.-Herepypr, 1840, crp. 572-574, re nmeercx Pocnnct rnanntm rexnn-
uecxnm rpammarnuecxnm repmnnom, norn n anee cnoero npemecrnennnxa.
12. Ho n ro xe Tpancnntnannn cpen npanocnannoro pymtncxoro yxonen-
crna nama rpaxanxa n n 60-x roax npomnoro cronernx ne tna noxnaema, n
anrop yxasanno ntme pymtncxo rpammarnxn nx nemnen, Hononnu-Fapuann,
cnauana xaxoe pymtncxoe cnono, xaxym pymtncxym ]pasy, paccxas nepea-
er rpaxanxo, a norom yxe narnncxnm mpn]rom.
13. Bcnecrnne orcyrcrnnx narnno-pymtncxoro mpn]ra n rnnorpa]nn yxnt
c nocmpouum+ snaxom samemamrcx nx opnnapntmn +xnnnanenramn. Tax yx-
na t osnauaer pyccxoe 1 n n, s c n m. e]exr nensexnt.
Hcmo:uur: Xypnan Mnnncrepcrna naponoro npocnemennx. uacrt
CCCXXXXVII. 1903. Hmnt. CH, 1903. C. 389-418.
KOHYBHHCKHH Anexcanp Anexcanponnu (22.X (4.11). 1845, Knmnnen -
13 (26). 05.1907, Oecca) - ]nnonor n ncropnx. Ctn cnxmennnxa. Vunncx n Oeccx.
rnmnasnn npn Pnmentencxom nnnee, c 1863 no 1867- na ncr.-]nnon. orenennn
Mocx. yn-ra (oxonunn co crenentm xan.). Hnrepec x cnanxnoneennm npoynn
y K. npo]. pyc. ncropnn H. A. Honon, sannmanmncx raxxe cnanncrnxo. B 1867-
1869 K. - yunrent rnmnasn no Bnanmnpe n Oecce. B 1869 xomannponan sa
rpannny nx nsyuennx oprannsannn cpennx mxon n Iepmannn n Ancrpnn. C 1871
npenoanan cnanxn. ]nnonornm n Honopoc. yn-re (Oecca). C 1873 marncrp, on.
roro xe yn-ra. B 1874-1876 n nayu. xomannponxe n cnanxn. crpanax. C 1877 - -p
cnanxn. ]nnonornn, op. npo]. Honopoc. yn-ra. B nocneymmne rot neonox-
parno noceman sanantx n mxntx cnanxn c nayuntmn nenxmn. C 1878 - pe.
3anncox Honopoc. yn-ra. Ftn raxxe axrnnntm exrenem pxa nayu. yupexe-
nn n o-n: O-na nmnrene ecrecrnosnannx, anrpononornn n +rnorpa]nn (Mocx-
na), OHP, Mocx. apxeon. o-na, Vuenoro o-na n Koncranrnnonone, uem. xopo-
nencx. o-na nayx, uem. axa. nayx n ncxyccrn.Taxxe onn ns ocnonarene (1889) n
nanonee exrentntx un. Hcr.-]nnon. o-na npn Honopoc. yn-re. Bxna Kouynn-
cxoro n pasnnunte onacrn cnanxnoneennx n no oemy, n no nayuomy snaue-
nnm nepannonenen. Ho xstxosnannm on nanncan px paor, nanpnmep: 3nyx a
- ornnunrentnemax uepra cep. noxannsma (u3, 1870, ntn. 6; 1871, ntn.1), Kax
onro xnn pyc. cynnn? (u3, 1872, ntn. 4), K nonpocy o nsanmntx ornomennxx
187

cnanxn. napeun (T. 1-2. Oecca, 1877-1878, oxr. nc.) n p. Kpnrnxyx reopnm
nporo+rnnuecxoro nepnencrna cep. xs. cpen cnanxn., K. oraer +ro nepnen-
crno pyc. xs. Hpaponny cnanxncrna K. nnen mexy Kapnaramn n ynaem n
nonaran, uro pennne +nemenrt coxpannnnct n cnanxncxom xstxe nponopnno-
nantno nnsocrn nnn oranennocrn nocenennx coornercrnymmnx napoon or +ro
onacrn. Fontmoe nayu. snauenne nmenn rpyt no ncropnn. Onn xacannct nyx
ocnonntx cmxeron: pasnnrnx pyc. nonnrnxn n nocr. nonpoce n ncropnn uexnn. K
nepno nponeme ornocnrcx xan. cou. Cnomennx Poccnn npn Herpe I c mx.
cnanxncrnom n pymtnamn (uOHP, 1872, xn. 2), cou. Hamn ne nonnrnxn n
cnanxn. nonpoce (HB, 1881, N 7-8), Ha Foc]ope n 1735 r. (BE, 1897, xn. 10),
Ipa] Anpe Hnanonnu Ocrepman n pasen Typnnn (3HV, 1899, r. 74, Vnapon-
cxax npemnx 1900) n p. Xopomo snan ncrounnxn n nnreparypy no ncropnn cna-
nxn, nnen n nayu. oopor nonte apxnnnte marepnant. Cocrannennax nm Kapra
paccenennx cnanxn n IX n., n +noxy exrentnocrn cnn. Knpnnna n Me]onx (Oecca,
1885) nmena ontmoe snauenne nx nsyuennx penne ncropnn cnanxn. Camtm
xpynntm counnennem no ncropnn uexnn xnnxercx ero marncr. nc. Fpartx no-
oon n uem. xaronnxn n nau. XVII n. (1873), nanncannax c ncnontsonannem ncex
ocrynntx no romy npemenn ncrounnxon. Knnra tna enncrnenno no yxasan-
no nponeme n pyc. ncropnorpa]nn. Crartn ero no penne ncropnn, ncr. reo-
rpa]nn n +rnorpa]nn cnanxn Hnroncxn xstx n nama crapnna (1893; onyn. n
xn.: Tpyt IX apxeon. cesa n Bnntne..., r. 1. M., 1895), O pyccxom nnemenn n
ynacxom 3anecte (1887; onyn. n xn.: Tpyt VII apxeon. cesa n pocnanne...,
r. 2. M., 1891), Teppnropnx oncr. Hnrnt (XMHH, 1897, N 1) n p. npecrannx-
mr coo copanne ]nnonornuecxnx anntx, pasop reorp. repmnnon, ananns
cnanxncxnx nasnann npemeron omamnero onxoa. K. nccneonan sect, n ua-
crnocrn, nonpoc o nepntx cnanxn. nocenennxx n Enpone. Hanonee nenntmn n
rnopuecxom nacnenn K. npecrannxmrcx rpyt no ncropnn cnanxnoneennx. In.
ns nnx monorpa]nx Hauantnte rot pyc. cnanxnoneennx (npemnx Maxapnx
sa 1890). Cma xe ornocxrcx Ipa] Cnepancxn n ynnn. ycran 1835 (BE, 1894, xn.
4), Ipa] C.I. Crporanon. Hs ncropnn namnx yn-ron 30-x rr. (BE, 1896, xn. 7-8),
B.H. Ipnroponnu n ncropnn cnanxnoneennx (3HV, 1893, r. 59), a raxxe norp.
paort o O.M. Foxncxom, H.A. Hanponcxom, u. Mnxnomnue, .u. Iononan-
xom n p.; samerxn n coomennx o M. Iarrane, K.. Ipore, M.A. Konocone n r. .
K +romy xe paseny cneyer npnuncnnrt Hrorn cnanxncxo n pyccxo ]nnono-
rnn (3HV, 1882, r. 33).
Apxue: IA Oeccx. on. (]. 158). Orentnte ox. B HIHA CCCP, IFH, HIAHH,
LAPNP (Hpara), ACSAV (Hpara).
Buuuoepaqua: Kouynncxn A.A. [Anronorpa]nuecxne cneennx] // Map-
xennu A. H. 25-nerne nmn. Honopoc. yn-ra. Hcr. sanncxa... Oecca, 1890; Cnncox
neuarntx rpyon A. A. Kouynncxoro // Copnnx n namxrt A.A. Kouynncxoro,
nsannt Hcr.-]nnon. o-nom npn nmn. Honopoc. yn-re. Oecca, 1909.
Ho +amepuaua+ camoe:
http://bessarabia.ru/intel1.htm, http://www.wikiznanie.ru
188
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
Hpannna nynnxannn n aypnane Pycnn
Pexonnernx xypnana Pycnn npnnnmaer rontxo crartn, npncnannte ]a-
nom, npnxpennenntm x +nexrponnomy nnctmy. Crartx onxna trt o]opmnena
crporo n coornercrnnn c nsnoxenntmn nnxe rpeonannxmn n rmarentno ntun-
rana. B nnctme neoxonmo coomnrt cneennx o cee: ]amnnnm, nmx n orue-
crno nonnocrtm, yuente crenent n snanne, mecro paort n onxnocrt, +nexr-
ponnt apec, nouront apec c nnexcom.
Crartn ne onxnt npentmart 1 a.n. (32 000 snaxon c npoenamn) c oxsarent-
no annoranne na anrnncxom xstxe, coomennx 0,5 a.n., penensnn 0,2 a.n.
unent pexonnernn snaxomxrcx c marepnanom n npnnnmamr pemenne o ny-
nnxannn. Orstnt unenon pexonnernn n penensenron anropy ne coomamrcx.
mopua1 1exc1a
Asan orcryn 1,27 cm
Mexycrpount nnrepnan 1,5
Bpn]r Times New Roman, pasmep 14
Fes nepenocon!
Fyxna e crannrcx rontxo n rex cnyuaxx, xora samena na e ncxaxaer cmtcn
cnona, no ncex ocrantntx cnyuaxx rontxo e.
Coxpamennn
Hpn nepnom ynomnnannn nnna oxsarentno yxastnamrcx H.O., H.O. orenx-
mrcx npoenom or ]amnnnn.
Iot npn yxasannn onpeenennoro nepnoa yxastnamrcx rontxo n nn]pax, a
ne n uncnnrentntx: 20-e rot, a ne nanarte rot.
Konxpernax ara aercx c coxpamennem r. nnn rr.: 1920 r., 19201922 rr.
He nex nnn nexa, a n. nnn nn. (pnmcxnmn nn]pamn): IX n.
Hncart rontxo nonnocrtm: rax xax, rax nastnaemte.
Hs coxpamenn onycxamrcx: r.., r.n., p., r.e., cm.
% crannrcx snauxom, a ne cnonom, ecnn cnxsan c nn]po, n orenxercx or
nn]pt nnrepnanom: 3 %.
Hn]pt: mnnnnont or rtcxu n rtcxun or coren orenxmrcx npoenom:
4 700 000, 1 560.
000 moryr trt samenent coornercrnymmnmn coxpamenntmn cnonamn n
apennarypamn: rtc., mnn, mnp.
Hasnannx enexntx snaxon amrcx no npnnxrtm coxpamennxm: onn., ]p.,
py., ]. cr., mapxa.
Kantuxn rontxo , ecnn saxantuennoe cnono naunnaer nnrary nnn npnmt-
xaer x xonny nnrart, ynorpenxmrcx xantuxn n xantuxax: "pas", na, rpn, "ue-
rtpe".
Cnncox nnreparypt nomemaercx nocne rexcra, nymepannx coornercrnyer no-
pxxy ynomnnannx. B cnncox nomemamrcx rontxo nasnannx paor, na xoropte
ecrt cctnxn n rexcre. Cctnxn n rexcre nomemamrcx n xnaparntx cxoxax: [1. C.
12], npn nonropno cctnxe coxpanxercx nopxxont nomep n cnncxe nnrepary-
pt.
uamnnnn, H.O. anropon xypcnnom.
Cnocxn ne anromarnuecxne, nponymeponannte apacxnmn nn]pamn.
Hn]pa cnocxn n xonne npenoxennx crannrcx nepe rouxo.
Hnnmcrpannn npeocrannxmrcx n ]opmarax tif nnn jpg (paspemennem ne me-
nee 200 dpi).
189
CBEEHHR OB ABTOPAX
Bacnnnx Bnanunp Bnanunponnu - naxon, onenr xa]ept ncropnn cnanxncxnx
n anxancxnx crpan ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera CHIV, onenr Canxr-Herepyprcxo
Hpanocnanno yxonno Axaemnn, xannar ]nnonornuecxnx nayx, xannar orocno-
nnx. fvasilik@mail.ru
annnen Kpnn Bacnntennu xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept ncro-
pnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera. jurijdanilec@rambler.ru
annnmx un1pnn un1pnennu oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop, saney-
mmn xa]epo ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera.
profddd@rambler.ru
apencxnn Bn1annn Kptennu - xannar ]nnoco]cxnx nayx, onenr Hyrancxo
axaemnn MB. darenskiy@yahoo.com
nx Maxcnu Hnanonnu cryenr xa]ept ncropnn Poccnn c pennemnx npemen
o XX n. ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera Canxr-Herepyprcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnep-
cnrera. max-mors@mail.ru
Kasnn Anexcanp Aeonnonnu - oxrop ]nnoco]cxnx nayx, npo]eccop, saneym-
mn xa]epo Canxr-Herepyprcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera xnno n renenn-
ennx, unen Comsa nncarene n Comsa xnnemarorpa]ncron Poccnn kazin@home.ru
Kannnn Anexcanp un1pnennu oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop xa]e-
pt ncropnorpa]nn, ncrounnxoneennx n apxeonornn Xaptxoncxoro nannonantnoro ynn-
nepcnrera nm. B.H. Kapasnna. Alexander.D.Kaplin@univer. kharkov.ua
Monnu Anexcanp Hnanonnu naxon, xannar orocnonnx MA, cexperapt
orocnoncxo-nnryprnuecxoro orena Myxaueno-Vxropocxo enapxnn.
d-monuch@yandex.ru
Hoaap Cepren Iennanennu - mystxone, unen Comsa xomnosnropon n Comsa rear-
pantntx exrene Pecnynnxn Monona, oxropanr AH Monont. pojarserghei@mail.ru
Pyccen Hnxonan un1pnennu - oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop, npenoana-
rent Btcme anrpononornuecxo mxont (Knmnnen). nrussev@mail.ru
Cynnx Cepren Ieoprnennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, rnannt peaxrop mex-
ynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn. sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
menca Mnxanno - oxrop nnnrnncrnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop xa]ept pycnncxoro
xstxa n nnreparypt ]nnoco]cxoro ]axyntrera ynnnepcnrera Honoro Caa (Boenon-
na). fejsam@eunet.yu
manxa Pouan Hnxonaennu - ncropnx, unen pexonnernn mexynaponoro ncropn-
uecxoro xypnana Pycnn. glenshap@yahoo.ca
190
2008, N 3-4 (13-14)
SUMMARY*
Sergei Suleak: Moldavia and the Russian World: History and the Present (in
Commemoration of the 650th Anniversary of Moldavian Statehood). The Moldavian
Orthodox Principality was formed in the middle of the 14th C. by Vlachs and Rusins.
Initially Rusins comprised 40% of the population of Moldavia. Moldavian statehood
was formulated along the lines of the Old Russian, Russian (Rusin) was the official
language of the Principality up to the beginning of the 17th C. From the beginning
of the 16th C. the Principality fell under the rule of the Ottoman Porte. In 1812 a part
of the Moldavian Principality Bessarabia - passed to Russia. In 1940 the Moldavian
SSR was created, in 1991 Moldavia became an independent state. However, right
from the first days of independence Moldavia became an area of encroachment by
neighboring Romania, which finances pro-Romanian forces in Moldova. At the
present time no less than 500 000 Rusins and their descendents live in Moldova.
Maksim Zhikh. Concerning the Problem of the Early History of the Slavs of the
Carpathian Region (middle second half of the 1st Millennium). In the middle of
the 1st millennium during the Great Migration of Peoples, arises in the Carpathian
and Upper Dniester regions, a strong ethno-political union Great Chorvatia
Slavic in foundation but which had, judging by all accounts, an Iranian socio-
political leadership. In the middle of the 6th C. during the Avar invasion, Great
Chorvatia fell and a significant part of the populace disperse to the south and west.
Another part remains and, by all indications, formulates its own ethno-political
union, possibly not as significant, but which exists right up to the end of the 10th C.
Iurii Danilets. From the History of the Convent of the Nativity of the Theotokos
in the village of Iza in the district of Khust. The process of the founding and
development in Iza of the Convent in honor of the Nativity of the Theotokos is
studied in the article. The author showed the role of hieromonk Ioann Sabov in the
work of the Monastery and studied the socio-economic and religious aspects of its
activity.
Roman Shapka. Communities founded by die-hard Rusins in Canada. The
author researches the history of Orthodoxy in Canada from the end of the 19th C.
when Rusins from Galicia and Bukovina began settling in Canada. At that time the
historical lands of Galicia and Bukovina were part of Austro-Hungary. Settling in
Canada, Rusins did not forget about spirituality. Orthodox churches were founded
at Wostok, Bukovina, Krakow, Shishkovtsy, Skaro, Shandro, Shapka, Peno, Pakan,
Toporouts, Chahor, Sochava, Kiselevo and in many other settlements. St. Tikhon,
Confessor of Moscow, and Bishop Adam (Filipovskii) actively supported the opening
of churches. One of the first churches was built at Star, Alberta in its cemetery is
buried Ivan Pylypow, the initiator of the Rusin immigration to Canada. 120 km. from
Edmonton is located the Shandro Museum founded by W. Zazula. In its exposition
are a number of structures, including one of the original Orthodox churches,
* annotations of the material published in the rubrics "History of the Rusins",
"Famous Rusins" and "Linguistics".
191
constructed in Canada along with many artifacts brought to Canada by the Rusin
immigrants. Many descendents of the Rusins continue to hold the Orthodox faith of
their ancestors.
Dmitrii Daniliuk. A. Bachinskii (1732-1809) the First Enlightener of
Transcarpathia. The work of Bishop A. Bachinskii, a cultural and educational activist,
is studied in the article. The author brings forth much data by historians, who highly
regard the role of the bishop in the history of the Rusins of Transcarpathia.
Deacon Alexander Monich. The Work of the Last Orthodox Bishop of Ugol
Dosifei Feodorovich (1648-1733). The personality of Bishop Dosifei always attracted
the attention of scholars of church history in our country. His work, which occurred
during the time of the introduction of the Unia, focused on retaining Orthodoxy in
the region. After the era of Bishop Dosifei Orthodoxy acquired a new format and its
existence was dependent on the neighboring Orthodox Churches of Moldavia and
Romania.
Roman Mirovich. Apologist of Orthodoxy before an Austrian Court Martial. In
Commemoration of the 100th Anniversary of the birth of Mitred Archpriest Dr.
Kassian D. Bogatyrets. The life and work of one of the leaders of the Rusin
Renaissance, Mitred Archpriest Dr. Kassian Bogatyrets (1868-1968) of Austrian
Bukovina, is recounted in the essay which was written in 1969 and published in the
gazette "Free Word of Carpathian Rus "(USA). The author pays special attention
to the description of the work done by K. Bogatyrets during WW1 the most tragic
period in the life of the Rusins.
Roman Denisovich Mirovich. A short biographical essay about the life of one of
the activists of the Rusin Renaissance, who remained faithful to his ideals during
the Soviet period, was published in 1973 by V. Vavrik in his book "A Short Essay of
Galician Rusin Literature".
Sergei Pozhar. A Famous Choirmaster and Composer from a family of
Bessarabian Rusins. Grigorii Lvovskii, born in the village of Lenkovtsy located in
the northern section of the Bessarabian Gubernia, was one of the best-known
composers of church music. He was choirmaster of St. Isaacs Cathedral in St.
Petersburg and directed the Metropolitan Choir of the Alexander Nevsky Lavra.
Mikhailo Feisa. Tendencies in the Development of the Standardization of the
Rusin Language of the Voevodian Rusins. The author attempts to explain the
appearance and codification of the Rusin language of Voevodian Rusins, who
migrated to the area of Bachka in the middle of the 18th C. showing with this the
tendencies in the development of the Rusin language to the appearance of the first
orthography of the given language and after that, the period of its publication (N.
Kochish. The Spelling of the Rusin Language 1971) and also in the contemporary
period during the time of publication of the New Orthographic Dictionary of the
Rusin Language (M. Feisa and others).
MEYHAPOHLH HCTOPHHECKHH YPHAA

2009, 1 (15)
Knmnnen
Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx ,
2009. - 192 crp.
Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx
MD 2001, Pecnynnxa Monona, r. Knmnnen,
yn. M. Kor+nnnuany, 24/1.
Ten.: (373 22) 27-02-84, 27-44-30, ]axc: 27-15-15.
E-mail: info@rusyn.md
Can1 Pycnnm Monannn: http://www.rusyn.md
Honncano x neuarn 05.06.2009. uopmar 60x84
1
/
16
.
Fymara o]cer N 1.
Heuart o]cernax.
Iapnnrypa Times New Roman.
Tnpax 700 +xs.
3axas 166.
Orneuarano n rnnorpa]nn AO Pexnama:
r. Knmnnen, yn. Anexcanp uen Fyn, 111.
B 2009 roy ueaynaponmn
nc1opnuecxnn aypnan Pycnn
nmnycxae1cn npn noepaxe
mona Pyccxnn unp
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