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2 (16), 2009

9 771857 268509



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Omecrnennax acconnannx Pyct, 2009
HAVuHOE H3AHHE
Peaxnnonnan xonnernn:
oormop ucmopuu C. Cv.r (Mo.oaeu),
e.aeui peoarmop
oormop ucmopuu H. Lopuuroe (Mo.oaeu),
sa+ecmume.i e.aeuoeo peoarmopa
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr P. auu.e (Vrpauua),
sa+ecmume.i e.aeuoeo peoarmopa
M. A.+auu (Vrpauua)
M. Iopur (Cepou)
oormop ucmopu:ecrux uavr M. Ivooe.o (Poccu)
M. pouoe (Poccu)
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr B. Meprv.oe (Poccu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr B. Haor (Vrpauua)
oormop qu.ocoquu A. H.uuroea (C.oearu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr . Hon (Vrpauua)
oormop .uueeucmu:ecrux uavr npoqeccop P. Pa+a: (Cepou)
oormop xaou.umam ucmopuu H. Pvccee (Mo.oaeu)
M. Cu.aou (Cepou)
oormop ucmopuu H. Te.iuoe (Mo.oaeu)
npomouepe o.Huro.a 4.opuucru (Mo.oaeu)
P. Lanra (Kauaoa)
Apec peaxnnn: Pecnynnxa Monona, MD 2001, r. Knmnnen,
yn. M. Kor+nnnuany, 24/1. Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx .
Ten.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, ]axc: 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Editor's address: Association "Rus'". M. Kogalniceanu Street, 24/1, Kishinev,
MD 2001, Moldova.
Tel.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, fax 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
COEPAHHE / CONTENTS
C1pannna peax1opa ..................................................................................................... 6
Editor's Page
K 650-AETHK MOAABCKOH IOCYAPCTBEHHOCTH /
ON THE 650TH ANNIVERSARY OF MOLDAVIAN STATEHOOD
Bnanunp HAPAHOB
Monancxoe rocyapcrno: nsnnnncrt nyrt pasnnrnx ............................................. 7-32
Vladimir TSARANOV
Moldavian Statehood: a Curved Path of Development
Cepren CYARK
Btcrynnenne monanan npornn oennennx c Banaxne (O cotrnxx, nponsomemnx
3 anpenx 1866 r. n ccax) ........................................................................................... 33-46
Sergei SULEAK
The Stand of the Moldavians Against the Union with Wallachia (about the events which
occurred on April 3, 1866 in Yassy)
HPHKAPHATCKAR PYCL H PYCCKAR HHBHAH3AHHR /
CARPATHIAN RUS AND RUSSIAN CIVILIZATION
Konqepennnn Hpnxapna1cxan Pyct n Pyccxan nnnnnnsannn .................... 47-51
The Conference Carpathian Rus and Russian Civilization
Cepren HETPOB
Ipannnt Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn x nauany XXI n. ..................................................... 52-60
Sergei PETROV
The Boundaries of Russian Civilization at the Beginning of the 21th C.
Hpo1onepen nun1pnn CHOP
Hoxapnarcxax Pyct nno rocyapcrnoopasymme pycnncxo nannn .............. 61-79
Right Reverend Dimitrii SIDOR
Sub-Carpathian Rus - the Fruit of the Formation of Rusin Statehood
Anexcanp MAHOPOB
Hs ncropnn pyccxo-nnsanrncxnx nnacrnuecxnx cnxse: out nmneparopa Hcaaxa II n
Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pycn .......................................................................................... 80-83
Aleksandr MAIOROV
From the History of Russo-Byzantine Dynasty Relations: the Daughter of Emperor
Isaac II in Galician-Volynian Rus
ennc AAHMOB
K nonpocy o +rnononnrnuecxo cnryannn n Bepxnem Horncte n IX n.: mecropasnn-
rne xapnarcxnx pycnnon n nocranapcxoe npocrpancrno ......................................... 84-95
Denis ALIMOV
Concerning the Question of the Ethno-political Situation in the Upper Tisza Region in the
9th C.: the Place of Development of the Carpathian Rusins and the Post Avarian Territory
Cepren CYARK
Pycnncxn n yxpanncxn nonpoct naxanyne Hepno mnpono nont ................ 96-119
Sergei SULEAK
The Rusin and Ukrainian questions on the Eve of WWI
Anpen MAPHYKOB
Pyccxn nonpoc, poccncxn narpnornsm n Vxpanna ........................................ 120-125
Andrei MARCHUKOV
The Russian Question, Russian Patriotism and the Ukraine
3opan MHAOmEBHH
Pycnnt n Cepnn ................................................................................................... 126-133
Zoran MILOSHEVICH
Rusins in Serbia
HCTOPHR PYCHHOB / HISTORY OF THE RUSINS
Kpin AHHAEHL
3 icropmi npanocnanno nepxnn na 3axapnarri ..................................................... 134-143
Iurii DANILETS
From the History of the Orthodox Church in Transcarpathia
Bacnnt MImAHHH
Honi oxymenrn npo xonexrnnisanim na 3axapnarri 1946-1950 pp. ..................... 144-154
Vasyl MYSHCHANYN
New Documents about Collectivization in Transcarpathia 1946-1950
3HAMEHHTLE PYCHHL / FAMOUS RUSINS
Inan BAHHHCLKHH
Hpocnirnreni Hepeunnmnnn .................................................................................... 155-160
Ivan BACHINSKYI
Enlighteners of the Perechin Region
PYCHHCKAR BHBAHOIPAmHR / RUSIN BIBLIOGRAPHY
Ienena MECmH
uaco-nnono onomenx y npnnonexox Ianpnna Kocrentnnxa .......................... 161-163
Helena MEDESHI
The Functioning of the -vo- Form in Expressing Temporal-Aspectual Relations in the Sayings
of Havriil Kostelnik
HYBAHHHCTHKA / PUBLICATIONS
Mnpocnan CHAA
Posymonanx snnuanoro Pycnaxa o mnnxnm no nonxsane sos Pycnanamn/Pycnnamn n x
ncnonanm .................................................................................................................. 164-171
Miroslav SILADI
Thoughts of an Ordinary Rusnak about all that is associated with the Rusnaks - Rusins and
Their Existence
HO3PABAREM! / CONGRATULATIONS!
Mnxanno Iopnnxy - 80! ........................................................................................ 172-173
Mikhail Horniak is 80!
Cepren CYARK
Ho rponam ncropnn n nepenyrtxm conpemennocrn .............................................. 174-180
Sergei SULEAK
Upon the Paths of History and the Crossroads of the Contemporary
Honncxa na ueaynaponmn nc1opnuecxnn aypnan Pycnn ................. 181-183
Subscription to the International Historical Journal Rusin
HEKPOAOI / NECROLOGY
Haun1n Mnxanna maprn .............................................................................................. 184
In Memory of Mikhail Sharga
Hpannna nynnxannn n aypnane Pycnn ................................................................ 185
Rules of Publication in the Journal Rusin
Cneennn o an1opax ............................................................................................ 186-187
Information about the Authors
Summary .................................................................................................................. 188-191
6
2009, N 2 (16)
Vnaxaemte unrarenn!
C xaxtm nomepom pacmnpxercx xpyr anropon n reorpa]nx pacnpo-
crpanennx namero xypnana. Ceronx xypnan pacnpocrpanxercx n Mon-
annn, Poccnn (ero nonyuamr neymne nnnorexn n ynnnepcnrert),
Vxpanne, crpanax antnero sapyextx (Cepnn, Cnonaxnn, CBA, Ka-
nae, Hontme, Benrpnn, Pymtnnn, uexnn).
B annt nomep nomnn ne rontxo marepnant, nocnxmennte
650-nernm opasonannx monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn, cosanno no-
noxamn n pycnnamn, marepnant no ncropnn pycnnon n exrentnocrn
nsnecrntx pycnncxnx ynrene npomnoro. B nomepe raxxe pasme-
ment oxnat, nposnyuanmne na mexynapono nayuno-npaxrnuec-
xo xon]epennnn Hpnxapnarcxax Pyct n Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx, xoro-
pax npomna 18 nmnx na ncropnuecxom ]axyntrere Canxr-Herepyprc-
xoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. Hnnnnaropom n onnm ns oprann-
saropon nponeennx xon]epennnn ntcrynnn mexynapont ncropn-
uecxn xypnan Pycnn. Pasymeercx, na xon]epennnn remarnxa ntc-
rynnenn tna necxontxo pacmnpena: pasronop men ne rontxo o Hpn-
xapnarte, no n o nce Kapnarcxo Pycn, pernone rpannnonnoro npoxn-
nannx pycnnon n nx noromxon.
Kon]epennnx noxasana, uro nnrepec nayuno omecrnennocrn, n rom
uncne n poccncxo, x ncropnn Kapnaro-necrponcxoro pernona ne oc-
naenaer.
Mt pat pacmnpennm xpyra anropon namero xypnana, pat, uro n
name emoxparnunoe npemx, xora cnxrt nce neonornuecxne sanpe-
rt, xaxt nmeer nosmoxnocrt ntcxasart cnom nayuno oocnonan-
nym rouxy spennx no ro nnn nno nponeme. Ioront n nnpet npeoc-
rannxrt crpannnt xypnana nccneonarenxm nx nsnoxennx nx nosnnnn
no rem nnn nntm nonpocam, cosnyuntm c remarnxo namero nsannx.
Pasymeercx, ne co ncemn yrnepxennxmn mt cornacnt. Ho+romy, na-
unnax c +roro nomepa, na nocnene crpannne xypnana mt ononm o
cneennx unrarene cneymmee: Peaxnnx moxer ne pasenxrt rou-
xy spennx anropon crare. Ornercrnennocrt sa coepxanne nynnxye-
mtx marepnanon necer anrop.
Taxxe nanomnnaem, uro npn nmom ncnontsonannn marepnanon mex-
ynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn cctnxa na xypnan ox-
sarentna.
Cepren CYARK,
rnannt peaxrop
mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn
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Bnanunp HAPAHOB
MOAABCKOE IOCYAPCTBO:
H3BHAHCTLH HYTL PA3BHTHR
Iocyapcrno, xax nsnecrno, xnnxercx nonnrnuecxo oprannsanne o-
mecrna, c nomomtm xoropo rocnocrnymmn xnacc na ero reppnropnn
ocymecrnnxer cnom nnacrt, a n connanncrnuecxom omecrne eme n n
nonnom oeme xosxcrnenno-oprannsaropcxym n pyrne naxnte ]yn-
xnnn. Hcropnuecxn rocyapcrno nosnnxaer n nepno noxnnennx xnacco-
noro omecrna. Cnoe nanmenonanne, xax npannno, ono nonyuaer no nme-
nn maxopnrapnoro +rnoca. Co npemenn nosnnxnonennx nannonantnoe ro-
cyapcrno uepes cnon nncrnryrt cnococrnyer +rnnuecxo xonconna-
nnn cnonx rpaxan, ncnontsyx nx +roro nx xstx, xyntrypy, rpannnn.
Ono samnmaer nx reppnropnm n pyrne nennocrn or nocxrarentcrn ns-
nne, oprannsyer nx na opty npornn sanoenarene. Ho+romy nx nace-
nennx ncera tno ecrecrnenntm xenanne nmert cnoe nannonantnoe
rocyapcrno, xoropoe samnmano t ero nnrepect.
Monancxoe ]eoantnoe rocyapcrno xax camocroxrentnoe rocyap-
crnennoe opasonanne nosnnxno, xax nsnecrno, n cepenne XIV n., yr-
nepnnmnct sarem n rpannnax mexy Kapnaramn, necrpom n uepntm
mopem, cnococrnyx sanepmennm nponecca ]opmnponannx monancxo-
ro +rnoca. Ono npomno xpxn n cnoxnt nyrt cranonnennx n antne-
mero pasnnrnx, nxnmuax nepnot noema n ynaxa, optt sa cnom
nesanncnmocrt. Hocrenenno saxnatnannct ocnont n ]opmnponannct
+nemenrt monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn, n rom uncne crpyxrypa nna-
crn, mexannsm ynpannennx crpano n r..
Hepnonauantno Monannx cnoxnnact xax monapxnuecxoe rocyapcrno
]eoantnoro rnna no rnane c rocnoapem. Hocnenn ocymecrnnxn cno
cynepennrer na ee reppnropnn, xnnxxct nepxonntm sementntm co-
crnennnxom, nepxonntm cyte, rnannoxomanymmnm monancxnm no-
cxom, pyxononn ncnonnnrentno nnacrtm n ncem rocyapcrnenntm an-
naparom, a raxxe nnemnenonnrnuecxo exrentnocrtm xnxxecrna.
Kpome roro, n crpane ]ynxnnonnponan rocnoapcxn coner (nosnee
nasnannt nnanom), cocran xoroporo nonpancx camnm rocnoapem
n n xomnerennnm xoroporo nxonnn nonpoct rocyapcrnenntx ]nnan-
con, ntcmero cyenoro yponnx n p. Taxnm xe conemarentntm opra-
nom npn nepxonno nnacrn n xnxxecrne tno Bennxoe copanne crpa-
nt, xoropoe pemano nonpoct nnyrpenne n nnemne nonnrnxn, nosnee
ntnpano rocnoapx, sannmanoct saxonoarentntmn, cyentmn n
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2009, N 2 (16)
nnemnenonnrnuecxnmn enamn. Baxno cocrannxmme monancxo ro-
cyapcrnennocrn xnnxnact ee enexnax cncrema, n rom uncne uexanxa
cocrnenntx enexntx snaxon, npexparnnmaxcx n 80-e rot XVII n.
Hpanoornomennx n pasnnuntx c]epax xnsneexrentnocrn n xnxxe-
crne perynnponannct nopmamn otunoro monancxoro npana (Otua
semnn, 3axon crpant), penennne pnmcxoro npana, sanmcrnonannxmn ns
saxonoarentcrn pyrnx crpan. Hepntm monancxnm cnoom saxonon,
nsanntm na monancxom xstxe, tno Vnoxenne Bacnnnx Hyny
(1646 r.). o cepennt XVII n. o]nnnantntm rocyapcrnenntm xst-
xom, ocnyxnnanmnm rocnoapcxym xannenxpnm, nepxonnoe orocny-
xenne, oyuenne, a raxxe mexynaponte cnxsn, cnyxnn nepxonnocna-
nxncxn xstx. Taxnm opasom, n cpenenexonte Monancxoe xnxxe-
crno onaano ncemn neoxonmtmn xomnonenramn rocyapcrnennoc-
rn, xoropte ocnyxnnann ero nnyrpennne n nnemnenonnrnuecxne no-
rpenocrn, oecneunnann reppnropnantnym nenocrnocrt.
Monancxoe xnxxecrno, xax nsnecrno, reppnropnantno tno oxpyxe-
no onee cnntntmn cocexmn, n +ro ntnyxano ero nocroxnno necrn
opty c nnmn sa coxpanenne cnoe nesanncnmocrn. 3ra opta noe-
onocno xpxo npoxnnnact n rot npannennx Cre]ana III (Bennxoro),
npn xoropom Monannx ocrnrna cnoero nanntcmero pacnnera. Ona-
xo, ycrynax cnne, monancxne rocnoapn tnn ntnyxent npnsnanart
cex naccanamn Benrpnn n Hontmn, a sarem n Ocmancxo nmnepnn,
xoropax c xonna 30-x roon XVI n. nennxom nounnnna cee xnxxecrno.
Hocne yrnepxennx n Monannn rypenxoro nnatuecrna ona nnmn-
nact craryca nesanncnmoro rocyapcrna, xorx n npoonxana coxpanxrt
npexnee rocyapcrnennoe ycrpocrno n mecrnoe ynpannenne, a raxxe
anronomnm npanocnanno nepxnn c nounnennem ee nenocpecrnenno
Koncranrnnonontcxo narpnapxnn. Typenxne nnacrn npenparnnn Mon-
annm n cnom annnny, crpemxct nonyunrt or nee maxcnmantnym +xo-
nomnuecxym, noenno-nonnrnuecxym n pyrne ntrot. nx xnxxecrna
tna ycranonnena nocroxnno nospacranmax ant (xapau). Hnora cyn-
ran rpeonan ononnnrentno ann, a orxas ee nnarnrt cronn rocnoa-
pm rpona. Kpome ynnart xapaua cymecrnonann eme neoxonmte no-
apxn, nsxrxn, xoropte nonyuann cynran n ero npnnnxennte, a raxxe
unnonnnxn. Hepexo onn npentmann pasmept ocnonno ann.
C npexpamennem nnacrnn Mymarnnon Hopra, naunnax c cepennt
XVI n., npenparnna monancxn npecron n npemer xynnn-npoaxn.
oxymenr (]npman) na npannenne crpano nonyuan renept ror nperen-
enr, xoropt oxstnancx nnarnrt sa nero nanontmym ant, tn o-
nee mep na ncxxne noapxn n pyrne pasnnunoro poa nonomennx
cynrany n ero xamapnnte. Hnarexn n noopt nocroxnno nospacrann.
Vuacrnnmaxcx cmena rocnoape, n uem tnn sannrepeconant rypxn,
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nonyuanmne npn +rom entrn, xnnnact nacroxmnm ecrnnem nx crpa-
nt n ee napoa, xoropt merxo oxapaxrepnsonan +ro xnnenne noronop-
xo: Cmena rocnoape paocrt esymnen.
Hapxy c ynnaro ann Monannx tna oxsana nocrannxrt n Typnnm
npoyxrt centcxoro xosxcrna, cnaxart ee cxorom, sepnom, macnom,
ctpom, meom, nocxom, a raxxe anart xopaentnt nec, nomae nx
rypenxo xonnnnt n p. Knxxecrno, no ntpaxennm camnx rypox, tno
npenpameno n nx xnaonym. Homnmo ynnart rxxentx nanoron rocno-
apn ntnyxent tnn npeocrannxrt cnoe nocxo nx yuacrnx n ry-
penxnx noxoax, nocrannxrt Hopre paouym cnny, crponrentnte mare-
pnant n rpancnoprnte cpecrna nx yxpennennx n pemonra xpenocre,
opor. Typxn nocrannnn rocyapcrnennt annapar Monannn na cnyx-
y cnonm cocrnenntm +xonomnuecxnm n noenno-nonnrnuecxnm nnre-
pecam.
Hacroxmnm ecrnnem nx crpant xnnxnnct rpaexn co cropont
rypenxnx n rarapcxnx op npn nx cneonannn uepes Monannm, a raxxe
no npemx nocroen na ee reppnropnn. Bor xax onnctnaer onn ns raxnx
nocroen xonna XVII n. neronncen Hon Hexynue: Tarapt nomnn n crpa-
ny, xax nonxn n crao onen, n oocnonannct na snmonxy y xpncrnan no
cenam, pacnonoxenntm or Hpyra o necrpa n ntme... Tarapt +ro
nenactrnte nonxn, onn rpaxr, sanononxmr, nsnnamr n myuamr xpnc-
rnan... Tarapt exr rontxo ronxnny n apannny, rax uro nenosmoxno
nactrnrt nx... Tarapt noenn nce ... n xne, n xnnnocrt n orpannn ncex
o nnrxn. Kpacnopeunnax xaprnna.
Vcranonnenne ocmancxoro nnatuecrna n Monancxom xnxxecrne
naryno cxasanoct na omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxo n +xonomnuecxo
xnsnn crpant. Xosxcrno n +ro nnoopono mecrnocrn pasnnnanoct
myunrentno menenno n npnxonno n ynaox. Mnorne xnrenn rypxamn
n rarapamn tnn yrnant n nenonm.
Fontmnm snom rxxenoro rypenxoro rocnocrna n xnxxecrne xnnnoct
nocroxnnoe coxpamenne ero reppnropnn. 3ro nponcxonno, n uacrno-
crn, rora, xora rypxamn cosanannct yxpennennte xpenocrn Knnnx,
Fenropo, Fenept n Xornn, xoropte crann nastnartcx paxmn n nme-
cre c npnnerammnmn x nnm semnxmn nepeanannct nenocpecrnenno
no nnacrt cynrana. 3ect ynpasnxnoct npexnee ynpannenne n ycra-
nannnnannct ocmancxne nopxxn. B 1774 r. Ancrpnx saxnarnna px ce-
nepntx yeson xnxxecrna (Fyxonnny). Ho nocueram nccneonarene,
x nauany XIX n. no cpannennm c XV n. y xnxxecrna tno nsxro yxe
onee 1/3 ero reppnropnn.
B ycnonnxx ocmancxoro rocnocrna nponsomnn samenenne +xonomn-
uecxoro n connantnoro pasnnrnx Monannn, orpannuenne n ocnanenne
ocnonntx ]ynxnn ee rocyapcrnennocrn, uro cenano camy rocyap-
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2009, N 2 (16)
crnennocrt nectma +]emepno. Typenxne nnacrn npenparnnn ee ns nn-
crpymenra cnyxennx monancxomy napoy n opyne ero eme ontmero
yrnerennx n +xcnnyarannn.
Xnrenn xpax n npexe ncero xpecrtxncrno, na nneun xoroporo noxn-
nnct ocnonnte nenomepnte rxrort rypenxoro rnera, a raxxe pyrne
xareropnn nacenennx ne mnpnnnct co cnoxnnmnmcx nonoxennem n no-
croxnno ntcrynann npornn yrnerarene. He pas na nomomt nm npnxo-
nnn orpxt sanopoxcxnx xasaxon c Vxpannt. Vcnemno nenn ocnoo-
nrentnym nonnrnxy n opty npornn ocmancxnx nopaornrene mon-
ancxne rocnoapn Cre]an III Bennxn, Hoann Boa Hmrt, mnrpn
Kanremnp n pyrne. Onaxo cnnt, ecrecrnenno, tnn nepanntmn, n oc-
noonrtcx camnm or ocmancxoro rnera tno nepeantno. Hanonee
mypte ns rocnoape crann opamartcx sa nomomtm x Poccnn, c xo-
ropo y monanan tno nemano omero n xyntrype, otuaxx, rpannn-
xx, ome tna xpncrnancxax pennrnx npanocnanne. Monancxo-pyc-
cxne nsanmoornomennx tnn recntmn. Cre]an III Bennxn n 1463 r.
cenan nepnt mar x cnnxennm c Pyccxnm rocyapcrnom, xennnmnct
na cecrpe xnencxoro xnxsx, a ero out Enena n 1483 r. ntmna samyx sa
ctna pyccxoro xnxsx Hnana III. Co npemenem yxpennxnnct nonnrnuec-
xne, nnnomarnuecxne, nepxonnte n pyrne cnxsn.
Hocne noccoennennx Vxpannt c Poccne y monanan nosnnxno crpem-
nenne ocnoonrtcx or ocmancxo sanncnmocrn c nomomtm Poccnn.
3ro cnococrnonano ]opmnponannm n oxpcxo cpee npopyccxo opn-
enrannn. B 1654 r. rocnoapt Ieopre Cre]an nanpannn n Mocxny cnoero
ronna c npocto o npnnxrnn Monannn n pyccxoe noancrno. C no-
ono npocto n 1711 r. mnrpn Kanremnp oparnncx x napm
Herpy I, xoropt n cnoem ornere nnnome n nynxrax - npeycmar-
pnnan ocnooxenne xnxxecrna or ocmancxo sanncnmocrn, ]nxcnpo-
nan ero npnnxrne no noxponnrentcrno Poccnn, nosnpamenne emy oro-
panntx rypxamn sement, ocnooxenne or ynnart ann Hopre, sax-
pennenne rocnoapcxoro npecrona n Monannn sa nnacrne Kanremn-
pon n r. . o nauana XIX n. Monannx onee ecxrn pas opamanact x
Poccnn c npocto o ee npnnxrnn no ntcoxym pyxy napx. Onaxo
mexynaponax ocranonxa n ror nepno ne nosnonnna n xoneunom cuere
ocymecrnnrtcx +rnm nnanam.
Pyccxo-rypenxne nont XVIII n., n xoroptx, xcrarn, na cropone pyc-
cxo apmnn yuacrnonann monancxne nonncxne nopasenennx n nonon-
rept, ocnanxnn Ocmancxym nmnepnm. 3ro cosanano naronpnxrnte
ycnonnx nx ocnooxennx xnxxecrna. B pesyntrare pyccxo-rypenxo
nont 1806-1812 rr. n no ycnonnxm nocneonanmero sarem mnpnoro o-
ronopa or 16 max 1812 r. reppnropnx necrponcxo-Hpyrcxoro mexype-
utx, cocrannxnmax onee nononnnt (55 %) Monancxoro xnxxecrna,
11
650-
oromna x Poccnn n n antnemem crana nastnartcx Feccapane. Oc-
rantnax uacrt xnxxecrna ocrananact no rypenxnm nnatuecrnom
nnnort o oennennx c Banaxne n opasonannx Pymtncxoro rocy-
apcrna.
Bxnmuenne Feccapann n nonym rocyapcrnenno-nonnrnuecxym cnc-
remy xapnnantno nsmennno antnemne connantno-+xonomnuecxne,
nonnrnuecxne n emorpa]nuecxne ycnonnx pasnnrnx xpax n ero nacene-
nnx. 3ra reppnropnx crana cocranno uacrtm ennoro nenrpannsonan-
noro Poccncxoro rocyapcrna, xoropoe, onnpaxct na noepxxy mecr-
noro npnnnnernponannoro cnox omecrna, ocymecrnnxno oprannsannm
+xonomnuecxo n omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxo xnsnn, a raxxe crapanoct
ynn]nnnponart connantnym n nannonantno-xyntrypnym cnenn]nxy sem-
nero nacenennx n coornercrnnn c omepoccncxnmn nopmamn xnsnn.
3ro nponcxonno nocrenenno. Bnauane, c 1813 r., xpa ynpannxncx n
coornercrnnn c Hpannnamn npemennoro npannennx Feccapann. 3ect
tno cosano onacrnoe npannrentcrno no rnane c monancxnmn ox-
pamn, monancxnmn n pyccxnmn unnonnnxamn (n coornomennn 7:5). e-
nonponsnocrno nenoct na pyccxom n monancxom xstxax. Bcemn e-
namn nnyrpennero ynpannennx xpaem nean rpaxancxn ryepnarop,
xnnxnmncx raxxe pyxononrenem onacrnoro npannrentcrna, xoropoe
n cnoe npaxrnxe onnpanoct na pennne, nenncannte otuan semnn n
nexoropte tronanmne na reppnropnn Monancxoro xnxxecrna cra-
rtn yrononnoro npana.
B 1816 r. nx ynpannennx Feccapane tna yupexena onxnocrt
nonnomounoro namecrnnxa, xoropt ocymecrnnxn nepxonnym nnacrt.
B coornercrnnn c Vcranom opasonannx Feccapacxo onacrn
1818 r. n xpae tn cosan Bepxonnt Coner npn namecrnnxe n onac-
rno cy. Coner cran onaart ntcme amnnncrparnnno n cyeno
nnacrtm. enonponsnocrno no-npexnemy ocymecrnnxnoct na monan-
cxom n pyccxom xstxax. Onacrnoe n mecrnoe camoynpannenne ocrana-
noct n pyxax monancxnx oxp.
C nauana 20-x roon ycnnnnact renennnx na antnemee orpannue-
nne, a sarem n nnxnnannm ocoennocre mecrnoro amnnncrparnnno-
ro ycrpocrna Feccapann. 3axonom Vupexenne nx ynpannennx Fec-
capacxo onacrtm (1828 r.) tnn ynpasnent anronomnte nauana, n
nsamen ycranonnena omepoccncxax moent amnnncrparnnnoro ycr-
pocrna n ynpannennx xpaem. Hosnee Feccapanx npenparnnact n
otxnonennym poccncxym ryepnnm c omepyccxnmn ryepncxnmn
yupexennxmn, omerocyapcrnenno nanorono cncremo n r.. B cnxsn
c +rnm, a raxxe c nsmenennem emorpa]nuecxo cnryannn n xpae, unc-
no nnn monancxo nannonantnocrn cpen unnonnnuecrna n ynpannen-
uecxnx crpyxrypax coxparnnoct o 53,2 % n 1819 r., o 15,6 % n 1850 r.
12
2009, N 2 (16)
K 1900 r. uncno nx necxontxo nospacraer o 18,7 % n o 20,4 % n
1910 r. enonponsnocrno crano necrnct rontxo na pyccxom xstxe, xorx
n 1835 r. monancxn xstx nnont tn noccranonnen na 7-nernn cpox.
Mexy rem, mecrnte ocoennocrn nexoropoe npemx eme coxpanxnnct,
n npexe ncero, n cyentx yupexennxx, xoropte pyxonocrnonannct
mecrntm otuntm npanom n nexoroptmn omemonancxnmn ysaxone-
nnxmn, a no pxy rpaxancxnx en, nanpnmep, o nacneonannn, +rn oco-
ennocrn coxpanxnnct nnnort o XX n.
Taxnm opasom, n reuenne nyx nepntx ecxrnnern nocne npncoen-
nennx Feccapann x Poccnn na ontme, nocrouno uacrn Monancxo-
ro xnxxecrna nannonantnax rocyapcrnennocrt monanan tna yrpa-
uena, xorx orentnte ee +nemenrt eme coxpanxnnct n reuenne nexoro-
poro npemenn. 3ra reppnropnx n cocrane Poccncxoro rocyapcrna n
nocneymmn nepno npomna cno nont nyrt xosxcrnennoro oxnn-
nennx, connantno-+xonomnuecxoro, nonnrnuecxoro n +rnnuecxoro pasnn-
rnx. Monancxax rocyapcrnennocrt xe na reppnropnn 3anpyrcxo ua-
crn Monancxoro xnxxecrna, eme romnnmecx no nnacrtm Orroman-
cxo Hoprt, coxpannnact nnnort o 1862 r., a sarem, n cnxsn c opaso-
nannem Pymtncxoro rocyapcrna, ona tna ynpasnena n sect. Kax
nnnm, monancxax nannonantnax rocyapcrnennocrt, nosnnxmax n cpe-
nenexonte, npocymecrnonana onee 500 ner, a sarem n cnny pasnnuntx
ncropnuecxnx ocroxrentcrn tna yrepxna.
K nauany XIX n., ocoenno nocne ntcenennx n Kptm n xoe pyccxo-
rypenxo nont 1806-1812 rr. yxaxcxnx rarap, Hpyro-necrponcxoe
mexypeute n nenoepexnoe Hpnnecrponte, re nosnee ]opmnpona-
nact monancxax nannx, tnn cnao sacenenntmn reppnropnxmn. O
+rom cnnerentcrnymr pyccxne nyremecrnennnxn ro nopt. Onantnt
A.C. Hymxnn, n nauane 20-x roon XIX n. ntcnannt n Feccapanm,
oxapaxrepnsonan ee rax: Cnx nvcmiuua (rvpcue +o - B.H.) crpana
cnxmenna nx ymn no+ra, ona epxannntm nocnera n cnano pyccxom
nonna. B ne n 1812 r. npoxnnano oxono 240 rtcxu uenonex, n r.u. mon-
anane, pycnnt, manopocct, nennxopocct, enpen, rpexn, apmxne, onra-
pt, rarayst, ntrane n p.
Manouncnennocrt nacenennx xpax, nnoopone n onnne cnoontx
sement, a raxxe ntrort napcxoro npannrentcrna nx nepecenennen cno-
cocrnonann tcrpomy ero sacenennm nocne 1812 r. Cma ycrpemn-
noct mnoxecrno erntx xpecrtxn n xasaxon ns Manopoccnn, nenrpant-
ntx n mxntx ryepnn Poccnn, cnacanmnxcx or xpenocrnoro rnera,
pexpyrcxo nonnnnocrn n pennrnosntx npecneonann, a raxxe ntxo-
nt ns 3anpyrcxo Monont, saynacxne nepecenennt. Kpome crnxn-
no xononnsannn napcxoe npannrentcrno ocymecrnnxno ns rex xe ryc-
ronacenenntx ryepnn n o]nnnantnoe nepecenenne na eccapacxne
13
650-
semnn rocyapcrnenntx xpecrtxn n pyrnx xareropn nacenennx.
K 60-m roam XIX n. n Feccapann yxe naxonnoct oxono 300 rtcxu
rontxo erntx xpecrtxn. Hpannrentcrnennax xononnsannx ocymecrn-
nxnact raxxe sa cuer nnocrpanntx rpaxan. Cpen nnx tnn onrapt,
rarayst, npecrannrenn pyrnx nannonantnocre, cnacanmnecx or rx-
xenoro rypenxo-]anapnorcxoro rnera. Hanonee mnorouncnenntmn ns
nnx tnn onrapt n rarayst, uncno xoroptx c 11 rtc. n 1816 r. nospoc-
no o onee uem 64 rtc. n 1841 r. Vcnnnxmn nnacre nocrounax uacrt
Fyxaxa crana sacenxrcx nemnamn-xononncramn. Hx uncnennocrt x
60-m roam ocrnrna 26 rtc. uenonex. B nepno nononnne XIX n. n
Feccapann crann cennrtcx raxxe rpexn, cept, nonxxn, ]pannyst n p.
Henoepexnax uacrt monancxoro Hpnnecrpontx, oromemax n
1791 r. no ycnonnxm ccxoro mnpa x Poccnn n cnaosacenennax n cnxsn
c yanennem orrya eme pantme rarap-xouennnxon, roxe nnrencnnno
crana sacenxrtcx nennxopoccamn, manopoccamn, monananamn, a rax-
xe nnocrpannamn. 3ect xononnsannx, xax n n Feccapann, nponcxon-
na crnxnno n tcrpo. Hpnmepom romy moxer cnyxnrt Tnpacnontcxn
yes, nacenenne xoroporo c 19,1 rtc. n xonne XVIII n. nospocno o 50
rtc. n cepenne XIX n.
3a cuer ecrecrnennoro npnpocra, npannrentcrnenno n crnxnno xo-
nonnsannn nacenenne Feccapann c 240 rtc. uenonex n 1812 r. nospocno
o 990 rtc. n 1856 r., n r.u. ropoxan sa 1819-1859 rr. c 43 rtc. o 196
rtc. uenonex. K xonny XIX n. nce nacenenne Feccapann ynennunnoct
nourn o 2 mnn., a x 1914 r. o 2,5 mnnnnonon xnrene, n r.u. n Knmn-
nene, nanpnmep, c 7 rtc. n 1812 r. o 116,5 rtc. n 1913 r., nnn nourn n
17 pas. Hs xpane cnaosacenennoro paona n 1812 r., nnornocrt nace-
nennx xoroporo cocrannxna 12 uenonex na xn. nepcry, Feccapanx npe-
nparnnact x nauany XX n. n onn ns camtx ocnoenntx n orartx e-
morpa]nuecxnmn pecypcamn paonon Poccnn. B 1917 r. ona nxonna n
ecxrxy camtx rycronacenenntx ryepnn crpant c nnornocrtm nace-
nennx 70 uenonex na xn. nepcry. Hpnuem remnt npnpocra nacenennx
sect n 18121861 rr. tnn n na pasa ntme, uem n Poccnn (ne ronopx
yxe o npemenn ocmancxoro rocnocrna), npn +rom no nropo nononnne
XIX n. ono ynennunnanoct, rnanntm opasom, sa cuer ecrecrnennoro
nocnponsnocrna.
Cymecrnenno nonnnxnn +rn nponecct n na nsmenenne +rnnuecxoro co-
crana nacenennx. Ventnt nec monanan c 1817 no 1859 r. snaunrent-
no coxparnncx: c 78,2 % o 54,9 %, n ro npemx xax onx pyrnx +rnnuec-
xnx rpynn samerno nospocna: manopoccon c 12,4 o 19,4 %, onrap n
rarayson c 3,9 o 8 %, nennxopoccon c 2 o 3,7 %, nemnen c 1,6 o
2,3 %. Hpnmepno ro xe camoe nponcxonno n n nenoepexnom Hpnne-
crponte.
14
2009, N 2 (16)
K nauany nropo nononnnt XIX n. +rnnuecxn cocran nacenennx n xpae
crannnsnponancx. 3ect npoxnnann monanane, yxpannnt, pyccxne,
enpen, onrapt, rarayst, nonxxn, nemnt, ntrane, rpexn, apmxne n p.
Iopoa n ontmnncrno cen ]axrnuecxn tnn mnoronannonantntmn. 3ro
cnococrnonano yxpennennm mex+rnnuecxnx xonraxron, cnnxennm n
nsanmoooramennm xyntryp, rpannn, opasonannm nexoe nonn+rnn-
uecxo omnocrn - eccapant.
Haxoxenne Feccapann, xax n nenoepexnoro Hpnnecrpontx, n co-
crane Poccncxoro rocyapcrna, croxnmero na onee ntcoxo crynenn
omecrnenno-+xonomnuecxoro pasnnrnx, nexenn Ocmancxax Typnnx,
ocoenno nocne ypxyasntx pe]opm n Poccnn no nropo nononnne
XIX n., oecneunno e nosmoxnocrt tcrporo pasnnrnx no xannrannc-
rnuecxomy nyrn. Bno ynennuenne ronapnoro nponsnocrna n xpae, yx-
pennenne ero cnxse c omepoccncxnm n sapyexntm ptnxamn. uop-
mnponannct monancxax ypxyasnx n nponerapnar, rnanntm opasom, n
c]epe arpapnoro nponsnocrna.
Pasnnrne ronapnoro nponsnocrna, pasnnuntx nnon rpancnopra, ycn-
nenne roprontx n +xonomnuecxnx cnxse mexy +xonomnuecxnmn aren-
ramn xpax, cesonnax rpyonax, n rom uncne mexcentnax n mexpaon-
nax mnrpannx nacenennx, xax n pyrne ]axropt, paspymann sacxopys-
nte ]eoantnte neperopoxn mexy nacenenntmn nynxramn, xarero-
pnxmn rpaxan, orentntmn nmtmn, crnpann nanexrnte pasnnunx n
xstxe, +nemenrax xyntrypt n npou. Vxpennxnnct xyntrypnte n ome-
crnenno-nonnrnuecxne cnxsn napoon namero xpax c Poccne. Mnorne
ypoxennt Feccapann nonyuann opasonanne n poccncxnx yuentx
saneennxx, napnnnct n omepoccncxom xorne xnsnn. B nenom xe
]opmnponanne monancxo ypxyasno nannn nporexano n XIX naua-
ne XX n. n ycnonnxx mnoronannonantnoro cocrana nacenennx. 3rnnuec-
xoe pasnoopasne cnococrnonano ycnoennm monananamn camtx pas-
nnuntx +nemenron marepnantno n yxonno xyntrypt, opasa xnsnn,
nponsnocrnennoro ontra n neponann, rpannn mnornx napoon, xax,
xcrarn, n naoopor, ne repxx, a ooramax nx cocrnennt ontr n xynt-
rypy.
Bce +ro, cnococrnyx cosannm nonn+rnnuecxo reppnropnantno o-
mnocrn n xpae, nensexno npoyxano y monanan, xax n y pyrnx +r-
nocon, n npexe ncero y nx nemnorouncnenno nnrennnrennnn, uyncrno
nannonantnoro camocosnannx. Hmenno cpen nnrennnrennnn nce uame
crann ocyxartcx nonpoct opasonannx na ponom xstxe, nsannx
monancxo npecct n nnreparypt, pacmnpennx c]ept ncnontsonannx
monancxoro xstxa n omecrne.
B xoe pyccxo penonmnnn 1905-1907 rr. +rn nonpoct nonyunnn onee
nacrounnoe snyuanne n omecrne. B exape 1905 r. Feccapacxoe
15
650-
ryepncxoe semcrno npnnnmaer pemenne o neoxonmocrn npenoana-
nnx monancxoro xstxa n nauantno mxone. Bcxope n xpae noxnnxmrcx
nannonantnte nonnrnuecxne oprannsannn, naunnamr nsanartcx na
monancxom xstxe xypnant n rasert: Facapanx, Mononanyn,
Kyntnr mononenecx, Inacyn Facapane n p. B nnx naxoxr or-
paxenne nen nannonantnoro enncrna, nynnxymrcx nponsneennx mon-
ancxnx nncarene n r.n. B ycnonnxx oxnnnennx nonnrnuecxo xnsnn n
nepno nepno pyccxo penonmnnn n nosnee axrnnno npoonxaercx
nponecc ]opmnponannx monancxo nannn. On sanepmnncx x 1917 r.,
xora n omecrne yxe noxnnnnct n crann axrnnno ecrnonart ypxy-
asnte nannonantnte naprnn, n xora n nannonantnoe nnxenne axrnn-
nee crann nrxrnnartcx xpecrtxne, npecrannrenn pyrnx cnoen nace-
nennx.
Monancxax nannx, raxnm opasom, cnoxnnact na reppnropnn Hpyro-
necrponcxoro mexypeutx Monancxoro xnxxecrna, nomemero n
1812 r. n cocran Poccncxoro rocyapcrna, n naxonnmnxcx ram xe c
xonna XVIII n. paonon nenoepexnero Hpnnecrpontx, re xomnaxrno
npoxnnano monancxoe nacenenne. 3ra omax reppnropnx nosnee no-
nyunna nasnanne Monannx, re nponcxonno ]opmnponanne n pasnnrne
monancxo nannn. Ona ynacneonana rpannnn cpenenexono Mon-
annn, a raxxe nexono ontr ee npoxnnannx na saxnmunrentnom +rane
cnoero ]opmnponannx n mnoronannonantnom poccncxom npocrpancrne
c nontmn nx nee connantno-+xonomnuecxnmn n omecrnenno-nonnrn-
uecxnmn ycnonnxmn n nntm, uem npexe, +rnoxyntrypntm oxpyxenn-
em. Bce +ro n nocneymmee npemx ne npomno eccneno npn ntope
nyre antnemero pasnnrnx xpax, snaxontx rocyapcrnenno-nonnrn-
uecxnx pemenn n r..
C nauanom Hepno mnpono nont n Monannn crano napacrart conn-
antnoe neonontcrno rpyonoro napoa. uenpantcxax penonmnnx
1917 r., cneprmax camoepxanne, ne cmorna, onaxo, pemnrt px sno-
onenntx nonpocon: o none n mnpe, o semne, o npane napoon na cnom
nannonantnym rocyapcrnennocrt n nannonantnoe camoonpeenenne.
Tem ne menee, ona ycxopnna pocr penonmnnonnoro cosnannx nme. Bce
uame n omecrne, xpome nonnrnuecxnx n connantno-+xonomnuecxnx,
crann ocyxartcx nonpoct o cosannn nannonantntx mxon, pacmnpe-
nnn c]ept npnmenennx nannonantntx xstxon n p.
Foxsnt penonmnnonntx ecrnn xpecrtxncrna n pyrnx cnoen rpyo-
noro napoa, ycnnenne nnnxnnx Coneron, xax nnacrntx crpyxryp, na
nacenenne, a raxxe necnoconocrt opranon Bpemennoro npannrentcrna
xonrponnponart cnryannm n xpae noynnn Monancxym nannonantnym
naprnm, ntpaxanmym nnrepect nannonantno ypxyasnn, sapyunrtcx
noepxxo noenntx cnn. Ha cosnannom 20 oxrxpx 1917 r. noenno-
16
2009, N 2 (16)
monancxom cese, xoropt ne ntpaxan nonm ontmnncrna nacene-
nnx xpax, tno npnnxro pemenne, uro o nponeennx nceomnx nto-
pon n Vupenrentnoe copanne nao c]opmnponart C]aryn H+pn (Coner
crpant). On nauan paorart 21 noxpx roro xe roa, a yxe 2 exapx
1917 r. nponosrnacnn opasonanne Monancxo emoxparnuecxo Pec-
nynnxn n cocrane emoxparnuecxo Poccnn. Tax tna ocymecrnnena
nontrxa nospoxennx monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn na reppnropnn
Hpyro-necrponcxoro mexypeutx. Onaxo +ro tno cenano ne c ro
nentm, urot nomout monancxomy napoy n operennn cnoero nanno-
nantnoro xnsneycrpocrna, a nx roro, urot ormexenartcx or peno-
nmnnonntx cotrn n Poccnn. O +rom orxponenno paccxasan 6 e-
xapx roro xe roa na saceannn C]aryn H+pn onn ns ero pyxonon-
rene Hon Hnxynen: Bouua auapxuu (mar e.acmu uasiea.u oopiov
rpecmiu sa se+.m B.H.) sacmaeuua nac otxnnrt pecnynnxy
(rvpcue +o B.H.). Bectma xpacnopeunnoe npnsnanne. Mexy rem,
ncropnuecxax namxrt napoa o cnoe mnoronexono rocyapcrnennoc-
rn n npomnom n peantnax nosmoxnocrt ee nospoxennx nocne Oxrxpx
coornercrnonann uaxnnxm monanan.
V nnepon MP ne tno onxnoro ennoymnx n onpeenennn ant-
neme ee cytt. Onn ns nnx xenann nnert ee n cocrane Poccnn,
xax +ro n tno sanncano n oxymenre o ee nponosrnamennn, pyrne
camocroxrentnocrt, rpertn, nonpexn none ontmnncrna nacenennx, - n
cocrane xoponencxo Pymtnnn. Cyty xe ]axrnuecxn oxxynnponan-
no n xnnape 1918 r. pymtncxnmn nocxamn MP, n xoneunom cuere,
pemnnn pymtncxne amnnncrpannx n noennte, ntnynn unenon C]aryn
H+pn n xonne mapra 1918 r. nporonoconart sa ycnonnoe, a n noxpe
roro xe roa sa esycnonnoe npncoennenne Feccapann x Pymtnnn
c norepe craryca anronomnn.
Taxnm opasom, nannonantnax rocyapcrnennocrt monancxoro napo-
a, nponosrnamennax 2 exapx 1917 r., ne ycnen eme rnepo crart na
norn n oxpennyrt, ne onaax ocrarouno cnno, n nauane cnoero nos-
poxennx tna yrpauena.
Ho-nacroxmemy xe nospoxenne nannonantno rocyapcrnennocrn
monancxoro napoa nponsomno necxontxo nosnee, n 1924 r., na reppn-
ropnn nenoepextx necrpa, re xomnaxrno npoxnnano monancxoe
nacenenne. H +ro tno cnxsano c rem, uro c noeo Oxrxptcxo pe-
nonmnnn n 1917 r. napot Conercxo crpant nonyunnn peantnym nos-
moxnocrt crponrt cnom nannonantnym rocyapcrnennocrt. 3ro npo-
ncxonno n nannonantntx pernonax ontmo crpant n cnoxntx ycno-
nnxx cranonnennx n yxpennennx nontx opranon nnacrn, noccranonnennx
n pexoncrpyxnnn na connanncrnuecxnx nauanax naponoro xosxcrna n
xyntrypt, n ycnonnxx, xora ne xnarano onxnoro ontra n ocrarou-
17
650-
ntx cpecrn. Ho pasyxennax penonmnne +neprnx macc nooymennx-
na nx crponrt nonoe omecrno.
Hocne roro xax crano ouennntm, uro cosanne monancxo rocyap-
crnennocrn na nce reppnropnn npoxnnannx monancxo nannn n nn-
xamee npemx nepeantno, nce uame cran nonnmartcx nonpoc o ee nos-
poxennn na reppnropnn nenoepextx necrpa. Vunrtnax ontr rocy-
apcrnennoro crponrentcrna n crpane, rpynna nonnrnuecxnx exrene:
I.H. Koroncxn, H.. Txauenxo, . nx n pyrne - nanpannna oxna-
nym sanncxy n apec HK PKH() n HK KH()V c oocnonannem neoo-
xonmocrn cosannx Monancxo Conercxo Pecnynnxn. Hem cpasy
xe noepxan nnnt nonnrnuecxn n rocyapcrnennt exrent Co-
nercxoro rocyapcrna, monanannn no nannonantnocrn M.B. upynse, xo-
ropt na oxnano sanncxe nocrannn cnom pesonmnnm: nnuno sa,
c rem, urot Monancxax pecnynnxa tna nxnmuena n cocran VCCP.
Vxe c nauana mapra 1924 r. n nenoepexntx paonax necrpa c mon-
ancxnm nacenennem, a raxxe no mnornx ropoax CCCP crann npono-
nrtcx copannx n mnrnnrn, na xoroptx rpaxane, n rom uncne ecca-
pacxne exennt, ropxuo noepxnnann nonpoc o cosannn monanc-
xo rocyapcrnennocrn, npnuem nexoropte ns nnx cnxstnann ero c oc-
nooxennem camo Feccapann. Axrnnnym paory n +rom nanpanne-
nnn npononna cosannax npn monancxo cexnnn Oeccxoro ryepnc-
xoro xomnrera Komnaprnn Vxpannt rasera Hnyrapyn Pom (Kpacnt
naxapt). B reuenne necxontxnx mecxnen rpaxane ocrarouno mnpo-
xo n yenrentno ntcxastnann cnoe mnenne no annomy nonpocy n npn-
nnmann coornercrnymmne pemennx, a npecca mnpoxo ocnemana +ror
nponecc. K npnmepy, 17 anrycra 1924 r. xnrenn cena Komnnna yoc-
capcxoro paona npnnxnn cneymmee pemenne: Mt, paoune n xpec-
rtxne c. Komnnna, sacnyman oxna o nannonantno nonnrnxe Conerc-
xo nnacrn, nocranonnnn ennornacno: ... Conercxax nnacrt camax cnpa-
nennnax ns ncex, xoropte cymecrnonann o cnx nop na semne... Benn-
xax Oxrxptcxax penonmnnx xpome roro, uro ocnoonna nac or pa-
crna, raxxe npnnecna c coo npano pasronapnnart na ponom xstxe,
nmert mxont na ponom xstxe n r. . Mt npocnm ntcmne conercxne
oprant norn nam nancrpeuy n ene oprannsannn MCCP. A nor uro
nncana no +romy nonoy rasera Hsnecrnx or 23 anrycra 1924 r.: nn-
xenne monancxoro nacenennx n nontsy opasonannx Monancxo pec-
nynnxn paspacraercx, oxnarnn yxnantno nce Hpnnecrponte. B mon-
ancxnx cenax Tex, Innnoe, Toxmasex, Cnoosex n Ipnropnonont co-
croxnnct ontmne cxot monanan, ntnnnmnecx n mann]ecrannn, na-
crounno rpeonanmne oprannsannn Anronomno Monancxo Pecny-
nnxn... 3nrysnasm monancxoro nacenennx neonncyem.
B reuenne nera n n nauane ocenn 1924 r., napxy c ocyxennem nace-
nennem nonpoca o cosannn pecnynnxn, nnacrxmn tna nponeena ne-
18
2009, N 2 (16)
oxonmax npenapnrentnax paora no yrounennm reppnropnn n rpa-
nnn yyme pecnynnxn, onpeenennm ee amnnncrparnnnoro nenrpa,
crpyxrypt npannrentcrna, ]nnanconoro cocroxnnx, noopy neoxon-
mtx xapon nx nee n r. . 27 cenrxpx 1924 r. na IV ceccnn Oeccxoro
ryncnonxoma tno sacnymano saxnnenne cnennantno enerannn or
cen Hpnnecrpontx, n xoropom, n uacrnocrn, ormeuanoct: B nocne-
nne mecxnt cpen monancxoro napoa nauanoct mnpoxoe nnxenne
sa anronomnm. nnxenne +ro pacnpocrpannnoct no ncem cenam Hpn-
necrpontx, xoropte na cnonx cxoax ntnocnnn pesonmnnn c noxena-
nnem anronomnn nx monanan... Or nmenn monancxoro xpecrtxncrna
mt npocnm onecrn o cneennx BVHHKa o namnx nyxax n nepeart
namy npocty o cosannn anronomnn MCCP. Ceccnx noepxana +ry
npocty.
12 oxrxpx 1924 r. III ceccnx Bceyxpanncxoro Henrpantnoro ncnonnn-
rentnoro xomnrera n npncyrcrnnn npecrannrene nnocrpanntx rocy-
apcrn n enerann paounx n xpecrtxn Monannn nocranonnna opa-
sonart n cocrane Vxpanncxo Connanncrnuecxo Pecnynnxn Anronom-
nym Monancxym Connanncrnuecxym Conercxym Pecnynnxy. 3ana-
nax rpannna MACCP ycranannnnanact no rocyapcrnenno rpannne
CCCP, r. e. no pexe Hpyr. 3ect npoxnnnact nosnnnx Conercxoro rocy-
apcrna, xoropoe ne npnsnanano oxxynannm Feccapann Pymtnne, re
npoxnnano ontmnncrno monancxoro nacenennx, n no+romy necrp
cunrancx ne rpannne, a nnmt emapxannonno nnnne. Bcx nonnora
nnacrn o costna cesa Coneron n pecnynnxe xonnenrpnponanact n
pyxax Bpemennoro penonmnnonnoro xomnrera (Penxoma). Hn]opmannx
o cosannn Monancxo pecnynnxn mnpoxo xommenrnponanact n co-
msno n sapyexno npecce.
B cocran opasonanno Monancxo pecnynnxn nomnn 11 amnnncr-
parnnntx paonon (Anantencxn, Fnpsyntcxn, Fanrcxn, Ipnropnonont-
cxn, yoccapcxn, Kamencxn, Kpacnooxnxncxn, Kpyrxncxn, Pt-
nnnxn, Cnoosecxn, Tnpacnontcxn). Hepno cronnne pecnynnxn
crana Fanra (c 1929 r. r. Tnpacnont). Monancxax ACCP, - ronopnn
I.H. Koroncxn, - +ro ro, uro crpacrno xenan nect rpyono napo Mon-
annn ne rontxo no +ry, no n no ry cropony necrpa. MACCP +ro ro,
uero onnancx rpyono napo Monannn sa onrne rot cnoe ynop-
no optt. Ho anntm Bcecomsno nepenncn nacenennx, na 17 e-
xapx 1926 r. n MACCP npoxnnano 572,3 rtc. uenonex, n rom uncne
monanane cocrannxnn 172,4 rtc. (30,13 %), yxpannnt 277,5 rtc.
(48,49 %), pyccxne 48,9 rtc. (8,54 %).
19 anpenx 1925 r. n Fanre orxptncx I Bcemonancxn ces Coneron
paounx, xpecrtxncxnx n xpacnoapmecxnx enyraron. B uncne 272
eneraron tno 68 paounx, 132 xpecrtxnnna, 54 cnyxamnx n 18 xpac-
19
650-
noapmenen. Cpen nnx naxonnoct 116 monanan, 83 yxpannna, 37 pyc-
cxnx, 36 eneraron pyrnx nannonantnocre. B paore cesa npnnn-
mana yuacrne ontmax rpynna npecrannrene eccapacxnx paounx
n xpecrtxn, a raxxe npecrannrenn pyrnx conercxnx pecnynnx. Ces
paccmorpen px axryantntx nx pecnynnxn nonpocon, n r.u. nspan
nepxonnt opran nnacrn Henrpantnt ncnonnnrentnt xomnrer, xo-
ropt onaan nonnoro nnacrn mexy cesamn Coneron. Ha nepno
ceccnn Monancxoro HHK tn nspan ero npesnnym n opasonano npa-
nnrentcrno pecnynnxn Coner napontx xomnccapon. Ha nepnom ces-
e Coneron tna npnnxra Koncrnrynnx Monancxo ACCP, xoropax sa-
xonoarentno saxpennna conercxym nannonantnym rocyapcrnennocrt
monancxoro napoa. B cnxsn c nocrpoennem ocnon connannsma n crpa-
ne n 1938 r. tna npnnxra nonax Koncrnrynnx pecnynnxn. B nny roro,
uro n ro npemx ontmax uacrt monanan naxonnact n Feccapann, n
cocrane xoponencxo Pymtnnn, nannonantnax rocyapcrnennocrt mon-
ancxoro napoa tna nospoxena ne na reppnropnn tnmero Mon-
ancxoro xnxxecrna, a n nenoepexnom Hpnnecrponte, re npoxnna-
na mentmax uacrt monancxo nannn, n xoropoe panee ne nxonno n
cocran xnxxecrna. Mexy rem, axrnnnoe yuacrne n nororonxe, cosa-
nnn n exrentnocrn Monancxo ACCP n ee nncrnryron npnnnmann
raxxe npecrannrenn Feccapann, xoropte nnenn n ne nnsxym nm,
cnom rocyapcrnennym nnacrt.
Conercxax rocyapcrnennocrt monancxoro napoa xnnnact cnntntm
]axropom nx pasnnrnx ero rnopuecxnx cnn, noema naponoro xosx-
crna n xyntrypt, crponrentcrna nono xnsnn. Ha nce reppnropnn
MACCP tnn cosant oprant Conercxo nnacrn, npnnnexanmne x cnoe
exrentnocrn mnpoxne cnon nacenennx nx ynpannennx ncemn cropona-
mn xnsnn omecrna, npeoonennx ero xosxcrnenno n xyntrypno or-
cranocrn. B MACCP c nomomtm pyrnx pecnynnx n xoporxn cpox
tna ocymecrnnena moepnnsannx omecrna, nepecrpoent +xonomnxa
n pyrne cropont xnsnn na connanncrnuecxn na. Hpomtmnennocrt n
centcxoe xosxcrno n ocnonnom tnn nepeneent na pentct xpynnoro
mamnnnoro nponsnocrna, sect yrnepnnnct nporpeccnnnte ]opmt
xosxcrnonannx. Honte nponsnocrnennte ornomennx n couerannn c
nontmn nponsnonrentntmn cnnamn oecneunnn nporpecc xnsneex-
rentnocrn n narococroxnnx omecrna.
Ipaxane MACCP, naroapx conercxo nannonantno rocyapcrnen-
nocrn monanan, sa nonropa ecxrnnernx nocne ee cosannx cymenn
oonert nerpamornocrt. B neontmo pecnynnxe noxnnnnct mxont n
pyrne opasonarentnte yupexennx c pontm xstxom oyuennx, ntc-
mne n cpenne cnennantnte yuente saneennx, yupexennx xyntry-
pt n r.n. 3a xoporxn cpox n ycnonnxx Conercxoro rocyapcrna nsme-
20
2009, N 2 (16)
nnncx x nyumemy yponent xnsnn nme, ncuesna espaornna, noxnnn-
cx onrnmnsm n omecrne. Bo ncem +rom eccnopnax sacnyra conercxo
rocyapcrnennocrn, poxenno nontm connanncrnuecxnm crpoem.
3rn nponecct nponcxonnn na nenoepexte necrpa, n pamxax
MACCP. Fontmnncrno xe monanan npoxnnano n Feccapann, naxo-
nnmecx n cocrane xoponencxo Pymtnnn. Conercxoe npannrentcrno,
xax n nacenenne xpax, ne npexpamano optt sa ero ocnooxenne.
K nery 1940 r. cnoxnnact naronpnxrnax reononnrnuecxax ocranonxa,
nosnonnnmax mnpntm nyrem paspemnrt eccapacxn nonpoc. B pe-
syntrare omena noramn mexy Conercxnm npannrentcrnom n npann-
rentcrnom Pymtnnn 28 nmnx 1940 r. nponsomno noccoennenne mon-
ancxoro napoa n pamxax Conercxoro Comsa, Feccapanx tna nos-
npamena Conercxomy rocyapcrny npanonpeemnnxy openonmnnon-
no Poccnn. Hacenenne n macce cnoe nonoxnrentno ncrpernno ]axr
noccoennennx monancxoro napoa n orxptnanmymcx nepcnexrnny
nono xnsnn. O +rom cnnerentcrnymr cocroxnmncx 29 nmnx 1940 r.
n Knmnnene 100rtcxunt mnrnnr ropoxan n xnrene oxpecrntx cen,
a raxxe macconte mnrnnrn n emoncrpannn n pyrnx ropoax n cenax,
re rocnocrnonano npnnonxroe nacrpoenne n nmn oopxnn nponc-
memee. O +rom xpacnopeunno ronopnr raxxe n ror ]axr, uro n reue-
nne nocneymmero mecxna rontxo ns Pymtnnn nosnparnnoct n Fecca-
panm oxono 150 rtc. uenonex. Kcrarn, pymtncxne nnacrn, xax npann-
no, unnnnn npenxrcrnnx nosnpamanmnmcx rpaxanam. K npnmepy, 30
nmnx n Ianane na nosnpamennamn omo onn yunnnnn snepcxoe nacn-
nne, n pesyntrare xoroporo nornno oxono 600 uenonex n eme ontme
tno paneno.
Cpasy xe nocne 28 nmnx 1940 r. n eccapacxnx paonax crann cosa-
nartcx cnepxy onnsy nonte oprant nnacrn Conert, pyrne crpyxry-
pt. C nepntx xe ne n nacenenntx nynxrax, a raxxe n nonocrxx n
yesax o nponeennx ntopon n mecrnte oprant nnacrn nauann ]op-
mnponartcx npemennte ncnonnnrentnte xomnrert Coneron. Onn co-
croxnn ns npecearenx, ero samecrnrenx, cexperapx n 3-10 unenon
ncnonxoma. Centcxne, nocenxonte n ropocxne ncnonnnrentnte xomn-
rert nsnpannct nenocpecrnenno na omnx copannxx rpaxan nace-
nenntx nynxron, cocrant xe yesntx, nonocrntx n yesntx nenrpon
nasnauannct ntmecroxmnmn nnacrntmn nncrannnxmn. Oneparnnnax
paora n +rom ene ana nosmoxnocrt yxe x 10 nmnx n npanoepex-
ntx paonax, nomemnx n Monancxym Pecnynnxy, oprannsonart oxo-
no 1,1 rtc. centcxnx, 25 ropocxnx n nocenxontx, 54 nonocrntx n 6
yesntx ncnonxomon Coneron. B nx cocrane nacunrtnanoct onee 8
rtc. paounx, xpecrtxn, nme ymcrnennoro rpya, ecxrym uacrt ns
omero uncna cocrannxnn xenmnnt.
21
650-
Kpome nnacrntx crpyxryp ]opmnponannct raxxe xosxcrnennte, cy-
ente, connantnte, xyntrypnte n pyrne oprannsannn. Ecrecrnenno,
uro na nepntx nopax tno rpyno enart nenpnntunym paory, ne xna-
rano xapon, ontra. Ha nomomt npnmnn cnennanncrt, uacrt pyxonox-
mnx paornnxon ns MACCP n pyrnx parcxnx pecnynnx, re +rn xa-
pt ntpocnn eme n 20-e-30-e rot. Bmecre c rem, nx oyuennx ntnn-
xennen cosanannct pasnnunte xypct, na xoroptx onn npnoperann
rax neoxonmte nm na nepntx nopax snannx. Vuacrne mnornx rtcxu
pxontx, nopo manorpamorntx, a ro n nonce nerpamorntx rpaxan n
cosannn conercxo rocyapcrnenno cncremt nomorno nm onapyxnrt
n peannsonart cno oprannsaropcxn n nnrennexryantnt norennnan,
nonxno nx x axrnnno nonnrnuecxo n omecrnenno xnsnn. H n +rom
nennxax sacnyra rex nepemen, xoropte nponsomnn n xpae nerom 1940 r.
uynxnnn ntcmnx saxonoarentnoro n ncnonnnrentno-pacnopxnrent-
noro opranon n eccapacxnx paonax o nx ntopon ncnonnxnn Bep-
xonnt Coner n npannrentcrno Monancxo ACCP.
Hocne noccoennennx monancxoro napoa na mnrnnrax n copannxx
rpaxane cpasy xe crann nonnmart nonpoc o ]opmnponannn comsno
Monancxo Pecnynnxn. Bepxonnte oprant MACCP noepxann +ry
nnnnnarnny n 10 nmnx 1940 r. oparnnnct c xoaracrnom no +romy non-
pocy n omecomsnte nncrannnn, xoropte raxxe noepxann xenanne
napoa. Ha ceccnnm Bepxonnoro Conera CCCP, xoropax onaana xom-
nerennne pemart annt nonpoc, tna nanpannena o]nnnantnax e-
nerannx, n cocran xoropo nomnn enyrart Bepxonnoro Conera CCCP
or MACCP, a raxxe npecrannrenn nanonee anropnrerntx n axrnn-
ntx rpaxan ns eccapacxnx n nenoepexntx paonon necrpa yy-
me pecnynnxn.
Hepe enyraramn Bepxonnoro Conera CCCP ntcrynnn rnana npann-
rentcrna MACCP T.A. Koncranrnnon. O nacrpoennxx nacenennx yy-
me pecnynnxn na ponom xstxe paccxasana n Kpemne unen enera-
nnn, yunrentnnna ns Opreena 3.A. Kp+uynecxy. B cnoem opamennn x
enyraram rnana npannrentcrna MACCP ntcxasan npocty opasonart
MCCP ns paonon c npeonaammnm monancxnm nacenennem, nxo-
xmnx ceuac n Monancxym ACCP, n mecrn yeson Feccapann: Fent-
nxoro, Fenepcxoro, Karyntcxoro, Knmnnencxoro, Opreencxoro n Copox-
cxoro... Taxne yest Feccapann, xax Xornncxn, Axxepmancxn n Hs-
manntcxn, c npeonaammnm no uncnennocrn yxpanncxnm nacenenn-
em, nyxno nxnmunrt n cocran Vxpanncxo CCP. Homnmo +roro npn on-
peenennn rpannn comsno Monancxo Pecnynnxn neoxonmo yuecrt,
uro n nexoroptx paonax Monancxo ACCP npeonaaer yxpanncxoe
nacenenne. Taxne paont onxnt trt nxnmuent n cocran Vxpannc-
xo CCP. Btcrynnnmn sarem na ceccnn rnana npannrentcrna Vxpan-
nt nonnocrtm noepxan +rn npenoxennx.
22
2009, N 2 (16)
2 anrycra 1940 r. Bepxonnt Coner CCCP ennornacno npnnxn 3axon
o opasonannn comsno Monancxo CCP n npnnxrnn ee n cocran CCCP.
B nee nomnn mecrt ntmeyxasanntx yeson, a raxxe paont: Fpnuanc-
xn, Ennenxn, Hnnxancxn n Oxnnnxn ns tnmero Xornncxoro yesa,
Bononrnponcxn, Bynxanemrcxn n ontmax uacrt Ononemrcxoro ns
Axxepmancxoro n Hsmanntcxoro yeson Feccapann n mecrt paonon
ns MACCP Ipnropnonontcxn, yoccapcxn, Kamencxn, Ptnnn-
xn, Cnoosecxn n Tnpacnontcxn. Ocrantnte paont anronomno
pecnynnxn, a raxxe Axxepmancxn, snaunrentnax uacrt Hsmanntcxo-
ro n Xornncxoro yeson, re npeonaano ne monancxoe, a npenmyme-
crnenno yxpanncxoe nacenenne, oromnn x Vxpanncxo CCP. Cronnne
MCCP tn onpeenen r. Knmnnen. Teppnropnx comsno pecnynnxn
cocrannna 34 rtc. xnaparntx xnnomerpon, nacenenne 2,7 mnn ueno-
nex, ns xoroptx npnmepno ne rpern monanane. Boccoennenne mon-
ancxoro napoa n opasonanne comsno Monancxo pecnynnxn osna-
uann sanepmenne nponecca nannonantno-rocyapcrnennoro camoonpe-
enennx monanan.
Hocne opasonannx MCCP npecroxno cosart ncm cncremy saxono-
arentno n ncnonnnrentno-pacnopxnrentno nnacrn, a raxxe npnnxrt
ocnonno saxon pecnynnxn ee Koncrnrynnm. Hpnuem nce +ro c camo-
ro nauana ocymecrnnxnoct na mnpoxo emoxparnuecxo ocnone.
10 noxpx n Knmnnene cocroxnact ceccnx Bepxonnoro Conera MACCP,
na xoropo npncyrcrnonann enerannn or ncex npanoepexntx yeson
n paonon, nomemnx n MCCP. Ona npnnxna 3axon o npecroxmnx nt-
opax n nspana xomnccnm no ntpaorxe npoexra Koncrnrynnn pec-
nynnxn. Hpano ntnpart tno npeocranneno ncem rpaxanam, oc-
rnrmnm 18 ner, nesanncnmo or nx nannonantnocrn, connantnoro nponc-
xoxennx, ocenocrn, nmymecrnennoro nonoxennx n npomno exrent-
nocrn. Btopt tnn nceomnmn, npxmtmn, panntmn, npn ranom ro-
noconannn. Btopt n Bepxonnte Conert MCCP n CCCP cocroxnnct
12 xnnapx 1941 r. n npomnn n ocranonxe ontmoro nonnrnuecxoro noe-
ma nsnparene. Hx xnxa na nsnparentnte yuacrxn tna ouent ntco-
xo n cocrannna 99,6 %.
B Bepxonnt Coner MCCP tno nspano 266 enyraron, ns nnx 81
paoun, 94 xpecrtxnnna n 91 cnyxamn. 56 % enyraron cocrannxnn
monanane. Kpome roro, n Bepxonnt Coner CCCP or npanoepexntx
paonon tno nspano 34 enyrara. Ha nepno ceccnn Bepxonnoro Co-
nera MCCP, nauanme paory 8 ]enpanx 1941 r., tnn nspant Hpesn-
nym Bepxonnoro Conera, npannrentcrno Coner napontx xomncca-
pon n Bepxonnt cy pecnynnxn. Ceccnx npnnxna raxxe Koncrnrynnm
Monancxo CCP, xoropax, saxonoarentno saxpennn nponcmemne ne-
pement n xnsnn xpax, nponosrnacnna pecnynnxy connanncrnuecxnm ro-
23
650-
cyapcrnom paounx n xpecrtxn, nonnrnuecxo ocnono xoroporo xnnx-
nnct oneuennte nce nonnoro nnacrn Conert enyraron rpyxmnx-
cx, a +xonomnuecxo ocnono connanncrnuecxax cncrema xosxcrna n
connanncrnuecxax cocrnennocrt na opynx n cpecrna nponsnocrna.
Baxneme ornnunrentno uepro cnryannn, n xoropo nosnnxna n
naxonnact pecnynnxa, tn ror ]axr, uro x +romy npemenn CCCP, n
cocran xoroporo nxonna MACCP, yxe ocrnr nsnecrntx pesyntraron n
crponrentcrne connannsma, xoropte tnn saxpennent n Koncrnrynnn
CCCP 1936 r. n Koncrnrynnn MACCP 1938 r. B npanoepexte MCCP
xe mnoroe ns roro, uro yxe panee tno ocrnrnyro, eme rontxo npe-
croxno ocymecrnnrt. Tem ne menee +rn ycnexn, n rom uncne npana rpax-
an, tnn sa]nxcnponant n n nono Koncrnrynnn MCCP. Ipaxanam,
nesanncnmo or nannonantno nnn pacono npnnanexnocrn, oecneun-
nannct pannte npana na rpy, ortx, opasonanne, marepnantnoe oec-
neuenne n crapocrn, n cnyuae onesnn, nnnannnocrn. Xenmnnam npe-
ocrannxnnct pannte npana c myxunnamn. Bmecre c rem na rpaxan
nosnarannct raxxe ntcoxne oxsannocrn: ncnonnenne conercxnx saxo-
non, opoconecrnoe ornomenne x omecrnennomy onry, yxpennenne
omecrnenno cocrnennocrn, samnra connanncrnuecxoro oreuecrna.
Koncrnrynnx MCCP ]nxcnponana raxxe nexoropte ocoennocrn pas-
nnrnx pecnynnxn. Hapxy c connanncrnuecxo cncremo xosxcrna, -
rnacnna ee crartx 9, - n Monancxo CCP onycxamrcx uacrnte xosx-
crna ennonnuntx xpecrtxn, pemecnennnxon n xycrape, menxne uacr-
nte npomtmnennte n ropronte npenpnxrnx n npeenax, ycranonnen-
ntx 3axonom.
Ceccnx Bepxonnoro Conera sanepmnna o]opmnenne comsno Monan-
cxo Pecnynnxn c conercxo cncremo nnacrn, xoropax n nenom ntpa-
xana n naexno samnmana nnrepect aconmrnoro ontmnncrna nace-
nennx. Ona cosana naronpnxrnte ycnonnx nx npeopasonannx +xo-
nomnxn, xyntrypt, ncero yxnaa xnsnn na connanncrnuecxnx nauanax.
B rot Bennxo Oreuecrnenno nont, xnnnmecx ne rontxo nennxnm
ecrnnem, no n cypontm +xsamenom nx crpant, Monancxax CCP (c
anrycra 1941 no mapr 1944 r.) npemenno tna oxxynnponana ]amncrc-
xnmn saxnarunxamn, connanncrnuecxoe rocyapcrno na ee reppnropnn
npemenno nepecrano cymecrnonart. Onaxo ero nepxonnte oprant n
nexoropte naxnemne nncrnryrt coxpannnnct n rnyoxom rtny crpa-
nt, ncemepno cnococrnyx noeonocno opte conercxoro napoa
npornn oxxynanron. Hocne nauana ocnooxennx Monancxo CCP n
mapre 1944 r. nncrnryrt monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn tnn pe+na-
xynponant n pasmement n r. Copoxn o nonnoro nsrnannx oxxynanron n
anrycre roro xe roa.
C nauanom ocnooxennx pecnynnxn nce ycnnnx Monancxoro rocy-
apcrna n ero rpaxan tnn nanpannent na tcrpemee noccranonne-
24
2009, N 2 (16)
nne nonnrnuecxo cncremt, naponoro xosxcrna n xyntrypt, ocyme-
crnnenne connanncrnuecxnx npeopasonann n npanoepexntx pao-
nax. Vcnemno pemnrt +rn saaun n xoporxn cpox tno nepeantno es
ncecroponne n noncenenno nomomn parcxnx pecnynnx n Conerc-
xoro npannrentcrna. H +ra nomomt tna oxasana nonpemx. Vxe oce-
ntm 1944 r. ecrnonann nce ropocxne, 60 paonntx n 1204 centcxnx, a
n npanoepexntx paonax eme n 6 yesntx ncnonxomon Coneron, opra-
nt cya n npoxyparypt. B rex cnoxntx ycnonnxx +ro enanoct ne otu-
ntm emoxparnuecxnm nyrem nx ntopon, a npxmtm nasnauennem une-
non ncnonxomon Coneron. Onaxo n +ro tno ne rax-ro npocro, no ne
xnarano cxontxo-nnyt ontrntx xapon, ocoenno paonnoro snena,
xoropte xomnerenrno cmornn t cpasy nsxrtcx sa eno. Ho+romy ne-
ynnnrentno, uro ontmnncrno pyxononrene yesntx n paonntx nc-
nonxomon Coneron cocrannnn xapt, npncnannte ns pyrnx pecnynnx.
nx oecneuennx ontme pesyntrarnnnocrn n exrentnocrn mecr-
ntx opranon nnacrn n npnnneuennx x nx paore onee mnpoxoro xpyra
rpaxan npn mecrntx Conerax cosanannct xomnccnn no pasnnuntm
nonpocam, xya nxonnn npecrannrenn paounx, xpecrtxn n pyrnx
cnoen nacenennx. K xonny 1945 r. raxne xomnccnn rontxo npn centcxnx
Conerax oennxnn oxono 32 rtc. axrnnncron. Ho +rno Coneron
nx axrnnnsannn nacenennx n noccranonnennn +xonomnxn n xyntrypt, n
pemennn mnornx connantntx nonpocon n nepnte nocnenoennte rot
uacro npononnnct copannx pasnnuntx xareropn rpaxan, re o-
cyxannct naxnte n nanonee onrnmantnte nyrn pemennx croxnmnx
nepe omecrnom nponem. Tax, n 1945-1946 rr. tnn nponeent pa-
onnte n yesnte copannx xpecrtxn, yunrene, nnrennnrennnn, a rax-
xe pecnynnxancxne cest yunrene, nnrennnrennnn, xenmnn, mono-
exn n p. Tontxo n 1948 r. n pecnynnxe cocroxnoct onee 45,7 rtc.
raxnx copann, re npncyrcrnonano oxono 9 mnn. rpaxan.
Fontmym pont n yxpennennn ncex snenten nnacrn n pecnynnxe ctr-
pann ntopt n Bepxonnt Coner CCCP (1946 r.) n Bepxonnt Coner
Monancxo CCP (1947 r.). Bnepnte nocne nont n xonne 1947 r. cocro-
xnnct ntopt n mecrnte oprant nnacrn, xya napo nanpannn n xaue-
crne enyraron 21 rtc. nyumnx cnonx npecrannrene ns pasntx cnoen
omecrna. 3rn ntopt n mecrnte Conert yxpennnn onepne nacene-
nnx x opranam nnacrn, xoropte renept yxe tnn nspant, a ne nasna-
uent, xax npexe. B 1950 r. na ouepentx ntopax enyrarcxn xop-
nyc mecrntx Coneron ononnncx n nospoc o 23 rtc. uenonex. Btopt
n Conert emoncrpnponann ne rontxo onepne napoa x nspanntm
enyraram, onn xnnxnnct nx nnx xopome n neoxonmo mxono yn-
pannennx omecrnom.
Vxpennenne opranon nnacrn nontm xapontm cocranom ynennunn nos-
moxnocrt nnacrntx crpyxryp ncex yponne nonoxnrentno nnnxrt na
25
650-
noccranonnrentnte n npeopasonarentnte nponecct n omecrne. Vxe
x xonny 1948 r. n pecnynnxe tn noccranonnen, a no nexoroptm noxa-
sarenxm axe npensoen onoennt yponent npomtmnennoro pasnn-
rnx, x ncxoy 1950 r. nospoxeno centcxoxosxcrnennoe nponsnocrno,
ocymecrnnen nceoyu, npeoonena nerpamornocrt nspocnoro nacene-
nnx, n ocnonntx ueprax sanepment connanncrnuecxne npeopasonannx
n connantno-+xonomnuecxo n yxonno c]epax xnsnn omecrna. Bce
+rn nepement n xnsnn, xax n npexe, namnn orpaxenne n Koncrnrynnn
MCCP. K npnmepy, 23 ]enpanx 1944 r. Hpesnnym Bepxonnoro Conera
MCCP na ase omecomsntx saxonon npnnxn yxast O opasonannn
Haponoro xomnccapnara oopont Monancxo CCP n O opasona-
nnn Haponoro xomnccapnara nnocrpanntx en Monancxo CCP. B
cnxsn c +rnm n Ocnonnom 3axone MCCP noxnnnnct crartn, n xoroptx
tno sanncano, uro Monancxax CCP nmeer cnon pecnynnxancxne
nocxonte ]opmnponannx, uro e npeocrannxercx npano ncrynart n
nenocpecrnennte cnomennx c nnocrpanntmn rocyapcrnamn, saxnm-
uart c nnmn cornamennx n omennnartcx nnnomarnuecxnmn n xoncynt-
cxnmn npecrannrenxmn, nasnauart n orstnart nnnomarnuecxnx npe-
crannrene MCCP n nnocrpanntx rocyapcrnax, a raxxe npnnnmart
nepnrentnte n orstnnte rpamort axxpenronanntx n MCCP nnno-
marnuecxnx npecrannrene nnocrpanntx rocyapcrn. Hocne nont n
nny pacmnpennx exrentnocrn ntcmnx opranon nnacrn, a raxxe nx
npnnnxennx nx nasnannx x omenpnnxro mexynapono npaxrnxe
Hpesnnym Bepxonnoro Conera MCCP, n coornercrnnn c omecoms-
ntm saxonoarentcrnom, cnonm Vxasom or 26 mapra 1946 r. Coner na-
pontx xomnccapon npeopasonan n Coner mnnncrpon Monancxo CCP.
Pesyntrart xopenntx npeopasonann n connantno-+xonomnuecxo n
yxonno c]epax xnsnn omecrna na connanncrnuecxnx nauanax, sa-
nepmnnmnxcx n ocnonnom n nauane 50-x roon, oycnonnnn yxe n 1952 r.
nnecenne coornercrnymmnx nsmenenn n px crare Koncrnrynnn pec-
nynnxn. Tax, n crarte 4, re nsnaranact +xonomnuecxax ocnona ome-
crna, yrounxnoct, uro connanncrnuecxax cncrema xosxcrna n conna-
nncrnuecxax cocrnennocrt na opynx n cpecrna nponsnocrna yr-
nepnnnct n pesyntrare nnxnnannn xannranncrnuecxo cncremt xo-
sxcrna, orment uacrno cocrnennocrn na opynx n cpecrna npons-
nocrna n ynnuroxennx +xcnnyarannn uenonexa uenonexom. Honpan-
xn, nnecennte n rexcr Koncrnrynnn MCCP n 1952 r., tnn cnxsant
raxxe c nsmenennxmn n rocyapcrnennom ]nare pecnynnxn. Bmecro
onoronnoro xpacnoro nonornnma c nsopaxennem na nem conercxo
cnmnonnxn tn npnnxr nont ]nar xpacnoro nnera c seneno ropnson-
rantno nonoco nocepenne n c ro cnmnonnxo, uro nanontme coor-
nercrnonana monancxnm rpannnxm.
26
2009, N 2 (16)
B reuenne nocnenoennoro ecxrnnernx n MCCP, xax n no nce crpane,
men nocroxnnt nponecc noncxa nanonee onrnmantntx n +]]exrnn-
ntx crpyxryp ynpannennx napontm xosxcrnom nosnnxann, npeopa-
sontnannct, oennxnnct n ynpasnxnnct pasnnunte mnnncrepcrna n
neomcrna. H +ro naxonno nenocpecrnennoe orpaxenne n xoppexrn-
ponxe cxemt rocyapcrnennoro annapara n nensexno ]nxcnponanoct
n Ocnonnom 3axone pecnynnxn. Hanonee xpynntm npnmepom nsme-
nennx crpyxrypt ynpannennx npomtmnennocrtm n crponrentcrnom n
50-e rot tno opasonanne Monancxoro amnnncrparnnno-+xonomn-
uecxoro paona, nx ynpannennx xoroptm tn cosan Coner naponoro
xosxcrna (Connapxos). B xoe nepecrpoxn ynpannennx npomtmnenno-
crtm n crponrentcrnom tn ynpasnen nent px mnnncrepcrn, rpec-
ron n ynpannenn, npenpnxrnx xoroptx, xax n nexoroptx nenpomtm-
nenntx mnnncrepcrn, tnn nepeant n neenne Connapxosa. 3rn nepe-
ment raxxe tnn saxpennent n Koncrnrynnn MCCP.
Cymecrnennte xoppexrnnt n rexcr Ocnonnoro 3axona MCCP, xax n
pyrnx comsntx pecnynnx, no emoxparnsannn omecrna, pacmnpe-
nnm npan pecnynnxn n ynpannennn napontm xosxcrnom, ero nnann-
ponannm n ]nnancnponannm, n onacrn saxonoarentcrna n no pyrnm
nonpocam crann nnocnrtcx c cepennt 50-x roon. Tax, uncno npomtm-
nenntx npenpnxrn Monannn, naxonnmnxcx n omecrnennom no-
unnennn, sa 50-e rot coxparnnoct npnmepno c ono uerneprn o me-
nee onoro nponenra. C 1957 r. Bepxonnt Coner MCCP cran nsanart
3axon o Iocyapcrnennom nnane pasnnrnx naponoro xosxcrna MCCP
na npecroxmn ro. Kpome roro, on nenocpecrnenno cran yuacrno-
nart n ]opmnponannn ntcmnx opranon CCCP, enernpyx n cocran npa-
nnrentcrna CCCP npecearenx Conera mnnncrpon MCCP. Ananornu-
ntm opasom n cocran Bepxonnoro cya CCCP cran nxonrt npecea-
rent Bepxonnoro cya MCCP. C 1958 r. x xomnerennnn Bepxonnoro Co-
nera MCCP tno orneceno saxonoarentcrno o cyoycrpocrne n cy-
onponsnocrne, npnnxrne rpaxancxoro, yrononnoro, nponeccyantnoro
n pyrnx xoexcon. Bce +rn xoncrnrynnonnte nsmenennx cnnerent-
crnonann o pacmnpennn mpnnuecxo npanomounocrn monancxo ro-
cyapcrnennocrn. Ona aexnarno pearnponana na peannn xnsnn, xnnx-
xct sepxanom pasnnrnx omecrna.
B reuenne nocneymmnx ner, nocne roro xax n eccapacxnx paonax
yxe tnn ocymecrnnent connanncrnuecxne npeopasonannx, nonnrn-
uecxne, connantno-+xonomnuecxne, xyntrypnte, emoxparnuecxne n
pyrne nncrnryrt pecnynnxn nonyunnn naronpnxrnte ycnonnx nx
cnoero antnemero narornopnoro n tcrporo pasnnrnx, ynyumennx
xnsnn napoa. 3a +ro npemx snaunrentno nospoc +xonomnuecxn n y-
xonnt norennnan omecrna. Ononnnact marepnantno-rexnnuecxax
27
650-
asa npomtmnennocrn, pacmnpnnact ee orpacnenax crpyxrypa. Hano-
nee tcrptmn remnamn pasnnnannct orpacnn, onpeenxnmne yponent
nayuno-rexnnuecxoro nporpecca. Hponsnocrno rnanntm opasom ne-
cnoxntx nsenn n pemonrntx paor ycrynnno mecro ntnycxy conpe-
menntx mamnn n npnopon. Cymecrnenno ynennunnoct nponsnocrno
+nexrpo+neprnn. Ho ee xonnuecrny na ymy nacenennx pecnynnxa npe-
nocxonna cpenemnpono yponent n 2,2 pasa. Banono oem npomtm-
nenno npoyxnnn n 1987 r. no ornomennm x 1941 r. nospoc n 73 pasa.
3ro tn xonoccantnt pocr. K xonny 80-x roon oxono 320 nnon npo-
mtmnenntx nsenn MCCP nocrannxna n 67 crpan mnpa, n r.u. n Anr-
nnm, Hcnannm, Kanay, upannnm, uPI, uexocnonaxnm n p.
Fontmne cnnrn nponsomnn n pasnnrnn centcxoro xosxcrna, xoropoe
n 60-e-80-e rot npomemero nexa npenparnnoct n ntcoxonnrencnnnoe
n mnoroorpacnenoe. Ha ero onm npnxonnoct onee rpern nannonant-
noro oxoa pecnynnxn. Oem ero nanono npoyxnnn x xonny 80-x
roon no ornomennm x 1941 r. nospoc onee uem n 4 pasa, a xnnornono-
crna nourn n 7 pas. Arpapnax orpacnt nonnocrtm yonnernopxna no-
rpenocrn nme n npoonontcrnnn, oecneunnana xopmonym asy xn-
nornonocrna, coornercrnymmne orpacnn npomtmnennocrn pecnynn-
xn - ctptem, a raxxe uacrt cnoe npoyxnnn nocrannxna n omecoms-
nt ]on.
Vnennuenne nponsnocrna marepnantntx n yxonntx nar oecneun-
no antnemn pocr nx norpenennx rpaxanamn. 3a 1960-1990 rr. n
5,3 pasa nospoc nannonantnt oxo MCCP. Btpocnn sapaornax nna-
ra paounx n cnyxamnx, a raxxe oxot xonxosnnxon. Hocroxnno no-
ntmanact pont omecrnenntx ]onon norpenennx n peantntx oxo-
ax nacenennx. Hs +rnx ]onon nacenennm pecnynnxn nonnocrtm on-
naunnannct opasonanne, nontmenne xnann]nxannn, mennnncxax no-
momt, nencnn n noconx, crnnennn yuamnmcx, onnara ornycxon, ec-
nnarnte n no ntrorntm nenam nyrenxn n canaropnn n oma ortxa,
coepxanne ere n omxontntx yupexennxx n p. B 1985 r. ntnnara
nacenennm rontxo no ntroram cocrannna 1,9 mnp. pyne npornn 230,7
mnn. pyne n 1960 r.
Btcoxax sanxrocrt nacenennx pecnynnxn n nponsnocrne, orcyrcrnne
espaornnt, cranntnax n naexnax cncrema connantno samnrt
rpaxan oecneunnann nm nnonne ocront yponent marepnantnoro
narococroxnnx. Bospocnn xauecrno norpenxemtx marepnantntx nar,
oem xnnnmnoro crponrentcrna, trontx n xommynantntx ycnyr.
Oxpana sopontx, connantnoe oecneuenne crann ono ns naxnemnx
saor rocyapcrna o uenonexe. Bcnecrnne ncero +roro cpenxx npo-
onxnrentnocrt xnsnn nacenennx n Monannn n 70-e-80-e rr. ocrnrna
70 ner.
28
2009, N 2 (16)
3naunrentnt mar n pasnnrnn xyntrypt cenann naponoe opasona-
nne, nayxa, nnreparypa, ncxyccrno. Ho mnornm noxasarenxm xyntrypno-
ro yponnx, n uacrnocrn, no uncny npaue, cryenron na 10 rtc. nacene-
nnx, a raxxe no cronponenrno rpamornocrn nme, Monannx o ne-
pecrpoxn croxna ntme mnornx pasnnrtx enponecxnx crpan.
Hponsomnn orpomnte cnnrn n connantno-xnaccono crpyxrype co-
nercxoro omecrna. Konnuecrnenno n xauecrnenno ntpoc paoun xnacc,
ero yentnt nec n omecrne. Cymecrnenno nsmennnnct n nyumym
cropony rpy n xnsnt xonxosnoro xpecrtxncrna. Bospocna pont n o-
mecrne conercxo nnrennnrennnn. Honcemecrno yrnepnncx connannc-
rnuecxn opas xnsnn.
Btmensnoxennoe yenrentno cnnerentcrnyer o noncrnne +noxant-
nom ncropnuecxom nporpecce Monancxo pecnynnxn n nnamnxe cno-
ero conercxoro pasnnrnx, o ocrnxennn em nennannoro panee yponnx
xnsnn nacenennx n ycnonnxx connanncrnuecxoro crpox. Hmenno Coner-
cxoe rocyapcrno, n rom uncne n monancxax nannonantnax rocyap-
crnennocrt, ero nonnrnxa n ynopnt rpy napoa oecneunnn ncropn-
uecxn nporpecc Conercxo Monannn, ntcoxoe narococroxnne ee rpax-
an. ocrnxennx marepnantnoro nponsnocrna n xyntrypt pecnynnxn
nonyunnn sacnyxennoe npnsnanne no ncex yronxax tnme ontmo ep-
xant n sa ee npeenamn. Monancxoe rocyapcrno n cocrane CCCP
npomno sa ncm cnom ncropnm camt xpxn n nnoornopnt nyrt cnoe-
ro pasnnrnx.
Hcropnuecxn nporpecc, nce re +noxantnte nsmenennx, xoropte npo-
nsomnn no ncex c]epax xnsnn pecnynnxn, namnn nnrerpantnoe orpa-
xenne n saxpennenne n ee rnannom saxone Koncrnrynnn MCCP 1978 r.,
onnpanmecx na Koncrnrynnm CCCP 1977 r.
B coornercrnnn c conercxo rpannne npoexr nono Koncrnrynnn tn
paspaoran cnennantno xomnccne n ntnecen na ncenaponoe ocyx-
enne, n rontxo sarem, nocne yuera sameuann, ee rexcr tn npnnxr
Bepxonntm Conerom MCCP.
B nono Koncrnrynnn tnn pacmnpent npeent xoncrnrynnonnoro
perynnponannx omecrnenno xnsnn crpant, o uem cnnerentcrnymr
cnennantnte rnant n ne o nonnrnuecxo cncreme omecrna, ero conn-
antnom n xyntrypnom pasnnrnn, nnemne nonnrnxe n p. Ftn pacmnpen
n yrnynen raxxe xpyr ocnonntx npan n cnoo conercxnx rpaxan,
onpeenent npounte rapanrnn nx peannsannn. Tax, npano na rpy tno
ononneno npanom na ntop npo]eccnn, poa sanxrn n paort n coor-
nercrnnn c npnsnannem, cnoconocrxmn, npo]eccnonantno nororon-
xo, opasonannem n c yuerom omecrnenntx norpenocre. Koncrn-
rynnx oxpanxna nnunym cocrnennocrt rpaxan, nouepxnnax npn +rom
ee norpenrentcxn xapaxrep n npornnosaxonnocrt nsnneuennx ns nee
nerpyontx oxoon. Koncrnrynnonno tno saxpenneno raxxe ro, uro
29
650-
cemtx naxonrcx no samnro rocyapcrna, xoropoe npoxnnxer saory
o ne nyrem cosannx n pasnnrnx mnpoxo cern ercxnx yupexenn,
oprannsannn n conepmencrnonannx cnyxt tra n omecrnennoro nn-
rannx, ntnnart nocon no cnyuam poxennx peenxa, npeocranne-
nnx nocon n ntror mnoroerntm cemtxm, a raxxe pyrnx nnon no-
con n nomomn cemte n r. .
Bnepnte xoncrnrynnonno tnn saxpennent raxxe naxnte connant-
no-+xonomnuecxne npana uenonexa: npano na oxpany sopontx, npano na
xnnnme, npano na nontsonanne ocrnxennxmn xyntrypt, npano na cno-
oy nayunoro, rexnnuecxoro n xyoxecrnennoro rnopuecrna. Ftnn
o]opmnent npana conercxnx rpaxan yuacrnonart ne rontxo uepes
Conert, no n uepes omecrnennte oprannsannn n ynpannennn rocyap-
crnenntmn n omecrnenntmn enamn, n ocyxennn n npnnxrnn saxo-
non n pemenn omerocyapcrnennoro n mecrnoro snauennx, npano nno-
cnrt n rocyapcrnennte n omecrnennte crpyxrypt npenoxennx no
ynyumennm nx exrentnocrn, xpnrnxonart neocrarxn n paore n r.n.
Hpn +rom xoncrnrynnonno sanpemanoct npecneonanne nme sa xpn-
rnxy. B nono Koncrnrynnn mnpe n nonnee, uem n noontx oxymen-
rax ypxyasntx rocyapcrn, namnn orpaxenne nonnrnuecxne n conn-
antno-+xonomnuecxne npana n cnoot rpaxan, a raxxe, n +ro ouent
naxno, rnepte n uerxne rapanrnn nx ocymecrnnennx.
Honax Koncrnrynnx pacmnpnna raxxe xpyr oxsannocre conercxnx
rpaxan. 3ro ntpasnnoct n rom, uro, xpome conmennx ecrnymmnx
saxonon, onr samnrt Oreuecrna n yxpennennx connanncrnuecxo co-
crnennocrn, rpaxane oxstnannct raxxe oeperart nnrepect
Conercxoro rocyapcrna, cnococrnonart yxpennennm ero morymecrna,
epeut npnpoy n oxpanxrt ee orarcrna, saornrtcx o coxpanennn nc-
ropnuecxnx n xyntrypntx nennocre, o nocnnrannn ere, coecrno-
nart pasnnrnm pyxt n corpynnuecrna c napoamn pyrnx crpan,
noepxannm n yxpennennm nceomero mnpa.
Baxnoe mecro n Koncrnrynnn sannmann nonpoct nannonantno-rocy-
apcrnennoro ycrpocrna. K yxe nmenmnmcx rapanrnxm cynepenntx
npan comsntx pecnynnx oannnnct nonte: npano na nx yuacrne n pe-
mennn nonpocon, ornecenntx x xomnerennnn omecomsntx opranon, n
r.u. n Bepxonnom Conere CCCP n ero Hpesnnyme, n npannrentcrne
CCCP n n pyrnx omecomsntx nncrannnxx, a raxxe npano saxonoa-
rentno nnnnnarnnt n Bepxonnom Conere CCCP.
B nono Koncrnrynnn coepxanoct nonoxenne o rom, uro Conercxoe
rocyapcrno, nce ero oprant ecrnymr na ocnone connanncrnuecxo
saxonnocrn, oecneunnamr oxpany npanonopxxa, nnrepecon omecrna
n cnoo rpaxan. 3axonnocrt n npanonopxox ntcrynann neoremne-
mtmn npnsnaxamn nonnrnuecxo cncremt conercxoro connanncrnuec-
30
2009, N 2 (16)
xoro rocyapcrna. Ha ocnone nono Koncrnrynnn tna nponeena ont-
max paora no conepmencrnonannm n ononnennm saxonoarentcrna
crpant c nentm npnneennx ero n coornercrnne c Ocnonntm 3axonom.
3a cpannnrentno xoporxn ncropnuecxn cpox cnoero cymecrnonannx
Conercxoe rocyapcrno, necmorpx na nce npenxrcrnnx n rpynocrn cno-
ero pasnnrnx, cyponte ycnonnx nepnonpoxocrna, yrnepnnoct n cnonx
ocnonntx napamerpax, noxasano cnon nannyumne xauecrna n oprannsa-
nnn nonoro xnsneycrpocrna omecrna es +xcnnyarannn uenonexa ue-
nonexom, n tcrpom pocre nponsnonrentntx cnn, n peannsannn conn-
antno cnpanennnocrn n oecneuennocrn nme, n ocrnxennn peant-
noro panencrna rpaxan, ntcoxoro yponnx nx opasonannocrn n xyntry-
pt. B ycnonnxx Conercxo nnacrn nponsomno pacxpenomenne uenone-
uecxo nnunocrn n tnn oecneuent nosmoxnocrn nx ee maxcnmant-
noro camoyrnepxennx n omecrne. Bce +rn ocrnxennx n npenmyme-
crna tnn saxpennent n Ocnonnom 3axone crpant Conercxo Kon-
crnrynnn.
Conercxoe rocyapcrno npomno uepes pasnnunte ncropnuecxne ncnt-
rannx: orcroxno cnom nesanncnmocrt n rot rpaxancxo nont n ]a-
mncrcxoro namecrnnx, n xoporxn cpox npeooneno rxxente nocne-
crnnx noenno paspyxn n cenano orpomnt ptnox n cnoem +xonomn-
uecxom, connantnom n xyntrypnom pasnnrnn. Onaxo n ycnonnxx rxxe-
no n nepanno xonono nont npornn CCCP, n pesyntrare coenne-
nnx ycnnn sapyexntx npaxentx emy cnn n uacrn nepeponnmecx
conercxo nonnrnuecxo +nnrt n nenrpe n na mecrax, a raxxe nennua-
me esnn]opmannn nacenennx, ono ne ntepxano n necntxanno o-
manntm nyrem npopaamn nepecrpoxn tno paspymeno. Konoccant-
noe ocroxnne ontmo epxant, cosannoe ne onnm noxonennem co-
nercxnx nme, n onouacte tno pasrpaneno npnxnarnsaropamn n
nepemno n nx uacrnym cocrnennocrt. Honax saxonoarentnax n nc-
nonnnrentnax nnacrt no yxasxe nexoroptx sanantx xoncyntranron
crana +neprnuno ocymecrnnxrt nepeno omecrna c connanncrnuecxo-
ro nyrn na uacrno-xannranncrnuecxn, ypxyasnt nyrt pasnnrnx, ne
xenax cunrartcx c rem nenpenoxntm ]axrom, uro ncropnm ncnxrt, no
xpane mepe, naonro, eme nnxora n nnxomy ne yananoct nonepnyrt,
o uem cnnerentcrnyer ee xe ontr.
Hepexo, onaxo, or onoro rnna rocyapcrna x pyromy tn ocyme-
crnnen ne cpasy, ne n onouacte. emonrax conercxo monancxo ro-
cyapcrnennocrn nauancx c nnecennx n Koncrnrynnm orentntx cra-
re n nonpanox, nsmennnmnx nonnrnuecxn crpo n pecnynnxe. Tax, 31
anrycra 1989 r. cnennantno crarte cnoxnnmeecx n Monancxo CCP
nyxstune tno sameneno rontxo monancxnm onoxstunem, sarem
nocneonana ormena mecro crartn Ocnonnoro 3axona, nponosrnaman-
31
650-
me monononnm Kommynncrnuecxo naprnn Monannn na nnacrt.
B cenrxpe 1990 r. n cnxsn c yupexennem n pecnynnxe nocra npesn-
enra n Koncrnrynnm raxxe tn nnecen px nsmenenn n ononnenn.
21 mapra 1991 r. Hpesnnym Bepxonnoro Conera CCP Monona npn-
nxn nocranonnenne o paspaorxe npoexra nono Koncrnrynnn. B ero
ocnony tna nonoxena ecrnymmax Koncrnrynnx MCCP. Onaxo xap-
nnantnax nepecrpoxa na nont na nncrnryron monancxo rocyap-
crnennocrn nauanact nnmt nocne pasnana CCCP n nponosrnamennx 27
anrycra 1991 r. nesanncnmocrn pecnynnxn. B ro cnoxno nonnrnuec-
xo ocranonxe nannonan-panxant, crpemxct xoncrnrynnonno saxpe-
nnrt cnon nosnnnn n omecrne, nonnnxnn na ycxopenne paspaorxn no-
noro npoexra Ocnonnoro 3axona, nsxn sa opasen Koncrnrynnm 1991 r.
cocenero rocyapcrna, nosanmcrnonan ns nee xonnennnm, crpyxrypy n
ocnonnym uacrt crarenoro marepnana. ncxyccnx noxpyr npoexra
Koncrnrynnn, orpaxanmax opty nonnrnuecxnx cnn n omecrne, npo-
onxanact o cepennt 1994 r., xora Ocnonno 3axon 29 nmnx 1994 r.
tn npnnxr napnamenrom.
Honax Koncrnrynnx nponosrnacnna Monony cynepenno n nesanncn-
mo pecnynnxo, emoxparnuecxnm npanontm rocyapcrnom, n xoro-
pom emoxparnx ocymecrnnxercx n ycnonnxx nonnrnuecxoro nnmpannsma
n re nnxaxax neonornx ne moxer trt o]nnnantno rocyapcrnenno
neonorne. Hpana n cnoot uenonexa rpaxrymrcx n ne n coorner-
crnnn co Bceome exnapanne npan uenonexa, naxramn n pyrnmn
oronopntmn oxymenramn, re Pecnynnxa Monona npecrannena
ono ns cropon. B Koncrnrynnn saxpennena nopma pasenennx saxono-
arentno, ncnonnnrentno n cyeno nnacre. Btcmnm npecrann-
rentntm opranom napoa n enncrnenno ntcme saxonoarentno
nnacrtm n rocyapcrne xnnxercx Hapnamenr. B Koncrnrynnn c]opmy-
nnponant ocnonnte npnnnnnt cocrnennocrn, xoropax oxpanxercx ro-
cyapcrnom n moxer trt uacrno n nynnuno. Ona cocronr ns mare-
pnantntx n nnrennexryantntx nennocre. Ptnox, cnoonax +xonomn-
uecxax nnnnnarnna n xonxypennnx oxnnxmrcx ocnonononarammnmn
]axropamn +xonomnxn. Hpano na connantnoe oecneuenne n samnry
rpaxan n Koncrnrynnn c]opmynnponanno rax: rocyapcrno oxsano
npnnnmart (a ue eapaumupoeami (!) B.H.) mept nx oecneuennx
nmomy uenonexy ocronoro xnsnennoro yponnx, norpenoro nx no-
epxannx sopontx n narococroxnnx ero camoro n ero cemtn, n rom
uncne nnmn, oext, xnnnma, mennnncxoro yxoa n neoxonmoro
connantnoro ocnyxnnannx (crartx 47 (1)). Ocnonno saxon npnsnaer
n rapanrnpyer npano ncex rpaxan pecnynnxn na nx +rnnuecxym, xynt-
rypnym, xstxonym n pennrnosnym camotrnocrt. Iocyapcrnenntm
xstxom oxnnen monancxn xstx na ocnone narnncxo rpa]nxn. Bme-
cre c rem npnsnaercx n oxpanxercx npano na coxpanenne n ]ynxnnonn-
32
2009, N 2 (16)
ponanne pyccxoro n pyrnx xstxon, ncnontsyemtx na reppnropnn crpa-
nt.
Anannsnpyx n conoxynnocrn coepxanne ncex pasenon n crare Kon-
crnrynnn Monont, nentsx ne samernrt, uro ona orpaxaer rnannte
npnnnnnt xnsneycrpocrna n npanoornomenn uacrnonpenpnnnmarent-
cxoro, ypxyasnoro omecrna. Tax, napnamenrcxax pecnynnxa, nsxrax
sa ocnony nonnrnuecxo nnacrn n Monone, xax ormeuann n cnoe npemx
eme B.H. Hennn n cnonx paorax Iocyapcrno n penonmnnx n O
rocyapcrne, a nosnee conpemennte nccneonarenn, n r.u. nsnecr-
nt ]nnoco] Anexcanp 3nnonten, esycnonno, xnnxercx camtm e-
moxparnuntm rnnom conpemennoro ypxyasnoro rocyapcrna, samnma-
mmero nnrepect, n nepnym ouepet, ypxyasnn, ro ecrt mentme uac-
rn omecrna, n ro npemx, cxaxem, xax conercxn rnn rocyapcrna tn
onee emoxparnuen, uem napnamenrcxax pecnynnxa, no samnman
nnrepect ncex rpaxan. H anee, connantnte n nexoropte pyrne npa-
na uenonexa n ntnemne Koncrnrynnn, raxne, nanpnmep, xax npano na
rpy, ecnnarnoe oyuenne n mennnncxoe ocnyxnnanne ncex yponne
n ncero nacenennx, na ene ontme exnapnpymrcx, nexenn peantno n n
nonnom oeme oecneunnamrcx. H n +rom raxxe ontmoe npnnnnnn-
antnoe n cmtcnonoe pasnnune mexy tnme Monancxo CCP c ee
Koncrnrynne n ntnemne Pecnynnxo Monona c ee Ocnonntm 3a-
xonom. He no +ro nn npnunne ntnemnemy rocyapcrny rax rpyno, a
nopo n ne no cnny oecneunrt xapnnantnoe pemenne nacymntx npo-
nem nceome rpyono sanxrocrn nacenennx n onxnoro yponnx ero
narococroxnnx, xoropte ceronx ocoenno rpenoxar omecrno? He
noromy nn snaunrentnax n nanonee axrnnnax uacrt rpaxan ntnyx-
ena ceronx ncxart nyume onn sa npeenamn pono crpant, ne
noromy nn rax tcrpo pacrer connantnoe paccnoenne n omecrne n ne
yaercx cxontxo-nnyt cymecrnenno ncxopennrt xoppynnnm?
Kauecrno n xnsnecnoconocrt Monancxoro rocyapcrna, xax n nm-
oro pyroro, onpeenxercx, nomnmo ncero npouero, ero cnoconocrtm
ycnemno pemart cnon nnyrpennne n nnemnne nponemt n, trt moxer,
n nepnym ouepet, oecneunnart ocront yponent xnsnn cnonx rpax-
an. Anannsnpyx nect mnoronexono ncropnuecxn ontr pasnnrnx Mon-
ancxoro rocyapcrna, moxno saxnmunrt, uro +ro yananoct emy ne
ncera n ne no ncem n sannceno, n uacrnocrn, or rex xonxperntx ycno-
nn n ocroxrentcrn, n r.u. nnyrpennnx n nnemnnx, n xoroptx ono naxo-
nnoct. Mexy rem, +ror ontr n n name npemx, xax n npexe, nectma
nenen n naxen. On nomoraer n yunr romy, x npnmepy, xax nocrynart n
pasntx ncropnuecxnx cnryannxx npn onpeenennn npannntnoro ntopa
rocyapcrnenntx npnopnreron n naexntx comsnnxon. On nepnt
xomnac n yunrent xnsnn n n name nnrepecnoe n ecnoxonoe npemx.
33
650-
Cepren CYARK
BLCTYHAEHHE MOAABAH HPOTHB
OBTEHHEHHR C BAAAXHEH
(O com1nnx, nponsomemnx 3 anpenn 1866 r. n Rccax)
Hepno oennennx xnxxecrn Monannn n Banaxnn n ennoe rocy-
apcrno, x coxanennm, ne namen o cnx nop onxnoro orpaxennx n
ncropnorpa]nn. K +romy npemenn uacrt Monancxoro xnxxecrna
Fyxonnna - tna npncoennena x Ancrpnn (1774), a reppnropnx mexy
Hpyrom n necrpom, nonyunnmax nasnanne Feccapanx, nomna n co-
cran Poccncxo nmnepnn (1812).
Hapnxcxax xonnennnx, nonncannax Bennxopnranne, Ancrpne,
upannne, Poccne, Hpyccne, Typnne n Htemonrom 7 (19) anrycra
1858 r., npeycmarpnnana, uro Monannx n Banaxnx yyr nocnrt na-
snanne Oennennte xnxxecrna c Henrpantno saxonoarentno
xomnccne n uoxmanax n omnm Kaccannonntm cyom. B ro xe npemx
xaxoe xnxxecrno onxno tno nmert cnoero rocnoapx, cnon npann-
rentcrno, saxonoarentnoe copanne n apmnm [1. C. 100]. Knxxecrna
npoonxann ocranartcx no cmsepennrerom Orromancxo Hoprt.
Hsnparentnoe copanne Monannn 5 xnnapx 1859 r. nspano na npe-
cron nonxonnnxa Anexcanpy Hona Kysy, npnnanexanmero x pennemy
oxpcxomy poy. 24 xnnapx 1859 r. A. Kysa tn nspan n na npecron
Banaxnn. Cnoxnax mexynaponax ocranonxa n noepxxa co cropo-
nt Poccnn cnococrnonann npnsnannm Hapnxcxo xon]epennne no-
noro nspannx npn ycnonnn ero coxpanennx rontxo na nepno npannennx
A. Kyst. Onaxo 11 (23) ]enpanx 1866 r. A. Kysa tn cneprnyr c npe-
crona saronopmnxamn. B Fyxapecre tno cosano rax nastnaemoe na-
mecrnnuecrno xnxxecrna (locotenenta domneasc - perenrcxn coner),
xya nomnn H. Ionecxy (npecrannrent Mynrennn), H. Karapxny (nn-
epan, npecrannrent Monannn) n xomanymmn aprnnnepne nonxon-
nnx H. Xapanamne. Bpemennoe npannrentcrno nosrnannn H. Inxa, an-
nn npar A. Kyst. H. Inxa cosnan napnamenr, xoropt oxnnn xnxsem
rpa]a unnnnna unanpcxoro, nroporo ctna entrncxoro xoponx [2. C.
110]. Hocne orxasa unnnnna unanpcxoro or npecrona saronopmnxn
namnn nonym xannarypy, Kapna Iorennonnepna, xoropt cocroxn n
pocrne c nmneparopom Hanoneonom III. 10 (22) max Kapn Iorennon-
nepn cranonnrcx pymtncxnm xnxsem, n oxrxpe 1866 r. on nonyunn ]np-
man or Hoprt o ero npnsnannn n xauecrne xnxsx [1. C. 149-150].
34
2009, N 2 (16)
Cotrnx, nponcxonnmne n Monannn nocne rocyapcrnennoro ne-
penopora, o cnx nop xnnxmrcx entm nxrnom ncropnn Pymtnnn n
Monannn. Pymtncxax ncropnorpa]nx (onoennax, nepnoa connanns-
ma n conpemennax) crapaercx oxonrt +ro nepno, nocnxmax, n nyu-
mem cnyuae, necxontxo crpox nonnennxm n cronnne Monancxoro xnx-
xecrna no pyxonocrnom oxp-cenaparncron no rnane c Hnxonae
Posnonany npornn rocnoapx-uyxesemna, noepxanntx mnrpononnrom
Kannnnxom Mnxnecxy, xoropte tnn xecroxo noannent [3. C. 526-
527]. Fonee pasnepnyro o monancxom cenaparncrcxom nnxennn nn-
mer pymtncxn ncropnx Hoann Hynam: H nce xe co cropont mona-
nan tno ncrpeueno cnntnoe npornnoecrnne, nacrontxo cnntnoe, uro
ntsnano n ccax xpononponnrnte cronxnonennx, n xoroptx tn panen
cam mnrpononnr Kannnnx Mnxnecxy. Perenrcxn coner tn oecnoxo-
en momntm npornnoecrnnem xnrene cc, n renepan Hnxonae Io-
necxy n Hacxap Karapxny yexann n cct c pemnmocrtm noannrt
nmym nontrxy cptna nnencnnra. Hexoropte ns monanan, onaxo,
ocmennnnct ntcrynnrt npornn nen nnocrpannoro npannrenx, oen-
nnnmnct noxpyr oxpnna Hnxonae Posnonany, no pyxonocrnom xoro-
poro tn cosan cenaparncrcxn xomnrer. C nomomtm ycepno npo-
narant neyxpornmte posnonannt cymenn npnnneut na cnom cropony
n mnrpononnra Kannnnxa Mnxnecxy. B nepnoe nocxpecente anpenx n
nepenonnennom nmtmn xa]epantnom coope mnrpononnn nocne co-
nepmennx oxecrnenno cnyxt on no neocropoxnocrn ntmen nnepe-
n pasrnenanno ronnt, nanpannxxct x nopny amnnncrpannn, re ror-
a pacnonaranoct npemennoe npannrentcrno. Hepe ntxoom no nope
mnrpononnn Teoop Fonyp H+necxy nponsnec nnamennym peut o npa-
nax Monont, npnstnax nme nocneonart sa mnrpononnrom Kannnn-
xom. 3arem onn ornpannnnct no snon xonoxonon, c ontmnm mymom.
Ho na nnoman nepe nopnom ronny ncrpernna xomana conar, xoro-
pte ne orcrynnnn n cropony axe nepe xpecrom mnrpononnra. Onn
conar cane pannn mnrpononnra. Hocne uero pasxpennax ronna,
nauan mntpxrt n conar xamnn, tna nmn orrecnena oparno xo nopy
mnrpononnn. Fecnopxxn npoonxannct o nyx uacon nononynn, npn-
an monancxo cronnne cxopnt nn; ncmy nnnennct cnet xpo-
nonponnrnx [4. C. 288-290].
Conercxne ncropnxn ncm ncropnm Monannn nocne 1812 r. nepenocn-
nn rontxo na Feccapanm, conepmenno ne xacaxct 3anpyrcxo Mono-
nt n Fyxonnnt, urot ne ntsnart rpenn c Pymtnne. Tax, n nepno
Hcropnn Monannn, ntmeme n 1951 r. no peaxnne unena-xop-
pecnonenra AH CCCP A.. Vantnona n npo]eccopa oxropa ncropn-
uecxnx nayx H.B. uepennnna, oennennm ynacxnx xnxxecrn no-
cnxmeno uyrt ontme crpannnt, nocne uero paccmarpnnaercx rontxo
35
650-
ncropnx Feccapann [5. C. 418-419]. B nocneymmnx paorax no ncro-
pnn Monannn (cranmnx nastnartcx Hcropne Monancxo CCP)
omax ncropnx Monannn (3anpyrcxo, Fyxonnnt n Feccapann) opt-
naercx c 1812 r. [6, 7].
Enncrnenntmn rpyamn, ntmemnmn no npemena CCCP, re, xort
xoporxo, nsnoxent cotrnx 1866 r. n ccax, xnnxmrcx paort
E.E. ueprana n B.. Ipocyna [1, 2]. E.E uepran, n uacrnocrn, yxastna-
er, uro 3(15) anpenx 1866 r. n ccax npncnannte ns Banaxnn npann-
rentcrnennte nocxa paccrpenxnn emoncrpannm croponnnxon camo-
croxrentnoro rocyapcrnennoro cymecrnonannx Monancxoro xnxxe-
crna [2. C.114]. Bmecre c B.. Ipocynom on, noxany, nepnt n coner-
cxo ncropnorpa]nn orxptro ntcxasan cnom rouxy spennx: Cenaparn-
crcxne renennnn n Monannn cymecrnonann, n +rom ner nnxaxoro co-
mnennx. Cronnna Monancxoro xnxxecrna cct snaunrentno nocrpa-
ana n pesyntrare oennennx, npenparnnact no nropocrenennt ro-
po. Hponrpann n xpynnte monancxne nomemnxn, nocxontxy onn ne
cmornn ycroxrt n xonxypennnn c nanamcxnmn. 3ro noponno cenaparn-
crcxne renennnn, ntnnnmnecx sarem n orxptrte ntcrynnennx [1.
C. 147-148].
Vuennxn ncropnn pymtn, yuenoro xypca, xoropt tn oxsarent-
no ncnnnnnno no ncex yuentx saneennxx Pecnynnxn Monona n
reuenne 17 ner, crapannct oxonrt
+ry remy. Xorx anropt Kparxoro
xypca nexnn no ncropnn pymtn yno-
mnnann, uro nonnrnuecxax nanpx-
xennocrt coxpanxnact nnnort o
1871 r., nastnax nepno npnunno
yrposy nosmoxnoro pasenennx xnx-
xecrn, yxastnax npn +rom, uro ne
tno enncrna mexy camnmn xnx-
xecrnamn Monono n Mynrenne
[8. C. 148].
Hs conpemenntx monancxnx nc-
cneonarene rontxo, noxany,
B. Crenanmx nocnxrnn annomy co-
trnm uyrt ontme crpannnt cno-
e monorpa]nn Iocyapcrnennocrt
monancxoro napoa, n ocnonnom
nponnrnponan pymtncxoro ncropnxa
H. Hynama [9. C. 132-131].
ymaercx, uro marepnant ena
no cexpe1nouy c1ony xannenn-
36
2009, N 2 (16)
pnn eccapacxoro ryepna1opa "O nocnennx com1nnx n xnn-
aec1nax Monannn n Banaxnn, no cnyuam yanennn xnnsn Anex-
canpa Kysm. Hepenncxa eccapacxoro ryepna1opa c nonopoc-
cnncxnu renepan-ryepna1opou, c nncnex1opou Cxynnncxoro
xapan1nna, onecennn o o1nomennn nacenennn Coennennmx
xnnaec1n Monannn n Banaxnn x nnany osennennn nx no
+rnon Iorennonnepnon" na 54 nncrax, re npnnoxrcx cnnerent-
crna ouennnen, coomar nam nonte ]axrt o nocnennx nxx cyme-
crnonannx Monancxoro xnxxecrna. eno nauanoct 11 ]enpanx 1866 r.
Konunnoct 18 nmnx 1866 r. [10]. Taxxe nnrepec npecrannxer one-
cenne nncnex1opa npannennn Cxynnncxoro xapan1nna Becca-
pacxouy ryepna1opy "O o1nomennn napoa x Kapny Ioren-
nonnepny. Hepeno 1enerpaqnon enemn ns Byxapec1a o 1ou
ae" [11].
Tenerpauua ns Oeccm o1 nonopoccnncxoro n eccapacxoro
renepan-ryepna1opa H.E. Koney eccapacxouy noennouy ry-
epna1opy H.A An1ononnuy o1 11 qenpann 1866 r.: nonyunn
renerpammy or Ienepantnoro xoncyna n Fyxapecre, uro ncnecrnne nn-
xennx, n xoropom yuacrnonann nocxa, Kysa orxasancx or npecrona n
naxonrcx n nneny. Hponosrnamen npnnn nnocrpannoro xnxsx. Bpemen-
noe npannrentcrno ns rpex unenon yupexeno. Kpononponnrnx ne tno,
n cnoxocrnne marepnantnoe ne tno napymeno o nonynn cero uncna.
Koney [10. C. 1].
Hs xonnn onecennn poccnncxoro nunepa1opcxoro aren1a n
Hsuanne
1
o1 21 qenpann 1866 r. H. Pouanenxo: Tenerpamma, ns-
necrnnmax r. Hsmann o naennn xnxsx Kyst n nspannn rpa]a unanp-
cxoro npnnna Caxcen-Koypr-Iorcxoro no nmenem unnnnna I xnxsem
pymtn, tna nonyuena sect 11 ]enpanx n 8 uacon yrpa. B ror xe ent
nocxa npnneent x npncxre es manemnx sarpynenn, n cneymmee
sa rem uncno snamenarentnt ]axr nspannx nonoro xnxsx ornpasno-
nan monenom, a 13 ]enpanx na nepnocrt noancrna nonomy xnxsm
npncxrnynn rpaxancxne unnt ncex neomcrn sa ncxnmuennem npo]ec-
copon cemnnapnn n yunrene napontx mxon, orxasanmnxcx no npe-
norom nenonyuennx nenocpecrnenno na ro pacnopxxenn or cnoero mn-
1. B pesyntrare Bocrouno (Kptmcxo) nont (1853-1856 rr.) na mnpnom Ha-
pnxcxom xonrpecce n ]enpane 1856 r. mxnax uacrt Feccapann (Hsmanntcxn
yes) tna orroprnyra or Poccnn n nepeana naxoxmemycx no nnatuecrnom
Typnnn Monancxomy xnxxecrny. Ho Fepnnncxomy rpaxrary 1878 r. (npnnxromy
na Fepnnncxom mexynaponom xonrpecce (1 (13) nmnx - 1 (13) nmnx) 1878 r.,
cosnannomy nx nepecmorpa ycnonn Can-Cre]ancxoro mnpnoro oronopa 1878
r., sanepmnnmero pyccxo-rypenxym nony 1877-1878 rr.), mxnax Feccapanx es
entrt ynax tna nosnpamena Poccnn.
37
650-
nncrepcrna. K moneny tnn npnrnament nce mt, nnocrpannte aren-
rt, no ncnecrnne tnmero y menx na omy no +romy cnyuam npe-
napnrentnoro conera, xaxt ns nac orxasancx no pasntmn npenora-
mn, onn no nenmennm nncrpyxnn, pyrne no nesopontm.
Ho exrentnocrn npe]exra n nauantnnxa xnaprnpymmnx sect nocx
n npnnxrtm nmn mepam, ouennno: nacrpoennx ntnemnero npemennoro
ntcmero npannrentcrna xnonxrcx x ycrpanennm penonmnnn n ymnpor-
nopennm ncex n xaxoro. K uncny sacnyxnnammnx ontmoro nnnmannx
nonyuenntx sect ns Fyxapecra (oa.ee ovoem npu+eueuo coepe+eu-
uoe uanucauue - Bvxapecm - C.C.)enem cneyer ornecrn ony, ape-
conannym noenntm mnnncrpom xomannpy nocx, xacarentno copannx
ncex o]nnepon n nonoxnrentnoro osnannx or nnx roront nn onn na
camonoxeprnonannx, a noromy n cnyuae naonocrn x xomnannn, na uro
nce oxnnnn cnon narpnornuecxne uyncrna, cornaconanmnecx c sanpo-
com mnnncrpa cnom roronnocrt cpaxartcx c xem t ro nn tno, n
pyrym, ne menee nnrepecnym, apeconannym mnnncrpom nnyrpennnx
en npe]exry o nasnauennn n oromeme uacrn Feccapann +xcrpaop-
nnapntm xomnccapom Anexcanpa Manpoxoparo, ynonnomouennoro
rantmn nncrpyxnnxmn n oneuennoro neorpannuennom amnnncrpa-
rnnno nnacrtm. 3xcrpaopnnapnt xomnccap ecrt npxmo nepnt
opran nonoro mnnncrepcrna.
Hacrpoenne ymon n xnrenxx oromeme uacrn Feccapann noome
cnoxono. Hpn ncem rom nentsx ne samernrt n semnnx monananax n
nanaxax nexoroporo ecnoxocrna, neonepunnocrn n yntnnx, n pyccxom
+nemenre nocropr or naennx nenanncrnoro nm xnxsx Kyst n naexy
na uro-ro nyumee [10. C. 3-4].
Hs onecennn poccnncxoro xoncyna n Rccax, nanopnoro co-
ne1nnxa H. Aexca o1 14 qenpann 1866 r.: Tontxo uro nonyuent
tnn nepnte renerpammt ns Fyxapecra c nsnecrnem o naennn, nect
ropo npnmen n nonnenne, n n +rn nn ne tno, x ymam, nn onoro
uenonexa, neonontnoro cnepmnnmnmcx nepenoporom, xoneuno, xpome
unnonnnxon, xoropte rpannn esnaxasanno n npoonxennn cemn ner
xasny n napo Ha pyro ent c camoro pannero yrpa ornpannnnct no
nepxnxm cnyxnrt naroapcrnennte monent. yxonencrno c paoc-
rtm nocnemnno ncnonnnrt xenanne monanan, n n nexoroptx nepxnxx
camn enncxont orcnyxnnn mnororo poa monent B 11 uacon nce
nocxa, cocrannxmmne ccxn rapnnson, npncxrnynn na nepnocrt rpa]y
unanpcxomy. B uac orcnyxen tn n ccxom Ka]epantnom Coope
ropxecrnennt moneen no spanne nonoro xnxsx npn orpomnom cre-
uennn napoa.
Ho nsnecrnxm ns nponnnnnn, no ncex yesax Monannn paocrt nce-
omax.
38
2009, N 2 (16)
Honxxn cnntno npnyntnn yxom, rax xax onn norepxnn rnannoro cno-
ero nporexropa, xpome roro, onn oxrcx pyccxoro sanxrnx, a noromy
nexoropte ns nnx naunnamr yxe ntnue xe conpartcx n Ancrpnm n
Typnnm.
.K cemy nmem uecrt npnconoxynnrt, uro ntop rpa]a unanpcxo-
ro Hanarom n Cenarom xnxsem Mono-Bnaxnn ne ecrt nacroxmee xe-
nanne monanan, xoropte nourn nce xorenn t pasennennx c Banaxn-
e, no onn ne ntcxastnamr +roro xnno, oxct trt nenocneonarent-
ntmn, rax xax onn ntpasnnn yxe n 1857 roy xenanne nmert nnocrpan-
noro npnnna xnxsem Mono-Bnaxnn, n, naxonen, mnorne noromy, uro onn
ynepent, uro noxponnrentcrnymmne epxant ne yrnepxr nnocrpan-
noro npnnna, n rora onn nocnemar oxnnrt xenanne cnoe nepnyrtcx x
rounomy cmtcny Hapnxcxo xon]epennnn, r.e. xon]eepannn, a nnxax
ne x ynnn c Banaxne no ynpannennem pymtna. Haxonen, cam ntop
rpa]a unanpcxoro ne ouent nonpannncx monananam, xoropte xorenn
t nyume nmert xnxsx npanocnannoro, no nonaramr, uro Bpemennoe
npannrentcrno npenoxnno n rocnoapn entrncxoro npnnna rontxo
noromy, urot oxasart Enpone, uro Fyxapecrcxoe nnxenne ecrt eno
nannonantnoe, a ne nponsneennoe no nnnxnnem xaxnx-nno noxponn-
rentcrnymmnx epxan [10. C. 11-12].
Hs onecennn H. Aexca o1 21 qenpann 1866 r.: Paocrt, ona-
pyxennax monananamn npn naennn Kyst, naunnaer mano-nomany nc-
uesart no nnnxnnem ecrnn nacroxmero Bpemennoro npannrentcrna,
xoropoe, cxontxo samerno, crpemnrcx no uro t ro ne crano coxpannrt
onpornnenmym sect ncem ynnm. Ho+romy monanane xpane nsnonno-
nant, naunnamr onapyxnnart cxptrym npornn nacroxmero npannrent-
crna onnosnnnm. uacrt semnnx oxp ymana tno na nxx npn coe-
crnnn nocxa, xoropoe yer na nx cropone, oxnnrt n ccax Bpemen-
noe npannrentcrno, nasnaunrt orentnym xamaxamnm (epe+euuoe ua-
+ecmuu:ecmeo oo eioopoe eocnooap - C.C.), urot raxnm opasom
conepmenno orennrtcx or nanaxon, no mecrnte nnacrn ysnann o +rom,
npnnxnn mept x coxpanennm nacroxmero nopxxa neme.
3acnm pyrax naprnx, cocroxmax ns monotx anoxaron, npo]ecco-
pon ynnnepcnrera n cryenron, pexmax nee pymtncxo nannonant-
nocrn, xenaer npoonxart ynnm, no nnxax ne c nnocrpanntm npnnnem,
n nnne onoro pymtncxoro rocnoapx.
Haxonen, nocnenxx naprnx, x xoropo npnmxnynn nmn onee nnn
menee connnte, ne ntcxastnaer xnno cnon xenannx sa ynnm n rontxo
oxnaer, uro pemnr xon]epennnx, yyun ynepena, uro noxponnrent-
crnymmne epxant nn n xoem cnyuae ne yrnepxr nnocrpannoro npnn-
na n npeocranxr nm nspart cnoero rocnoapx n Monannn. Haprnx
+ra, sameuax, uro ymt cnnmxom nsnonnonant, onrcx xaxnx-nno ec-
nopxxon, morymnx ntsnart n nacroxmee npemx nnocrpannoe noennoe
39
650-
sanxrne, xoropoe, no nx mnennm, eme onee pasopnr crpany, ncntran-
mym n nocnenne rot rono n nonantnt rpaex npannrentcrna Kyst.
Mne xaxercx onaxo xe, uro Monannx ne nsexnr ecnopxxon, no
n nacroxmee npemx ecnopxxn +rn ne nosyxamrcx nn onom naprn-
e, noromy uro nce c nerepnennem xyr pesyntraron xon]epennnn, xo-
ropax onxna pemnrt yuacrt mono-nanaxon. Ha cnyua, ecnn xon]e-
pennnx pemnr coxpannrt oennenne xnxxecrn c onnm pymtncxnm
rocnoapem, rora x nourn ynepen, uro semnee nacenenne ne npemn-
ner ntpasnrt cnoe neonontcrno nocpecrnom emoncrpann, xoropte
moryr ntsnart axe noennoe sanxrne [10 . C. 9-10].
Hs onecennn H. Aexca eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 3 an-
penn 1866 r.: Ceronx yrpom, no oxonuannn oenn, orpomnax ronna,
nmex no rnane mnrpononnra, ornpannnact ns Coopa no nopen c name-
pennem oxnnrt cex orxptro npornn coennennx xnxxecrn n rpeyx
pasennennx Monannn or Banaxnn. Kananepnx pocnnact na eso-
pyxnym ronny n nauana nrt nme nanamamn, npnuem mnrpononnr tn
panen ceptesno. Bnx, uro xananepnx ne n cnnax oonert maccy, Bpe-
mennoe npannrentcrno ornpannno npornn nnx nexory, xoropax crana ror-
uac xe crpenxrt no esopyxntm monananam. Hocne necxontxnx san-
non ronna nauana paserartcx, no ynrtx n panentx tno mnoro, cxontxo
nmenno, o cnx nop nensnecrno.
Tontxo uro mt ysnann o penonmnnn, mt, nnocrpannte xoncynt co-
pannct y crapmero ns nac npyccxoro xoncyna, no ne mornn roruac xe
cornct mexy coo na cuer ecrnn. Bnpouem, ncxope nocne roro x
nam npnexan nocnannnx or Bpemennoro npannrentcrna c nopyuennem
oxnnrt, uro cnoxocrnne n ropoe noccranonneno. Ho cnonam ero,
nepnte ntcrpent tnn cenant co cropont napoa, no +ro necnpane-
nnno, ecnn n tnn ntcrpent no nocxam, ro yxe nocne roro, xax onn
nauann crpenty.
Bpemennoe npannrentcrno xouer renept ntcrannrt emoncrpannm
cenaparncron xax nnxenne, nponsneennoe Poccne, ono ntcrannxer
n ocoennocrn nnepe xnxsx Koncranrnna Mopysn (e opueuua.e - Mv-
pvsu - C.C.) xax rnannoro exrenx, uro conepmenno necnpanennno, a
noromy ono nosnonxer cee apecrontnart ncex nnn, npeanntx nam, n
axe pyccxnx noanntx.
Hecxontxo uacon nocne roro yxe, xax nnxenne tno norymeno, x
an mo +xnnax xene onoro pyccxoro noannoro nx roro, urot or-
nesrn ee omo. Bosnpamaxct oparno, mo xyuep tn ocranonnen na-
namcxnm o]nnepom n crpamno nsnr, necmorpx na ro, uro on oxnnn,
uro on xyuep pyccxoro xoncyna, a moxer trt nmenno no+romy.
nocnan paromana x xamaxamam, npocx oxcnenn, no onn ox-
nnnn emy, uro no nocnenemy cnyuam yer nponsneeno cnecrnne,
40
2009, N 2 (16)
apecrannn ne nponsnoxrcx no ynnxam; nmecre c rem, onn oemann mne
oxastnart onxnoe ynaxenne apecronannomy mnrpononnry.
Tax xax x ynepen, uro mox enema ne yer nocnana ns cc, ro x
noxopneme npomy Bame npenocxonrentcrno yneomnrt nemenenno
no renerpa]y oo ncem, uro nponcxonr n Monannn, rr. mnnncrpa nno-
crpanntx en, renepan-atmranra Koney n nocnannnxa namero n Kon-
cranrnnonone [10. C. 13-14].
Hs panop1a nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pantno-
ro xapan1nna A. Banana (? - qa+u.u uepasoop:uea - C.C.) o1 5
anpenn 1866 r.: Buepamnero nx n rpn uaca nononynn npntnn ns
cc es ncxxnx nnctmenntx nnon eccapacxn nomemnx xnxst Kon-
cranrnn Mopysn n monancxn oxpnn Ara nmnrpn Manonny. Onn
oxnnnn, uro nuepamnero uncna n 11 uacon yrpa n ccax no oxonuannn
orocnyxennx ramomnnm mnrpononnrom napo, copanmncx onee nyx
rtcxu uenonex, n no rnane nx mnrpononnr ornpannnnct tno x npntn-
mnm ns Fyxapecra unenam Bpemennoro npannrentcrna renepany Hnxo-
nam Ionecxo (Huro.ae Io.ecrv), Hacxapm Karapxn (Hacrop Kamap-
ruv) nx saxnnennx cnoero xenannx ornocnrentno ycrpocrna xnxxe-
crna, n uro na nyrn cneonannx tnn nacrnrnyrt nocxamn, xoropte
es ncxxo npnunnt nauann crpenxrt n ynnart napo; cnnn c pyx
mnrpononnra xpecr canem n pannnn ero nnxom. Knxst Mopysn nonyunn
raxxe caentnt yap n cnnny n sartnox. Taxoe nonoxenne en sacra-
nnno nx ntexart c nocnemnocrtm ns r. cc, oannxx npn +rom, uro
nepe ntesom onn ocrannnn ecnopxxn n camom pasrape: mnrpononn-
ra panentm n o rpexcor uenonex ynrtmn n panentmn.
O +rom xapanrnnnoe npannenne onrom nocrannxer onecrn Bame-
my npenocxonrentcrny n nocnecrnne cexpernoro npenncannx, an-
noro npemecrnennnxom Bamero npenocxonrentcrna xapanrnnnomy
nncnexropy or 8 anpenx 1860 r. sa N 98.
Ho cneennxm, nonyuenntm cero uncna n 10 uacon yrpa, ecnopxxn
n penonmnnx n ccax eme npoonxamrcx, renerpa]nte nnrn opyne-
nt, n ncxxoe renerpa]nuecxoe cnomenne cc c uyxnmn crpanamn npe-
pnano. Bcnecrnne +roro xapanrnnnoe npannenne npnsnano sa nyumee
ornpannrt nacroxmee onecenne x Bamemy npenocxonrentcrny c na-
pountm [10. C. 17-18].
Hs opamennn nun1pnn Manonn-arn (u+umpue Mauo.uv
aea) x eccapacxouy ryepna1opy (a1nponano 3(15) anpenn
1866 r., Cxynnnm, nepeno c uonancxoro): Ceronx 3(15) anpenx
1866 r. n nocxpecnt npasnnx cn. anocrona uomt napo ropoa cct
xnnncx n cnoxocrnnn n Ka]epantnym nepxont mnrpononnn, urot npn-
cyrcrnonart npn conepmennn cn. nnryprnn npeocnxmennemnm mnrpo-
nonnrom monancxnm. uacrt napoa croxna n nepxnn, a uacrt n nepxon-
no orpae n axe na ynnne. Bce c orxptrom rononom n es opyxnx,
41
650-
noromy uro xorenn no oxonuannn orocnyxennx ornpannrtcx no rnane c
mnrpononnrom x tnmemy xnxxecxomy nopny, urot ram cnonecno
ntpasnrt naponoe xenanne, conepmenno cornacnoe c Hapnxcxo xon-
nennne or 7(19) anrycra 1858 roa, na uro ncnpamnnanoct paspeme-
nne, ]opmantntm npomennem, y uyaa-namn, nennxoro nnsnpx Orro-
mancxo nmnepnn eme 11(23) ]enpanx nacroxmero roa, nocne yane-
nnx xnxsx Kyst, n o uem coomeno tno n rr. xoncynam.
K 12 uacam, no oxonuannn nnryprnn, napo c mnrpononnrom no rnane
n xpecrom n pyxe n c entmn nnarxamn, snaxom mnpa, a ne penonmnnn,
ornpannncx x nopny.
Ho npntrnn x nemy ncrpeuena tna monancxax nexora, cocran-
nennax ns nanaxon n raxnx xe xomannpon, xnnnmnxcx no pacnopxxe-
nnm Bpemennoro npannrentcrna. He opamax nnnmannx na naponoe
xenanne, ntpaxennoe n yxe Hapnxcxo xonnennnn, npornn npetna-
nnx n Monannn nanamcxo mnnnnnn, xomannpt cxomanonann nann,
n n +ro xe mrnonenne orxptncx pyxent oront no napoy, xax no coa-
xam, nomnn n eno mrtxn, rax uro na mecre ocranoct meprntmn ont-
moe xonnuecrno nennnonntx nme, n mnrpononnr nonyunn pany ca-
nem.
Kora napo pasexancx n yxace, nnx nanaenne nocxa, pyxenax
nanta rpemena, xonoxona nensnecrno nx uero snonnnn, npyr xnnnact
xananepnx, crana pynrt nanpano n naneno, nanox yxac, xaxo mor trt
npn rarapax n xntuapax.
Coporamct npn nocnomnnannn nxoro ecrnnx noopyxenntx nana-
xon n nacroxmero npannrentcrna, or mep, ynorpenenntx n +ror ent
npornn necuacrnoro napoa monancxoro. Honropxm, x coporamct npn
mtcnn, uro namepennx npannrentcrna n nocxa ero tnn noxasart nce
Enpone penonmnnonnt axr, axr esoxnx, axr ecnornsma, axr nap-
napcrna, axr ymnpornopennx nponnrnem xponn. 3rnm camtm cornacnrt
ncex x nspannm nnosemnoro npnnna, r.e. npnnna Kapna I Iorennonnep-
ncxoro, xoroporo nmx name npannrentcrno ntnnnyno na nepnt nnan n
nasnano xnxsem Monannn n Banaxnn, npornn xenannx napoa, npornn
mnponmnnoro pesyntrara, xaxoro oxnamr or Hapnxcxo xon]epen-
nnn, cosnanno cnemno n nnrepecax name crpant.
Taxnm opasom, nnx onacnoe nonoxenne, x ntnyxen tn cnacrnct
ns xccxoro ornx, cnacrn pontx n npncnyry, noromy uro ne naexncx
cnona ynnert cemecrna, n ntexan x cxynxncxo rpannne (nnxame-
my norpannunomy nynxry or cc), nepenntn na napome, n nny norpa-
nnuno crpaxn, urot ne npnnxnn menx sa eseprnpa, uemy Foxe co-
xpann, noromy uro x no nce cnoe xnsnn ne sanxrnan cex nepe ome-
crnom. ponncx n ntpoc n Monannn n nponcxoxy or monanan.
nnnmnct n Cxynxnt, x ynnen cex no cnm cropony Hpyra, n naro-
cnonenno crpane Feccapann Poccncxo nmnepnn. nepexpecrnncx,
42
2009, N 2 (16)
narocnonnn Iocnoa, uro cnac cnom xnsnt, n n ro xe npemx tn npn-
nxr nncnexropom xapanrnna, xoropt menx npnmrnn xax pono n n
mnpnoe npemx. a narocnonnr Iocnot +ry crpany n ncex napoon ee,
nmemmnx cuacrte trt noanntmn nennxo npanocnanno Hmnepnn.
Bame npenocxonrentcrno! onomy o xanxom nonoxennn en n c-
cax, sacrannnmnx menx nepern rpannny es nacnopra, npn npocte o
nomomn n nporexropcrne Poccncxo nmnepnn, noxya ycrponrcx yuacrt
moero oreuecrna na xon]epennnxx n ycranonnrcx npounoe npannenne,
xaxnm nac narocnonnr Hponnenne.
A noromy npomy mnnocrnnoro pacnopxxennx Bamero npenocxon-
rentcrna o cnaxennn menx xaxnm-nnyt nnom, c xoroptm x mor t
cnoono npoxnnart n +ro crpane. nmnrpn Manonn ara (Dimitrie
Manoliu aga) [10. C. 22-23 o.].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 16 anpenn
1866 r.: Ho noccranonnennn cnoxocrnnx n ccax ycnnenntmn mepa-
mn, npnnxrtmn co cropont Bpemennoro npannrentcrna, no nacroxmee
npemx nopxox ne napymen, no cnntnoe poxenne ymon no nce Mona-
nnn, paspaxnrentnoe nacrpoenne xnrene n ccax ne moryr cnyxnrt
pyuarentcrnom sa nenonropenne ecnopxxon n ontmnx pasmepax. Xn-
renn cc ne nepecramr ntcxastnart cnom nenanncrt x nanaxam. Onn
mcrxr nm cmeprtm sa cotrnx 3 anpenx, n ncnecrnne +roro, nepexo n
nounoe npemx, naxoxr ynrtmn croxnmnx na uacax conar nanamcxo
mnnnnnn. Kpome roro, orentnte emoncrpannn mcrnrene n mantx
pasmepax ne nepecramr. O cnnxnnn xnxxecrn no nnatuecrnom nnoc-
rpannoro npnnna monanane cntmart ne xorxr. oxasarentcrnom romy
cnyxnr npexnnxemt npn cem c nepenoom Fmnnerent, pasocnan-
nt noncemecrno n Monannn, npornnoecrnnx arenram Bpemennoro
npannrentcrna, conpammnm nonncn n nontsy coennennx.
Buepamnero uncna nonyunn ns cc cneymmne nsnecrnx: ronopxr,
uro xora omnn n Fyxapecre cnyxn o npomemem n ccax xpononponn-
rnn, ocrananmncx n Fyxapecre unen namecrnnuecrna nonxonnnx Xap-
namnn (Xapa.a+oue) oran npnxas ne npnsnanart ontme ero coune-
namn naxonnmnxcx n ccax Hnxonax Ionecxo n Hacxapn Karapxn.
Hocnenne no nonyuennm o +rom nsnecrnx nocnemnnn ntexart ns cc
neuepom 11 anpenx, no no npntrnn n Fyseo (Bvsov) no pacnopxxennm
ramomnero nauantcrna saepxant. Taxxe, uro n Fyxapecre nponsom-
no mexy naxonnmnmncx ram nanamcxnmn n monancxnmn nocxamn
cronxnonenne, xoropoe oparnnoct n xponanym crtuxy, npoonxanmy-
mcx noe cyrox (11 n 12 anpenx), n n xaxono npnnxnn yuacrne n mecr-
nte xnrenn (nocnennmn saxnauen yxapecrcxn apcenan), n uro n +rom
om nano ynrtmn n panentmn o 3000 uenonex. Hpnunny npnnnctna-
43
650-
mr pacnpxm, nos-
nnxmnm mexy npn-
nepxennamn non-
xonnnxa Xapnamnnx
n noennoro mnnn-
crpa Hoxa, nperen-
enron na sanxrne
mecra Bnaerent-
noro xnxsx n coen-
nenntx xnxxe-
crnax, n uro no-
cnecrnnem +roro
tno, uro yro t
nonxonnnx Xapnan-
nn n coyuacrnn c
peaxropom rasert
Pymtnyn Pocce-
rn oxnnnn n coennenntx xnxxecrnax ynpannenne pecnynnxancxoe.
Ho cneennxm ns Fyxapecra, rypenxne nocxa nauann yxe nepenpan-
nxrtcx n Banaxnm uepes yna n Kanra]an [10. C. 29-30 o.].
Anc1onxa, naxonmancn n ene (nepeno): Cooreuecrnennnxam
monananam, tnmnm xeprnam necuacrnoro nx 3 anpenx! Honoxn-
rect na Fora, n npoonxenne cornn ner samnmanmero nac or nparon
nnemnnx n rnpanon nnyrpennnx. Hponosrnamenne nnocrpannoro npnnna
npecrannxer nont samtcen Hoxorenenron (unent namecrnnuecrna),
npntnmnx n r. cct, urot ornem n meuom npornnoecrnonart xe-
nannm napoa, xenammero onoro rontxo npnmenennx Konnennnn
1858 r. , enncrnenno eme nx cnacennx namero.
Vepxnnarect or nponsnecennx (v:acmu) n nnencnnre. Hpnmene-
nne xonnennnn ecrt saxonnoe rpeonanne Monannn, xoroporo, acr For,
mt ocrnrnem uepes nocpennuecrno noxponnrentcrnymmnx epxan.
a spancrnyer cnoonax Monannx! [10. C. 31-31 o.].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 23 anpenn
1866 r.: Ho cneennxm, nonyuenntm ns cc, cnoxocrnne ram ne na-
pymeno, no paspaxenne xnrene npornn Bpemennoro npannrentcrna n
noome npornn nanaxon npoonxaercx c npexnem cnnom. Monanane
no-npexnemy npornnxrcx coennennm xnxxecrn. Btopt enyraron n
3axonoarentnoe copanne raxxe nyr esycnemno Hs 720 uenonex,
uncnxmnxcx no ropoy cct c npanom ronoca, rontxo 130 uenonex co-
rnacnnoct npnnxrt yuacrne n ntopax (n rom uncne 20 npo]eccopon, 20
cryenron n o 40 unnonnnxon). A ocrantnte 590 uenonex conepmenno
44
2009, N 2 (16)
orxasannct or +roro. K 25 anpenx oxnaercx npntrne n cct xomnc-
capon co cropont rapanrnpymmnx epxan nx nponeennx cnecrnnx
no nponcxonnmnm n ccax 3 anpenx cotrnxm.
Hpn cem nmem uecrt npeocrannrt Bamemy npenocxonrentcrny
+xsemnnxp mnernna (nmecre c nepenoom), ntxoxmero no npemenam
n ccax, n oxnnenne xccxoro npe]exra, onponeprammero pacnycxae-
mte no ropoy cnyxn [10. C. 38-39].
Anc1onxa (nepeno c uonancxoro): Harpnoram Monannn! For
sa namn npana x ocnooxennm nac or pacrna nanaxon. B nnocrpan-
nom xypnane ns Fepnnna nnmyr, uro xnxst Iorennonnepncxn, ysnan-
mn o yncrnax monanan, yunnenntx nanaxamn 3 (15) anpenx n c-
cax, ornpannncx na pyro ent x ero nennuecrny xoponm Hpyccxomy n
oxnnn, uro ne moxer npnnxrt rocnocrna na napoom, xoropt xax
Kann ynnaer cnonx parten. Knxst Iorennonnepncxn cnpamnnan nm-
neparopa Hanoneona, moxer nn on npnnxrt rpon Pymtnnn, na uro +ror
ornernn, uro ner, a Poccnx nonce orcrynaer or xoannnnn. Hoxorenenrt
nocnemno ntexann nuepa orcma n Fyxapecr n, nnno, ncnecrnne o-
no enemn ns xon]epennnn. B Fyxapecre ncntxnyna penonmnnx. Bana-
xn nommr mexy coo. Ionopxr, uro o]nnep Xapnamnn nponosrnacnn
cex xnxsem.
a spancrnyer Monannx, ennax n ocnooxennax or nra nanaxon
n ocranammaxcx cnoonom cornn ner! [10. C. 40-40 o.].
Hynnxannn (nepeno c uonancxoro): C nexoroporo npemenn
neopoxenarenn n nnrpnrant pacnpocrpanxmr pasnnunoro poa ne-
cnpanennnte cnyxn, yro t n Fyxapecre penonmnnx n uro npnnn
Kapn I oxnnn, uro ne npnnnmaer rpon Pymtnnn.
He yonnernopxxct rontxo +rom nnsxom pontm n n naexe nonno-
nart ymt rpaxan, nnrpnrant +rn neuaramr noonym noxt n manent-
xnx neryunx nncrxax.
Hnxenonncanmncx cunraer cnonm onrom n onponepxenne +rnx
cnyxon oxnnrt, uro n Fyxapecre rocnocrnyer conepmennoe cnoxo-
crnne n uro npnnn Kapn ne anan noonoro oxnnennx o nenpnnxrnn
yro t nm rpona Pymtnnn.
Bmecre c rem oxnnxm, uro x cymem orxptrt n noneprnyrt naxa-
sannm co nce crporocrtm saxonon xax +rnx nnrpnranon, rax n rnnor-
pa]mnxa, ocmennnammerocx trt opynem noontx nnsxnx neopo-
xenarene. Hpe]exr ccxoro yesa . Kosannn. cct. 14 anpenx
1866 r. [10. C. 41-41o.].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 10 uan 1866 r.:
Buepamnero uncna nonyunn ns cc cneymmne nsnecrnx: ncnecrnne
nonyuennoro ns Fyxapecra npnxasannx nce naxonnmnecx n ccax na-
namcxne nexornte nocxa (oxono 3 000) co nce aprnnepne (12 opyn)
45
650-
6 uncna cero max ntcrynnnn c nocnemnocrtm ns cc x Iananam (Iana-
ny). Ipannuept (noepauu:uuru) nonyunnn npnxasanne ocrannrt norpa-
nnunt nasop n npntrt n cct nx sanxrnx no ropoy rapnnsonno
cnyxt, no npntrnn xonx n cct ornpannrcx n Ianan n ncx naxoxma-
xcx n ccax xananepnx. Ipannuept ntcrynnnn ns copntx nynxron nx
cneonannx n cct 9 max. Kpome roro, n ncx perynxpnax mnnnnnx, sann-
manmax n pasntx ropoax Monannn rapnnsonnym cnyxy, ornpannnact
n Ianan. Hpnunny raxoro nocnemnoro cocpeorouennx mono-nnaxnc-
xnx nocx n Ianan npnnnctnamr nonyuenntm nsnecrnxm, uro n cxopom
npemenn n Ianan naunyr nepenpannxrtcx uepes yna copanmnecx na
npanom epery onoro rypenxne nocxa n uro pymtnt npenounramr
cnnom nocnpenxrcrnonart nepexoy rypenxo apmnn n xnxxecrna.
8 uncna cero mecxna ropo cct tn nn]opmnponan, ncnecrnne
nonyuenno ns Fyxapecra renerpammt, uro npnnn Kapn Iorennonnepn-
cxn npntnaer roro uncna n Typno-Cenepnn. Hpnnn Kapn no npntrnn
na pymtncxym reppnropnm nsan npoxnamannm x pymtncxomy napoy
c saxnnennem o npntrnn cnoem n crpany, cocrannxmmym c nacroxme-
ro npemenn nropoe ero oreuecrno, o narococroxnnn napoa xoe nnue-
ro ne nomanr [10. C. 47-48].
Hs onecennn nncnex1opa npannennn cxynnncxoro Hen1pant-
noro xapan1nna eccapacxouy ryepna1opy o1 14 uan 1866 r.:
Bcx mnnnnnx, naxonnmaxcx n ccax, oxonuarentno ntcrynnna ns cc.
Ipannuept, sacrynnnmne na ee mecro n ccax, nauann yxonrt ecxr-
xamn n Poccnm.
Bcnecrnne nonyuennoro no renerpa]y npnxasannx ns Fyxapecra, 11
cero max ocnooxent ns-no apecra mnrpononnr Mnxnecxo, Posnonan
n nce nnna, apecronannte nnocnecrnne cotrn, nponsomemnx n
ccax 3 anpenx. Mnrpononnra ntnec napo na pyxax ns +xnnaxa n nep-
xont c xpnxamn: a spancrnyer Monannx! Posnonana conponoxa-
nn or mecra apecra o xnaprnpt copanmnecx o 10000 uen. napoa, c
xpnxamn: a spancrnyer Monannx! ono coennenne! He xornm
nnocrpannoro npnnna! [11. C. 1-2].
Marepnant Hannonantnoro apxnna Pecnynnxn Monona eme pas
noxastnamr, uro nponecc oennennx xnxxecrn nponcxonn nectma
onesnenno, snaunrentnoe uncno xnrene 3anpyrcxo Monont ntcry-
nano sa coxpanenne Monancxoro xnxxecrna n npexpamenne ynnn c
Banaxne. Fyxapecrcxoe Bpemennoe npannrentcrno npnmennno noen-
nym cnny nx pasrona mnpno emoncrpannn n ccax 3 anpenx 1866 r.,
apecronano px axrnnntx anrnynnonncron. Ho, necmorpx na xecrxne
mept, cenaparncrcxoe nnxenne n Monone ne yracno.
B cnoem ntcrynnennn n Fyxapecre (1937) Haun1n 24 nnnapn 1859
roa npo]eccop H. Hopra rax xommenrnpyer nocnecrnnx xponanoro
46
2009, N 2 (16)
cronxnonennx n ccax: Ecnn omno o nponeccnn, xoropax, no pen-
nemy otuam, ntmna ns mnrpononnn c nnatxo no rnane, n o nacro-
xme noopyxenno nrnt c rem mynrxncxnm nonxom, xoropt npnme-
nnn opyxne n nponnn ocrarouno xponn, nce +ro tno cenano no py-
ro npnunne: +ro tno cenano ns-sa cmemennx Kysa Bot, xoropt
nx nonepxenno Monont tn ropocrtm n yremennem. 3ror neuant-
nt ent n ccax npecrannxer coo, raxnm opasom, naxasanne sa
]enpantcxym nout roro xe roa n xnnxercx nennxnm axrom myxecrna,
noromy uro naroapx napymennm npncxrn monancxnm o]nnepom, no-
nnrnxom Hacx+pom Karapxny, nonx ocmennncx samnmart axe opyxn-
em ena cnepmnnmeecx nannonantnoe oennenne, pncxyx norepxrt
cnmnarnn monanan. H, nocne ncero, uro morno ocrannrt n yme +ro
rparnuecxoe cotrne, no ornomennm x Fyxapecry, a ro n xo ncem mx-
ntm pymtnam, npoonxnnoct conpornnnenne Hserann esnrt n no-
nym cronnny, n ecnn t ram ne naxonncx ennt napnamenr, +rn noes-
xn tnn t eme pexe. Kyntrypnte nmn tnn c ne eme ne snaxomt.
Anrnnarnx, onaxo, tna ropaso cnntnee y xenmnn n cpen camtx
opasonanntx n naropontx nme. [4. C. 290].
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Ipocv. B.B., Uepmau E.E. Poccnx n ]opmnponanne pymtncxoro nesanncn-
moro rocyapcrna. M.: Hayxa, 1969. - 267 c.
2. Uepmau E.E. Bennxne epxant n ]opmnponanne pymtncxoro nesanncnmo-
ro rocyapcrna. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1980. - 283 c.
3. Istoria Romniei. Vol. IV. Bucuresti: Editura Academiei Republicii Populare
Romne, 1964. - 860 p.
4. Istoria unirii romnilor de I. Lupas. Bucuresti: Fundatia cultural regal
Principele Carol, 1938. - 408 p.
5. Hcropnx Monannn. T. 1. Or pennemnx npemen o Bennxo Oxrxptcxo
connanncrnuecxo penonmnnn. Ho pe. A.. Vantnona n H.B. uepennnna. Kn-
mnnen: Bxoana conernx+, 1951. - 654 c.
6. Hcropnx Monancxo CCP. T. 1. Knmnnen: Kaprx Mononenxcx+, 1965. - 814 c.
7. Hcropnx Monancxo CCP. Knmnnen: Brnnnna, 1984. - 552 c.
8. Oroe H.A., Lapoe H.M. Kparxn xypc nexnn no ncropnn pymtn. Knmn-
nen: Cartdidact, 1997. - 214 c.
9. Cmenaumr B. Iocyapcrnennocrt monancxoro napoa. Hcropnuecxne, no-
nnrnuecxne n npanonte acnexrt. Knmnnen, 2006. - 632 c.
10. HAPM. u. 2. On. 1. . 7877. - 54 n.
11. HAPM. u. 2. On. 1. . 7862. - 4 n.
47

HPHKAPHATCKAR PYCL
H PYCCKAR HHBHAH3AHHR
18 nmnx na ncropnuecxom ]axyntrere Canxr-Herepyprcxoro rocy-
apcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera npomna mexynaponax nayuno-npaxrnuec-
xax xon]epennnx Hpnxapnarcxax Pyct n Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx. Opra-
nnsaropamn xon]epennnn ntcrynnnn ncropnuecxn ]axyntrer CHIV,
HA Pyccxax nnnnx n mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn
(Knmnnen). Benn xon]epennnm x.]nnon.n. onenr CHIV naxon Bna-
nunp Bacnnnx n rn. peaxrop Pyccxo nnnnn Ana1onnn C1ena-
non. Kon]epennnm npnnercrnonann x.n.n. samecrnrent exana ncropn-
uecxoro ]axyntrera onenr Enrennn Me1enxnn n enyrar 3axono-
arentnoro copannx Canxr-Herepypra Enrennn Mapuenxo. Ha xon-
]epennnn raxxe npncyrcrnonan npesnenr Cenepo-3ananoro orene-
nnx Henrpa connantno-xoncepnarnnno nonnrnxn Hropt mynanon.
Orxptn xon]epennnm x.r.n. onenr Canxr-Herepyprcxoro rocyap-
crnennoro ynnnepcnrera nn]opmannonntx rexnonorn, mexannxn n on-
rnxn Cepren He1pon (Canxr-Herepypr), ntcrynnnmn c oxnaom
O rpannnax Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n XXI nexe, n xoropom, cenan +xc-
xypc n ncropnm nen nocrpoennx enno cnanxncxo nnnnnnsannn, nt-
pasnn mtcnt, uro peantnoe nonnomenne +rn nen nonyunnn nnmt n
1945 r. n nne Bocrounoro noxa. Onaxo nocrpoenne +ro nnnnnnsannn
na cexynxpntx nauanax oepnynoct ee cxoptm xpaxom. Hepeuncnnn re
omyrnmte norepn, xoropte mt nonecnn n nocnenne rot, C. Herpon
npnmen x ntnoy, uro ceronxmnee name cocroxnne rnnnunt nx
nmo nocrnmnepcxo +noxn npnmep cyxennx rpannn. B saxnmuenne ox-
naunx ormernn, uro, noxa mt ne oxnnm ncne sa 3anaom o namnx
ncxonntx nennocrxx, noxa ne nponsoer nenoro nospoxennx, ocno-
nannoro na soponom rpannnonannsme, nnuero nsmennrt ne yacrcx.
Btcrynnnmn ncne sa nnm .ncnx.n. npexrop HHH xomnnexcntx
connantntx nccneonann npn CHIV (Canxr-Herepypr) npo]. Ba-
nen1nn Ceuenon n oxnae Poccncxax nonnmenrantnocrt n yy-
mee crpant nponen ananns menrantnocrn, cnocrnenno npecrann-
renxm Pyccxoro mnpa, opasno yxasan, uro nce rnnt pyccxoro uenonexa
n nx uncrom nne ntpasnn u.M. ocroencxn n Fpartxx Kapamaso-
ntx, noxasan n opasax Anemn, Hnana, Mnrn n Cmepxxona. Hpnnex
annte necxontxnx connonornuecxnx nccneonann, ocymecrnnenntx
ero HHH, B. Cemenon yxasan na cneymmne rnannte momenrt, neo-
xonmte nx nsmenennx ceronxmne cnryannn: coxpanenne onepnx
omecrna nepxnn n npesnenry; npeoonenne yxonno-npancrnennoro
48
2009, N 2 (16)
xpnsnca; ntpaorxa nannonantno nen. Ecnn mt ne cmennm opnenrn-
pt, ynepen npo]eccop, Poccnx nensexno pacnaercx eme pas.
pxnm n +monnonantntm tno ntcrynnenne nacroxrenx Kpecronos-
nnxencxoro xa]epantnoro coopa, xannara orocnonnx npo1one-
pen nun1pnn Cnopa ns Vxropoa, paccxasanmero o ncropnn py-
cnnon n cymecrnonanmero c 1918 no 1945 rr. rocyapcrna Hoxapnarc-
xax Pyct. anee oren nmnrpn nonean o opte pycnnon sa cnom
nannonantnym n pennrnosnym camonenrn]nxannm, nasnan conpemen-
nym Vxpanny +rnonaoparopne no ntneennm ocoo nopot nme
pyco]oon. Ho mnennm orna nmnrpnx, pycnnt +ro ynnxantnt
pennepyccxn napo, ynenenmn ocxonox Cnxro Pycn. Mt crap-
mn par, a ne nernt nennxopyccxoro nnn manopyccxoro napoa, cxa-
san cnxmennnx, npnsnanmn Poccnm noepxart nem cosannx py-
cnncxoro nannonantnoro rocyapcrna.
3arem c oxnaom Kapnarcxn xpa "omecnanxncxoe rneso"
ntcrynnn .n.n. npo]eccop Btcme anrpononornuecxo mxontHnxo-
nan Pyccen (Knmnnen), n xoropom on cenan +xcxypc n ncropnm, no-
uepxnyn orpomnoe snauenne pernona xax ]axropa pasnnrnx Pyccxo nn-
nnnnsannn. Bcne sa nnm .n.n. san. xa]epo myseeneennx CHIV
npo]eccop Anexcanp Manopon xocnyncx raxo manonsnecrno re-
mt,xax nnacrnuecxne cnxsn nontncxnx xnxse c Bnsanrne. Cyryo
ncropnuecxnm remam raxxe tnn nocnxment oxnat x.n.n. npeno-
anarenx ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera CHIV ennca Annuona K non-
pocy o +rnononnrnuecxo cnryannn n Bepxnem Horncte n IX n. ("mec-
ropasnnrne" xapnarcxnx pycnnon n xonrexcre nocranapcxoro npocrpan-
crna); nayunoro corpynnxa Hncrnryra cnanxnoneennx PAH Onera
Heuencxoro Omepyccxne acnexrt nenrnunocrn npanocnanntx
exrene Iannnnn n xonne XVI nepno nononnnt XVII n.; cryenra
ncr]axa CHIV Maxcnua nxa Xpononornx xpncrnannsannn npn-
xapnarcxnx cnanxn.
pxnm n nnrepecntm tn oxna npexropa Pyccxo nnnnn Cep-
ren Ipnroptena Pyco]nntcxax naprnx n Ancrpncxo Iannnnn, n
xoropom oxnaunx nsnoxnn manonsnecrnte crpannnt ncropnn Iann-
unnt, cymenme n pamxax nnocnanno Ancrpo-Benrepcxo nmnepnn co-
xpannrt ne rontxo cnom npanocnannym nepy, no n npopyccxym opnenra-
nnm. oxnaunx raxxe noxasan rparenm rannuan n rot Hepno mn-
pono nont, oepnynmecx nx nnx crpamntmn penpeccnxmn n xonn-
narepxmn. Ho mnennm C. Ipnroptena, rannuane-pyco]nnt +ro ynn-
xantnt npeneenr nx Pyccxoro mnpa.
K.n.n. rnannt peaxrop xypnana Hmnepcxoe nospoxenne Mn-
xann Cuonnn (Mocxna) n cnoem ntcrynnennn, nocnxmennom mecry
Hpnxapnarcxo Pycn n conpemennom mnpe, nasnan +ror xpa nenrpom
49

pasnnrnx Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, noxpyr xoroporo neercx opta mex-
y pasnnuntmn rpynnamn. Anannsnpyx conpemennoe nonoxenne pycn-
non na Vxpanne, on nponen napannent c Hcxonom, xoropt n cnoe npemx
crpemnncx opecrn nesanncnmocrt or Bennxoro Honropoa, xon]nnx-
ronanmero c Mocxno. oxnaunx raxxe xocnyncx ncropnuecxo remt,
paccxasan ncropnm pycnncxnx ceson nauana XX n., ormernn raxo
naxnt momenr: ecnn ceronxmnne xnrenn Hpnxapnarcxo Pycn nme-
nymr cex nexoe ocoo omnocrtm pycnnamn, ro nx npexn n cnoe
npemx ne orenxnn cex or pyccxnx. Ho mnennm M.Cmonnna, repmnn
pycnn n ecrt ne uro nnoe, xax cymecrnnrentnoe, oosnauammee o-
noro pyccxoro.
Bcne sa nnm ntcrynnn nerepyprcxn npenpnnnmarent n ome-
crnennt exrent Bacnnnn Bnonax, nocnxrnnmn cnoe ntcrynne-
nne yxonntm cnxsxm Hpnxapnarcxo Pycn n Poccnn. On nanomnnn, uro
ntxonamn ns +roro pernona tnn raxne nnnte pyccxne nepxonnte
exrenn, xax cnxro mnrpononnr Mocxoncxn Herp, npenoont Hon
Houaencxn n mnrpononnr Cre]an nopcxn. Bce onn, nouepxnyn B.Fn-
onax, yyun ntxonamn ns camoro npocnemennoro na ror momenr yrna
Pycn, nonnmann neoxonmocrt xonconnannn ncex pyccxnx cnn noxpyr
Mocxnt. B saxnmuenne on raxxe saunran nocrynnnmn emy oxna,
nocnxmennt reononnrnxe pernona, rnannt resnc xoroporo conpe-
mennt pycnncxn nonpoc moxer trt ncnontsonan conpemenntmn
reononnrnuecxnmn npornnnnxamn Poccnn nx ecrannnsannn cnrya-
nnn n pernone.
oxrop connonornn npo]eccop enrpacxoro Hncrnryra nonnrnuec-
xnx nccneonann 3opan Mnnomennu cenan nnrepecnt oxna o
pycnnax Boenonnt, xoropte nepexo nenrn]nnnpymr cex ram xax
pyccxne nnn manopocct. oxnaunx yxasan, uro n Cepnn pycnnt
nontsymrcx ncxnmunrentntmn npanamn: y nnx ecrt cnon rnmnasnn, re
npenoananne neercx na pycnncxom xstxe, xyntrypnte n omecrnen-
nte oprannsannn. Ho nmecre c rem, yxasan npo]eccop Mnnomennu, xax
nannonantnoe mentmnncrno pycnnt nepexo ncnontsymrcx anrncepc-
xnmn cnnamn xax paspymnrentnt nx ennoro rocyapcrna ]axrop.
naxon Bnanunp Bacnnnx n cnom ouepet cenan nontrxy pac-
xptrt raxym remy, xax "Pyccxax semnx" n Iannnxo-Bontncxo nero-
nncn. Hpoanannsnponan +ror ncropnuecxn ncrounnx, oren Bnanmnp
cpannnn ero no snaunmocrn c raxnmn namxrnnxamn, xax Cnono o nonxy
Hropene n Cnono o nornenn 3emnn Pyccxo. oxnaunx yxasan na
ro, uro nonxrne Pyccxo semnn nmeer n neronncn necxontxo cmtcnon:
Pyccxax semnx xax Knenmnna, xax ennoe omepyccxoe npocrpancrno
n xax +rnonnm. Kpome roro, samernn oren Bnanmnp, npnmeuarentno,
uro neronnct nastnaer xnxsx Pomana Bcecnannua napem 3emnn Pyc-
cxo, Pyct Hontm Hspannem, a Xonm Hontm Hepycannmom.
50
2009, N 2 (16)
K.]nnonor.n. npexrop Henrpantnoro mysex TanpntAnpen Mant-
rnn (Cnm]eponont) oparnn nnnmanne na raxym xnnorpenemymym
nponemy, xax orcyrcrnne nnrepeca rocyapcrnenno nonnrnxn Poccnn
x anxnanntm +rnocoomecrnam (Kptm, Hpnnecrponte, 3axapnarte)
na nnrennexryantnom yponne. Ho ero cnonam, poccncxne nnrennexry-
antnte xpyrn es +nrysnasma nocnpnnnmamr camocroxrentnym nonn-
rnuecxym nnnnm mecrntx npopyccxnx oprannsann, n, necmorpx na ne-
npexpamammnecx pasronopt o enncrne, npoonxaercx antnemax
]parmenrannx Pyccxoro mnpa. Houepxnyn neoxonmocrt ocranartcx
na nosnnnxx omepyccxoro enncrna, A. Mantrnn yxasan na ro ocrox-
rentcrno, uro nonnmanne +roro enncrna ceronx samerno nsmennnoct.
Mt epxnm oxont n naeemcx, uro Poccnn onn npnroxrcx, saxnm-
unn oxnaunx.
K.n.n. nayunt corpynnx Hncrnryra ncropnn PAH Anpen Map-
uyxon (Mocxna) n cnoem ntcrynnennn ormernn raxym onenym rou-
xy Poccnn, xax neconnaenne nannonantntx pyccxnx uyncrn c rocy-
apcrnenntm nonnmannem narpnornsma. C ono cropont, cxasan on,
mt cntmnm rocyapcrnennte npnstnt x narpnornsmy, no, nmecre c
rem, na +ro naxnatnaercx orcyrcrnne yxonno n npocnernrentcxo
saort o napoe, samanunnanne pyccxoro nonpoca n ocrpax connantnax
necnpanennnocrt. Fes opamennx poccnxn n pyccxnx c neoxonmo
nx +roro cmeno npnopnreron nenosmoxno pemenne omepyccxoro non-
poca, saxnmunn A. Mapuyxon.
K.n.n. onenr Tanpnuecxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera Anpen
Hnxnqopon (Cnm]eponont) n cnom ouepet samernn, uro yxpannnsa-
nnx +ro nepexonxa, nepeentnanne nme n pyco]oon. Cnocoom
samnrt Pyccxoro mnpa or nacrynamme na nero yxpannnsannn oxna-
unx nasnan neoxonmocrt nannunx ennoro nmnepcxoro nenrpa, xoro-
poro na ceronxmnn ent ner. Ho+romy, cunraer A. Hnxn]opon, noxa
pyccxnm, oxasanmnmcx na reppnropnxx pyrnx rocyapcrn, cneyer npn-
erart x nnomy nyrn orcrannannm cnonx pernonantntx npan, npoon-
xart necrn naprnsancxym opty.
K.n.n. rnannt peaxrop xypnana Pycnn Cepren Cynnx n cnoem
ntcrynnennn xocnyncx cnryannn n Monannn n cymecrnymme ram ny-
rannnt c +rnnuecxnm camoonpeenennem. Pycnncxoe nnxenne n Mon-
annn, yxasan on, nocnr ncxnmunrentno npopyccxn xapaxrep. 3arem on
cenan nosnanarentnt oxna Pycnncxn n yxpanncxn nonpoc n Poc-
cnn naxanyne Hepno mnpono nont, oparnn ocooe nnnmanne na
xapnaropyccxne nponecct n Ancrpo-Benrpnn n peaxnnm na nnx n Poc-
cnn.
Mnxann ponon, nayunt corpynnx Hncrnryra cnanxnoneennx
PAH, paccxasan o exrentnocrn pycnncxoro semnxuecrna n Mocxne, o
51

paore Knya pyse Kapnarcxo Pycn n npononmtx nm meponpnx-
rnxx. A .n.n. corpynnx Poccncxoro nncrnryra crparernuecxnx nc-
cneonann Tauapa Iysenxona npnsnana nayunym omecrnennocrt co-
sart n Poccnn armoc]epy mot na pycnnon, npnsnannym nosynrt
x nnm nnnmanne.
B xoe xon]epennnn, xoropax sanepmnnact neuepom, tnn npeyc-
morpent ne ncxyccnn, n xoe xoroptx yuacrnnxn ]opyma omenx-
nnct mnennxmn ne rontxo no nonoy nposnyuanmnx oxnaon, no n no
nponemam Pyccxoro mnpa. B xoe ncxyccnn ntcrynnnn ne rontxo ox-
naunxn, no n npecrannrenn nayuno omecrnennocrn Herepypra n
Mocxnt: rnannt peaxrop xypnana Pyccxoe camocosnanne Bopnc
nepnnnxnn; nayunt corpynnx Canxr-Herepyprcxoro rocynnnep-
cnrera Hropt 3aun1nn; x.]nnoc.n. onenr unen mpo Coopa npano-
cnanno nnrennnrennnn Anexcen mneunxon; samecrnrent npexro-
pa Henrpa yxpannncrnxn n enopyccncrnxn MIV Boran Becnantxo
n pyrne. Hopo pasropannct onontno xapxne n xecrxne ncxyccnn,
ocoenno no pycnncxomy nonpocy.
B saxnmuenne yuacrnnxn xon]epennnn ennoymno ocynnn npecne-
onanne yxpanncxnmn nnacrxmn no nonnrnuecxnm mornnam nporonepex
nun1pnn Cnopa. Vuacrnnxn xon]epennnn yuente ns Poccnn, Vx-
pannt, Cepnn, Monannn cunramr neonycrnmtm n npanocnanno
crpane ronenne na npanocnannoro cnxmennocnyxnrenx.
Honox nrorn xon]epennnn, rn. peaxrop Pyccxo nnnnn Ana1o-
nnn C1enanon nonaroapnn yuacrnnxon ]opyma sa axrnnnym paory,
a pyxonocrno ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera sa rocrenpnnmcrno. On no-
uepxnyn, uro oprxomnrer cosnarentno onpeennn ncropnxo-nonnronorn-
uecxn ]opmar xon]epennnn, nocxontxy crannn saauy xomnnexcnoro
nsrnxa na nponemy mecra npnxapnarcxoro pernona n Pyccxo nnnnnn-
sannn. Mt nnnm, uro nnyrpn conpemenno nonnrnuecxo +nnrt Poc-
cnn, x coxanennm, npeonaamr nacrpoennx orxasa or nmnepcxoro cny-
xennx. Bnnxrentnax uacrt poccncxo +nnrt xouer cpocnrt pemx
nmnepnn. K coxanennm, n n pyccxnx anxnanax, nnnmo, or ycranocrn,
naunnamr snyuart cenaparncrcxne nen. Ho+romy raxne xon]epennnn
ouent nyxnt. Mt, pyccxne nnrennexryant, onxnt sanxrtcx ntpa-
orxo nnrerparnnno neonornn, saxnnn A.Crenanon.
http://www.rusk.ru/
52
2009, N 2 (16)
Cepren HETPOB
IPAHHHL PYCCKOH HHBHAH3AHHH
K HAHAAY XXI n.
1. Ie cqepm nnnnnnn Poccnn?
Mt ronopnm o Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, no npecrannxem nn, re ee rpa-
nnnt ceuac, n nauane XXI n.? Tam nn, re tnn 20, 50, 100 ner nasa?
H npnneno nn ponenne na rocyapcrna n pesyntrare pacnaa CCCP x
cyxennm +rnx rpannn? Kax npecrannxercx, rounoro ornera na +ro ne
cymecrnyer, nocxontxy nponecc naxonrcx n nnamnxe, onaxo ntxnnrt
nexoropte renennnn mt moxem.
Tpannnonno npnnxro cunrart, uro nponecc nsmenennx nnnnnnsann-
onntx rpannn nnepnnonen, xax n cocrnenno nponecc ]opmnponannx n
pacnaa nnnnnnsann. Tax, no Tonn, Xanrnnrrony n n-uncny nx nocne-
onarene, rpannna Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn (Hpanocnanno, xax onn ee
nastnamr) na sanae nensmenna yxe 500 ner n npoxonr no Vxpanne n
Fenopyccnn. Hnepnnonnocrt oxcnnma, nocxontxy rpannnt nnnnnnsa-
nn, xax npannno, npoxoxr no nnnnxm pennrnosnoro pasmexenannx. 3a-
nanoe xpncrnancrno reppnropnn 3anano nnnnnnsannn; nocrounoe
Pyccxo.
He ocnapnnax +ror resnc, xouy, onaxo, samernrt, uro sa osnauennoe
npemx (500 ner) na nocroxe rpannna Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn nponnny-
nact na necxontxo rtcxu xnnomerpon n ymna anexo sa Vpan. Hocroxn-
na +ra rpannna rontxo na sanae.
a n ryr ne nce rax onosnauno, no Poccnx ncera nperenonana (ne
es ocnonannx) na nnnxnne n nocrounoenponecxnx rocyapcrnax, cun-
rax ]opmnponanne Cnanxncxo nnnnnnsannn ecrecrnenntm ornerom
nnnnnnsannn 3anano. Tax, n 1868 r. annnencxn nncan, uro Poccnn
npeocmoum oee eos+oruocmu: u.u e+ecme c npo:u+u c.aeua+u
oopasoeami ocoovm, ca+ocmome.iuvm rv.imvpuvm eouuuv, u.u
.uuumic ecroeo rv.imvpuo-ucmopu:ecroeo sua:euu oimi uu-
:e+
1
.
ecrnnrentno, n XVIII-XIX nn. cymecrnonann npenoctnxn ]op-
mnponannx nexo ontmo Cnanxncxo nnnnnnsannn (no annnencxomy
- Bcecnanxncxoro comsa), pannonecno nnn nourn pannonecno 3ana-
no, a rontxo raxym H.. annnencxn cunran xonxypenrocnocono n
Enpone. Hornxa n +rom tna. eno n rom, uro n Cnanxncxo nnnnnnsa-
nnn, ecnn t ona c]opmnponanact, Poccnx nrpana t naxnym pont, no
nce xe tna t panno cpen npounx. Hnaue ronopx, n Cnanxncxo
53

nnnnnnsannn orcyrcrnonana t neymax (crepxnenax - no repmnnono-
rnn C. Xanrnnrrona) crpana, noxpyr xoropo rpynnnpymrcx oxpannt.
B nexoroptx cnyuaxx noonte nnnnnnsannn onee ycrounnt, uem
nnnnnnsannn co crepxnentmn rocyapcrnamn. Tax, nanpnmep, xpnsnc
crepxnenoro rocyapcrna Poccnn n xonne XX n. ntsnan rnyoxn xpn-
snc no nce Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, nocxontxy oxpannt, opnenrnponan-
mnecx ncxnmunrentno na Poccnm, nepeonenn ncemn ee onesnxmn.
B +rom nnane conpemennax 3ananax nnnnnnsannx, re rpyno narn
ony neymym crpany, onee ycrounna, n xpnsnc n orentno crpane
(nnn axe rpynne crpan) ne xnnxercx xpnsncom nnnnnnsannn n nenom.
He nce cnanxno]nnt tnn cornacnt c nexmn annnencxoro o Bce-
cnanxncxom comse, n uacrnocrn, K. Heonrten, ncnomnnax pasen Hontmn,
cunran +ro nectma xpononponnrno saree. Tem ne menee, nex nnrana
n nosyxe. Hontrxa cosannx nexo Bocrounoenponecxo nnnnnnsa-
nnn (Bocrounoro noxa) tna ocymecrnnena yxe n conercxoe npemx.
Hocnenoennt pasen Enpont - ne npnxort Crannna, a peannsannx an-
ne nen. Cnanxncxax Enpona +ro c]epa namnx nnrepecon, nonarann
conercxne noxn ncne sa cnanxno]nnamn. B pesyntrare pyex Poc-
cnx-3ana n 1945 r. npomen no nocrouno rpannne uPI, Hrannn, Ancr-
pnn. Cornacnrect, ceuac axe rpyno noopasnrt, uro c]ept nnnxnnx
Poccnn eme nxrtecxr-copox ner nasa npocrnpannct o rpannn c Hra-
nne.
Onaxo ncxope ntxcnnnoct, uro +ror pyex ne nmen reononnrnuec-
xoro oocnonannx n nepcnexrnn na yymee. Hcropnx Banm Koxnnon
nnmer, uro eeono.umu:ecra "uecoe+ecmu+ocmi" c mar u.u uua:e
npucoeouue+i+u r CCCP eeponecru+u (nvcmi u eocmo:ui+u)
cmpaua+u co ece cuocmim eipasu.aci e mo+, :mo vre e umue
1948 eooa npoucxooum eeci+a pesru paspie CCCP c Peoc.aeue
xom, rasa.oci oi, oua oi.a uauoo.ee o.usru+ comsuuro+. B 1953
eoov paspasu.oci eoccmauue e Bocmo:uo+ Bep.uue, e 1956 eoov e
Ho.iue u c ocooeuuo cu.o e Beuepuu
2
.
uerxoe ocosnanne +ro reononnrnuecxo neconmecrnmocrn npo-
nsomno eme o pasnana Conercxoro Comsa, oruacrn no +ro npnunne
rax nerxo namn tna ornymena Bocrounax Enpona n nana Fepnnncxax
crena. B nmom cnyuae nepeannsonannax nex Bcecnanxncrna yxe npx
nn xora-ro nocxpecner. Fonee roro, rnxx na conpemennym cnryannm,
moxno xoncrarnponart: n xonne XX n. rpen nsmennncx, n na cmeny
pyccxo nonnt na Enpony XX n. mt nanmaem nacrynnenne 3ana-
no nnnnnnsannn na nosnnnn Pyccxo. Fopta sa Vxpanny, Fenopyccnm,
Kanxas, pecypct Kacnnx nnuem nntm ne oxcnnrt. uem saxonunrcx
+ra ornernax araxa, noxa ne xcno, ceuac mt moxem xoncrarnponart
nnmt npomexyrounte nrorn.
54
2009, N 2 (16)
* * *
Ecnn nrnxertcx n ncropnm, nerpyno oparnrt nnnmanne, uro n ne-
pnot pacnaa nmnepn npexe nnepnnonnte nponecct ycxopxmrcx,
rocyapcrna repxmr reppnropnn, c]ept nnnxnnx, no+romy nnnnnnsann-
onnte rpannnt nonepxent tcrptm nsmenennxm. Ftcrpo, xoneuno,
no ncropnuecxnm mepxam.
Kax npecrannxercx, Poccnx ntne nmenno n raxo cnryannn. Hocne
pacnaa CCCP ona norepxna reppnropnn, a n nocneymmne 20 ner n
pesyntrare nepmanenrnoro xpnsnca ncex cropon xnsnn repxna c]ept
nnnxnnx. Ieononnrnuecxne norepn Poccnn ne mornn ne cxasartcx n na
Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n nenom, no ecnn cnaeer crepxnenoe rocyap-
crno, ro cnaeer n ncx nnnnnnsannx n nenom. Honpoyem onennrt, uro
xe n cmtcne reppnropn npecrannxer ns cex Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx
ntne.
Hpexe, onaxo, yrounnm, na ocnonannn xaxnx xpnrepnen mt orno-
cnm reppnropnn x ro nnn nno nnnnnnsannn. Tontxo nn pennrnx pase-
nxer nnnnnnsannn? B npocrtx cnyuaxx nce nonxrno: Kptm ronopnr no-
pyccxn, xnnyr ram npenmymecrnenno pyccxne, xyntrypno cnxsannte c
Poccne nmn, ncnoneymmne npanocnanne. 3naunr, +ro uacrt Pyccxo
nnnnnnsannn, xorx n oropnannax or crepxnenoro rocyapcrna Poccnn.
Ho ecrt cnyuan n ne cront onosnaunte. He ncera axe ennax nepa
na rpannnax nnnnnnsannn xnnxercx pemammnm ]axropom cnnxennx.
Hanpnmep, xemuyxnna npanocnannx Houaencxax nanpa naxonrcx n
camom nenrpe 3anano Vxpannt nns Tepnononx. Hanpa ornocnrcx
x mpncnxnnn Mocxoncxoro narpnapxa, na cnyxax ram, xax n nonara-
ercx, perynxpno nomnnamr Mocxoncxoro narpnapxa, pyccxnx cnxrtx, n
rom uncne Anexcanpa Hencxoro, no xnnxercx nn upesntuano pennrn-
osnoe nacenenne Tepnonontcxo onacrn uacrtm Pyccxoro mnpa? Vex-
en, uro ner. Hnaue t ne nanpann o 90% ronocon na ntopax n +rnx
paonax nannonanncrnuecxn n pyco]ocxn opnenrnponannte naprnn n
xannart. a, ennax npanocnannax nepxont cnnxaer, onaxo xstx,
xyntrypa n +rnnuecxne xopnn nepenemnnamr ]axropt cnnxennx, no-
+romy rnnnunt sananoyxpannen, nycrt n npanocnannt, yxe ne omy-
maer cex uacrtm Pyccxoro mnpa. Cneonarentno, resnc nexoroptx
nccneonarene o rom, rauouu:ecra meppumopu Pvccro npaeo-
c.aeuo epreu
3
- +ro n ecrt Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx, ne xaxercx ec-
cnopntm.
Kcrarn, ro, uro reppnropnx Houaencxo nanpt xnnxercx nonem opt-
t nyx pasntx nnnnnnsann, nnno ns ncropnn. Ocnonannt n XVI n.
Houaencxn monacrtpt ro nepexonn x ynnaram, ro nnont nosnpaman-
cx no mpncnxnnm Pyccxo nepxnn; nnnxnne nontcxoe, nnnxnne pyc-
cxoe Hocnenxx nontrxa saxnara nanpt tna npenpnnxra ynnara-
mn n cepenne 90-x rr. XX n. Hocnenxx nn?
55

H npornnononoxnt npnmep - pycnnt Hpnxapnartx (3axapnartx
no conercxo repmnnonornn). Cunraercx, uro +ror +rnoc - ocxonox Kn-
encxo Pycn. uacrt pycnnon npnnanexnr Pyccxo npanocnanno nepx-
nn, uacrt - ynnarcxo, onaxo, necmorpx na pennrnosnte pasnnunx, +r-
nnuecxne xopnn nosnonxmr pycnnam cunrart cex uacrtm Pyccxoro
mnpa. Hmenno +rnnuecxne xopnn n xnnxmrcx cnno npnrxxennx. Hpan-
a, eme cxastnaercx oruyxennocrt or sananoyxpanncxoro +rnoca, n
cnxsn c uem enncrnenntm comsnnxom n +ro cnryannn pycnnam npe-
crannxercx Poccnx.
Tax nnn nnaue, na oxpannax nnnnnnsannn ner ennoro xpnrepnx, no
xoropomy moxno cxasart: +ro Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx, a +ro ner. Ie-ro
cnnxaer pennrnx, re-ro pemammnm oxastnaercx +rnnuecxoe pocrno.
Bnnmo, anannsnponart nao nce xpnrepnn npnnanexnocrn x nnnnnn-
sannn: nsmx, +1nnuecxne xopnn, pennrnm n xynt1ypy.
nx uero nam nyxnt raxne uacrnocrn? Bet ne conpaemcx xe mt
crannrt norpannunte cront mexy nnnnnnsannxmn? He conpaemcx,
no eno n rom, uro ocnonno yap xonxypnpymme nnnnnnsannn (n na-
mem cnyuae - 3anano) nanpannen na oxpannt Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, n
ram nponcxonr ncx opta sa nnnxnne. Bocrounoe naprnepcrno, nos-
moxnoe unencrno n HATO, acconnnponannoe unencrno n EC, onerue-
nne nnsonoro pexnma - nor napnanrt sanano +xcnancnn. B +ro cnxsn
upesntuano naxno nonnmart, xoro n no xaxnm npnsnaxam mt npnunc-
nxem ntne x Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n sa xaxne reppnropnn onxnt o-
portcx ncemn nosmoxntmn cpecrnamn, a c yrparo xaxnx onxnt
cmnpnrtcx.
2. Cyaenne rpannn
Kaxont xe rpannnt Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn ceuac, n nauane XXI n. n
xaxont namn norepn sa 20 ner nepmanenrnoro xpnsnca? Ocnonnte no-
repn ne na sanae, xya onee ncero npnxonano name nnnmanne, a na
nocroxe.
He tno nnxaxnx npenoctnox nx cymecrnonannx raxo crpant,
xax Kasaxcran. Eme 20 ner nasa pyccxnx n Kasaxcrane tno ontme,
uem xasaxon. 3ro tna pennrnosno nnn]]epenrnax reppnropnx, rono-
pxmax nourn ncxnmunrentno no-pyccxn. Ho nepenncn 1989 r., xasaxon
40 %; pyccxnx, nemnen, yxpannnen, ro ecrt ne xasaxon 60 % uro xe
mt nnnm ceuac? Ha 1 nmnx 2006 r. 59 % xasaxon, 26 % pyccxnx.
Hourn ne ocranoct nemnen, cocnanntx n 1942 r. ns Hononxtx. Hocxont-
xy nocnonnxemocrt xasaxcxoro nacenennx snaunrentno ntme, nexenn
pyccxnx, nponecc nocnr nourn anromarnuecxn xapaxrep. eno n rom,
uro ynennuenne onn xasaxon +ro ynennuenne mycyntman-cynnnron n
coxpamenne npanocnanntx. H xyntrypno Kasaxcran c nontmennem pe-
nnrnosnocrn omecrna yer orxonrt or Poccnn, nycrt ceuac eme n
cnnen mne] conercxo xyntrypt.
56
2009, N 2 (16)
anee. Ceuac n Kasaxcrane n ynorpenennn na nourn pannonen-
ntx xstxa xasaxcxn n pyccxn, no c 2010 r. nce enonponsnocrno
yer necrnct na xasaxcxom. Taxnm opasom, xomnnexr n nannunn:
xstx, pennrnx, xyntrypa n +rnnuecxne xopnn pasneyr Poccnm n Kasax-
cran ouent anexo. H nn no onomy ns +rnx xnmuentx +nemenron, xa-
paxrepnsymmnx nnnnnnsannm, ne yer connaennx.
onycxam, uro n oospnmom yymem Kasaxcran yer pyxecrnen-
ntm nam rocyapcrnom (Tamoxennt coms, EnpAs3c, OKF), onaxo
yxe nnxora - uacrtm Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn. nx cnpanxn: no reppnro-
pnn Kasaxcran ontme Vxpannt n Fenopyccnn nmecre nsxrtx. Bor ra-
xne norepn na nocroxe.
Ha sanantx pyexax, na mo nsrnx, oxonuarentno yrpauen manc
na cosanne ennoro rocyapcrna c Fenopyccne. Her, Fenopyccnx ne
nepecraer trt uacrtm Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, n rpyno npecrannrt,
uro n oospnmom yymem noonoe moxer cnyunrtcx. Onaxo onpo-
ct omecrnennoro mnennx, nponeennte n Fenopyccnn, nacropaxnna-
mr. Ecnn n 90-x rr. n pasrap entnnncxnx pe]opm, npnnarnsannn, ncenna-
crnx uyaca n poccncxnx onnrapxon - ro ecrt xora Poccnx, c name
rouxn spennx, tna maxcnmantno nenpnnnexarentna, - oxono 60 % e-
nopycon ntcrynano sa ennoe rocyapcrno c Poccne, ro ceuac, n ro-
paso onee cranntnoe npemx rontxo oxono 20%; npornn oennennx
ntcrynaer 74 %
4
. B ro xe npemx pacrer nponenr xenammnx n EC
(33,5 %). 3ro cnnerentcrnyer o rom, uro onronpemennt rpen cme-
nnncx n ena nn ennoe rocyapcrno renept nosmoxno.
3ect mt noxonm x npnunnam, npnnoxmnm x ocnanennm Pyc-
cxo nnnnnnsannn n cyxennm ee rpannn.
1. Henpnnnexarentnocrt moenn ee pasnnrnx nx cocee no CHI.
Oxnnn cex uacrtm 3anaa n npnnxn (xorx t na cnonax) nnepant-
nym oxrpnny, Poccnx n rnasax cocee ntrnxnr nopaxarenem. a,
mt nnora ronopnm o cnoem nyrn, no camn ne nonnmax, uro +ro raxoe,
rontxo noprnm nmnx, ntcrannxx cex +raxo neonornuecxo n xynt-
rypno nycrtmxo na noxa eme npountx +xonomnuecxnx norax. B nrore
nx 3anaa mt nxn Bocrox, a nx Bocroxa orcranax nponnnnnx
3anaa.
2. Bce nospacrammee nnnxnne 3anaa na nocrconercxne pecnynn-
xn. 3ananax moent, n ornnune or poccncxo, nonxrna, npnnnexarent-
na n mona. H urot xonxypnponart c 3anaom, nao xonxypnponart n
c sanantmn nennocrxmn. Hpo sanante nennocrn nam rnepxr co
ncex cropon (mt cxontxo yrono moxem nastnart nx ]antmnntmn n
noxntmn, no y onn y nnx ecrt), npo neonornuecxym npnnnexarent-
nocrt CCCP xax anraronncra 3anaa nanncant nente monorpa]nn, a
uro ntnemnxx Poccnx?
57

Bce +rn nponemt ocrpo cxonnenrpnponannct n nrne sa Vxpanny.
Hpnuem, nao samernrt, yxpanncxax sananoopnenrnponannax +nnra
ecrnyer conepmenno nornuno, c rouxn spennx crparernn nannonanns-
ma. Rmenxo cxasan, uro Poccnx xonuaercx ram, re xonuaercx pyccxn
xstx; cxasano cenano. Hontrxa cosannx Homecrno nepxnn - roxe
nornunt mar.
A xaxon orner Poccnn? Hennxrnt, mxrxo ronopx. O1xasanmnct o1
neonornn, um 1enept nponrpmnae1 nese, re neonornn nau
npo1nnoc1on1. Hannonannc1au na Yxpanne, c1oponnnxau sa-
nanmx nennoc1en n Boc1ounon Enpone a spancrnyer npar-
marnsm!
* * *
Bosmoxno, xomy-ro enenne reppnropn Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, npe-
noxennoe nnxe, no crenenxm nx npnnanexnocrn +ro camo nnnnnnsa-
nnn noxaxercx nexoppexrntm, onaxo, cunram raxoe enenne nnonne
nornuntm. eno n rom, uro cnoero nennunx Poccnx ocrnrana n momen-
rt maxcnmantnoro cocpeorouennx oxpann n cnonx rpannnax. Bcnom-
nnm Conercxn Coms nnn Poccncxym nmnepnm: ram nce oxpannt ne
mtrtem, rax xarantem conpannct n ennoe rocyapcrno. H nnmt ra-
xax copannax nnnnnnsannx npecrannxna ns cex momnym xyntryp-
nym n nonnrnuecxym ennnny.
Hoont npnmep ne ennnuen. Cnncxax nnnnnnsannx raxxe nmeer
crepxnenoe rocyapcrno Knra, xoropt nacrounno conpaer nce
nponnnnnn no cnoe xptno (Ionxonr, na ouepen Tanant). Coorner-
crnenno n ycnexom noono nnnnnnsannn xnnxercx maxcnmantnax nen-
rpannsannx. Bce npouee ecrt enenrpannsannx n ocnanenne.
Cne nenosmoxno npecrannrt no ornomennm x 3anano nnnnnnsa-
nnn, nocrpoenno no nnomy npnnnnny. Tam ner crepxnenoro rocyap-
crna, n neneno ntrartcx ntxcnxrt, xro ontme npnnanexnr 3anano-
my mnpy: Hcnannx, Hrannx, upannnx nnn Iepmannx. Ho+romy cymecrno-
nanne anno nnnnnnsannn n pamxax recnoro comsa, no n nannonantntx
rpannnax npecrannxercx saxonomepntm. Hntmn cnonamn, enenrpa-
nnsannx nopma nx noono nnnnnnsannn. To xe moxno cxasart n o
Hcnamcxo nnnnnnsannn.
Kaxont xe reppnropnn Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n nauane XXI n., n xax
onn coornocxrcx co crepxnentm rocyapcrnom Poccne? Hpexe
ncero, nepeuncnnm re uacrn Conercxo nmnepnn, xoropte ne npnnane-
xann x Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n ornaenne xoroptx or Poccnn moxno
cunrart narom.
3ro rocyapcrna Cpene Asnn: Vsexncran, Typxmennx, Taxnxnc-
ran; rocyapcrna 3axanxastx: Asepaxan, Ipysnx, Apmennx; crpant
58
2009, N 2 (16)
Fanrnn; Monona; naxonen, 3ananax Vxpanna, nxnmuax n reppnropnn,
ornocxmnecx x Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn. 3ro necrpoe nnnnnnsa-
nnonnoe oexno, oxpyxammee Poccnm, neer cex coopasno cnoe pe-
nnrnosno, +rnnuecxo n menrantno npnnanexnocrn. Ho reononnrn-
uecxnm mornnam onn moryr trt comsnnxamn Poccnn, moryr trt npo-
rnnnnxamn, no ncera yyr ocranartcx nx Poccnn uyxtmn nnnnnn-
sannonntmn xycxamn.
uro xe xacaercx Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, ro ee reppnropnn moxno yc-
nonno pasnrt na necxontxo rpynn.
1. Teppn1opnn c opnen1annen ncxnmun1entno na Poccnm.
K raxontm moxno ornecrn Kpmu, Hpnnec1ponte n Kanym Oce-
1nm. H nonxrno nouemy. 3ect npncyrcrnyer maxcnmantnoe uncno ]ax-
ropon cnnxennx: xstx, xyntrypa (sa ncxnmuennem Ocernn), pennrnx.
Kpome roro, n n Hpnnecrponte, n n Kptmy npoxnnamr n ocnonnom
pyccxne (nnn pyccxoxstunte yxpannnt). Tax uro ]axrnuecxn +ro mnnn-
Poccnn nann or ee rpannn. uro xacaercx Ocernn, ro no ncropnuec-
xnm npnunnam Poccnx enncrnennt ee comsnnx na Kanxase.
Ouennno, uro yxasannte reppnropnn yyr ncxart maxcnmantnoro
comsa c Poccne, nnnort o nxoxennx n ee cocran. Coornercrnenno, n
cnyuae antnemero cyxennx rpannn Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn n nnxa-
mne 20-40 ner +rn reppnropnn yyr ocranartcx camtmn nepntmn co-
msnnxamn Poccnn.
2. Yc1onunnme 1eppn1opnn.
K raxontm cneyer ornecrn Benopyccnm n Boc1ounym Yxpanny.
Vcrounnocrt sect nao nonnmart rax, uro +rnm uacrxm Pyccxo
nnnnnnsannn n nny snaunrentno uncnennocrn nacenennx, a raxxe no
npnunne pennrnosno, xyntrypno n +rnnuecxo nnsocrn Poccnn ne rposnr
tcrpax cmena nenrnunocrn. Or nepno rpynnt nx ornnuaer rontxo
ro, uro onn ncxnmuamr nx cex nnrerpannm c Poccne (cxontxo t ne
ronopnnn o ennom rocyapcrne). Bocrounax Vxpanna, xorx n cmorpnr
na yymee cnoero rocyapcrna concem nnaue, uem 3ananax uacrt +ro
crpant, no raxxe ne nnnr cex nne Vxpannt. O +rom ronopxr nce
onpoct omecrnennoro mnennx.
Ecnn nontrartcx ntxnnrt onronpemennt rpen, ro ryr nosmoxnt
napnanrt. Ecnn Poccnx +ro saryxammee cnernno, ro pe] +rnx
uacre Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn na 3ana npeonpeenen. On yxe nauan-
cx. Ecnn xe Poccnm xax rocyapcrno xer peneccanc, ro n Fenopyccnx,
n Bocrounax Vxpanna cxont yrono onro moryr naxonrtcx n opnre
Poccnn, ne cnnnaxct c ne n ennoe rocyapcrno.
3. Teppn1opnn Pyccxon nnnnnnsannn, nn xo1opmx nponeua
cauonen1nqnxannn na nepnou uec1e. 3ro Axasnx n Hpnxapnar-
cxax onacrt Vxpannt. na +rn pernona ponnr ro, uro rocyapcrna, n
59

cocran xoroptx onn nxoxr (nxonnn), orxastnamr nm n npnsnannn nx
nannonantno nenrnunocrn nnn ceptesno ymemnxmr +ry nenrnunocrt.
Foxct cenaparnsma n pacxona crpant, xax Vxpanna, rax n Ipysnx cno-
nmn ecrnnxmn ntsnann nsptn cenaparnsma, xoropt n npnnen x o-
pasonannm nesanncnmoro rocyapcrna Axasnn n ncnnecxy optt sa
npnsnanne ocooro craryca (xax mnnnmym, anronomnn) n Hpnxapnarte.
Poccnx nx +rnx reppnropn xnnxercx, no-nepntx, xyntrypntm nenr-
pom, a no-nroptx, enncrnenntm cnntntm rocyapcrnom, couyncrnym-
mnm nx ycrpemnennxm.
Onaxo, necmorpx na ]opmantnoe cxocrno, c rouxn spennx nnnnnn-
sannonno nnsocrn Poccnn, +rn pernont ntrnxxr conepmenno no-pas-
nomy. Pycnnt Hpnxapnartx +ro ]axrnuecxn ocxonox pyccxoro +rnoca,
neymero cnom ncropnm c Knencxo Pycn. Ho+romy npnnanexnocrt
ero Pyccxomy mnpy ne ntstnaer comnenn.
uro xacaercx Axasnn, ro xyntrypnax n pennrnosnax npnnanexnocrt
+roro rocyapcrna Pyccxomy mnpy nectma ycnonna. Haxoxct o
1810 r. n cocrane Ocmancxo nmnepnn, axast o ce nopt coxpannnn
cnon pennne xstuecxne rpannnn. B crpane nmemrcx cnxrnnnma, n
axe axast-xpncrnane, cornacno onpocam, ne cunramr sasopntm o-
pamartcx x pennrnn npexon. Kyntrypnax cnxst c Poccne nacunrt-
naer ncero napy coren ner. Onaxo, anraronnsm no ornomennm x Ipysnn
n ocrpoe xenanne nesanncnmocrn npnnenn Axasnm n nono Pyccxo nn-
nnnnsannn, n ne ncxnmueno, uro antnemee cnnxenne yer nponcxo-
nrt napacrammnmn remnamn.
Ouennno, uro nxoxenne n Omepyccxn mnp nx pycnnon n axa-
son npnxnanax nent; ]axrnuecxn +ro orner Vxpanne n Ipysnn sa orxo
or Poccnn. Inannoe nx nnx coxpanenne cnoe nenrnunocrn. Onaxo
or +roro yxasannte napot ne onxnt trt namn menee ynaxaemt.
eno n rom, uro ocnonnte nponemt Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn, xax mt yxe
ormeuann, naxoxrcx n ronone, ro ecrt n camo Poccnn. Ecnn ona
yer cnntntm nenrpom npnrxxennx, pycnnt n axast yyr uacrtm
Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn; ecnn craner noryxmnm cnernnom, ro rem ne
ocranercx nnuero nnoro, xax ncxart camoonpeenennx nne Pyccxo nn-
nnnnsannn.
Hecomnenno, nepno +ry nponemy pemnr Axasnx. Vxe ceuac En-
pocoms npoxnnxer x ne nnrepec, a xora saxonunrcx +nonex c npnsna-
nnem, Axasnx, naroapx cnoemy reorpa]nuecxomy nonoxennm, cra-
ner nectma nponnerammnm rocyapcrnom n uepnomopcxom pernone.
* * *
Mt ne sarponynn eme crpant Fanrnn 3cronnm n Harnnm (no nexo-
roptm anntm, n Pnre 70 % xnnr npoaercx na pyccxom xstxe), a rax-
60
2009, N 2 (16)
xe Monannm (es Hpnnecrpontx). B +rnx rocyapcrnax npoxnnaer
nemano pyccxnx, a n Monannn eme n pycnnon, xoropte, necomnenno,
npnnanexar Pyccxomy mnpy. Onaxo camn nonmenonannte crpant x
Pyccxo nnnnnnsannn ne ornocxrcx, no-nepntx, noromy, uro pyccxne ne
nmemr sect reppnropn xomnaxrnoro npoxnnannx, xpome, moxer trt,
cenepo-nocroxa 3cronnn, a snaunr, ne moryr nperenonart na xyntryp-
nym anronomnm, a no-nroptx, cnnmxom cnnen na +rnmn rocyapcrna-
mn sonr 3anano nnnnnnsannn.
Pesmmnpyx cxasannoe, cneyer xoncrarnponart cyxenne rpannn Pyc-
cxo nnnnnnsannn n nocnenne nanart ner. 3ro otunax xaprnna nx
pacnaammnxcx nmnepn. Hexoropte cepte sont, xoropte mt pant-
me mornn ornocnrt x c]epam nnnxnnx Poccnn, nce onee onpeenenno
cnxstnamr cex c 3anaom (3ananax Vxpanna, nycrt pennrnosno n
npnnanexamax Mocxoncxomy narpnapxary; npanocnannte Monona n
Ipysnx). C pyro cropont, ouennno, uro nponecc nannnoopasnoro
ocnanennx Poccnn saxonuen, a snaunr, ena nn n antnemem yer
nanmartcx raxoe xe tcrpoe cyxenne rpannn nnnnnnsannn. Ceptes-
noe nnnxnne na xo ncropnn, npana, moryr oxasart +rnnuecxne nponec-
ct, onaxo npoxnnrtcx onn cmoryr nnmt uepes na-rpn ecxrnnernx.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. auu.eecru H.B. Poccnx n Enpona. Hs-no Inaron, 1995. C. 337.
2. Koruuoe B. Poccnx. Bex XX (1939-1964).
3. Hepo+ouax Eequ+u (Mouceee). oxna n Canxr-Herepyprcxom roc. ynn-
nepcnrere na xpyrnom crone Pyccxn napo, Pyccxn mnp n Pyccxax nnnnnnsa-
nnx: ncropnx n conpemennocrt 20.03.2009.
4. annte nncrnryra crparernuecxnx nccneonann BISS (Fenopyccnx).
ypnan xoncepna1nnnon umcnn
"3ono1on Aen"
www.zlev.ru
61

npo1onepen nun1pnn CHOP
HOKAPHATCKAR PYCL
HAO IOCYAPCTBOOBPA3YKmEH
PYCHHCKOH HAHHH
1
1. Hpencnonne. Hs ncropnn cneyer, uro mnorne nannn npepac-
nonoxent x accnmnnxnnn cocennmn napoamn. Hcropnx noxapnaro-
pycnncxoro napoa raxxe cnnerentcrnyer, uro ero napot-cocen n
nenrpe Enpont
2
roxe ntrannct, n ne esycnemno, accnmnnnponart py-
cnncxoe nacenenne, oxasanmeecx nonem cye no nx nnacrtm. Bor no-
uemy coxpanenne nnnnnnsannonno nenrnunocrn noxapnarcxnx pycn-
non cynepenno pecnynnxn Hoxapnarcxax Pyct, xax nsanna
3
, rax n
nocne 29 nmnx 1945 r., npnopeno xapaxrep
4
omenannonantno saaun,
n n conercxo-crannncxo-xpymencxne npemena ono nocnno cxptrt, na-
renrnt xapaxrep. Touno rax xe na pemenne +roro rnannoro nx pycn-
non nonpoca coxpanennx nnnnnnsannonno nenrnunocrn noxapnarc-
xnx pycnnon - nanpannent nce pemennx noxapnaropycnncxnx oprann-
sann n nocne 1991 r. (nocne pe]epenyma-nnencnnra 1 exapx). Ho
saauy pemnrt oxasanoct eme rpynee, uem npn CCCP, n rxxenemnx
ycnonnxx npannennx yxpanncxo nannonanncrnuecxo rorannrapno nna-
crn. Hpn +rom xnnnact, npnuem, na nny y EC, CBA n Pu, npxmax n
orxptrax yrposa or Knena n Htnona yxe ne rontxo +rnonna, nacnnt-
crnenno accnmnnxnnn, no n xocnennoro, n npxmoro renonna pycnncxo
nannn (no rnny nontncxo pesnn rannuanamn nonxxon n enpeen).
2. Hc1opnuecxne m1pnxn +1nonnuon cnannne n pycnnm.
Bce mt tnn ncropnuecxn cnanxne! Ho ]opmantno ceronx cnanxne
no nannonantnocrn - rontxo xnrenn rocyapcrna Cnonennn. Vxpanna,
Poccnx, Fenopyccnx n Cepnx ncropnuecxn cnanxncxne crpant. Ho
mpnnuecxn npnsnannax cnanxncxax pecnynnxa - rontxo nannonantnoe
rocyapcrno cnonaxon Cnonencxax (Cnonanxax-Cnanxncxax) Pecnynn-
xa.
Mnorne xorenn t cxasart, uro nx npexn n pennocrn tnn pycnna-
mn. B pennocrn nce mornn trt pycnnamn. Pycnnt xnnn n Honropoe,
n Hcxone, Typone, Hemxonnne, n Hemepre-Htnone n na reppnropnn
Knencxoro, Mocxoncxoro n Benrepcxoro rocyapcrn. Ho c necnt napo-
on 1848 r. n pamxax Ancrpo-Benrpnn c]opmnponancx Pycnncxn no-
nnrnuecxn nannonantnt oxpyr
5
, n nponsomna nannonantnax camonen-
rn]nxannx pycnnon
6
.
62
2009, N 2 (16)
nx Iannnnn (xoropax c 1772 r. xax uacrt pasenenno Hontmn oxa-
sanact n pamxax Ancrpnn) nocne 1848 r. tn c]opmnponan nont, pa-
nee nensnecrnt nonnrnuecxn +rnonnm yxpannnt. K nemy, crapann-
xmn Ancrpnn, tna paspaorana rpammarnxa yxpanncxoro xstxa, sa-
rem orxptra n Hemepre (yymem Htnone) xa]epa nonoro yxpann-
cxoro xstxa n ana anronomnx.
Hrax, n pamxax Ancrpnn (c 1867 r. nyenno Ancrpo-Benrepcxo
nmnepnn) oruernnno c]opmnponannct na pasntx +rnoca, orentnte n
npnsnannte Beno napot: xopennte pycnnt no Kapnaramn n nont
+rnoc yxpannnt ns uncna nemnorouncnenno nnrennnrennnn Iannnnn.
Bcnecrnne nponeccon ]opmnponannx napoon n xonxperntx ycno-
nnxx, pycnnt Honropoa crann nennxopoccamn, pycnnt Typona crann
enopycamn, pycnnt Knenmnnt crann manopoccamn, a nocne 1918 r.
yxpannnamn ontmenncrcxo Conercxo Vxpannt.
Pycnncxax nonnrnuecxax nannx
7
cnoero camonasnannx ncnoxon nexon
npocro ne menxna. K romy xe ona oxasanact nne ynomxnyrtx nponec-
con, n nmenno noxapnarcxne pycnnt ocrannct pycnnamn n o cero-
nxmnnx ne
8
. Hpnuem, cornacno pemennm mnpno Cen-Xepmencxo
xon]epennnn 10 cenrxpx 1919 r., nmenno onn ocrannct enncrnenntmn
n mnpe mpnnuecxn npnsnanntmn noxapnarcxnmn pycnnamn, a nx
nannonantnax reppnropnx sa]nxcnponana n mexynapontx npanontx
oxymenrax Cen-Xepmena xax nannonantnax reppnropnx pycnnon na
mr or Kapnar.
uyrt panee, c 21 exapx 1918 r. +ra reppnropnx yxe nonyunna nonn-
rnuecxym anronomnm, yyun eme n pamxax Benrpnn
9
.
Hpocymecrnonana pycnncxax rocyapcrnennocrt o 1945 r.
10
xax an-
ronomnx n cocrane uexocnonaxnn n xax cynepennoe rocyapcrno 3axap-
narcxax Vxpanna-Hoxapnarcxax Pyct. Hocne 1945 r. ona nesaxonno
nonana n cocran Conercxo Vxpannt. Hocne pasnana CCCP ne concem
nernrnmno ona oxasanact n cocrane nesanncnmo Vxpannt, nocxontxy
nocnenxx n rpyo ]opme n ceronx nrnopnpyer nonensxnnenne napo-
a, npoxnnammero na +ro reppnropnn, ntcxasannoe na ocnonononara-
mmem nx pycnnon Vxpannt pe]epenyme 1 exapx 1991 r.
Bor nouemy nx yxpanncxo nonnrnuecxo +nnrt ner ontme yrpo-
st, uem saxonnoe nospoxenne pycnncxo nannn n saxonnoe noccranon-
nenne pycnncxo nannonantno rocyapcrnennocrn na +rnnuecxnx sem-
nxx pycnnon na mr or Kapnar, axe rontxo n nne anronomnn n ee
cocrane.
Hsnecrno, uro +rnonnm yxpannen cnnmxom mono no cpannennm c
pennnm enponecxnm +rnonnmom pycnnt, n c nospoxennem pycn-
non pymnrcx ontmax uacrt yxpanncxnx ncropnuecxnx n nonnrnuecxnx
mn]on
11
. Ho+romy n ana nonnrnuecxax xomana ncem nerxam yxpann-
cxo nnacrn n cnencnyxam rnopnrt +rnonn, ncxpnmnnannm, nacnnt-
63

crnennym accnmnnxnnm, renonn, cyente penpeccnn c yrposo +rnn-
uecxo uncrxn pycnnon. Bonpoc nannonanncramn nocrannen pepom:
pycnnon ner, n nx ne onxno yxe trt. A nce ocrantnoe yxpanncxne
ranysxn-nerxn. Vneprte pycnnt nx nnx rontxo arenrt, nxrax xo-
nonna, pyxa Mocxnt, cne Fyanemra, ]nnanconoe nnnxnne n-
acnopt CBA.
Oparnm cno nsop na ncropnm pennemero enponecxoro +rnonn-
ma rusen-ruthen (pycnn) n nponsnonoe or nero rutenorum (pycnnc-
xn), xoropt sa]nxcnponan oxymenrantno yxe n V n. On ynomnnaer-
cx n pnmcxo nponnnnnn Hopnxa (sannct n xpame cn. Herpa n Hanna n r.
3antnypr), re nanncano ne npocro pyrn, porn, poct, pyct, a
nmenno xax dux ruthenorum Odoacer noxt (xnxst) pycnnon Oo-
axp.
Kax nsnecrno, nepnoe pycnncxoe rocyapcrno na mxntx cxnonax rop
Kapnar Mapxna Pycenopym (Pycnncxax Mapxa) opasonanoct n X-
XI nn. Ero nosrnannn xnxst Hmpe, ctn nenrepcxoro xoponx Cre]ana. H
rora +rnonnm pycnn, pycnncxn yxe uerxo oosnauen
12
. 3arem py-
cnncxax nannonantnax reppnropnx nomna n cocran Benrepcxoro xopo-
nencrna
13
. Hosxe n cocran Ancrpnn, Ancrpo-Benrpnn, Benrpnn, re
21 exapx 1918 r. pycnncxax nannonantnax reppnropnx mnpno nonyun-
na saxonnt craryc cynepennoro anronomnoro rocyapcrna n cocrane
nono Benrpnn (xax Pyccxax Kpanna
14
), paspaorannt 200 unenamn
pycnncxo enerannn n Fyanemre n yrnepxennt nnacrxmn Benrpnn.
H ncmy, n ncera, nensmenno pycnncxax nannx nomnnr cno +rnonnm.
Onaxo ontmenncrcxn xaoc, oprannsonannt n Benrpnn nocnan-
nem Mocxnt Feno Kynom, sacrannn pycnnon ncxart pyrne nyrn cna-
cennx cnoe rocyapcrnennocrn n cocrane nonoro rocyapcrna uexoc-
nonaxnn
15
. B nero onn nomnn c xoncrnrynnonntm nasnannem Hoxap-
narcxax Pyct (nnn Pycnncxo-Pycnnnx) cornacno pemennm mexyna-
ponoro oronopa na mnpno xon]epennnn n Cen-Xepmene or 10 cen-
rxpx 1919 r.
16
uepes 20 ner, 22 noxpx 1938 r. n Hpare tn npnnxr
xoncrnrynnonnt saxon N 328, no xoropomy n Hoxapnarcxo Pycn, n
Cnonaxnn npeocrannxnact yxe ne npocro amnnncrparnnnax mnpoxax
anronomnx, a nannonantnax anronomnx c npanom nmert nannonantnte
napnamenrt, nannonantnoe rpaxancrno, npannrentcrno, cno rocyap-
crnennt nannonantnt ]nar, rnmn, xstx. uCP crana ]eeparnnntm
rocyapcrnom
17
.
15 mapra 1939 r. Com noxapnarcxnx pycnnon (nannonantnt napna-
menr ) nponosrnacnn anronomnym nannonantnym reppnropnm pycnnon
na mr or Kapnar xax cynepennoe pycnncxoe nannonantnoe rocyapcrno,
no rontxo n cocrane uexocnonaxnn. Hpn +rom ne concem nernrnmno ns-
meneno tno nasnanne crpant Hoxapnarcxax Pyct na Kapnarc-
xym Vxpanny. Ho n ror xe ent Benrpnx es npomenennx oxxynnpo-
64
2009, N 2 (16)
nana Hoxapnarcxym Pyct. Hpemtep-mnnncrp Benrpnn saxnnn, uro +ro
ne oxxynannx, a npeornpamenne yrpost nontncxo pesnn ceuennxa-
mn-nannonanncramn mecrntx pycnnon n nenrpon. Ononpemenno +ro no-
momt pycnnam n nosnpamennn nm nx anronomno rocyapcrnennocrn
nepe nnnom ouennno yrpost +rnnuecxo uncrxn pycnnon n nenrpon
rannnxnmn ceuennxamn-]amncramn
18
. uro +ro tno nmenno rax, noxa-
sann antnemne cotrnx. B 1941 r. nenrpamn tna nponeena nepe-
nnct nacenennx n Pycnncxo anronomnn. Oxasanoct, uro n ne npoxn-
naer 506 rtcxu pycnnon n necxontxo cor yxpannnen, n re ns uncna
+mnrpanron. Tax tn pacxptr epnnncxo-rannnxn saronop n a]epa ra-
nnnxnx ceuennxon-nanncron, xoropte sacrannnn A. Bonomnna cmennrt
nasnanne Hoxapnaropycnncxo anronomnn n nponosrnacnrt nx mecr-
ntx 506 rtcxu pycnnon rocyapcrnenntm uyxo nx nnx rannnxo-yxpa-
nncxn xstx cocee. 3ro tna nanncrcxax a]epa.
26 noxpx 1944 r. Hepnt Ces napontx xomnreron n Myxaueno
ycnnnxmn Crannna
19
nponosrnacnn nonoe nasnanne Pycnncxo Kpannt -
3axapnarcxax Vxpanna. Ouent naxno yxasart, uro ona ]axrnuecxn
ntmna ns cocrana uexocnonaxnn, nponosrnacnn nonnt cynepennrer. Io-
cyapcrnenntm xstxom, napxy c noccranonnenntm pycnncxnm, tn
oxnnen n pyccxn, a ancrpncxn ]nar Kapnarcxo Vxpannt, na-
nxsannt rannnxnmn ceuennxamn, nsmenen na xpacnt.
3. Pycnncxoe nannonantnoe rocyapc1no n coc1ane CCCP.
H. Crannn, xenax npncoennnrt Pycnncxym Kpanny x CCCP, ocosna-
nan cnoxnocrt nonpoca, no xax noenrent n none nn c xem ne cunran-
cx. Bet xora 3axapnarcxax Vxpanna-Hoxapnarcxax Pyct nponosrna-
cnna cno nannonantnt cynepennrer, ro, no nacroxnnm Xpymena, Mex-
nnca n HKB, ntnyxena tna npnnxrt mocxoncxn Mann]ecr n
npenoxennym ram ]pasy, uro yro 3axapnarcxax Vxpanna ne npocro
npncoennxercx x cnoe Conercxo marepn Vxpanne, a cnoono noc-
coennxercx (?) c ne.
Ocnonno nonnrnuecxn oxymenr Mann]ecr tn npnnxr no npe-
mx nont, na reppnropnn, oxxynnponanno uyxnmn nocxamn, n sone
oentx ecrnn 4-ro Vxpanncxoro ]ponra, xora nce rpaxancxne npana
n ecrnnx nnacre tnn npnocranonnent n ncx nnacrt naxonnact n
pyxax noennoro xomanonannx.
uopmantno nxoxenne Hoxapnarcxo Pycn n cocran CCCP cocrox-
noct n ]opme nonncannx n Mocxne 29 nmnx 1945 r. oronopa CCCP n
uCP (unpnnnrepa - Monorona) O 3axapnarcxo Vxpanne. 3ror oro-
nop Crannn sayman xax saxonnt axr npncoennennx pycnncxoro
nannonantnoro rocyapcrna x Conercxo marepn ero Vxpanne. Ona-
xo n no nropom cnyuae ne yunrtnanoct mnenne napoa cynepenno Py-
cnncxo Kpannt. Hrax, Crannntm tn nncnnpnponan oronop, xoroptm
65

3axapnarcxax Vxpanna (no Koncrnrynnn uexocnonaxnn Hoxapnarc-
xax Pyct) n craryce cynepenno nannonantno epxant npncoennx-
nact xax rocyapcrno x rocyapcrny.
V Crannna tna nponema. He nmex nosmoxnocrn Pycnncxym pec-
nynnxy nrncnyrt n Vxpanncxym connanncrnuecxym pecnynnxy, Hpe-
snnym Bepxonno Pat Vxpannt na reppnropnn uyxo nx nero py-
cnncxo reppnropnn opasonan crannncxym anomannm c nasnannem
3axapnarcxax onacrt Vxpannt. Tax tno ynnuroxeno ontmenncr-
cxnm Knenom parcxoe pycnncxoe nannonantnoe rocyapcrno, a rocy-
apcrnoopasymmym pycnncxym nannm npenparnnn n conercxym oxxy-
nnponannym nerxy yxpanncxoro napoa. Mocxna n Knen nnxonann.
Ceronx Mocxna monunr, a Knen n antme rnopnr ontmenncrcxn +r-
nonn pycnnon, npecrynnym ncxpnmnnannm, nacnntcrnennym accnmn-
nxnnm, nmemmne npnsnaxn renonna pycnncxo nannn.
Hpnxonrcx nanomnnart, uro rontxo noxapnarcxne pycnnt ns ncex
ncropnuecxnx pycnnon mnpa
20
c]opmnponannct n nonnrnuecxym na-
nnm n 1918 r., r.e. pantme na uertpe roa, uem c]opmnponancx Coner-
cxn Coms, paspymnrent pycnncxo rocyapcrnennocrn n ynnuroxnrent
pycnncxo nannonantnocrn. Ceronx nnnte ncropnxn n npanonet
Poccnn ncnxonornuecxn ne moryr cnomart n cee ontmenncrcxn cre-
peornn o pycnnax xax crapom nasnannn yxpannnen n monua rnxxr na
+rnoyncrno pycnnon, rnopnmoe pyxamn opanxentx emoxparon, no
cyrn, partxmn-yxpannnamn.
A net pycnnt n rpynoe npemx (renonn pyccxo nannn c 1918 no
1991 r.) coxpannnn pyccxocrt n n nasnannn cnoe nannonantno epxa-
nt Hoxapnarcxax Pyct, rtcxuenernee nasnanne cnoero +rnonnma
pycnnt. B uncne nepntx napoon Enpont pycnnt c nmontm npnnx-
nn pyccxnx +mnrpanron ns Poccnn n nsrnanntx ns Hontcxo Iannnnn
yxpannnen.
Mornn nn npenne1t pycnnm n 20-x, 30-x rr., u1o onn, npn-
nnuan n cnon ou pyccxnx +unrpan1on n rannnxnx neneranon,
xax pa1ten, npnnnuam1 yymnx paspymn1enen cnoen rocyap-
c1nennoc1n n nannonantnoc1n?!
Kaxona cnryannx ceronx? Pycnnt n ceronx ne npnnnmamr pyco]o-
a ncenonarpnapxa unnapera, rannnxym pyco]onm n nospoxammn-
cx n Vxpanne nannsm c peannnranne ]amnsma n aneponmnnt. 3na-
unr nn +ro, uro pyctxn napo pycnnt xnn? a! Hoxapnarcxne py-
cnnt xnnyr, crpoxr xpamt, coopt n monacrtpn, uem nornepxamr
cnom cnoconocrt ne rontxo ntxnrt, no n noccranonnrt cno oconer-
cxn craryc cynepennoro nannonantnoro pycnncxoro rocyapcrna!
4. Tontxo nn y pycnnon ec1t nc1opnuecxne cnne1entc1na?
Ham uacro ronopxr yxpanncxne n nexoropte poccncxne ncropnxn: y
pycnnon nponema c ncropnuecxnmn oxymenramn nauana cocrnenno
66
2009, N 2 (16)
pycnncxo ncropnn. Mt, pycnnt, orneuaem nm rax: a nt nocmorpnre na
nonpoc nauana +rnonnma pyccxn! B mnpono ncropnuecxo nayxe mano
naercx nponem, cpannnmtx n c raxnm nonpocom: xaxoe xe tno co-
crnenno nauano Pycn? Hnrepec x +romy nonpocy co cropont oreue-
crnenntx n sapyexntx yuentx, mnpoxnx omecrnenntx xpyron, cyx
no naxany ncxyccn n crpacre noxpyr nero, ouent nennx
21
. H nonpoc
rax n ne pemen oxonuarentno! Ho net rpn pyccxnx +rnoca-cenaparnc-
ra - nennxopocct, enopocct, manopocct - c]opmnponannct xax or-
entnte napot-nannn. H xaxax ns nnx nanncana cnom nannonantnym
ncropnm.
3amernm, uro xax nepnt nemenxn nopmannsm, rax n conpemen-
nt ocnanxnennt nopmannsm npouno sacrpxnn n ncropnn pyc-
con c XIX n. H o cnx nop ne onycxaer ]apncecxn nopmannsm
axe ncxyccn
22
.
Bnx, uro c nosnnn nmnnanrnponannoro n reno pyccxo ncropnn,
xax sanosa, nopmannsma conepmenno nenosmoxno oxcnnrt nauano ee
(pyccxo ncropnn) n npn +rom nenosmoxno nopnart c nnm. axe ncro-
pnx Knmuencxn nasnan nce +1n yuenme ycnnnn passncnn1t na-
pnacxnn nonpoc nnnenneu na1onornn n yrnepxan, uro cran
pannoymen x oenm reopnxm nopmanncxo (npenmymecrnenno, reo-
pnn nnacrt nmymnx) n cnanxncxo (narpnornuecxo)
23
. Ceronx nam yxe
nerue, uem Knmuencxomy, ynnert mexannsm ecrnnx sanost nopma-
nnsma, no mnornmn ncropnxamn oxasano, uro +noxa nnxnnron tna
c]apnxonana
24
. A nmenno ona n crana ]ynamenrom nopmannsma, xora
npenamepenno pasonnxon nnxnnron ntann sa ptnape. A net
snamr onnonenrt nonnnno pyccxo ncropnn, uro nmenno nopmannc-
xoe pemenne napxro-pyccxoro nonpoca nerxo neer x nsmenennm nsrnxa
n na ncm pennmm Pyct
25
.
Hponema poccncxo ncropnorpa]nn n rom, uro onosnauno nonpoc
+ror nnxora ne rpaxronancx. B oreuecrnenno n sapyexno nayxe
napxron n pyct ntanann sa nopmannon, cnanxn, ]nnnon, nnronnen, nen-
rpon, xasap, roron, rpysnn, npannen, xentron, enpeen n r..
26
, no nnxora
nouemy-ro ne onycxann, uro +ro mornn trt n nepecenennt pycnnt ns
Tncco-ynacxoro accena, o uem ynomnnaer, xcrarn, Hecrop Hero-
nncen. Hpana, Honecrt npemenntx ner (HBH)
27
, nex noponym
ecey o exrentnocrn n IX-X nn. cpen nocrountx cnanxn napxro-
pyccxnx xnxse n npnunnax opasonannx rocyapcrna pannero cpene-
nexontx, nmenyemoro HBH rontxo xax Pyct, Pyccxax semnx, a Pyc-
cxym crpany, nacenennym pyctm, rontxo pyccxnmn, pycnnamn (ronopx-
mnmn na pyccxom xstxe n xnnymnmn no saxony pyccxomy), nnre npx-
mo ne yxastnaer nn na nx +rnnuecxym npnnanexnocrt, nn na nx nep-
nym npaponny. 3ro n anano npocrop nx pasntx rnnores n npenono-
xenn, no ne onee
28
. To xe enan n M.H. Horonn
29
, xoropt yxe n
67

1874 r. ntcxasan mnenne, uro rontxo ns Hemancxo Pycn n tna npn-
snana napxxcxax Pyct
30
.
C.M. Cononten xe n 1855 r. c yonnernopennem xoncrarnponan, uro
rontxo orpnnanne cxannnancxoro nponcxoxennx Pycn yxe ocnoox-
ano or npeno onocroponnocrn
31
. necrn ner nasa A.H. Bnenep,
no cnonam B.O. Knmuencxoro, c nepnntm paccrpocrnom n camonmn-
em ntcrannxn cnoe mononontnoe npano na nepnencrno n pyccxo ncro-
pnuecxo nayxe
32
. A uro mt nmeem ceronx?
Pycnnt noxapnarcxne xax uerneprt nocrounocnanxncxn napo
npearamr nopmannnsnponanntm poccncxnm n yxpanncxnm ncropn-
xam n nonnrnxam nsrnxnyrt na ncropnm pennepyccxoro napoa ne rontxo
c cenepa, no n co cropont Tncco-ynacxnx sement, xax o +rom rono-
pnr n cnoe neronncn n Hecrop Heronncen. Ecrt xomy nomnnrt!
5. 3amnunnoc1t, qana1nsu n qapncenc1no yxpanncxon nonn-
1nuecxon +nn1m 1onxam1 e ceronn na +1nonn n renonn py-
cnncxon nannn.
Mor nn xro npennert, uro rouno rax, cnono n cnono, xax ntcrynann
nonxxn npornn rannuan-yxpannnen n 1944 r., rannuane nommr ceronx
npornn pycnnon 3axapnartx (c 1991 no ceronx 2009 r.).
Tax, rasera Bentxa Hontcxa sa 19 anpenx 1944 r. n crarte Vx-
panna nncana o rom, uro +ro nemnt nsopenn yxpanncxn napo nx
cnonx nene
33
. Vxpannnt ne nmemr npomnoro, cneonarentno, ne mo-
ryr nmert cnoero rocyapcrna. Vxpanna +ro nemenxax cmyra, nnmc
necxontxo ecxrxon yxpanncxnx exrene, nocnnranntx n ntmxonen-
ntx n nemenxo mxone, pantme ancrpncxo, a renept n rnrneponc-
xo
34
.
Iasera manen Kpeconn or 27 mapra 1943 r. nncana, uro nocrou-
nte semnn Peun Hocnonnro tnn n xnnxmrcx ncxnmunrentno nontcxn-
mn. Pyccxn (yxpanncxn) napo, xoropt ram npoxnnaer, ecrt rontxo
nernt nontcxoro napoa (cpannnre: Knen cunraer, uro pycnnt 3axap-
nartx - nerxa yxpanncxoro napoa); B yymem, urot cenart +ro
nnemx nonnocrtm nontcxnm, neoxonmo nnxnnnponart orentnte xo-
sxcrnennte n pyrne oprannsannn yxpannnen (cpannnre: nnacrn n Vx-
panne cnemar npnnynrentno pasornart ceronx pycnncxn Com HP
xax nannonantnym pycnncxym oprannsannm); Mt (nonxxn) ynnuroxnm
orentnoe yxpanncxoe mxontnoe opasonanne (cpannnre: n Vxpanne nna-
nomepno ynnuroxamr pycnncxoe opasonanne), ynnuroxnm orentnoe
nnctmo xnpnnnnny n orentnt xanenapt
35
.
Haxonen, n xypnane Hnanapu sa xnnapt 1943 r. n crarte Vxpa-
nnnt onxrt naxonm yrnepxenne, uro Vxpanna +ro ntymxa nem-
nen, a Htnon xnnxercx nsneuno nontcxnm ropoom. Hn o xaxo ]eepa-
68
2009, N 2 (16)
nnn, nn o xaxo axe anronomnn nx +roro mentmnncrna rannnxnx
pycnnon (yxpannnen) ne moxer trt n peun
36
.
Hrax, nosnnnx Hontmn n 1944 r. no ornomennm x yxpannnam-rannua-
nam tna raxax, xax ceronxmnxx yxpanncxax-anrnpycnncxax, o uem
satnn rannuane, a nmenno: 1. Orpnnanne nonxxamn npana yxpanncxo-
ro napoa na cocrnennoe rocyapcrno. 2. Hx nontrxa rpaxronart yx-
panncxn napo xax necnocont x cocrnenno rocyapcrnenno xns-
nn, no+romy Hontma onxna saornrtcx o nem nnn ocnoonrt ero. 3.
Tpaxronxa yxpanncxnx sement xax nonpnm cnoe reppnropnantno n
nonnrnuecxo +xcnancnn. 4. Tpaxronxa yxpanncxo nponemt xax co-
crnennoro, uncro nnyrpennero, ena
37
.
Tora n Hontme nontcxne nannonanncrt cosanann nontcxne noopy-
xennte nopasenennx npornn yxpannnen
38
. (Cpannnre: Htnon ceronx
roron cosart mrypmonte orpxt cnoot, nonte VHA-VHCO npo-
rnn pycnnon 3axapnartx).
K +romy samernm, uro nporpamma ]eepannsma Rse]a Hnncycxo-
ro nocnpnnnmana cosanne Vxpannt xax yrposy nenocrnocrn Hontmn
39
(xax ceronx Knen cunraer anronomnm 3axapnartx pacxonom crpant).
Moepnnsnponannax ueepantnax nporpamma xax oxrpnna nontcxo-
ro npomerensma n xanyn mnpono nont npeycmarpnnana ynnm nce
Vxpannt c Hontme, no rontxo es Iannnnn, noromy uro ra nonpocry
ocrananact peantno nontcxo na 70%
40
.
Honnrnuecxne naprnn Hontmn npoxnnxnn monnnnsm no ornomennm x
yxpannnam (xax ceronx yxpanncxne naprnn no ornomennm x pycnnam).
Concem nepeuepxnnanoct npano na cymecrnonanne yxpannnen n Xonm-
mnne, Honecte, Honxmte
41
.
Mnorne nccneonarenn ynpexamr nonxxon n rom, uro onn, xax n yxpa-
nnnt ceronx, ne saornnnct o cnpanennntx +rnnuecxnx npeenax
cnoero rocyapcrna, a nacrannann na ncropnuecxnx rpannnax Hontmn,
uro n npnneno x naennm nx.
Paspemenne +roro nannonantnoro ysna nponem ycmarpnnanoct ra-
nnnxnmn yxpannnamn n rom, uro pasronapnnart o mnpno xnsnn c nonx-
xamn yxpannnam moxno yer nnmt rora, xora n nx, yxpanncxnx, py-
xax yer raxax xe (noennax) cnna, xax n y nonxxon
42
. Henanncrt nnn
yxnncxn pe
43
n ornomennn x pyccxnm Mocxoncxo Pycn y nonx-
xon rpannnonno conponoxaercx crpaxom, a no ornomennm x pyccxnm
Knencxo Pycn ona ncera conponoxanact npespennem. Bo npemx Peun
Hocnonnro onn manopoccon npesnpann, xax cnonx xononon. H ceronx
nonxxn cunramr yxpannnen cnoe neyauno ]anrasne, naroapx xo-
ropo nmn tnn ntneent n rannnncxo +rnonaoparopnn yxpann-
nt
44
.
Bcnecrnne +roro +rnnuecxax uncrxa nonxxon, nsnecrnax, xax no-
ntncxax pesnx nonxxon n enpeen, npecnonyrax exrentnocrt OVH-
69

VHA, ]opmar aneponmnnt y rannnxnx nonoyxpannnen, pyco]onx
n pycnno]onx moryr trt nasnant npenamepenntm pesyntrarom
nontcxo-ancrpncxoro ]opmara yxpanncxo nannn.
6. ec1ouanmee conpo1nnnenne pycnncxouy nospoaennm ra-
nnnxnx nannc1on cponn yc1poennon nun nonmncxon pesne
nonnxon n enpeen.
Koneuno, Htnon cront ptxno conpornnnxercx saxonnomy nospoxe-
nnm pycnnon no ro npocro npnunne, uro e-]axro peut ner o yrpo-
se pyco]ocxomy npoexry, ocymecrnnxemomy o]nnnantntm Knenom. Ho
cyrn, saxonnoe, ecrnymmee n npanonom none pycnncxoe nnxenne
moxer, no cnonam yxpanncxnx neonoron, noopnart neonornuecxym
monononnm n ncm cncremy nontcxo-ancrpncxoro oocnonannx yxpa-
nncxo moenn nenrnunocrn. A noccranonnenne oconercxoro crary-
ca pycnncxoro rocyapcrna n yxa pennepyccxoro enncrna cmoxer
narornopno nonnnxrt n na camocosnanne ncex pyccxnx
45
.
Enpone n mnpy crano ouennno, uro npenoxennt Knenom n Htno-
nom nx pycnnon orxas or nx ncropnn, orxas or craporo pycnncxoro ca-
mocosnannx, or ornoncxoro nmenn - +ro noptn ne rontxo npomnoro, no
n yymero pycnncxo nannn. B npornnocroxnnn yxpanncxomy +rnonny
n renonny n cocronr rnynnnt cmtcn axrnnnoro pycnncxoro nospox-
ennx. Hmenno coxpanenne npaornoncxoro nmenn, cnoe penne nen-
rnunocrn ononpemenno c nnonne conpemenntm ee pasnnrnem, axrya-
nnsnpymmnm mecrnoe camocosnanne n ocoennocrt noxapnarcxoro nc-
ropnuecxoro ontra, npnaer pycnncxomy nnxennm ontmym snaun-
mocrt nx ncex namnx nocrountx crpan. Ecrt mnenne, uro n nce noc-
rounoe cnanxncrno ncrynaer n nepno mnpoxomacmrantx nepemen n
cncreme +rno-reppnropnantno cyexrnocrn n nannonantno nonnrn-
xn
46
, pycnnt nyr n ananrape.
Hpanono saxonnt ntson, pomennt nannonantntm pycnncrnom
nonnrnuecxomy yxpanncrny n ero rannnxnm mn]am n omtcnam, no
mnorom moxer npeonpeennrt yymee ncero nocrounoro cnanxncrna,
n rom uncne n ncero pyccxoro napoa. Baxno ro, xax pasnnnaercx n
axryannsnpyercx pycnncxoe nannonantnoe nnxenne, xax ono ]opmynn-
pyer cnon saaun n rpeonannx, cnom nenrnunocrt. Hmenno raxax
moent moxer art nam re mexannsmt, xoropte nosnonxr yxe n cxo-
pom yymem nsexart nontx ceptesntx xon]nnxron n crponrentcrna
nontx sarpanrentntx cren na ncxonno semne Cnxro Pycn!
Hanomnnm, uro anno paspymen n mn] yxpanncxnx nannonanncron o
npnnnnnnantnom anrpononornuecxom pasnnunn mexy pyccxnmn n yx-
pannnamn
47
.
Oxasanoct, uro na samernom yanennn or xpa Vxpannt naxoxrcx
nmenno xapnaropocct
48
, xorx onn anexn or rannnxoro nannonannsma.
70
2009, N 2 (16)
Vx ecnn ronopnrt o ornnunxx, ro nanontmee ornnune or nocrou-
nocnanxncxoro anrpononornuecxoro rnna npecrannxmr coo rannua-
ne
49
. 3rn ntnot anrpononoron, npononnmnx cnon nccneonannx n
50-x-60-x roax npomnoro nexa, nornepnnnct amepnxancxnmn rene-
rnxamn n 2007 r.
50
Hayunte nccneonannx noxasann nect pe cero-
nxmnnx yxpanncxnx nonnrnuecxnx pyco]ocxnx n pycnno]ocxnx mn-
]on
51
.
7. K1o nepnmu o1sone1cn ceronn na son nopaomnnmx py-
cnnon?
Hoxnnenne na nonnrnuecxo xapre noccranonnenno anronomno pec-
nynnxn Hoxapnarcxax Pyct morno t oxasart xnsnenno neoxon-
mym noepxxy ne rontxo pycnnam n pyrnx rocyapcrnax nne Vxpan-
nt, re, necmorpx na cpannnrentnym emoxparnm Enpocomsa, nce xe
npoonxaercx accnmnnxnnx pycnncxoro nanmentmnncrna
52
. Baxno +ro
n nx camo Poccnn, re nacenenne raxxe nspxno pacrepxno pyccxocrt
n ee nsnauantnom nonnmannn
53
.
Bet, yxasan pyccxnm Poccnn, uro Pyccxax semnx npnnxna npanocna-
nne, nnctmennocrt n pyccxocrt or Tncco-ynacxnx pycnnon
54
, moxno
art ncem nonxrt, o xaxnx pyexe ona (Pyccxax semnx) ceronx npo-
crnpaercx. 3ro yxaxer, re eme xnnyr noromxn pennero pyccxoro na-
poa xnnte pycnnt , uro no mnorom ycrpannr ente nxrna n name
omepyccxo ncropnn.
Kro xe nepnt orsonercx ceronx na son nopaomenntx noxapnar-
cxnx pycnnon? EC nnn Pu? Hyume tno t, ecnn t orosnannct nce n
conmecrno nomornn nmenno noxapnarcxnm pycnnam noccranonnrt nx
nannonantnocrt n oconercxn craryc nx rocyapcrnennocrn.
A npnsnanmn e-]axro ro, uro o ceronx n cnne e-mpe, mnponoe
coomecrno nomorno t pycnnam mnpno
55
sanxrt cnoe saxonnoe npano-
noe xoncrnrynnonnoe mecro n nenrpe Enpont! Hpn +rom, noccranonnn-
mnct xax cyexr mexynaponoro npana, rontxo npnsnannax pycnnc-
xax nannx cmoxer crart rapanrom mnpntx nponeccon n nenrpantno-
enponecxom pernone.
Ho noxa yxpanncxax nonnrnuecxax +nnra nponnxnyra orxponenntm
nannonannsmom n pyco]one. Ona ryno cunraer pycnncrno rem, uro
noptnaer mn]onornuecxym neonornuecxym monononnm n cncremy
oocnonannx yxpanncxo moenn nenrnunocrn, c]opmnponanno cnep-
na n Ancrpnn, a sarem ocymecrnnenno ontmennxamn nocne 1917 r.
Hoxa xe no nnne yxpanncxoro nannonannsma yer cymecrnonart n 3a-
xapnarte ouar mexnannonantnoro xon]nnxra, ns-sa orxptroro +rnonn-
a, ncxpnmnnannn pycnnon n XXI n. n nenrpe Enpont.
Ho nponecc noccranonnennx pycnncxo rocyapcrnennocrn yxe na-
uancx, n ero nentsx ocranonnrt. Pycnnt yxe ne xorxr xnrt no-crapomy
71

no ontmenncrcxo-yxpanncxn, a nnacrn Vxpannt necnocont nocry-
nart no-nonomy, no-emoxparnuecxn. uro cxaxyr EC n Pu? Pycnnt
cnoe cnono o noccranonnennn cnoe nannonantno oconercxo rocy-
apcrnennocrn yxe cxasann!
Pycnnm no-npeaneuy nxon1 n nennxym ceutm rocyapc1n n
napoon Boc1ounon npanocnannon nnnnnnsannn!
HPHAOEHHE N 1. Benrepcxnn 3axon N 10 o1 21 exapn
1918 r. o npeoc1annennn pycnncxon nonn1nuecxon nannn mn-
pouanmen nannonantnon an1onounn.
10 exapx 1918 r. n Fyanemre cocroxncx npecrannrentcxn ces
pycnnon nx paspaorxn anronomnoro craryca pycnncxo reppnropnn n
cocrane Benrpnn. Hpecearenem cesa tn nspan pycnn A. Bre-
]an
56
, a yuacrnnxamn tnn pycnnt A. Ionnxa
57
n I. Crpnncxn
58
. Hs
+roro nnno, uro yuacrnnxn +roro cesa pycnnon Benrpnn, rem onee
unent ero npesnnyma, ntpaoran npoexr anronomnn, tnn ntcoxo
opasonanntmn nmtmn, urot nmert npano ne rontxo ocosnanart cex
pycnnamn no nannonantnocrn, a ne yxpannnamn, no n npecrannxrt nn-
repect cnonx connemennnxon.
3axononpoexr o anronomnn pycnnon, saunrannt O. Caontm, noc-
ne ero ocyxennx n nnecennx nonpanox tn eneraramn ennornacno
oopen. 21 exapx 1918 r. on tn yrnepxen xax 10- Hapont sa-
xon Benrpnn no nasnannem O anronomnn pycnncxo nannn, npoxnna-
mme na reppnropnn Benrpnn. Hpnnonm nnepnte nx poccnxn ero
nonnt ayrenrnunt rexcr:
1. Pycnncxax nannx, npoxnnammax na reppnropnn Benrpnn, nmeer
nonnoe npano na camoonpeenenne n onacrn cnonx nnyrpennnx en,
mcrnnnn, mxontntx n opasonarentntx en, neponcnoneonannx, xax c
rouxn spennx saxonoarentcrna, rax n npannennx, n c ycmorpennem na
+ro nonoxenne +roro saxona xnnxercx pyxonoxmnm.
2. Hs uacre Mapamopomcxoro, Vrouancxoro, Fepercxoro n Vrcxo-
ro xomnraron, nacenenntx pycnnamn (ceronx +ro 3axapnarcxax onacrt
Vxpannt), cosaercx anronomnax npanonax reppnropnx (ryepnaropc-
xax reppnropnx) no nasnannem Pycnncxoe Iocyapcrno (Kpanna). uro
xacaercx ynopxouennx nynnunoro (omecrnennoro) npana n uacrxx
3emnnnncxoro, Bapnmcxoro, Aay-Topnxncxoro n Cnnmcxoro xomnra-
ron (ceronx Cnonaxnx), nacenenntx pycnnamn, nonpoc nonncaer (ocra-
ercx nepemenntm) o saxnmuennx omero mnpa.
o ntnecennx oxonuarentnoro pemennx mexynapono mnpno xon-
]epennne (n Cen-Xepmene) rpannnt Pycnncxo Kpannt yyr ycra-
nonnent npemenno xomnccne, cosanno ns npecrannrene Benrep-
cxo Hapono Pecnynnxn n Pycnncxoro rocyapcrna.
72
2009, N 2 (16)
3. Pycnncxax Kpanna pemaer nce anronomnte ena uepes cnon opra-
nt. B enax, omnx c enamn Benrepcxo Hapono Pecnynnxn, yyr
ecrnonart omne oprant. Taxnmn omnmn opranamn xnnxmrcx: sar-
pannunte, noennte, ]nnanconte, rpaxancrna, rpaxancxoro n yronon-
noro saxonoarentcrna n ena, xoropte xacamrcx xosxcrnonannx,
rpancnopra n connantno onexn.
4. 3axonoarentntmn opranamn Pycnncxo Kpannt xnnxmrcx:
1. B enax anronomnn - Pycnncxoe Hannonantnoe Copanne (napna-
menr).
2. B enax, omnx c enamn Benrepcxo Hapono Pecnynnxn, -
omn napnamenr Benrpnn, n xoropom pycnncxax nannx nmeer cnonx
npecrannrene n sanncnmocrn or xonnuecrna ee napoonacenennx.
5. Hpannrentcrnenntmn opranamn Pycnncxo Kpannt xnnxmrcx:
1. Pycnncxo-rocyapcrnennoe mnnncrepcrno.
2.Pycnncxo-rocyapcrnennoe ryepnaropcrno.
6. Bo rnane Pycnncxo-rocyapcrnennoro mnnncrepcrna cronr py-
cnncxo-rocyapcrnennt mnnncrp, xoropt n onnaxono mepe orner-
crnennt nepe Pycnncxnm Hannonantntm Copannem n omnm nen-
repcxnm napnamenrom, n omnx enax xnnxercx pannonpanntm unenom
nenrepcxoro naponoro npannrentcrna, n anronomntx enax nanntc-
mnm npannrentcrnenntm opranom. Ero samecrnrenem xnnxercx rocy-
apcrnennt cexperapt. Pesnennnx pycnncxo-rocyapcrnennoro mn-
nncrpa naxonrcx n Fyanemre.
7. Bo rnane Pycnncxo-rocyapcrnennoro ryepnaropcrna cronr py-
cnncxo-rocyapcrnennt ryepnarop. Pesnennnx ryepnaropcrna na-
xonrcx n Myxauene. Iyepnarop naxonrcx no ocnonntm nanme-
nnem n xonrponem pycnncxo-rocyapcrnennoro mnnncrpa.
8. Ha ocnonannn 1-ro saxona or 1918 r., Pycnncxoe Hannonantnoe
Copanne nsnpaercx omnm, rantm, pannonpanntm n npxmtm rono-
conannem.
9. B Pycnncxo Kpanne nx nepycnnoxstunoro nacenennx oecne-
unnaercx anronomnx opranon mecrnoro camoynpannennx n xyntrypt.
10. B Pycnncxo Kpanne semnn, maxrt n neca, xoropte npnnane-
xar rocyapcrnenno xasne, nepexoxr no nnaenne saxonntx npecra-
nnrene pycnncxo nonnrnuecxo nannn.
11. 3ror saxon yer nneen n ecrnne pycnncxo-rocyapcrnen-
ntm mnnncrpom nmecre c Benrepcxnm napontm npannrentcrnom;
nmecre c pycnncxo-rocyapcrnenntm mnnncrpom raxxe yyr nnee-
nt n ecrnne pacnopxxennx nepexonoro nepnoa. o rex nop, noxa
3axon o rocyapcrnennom n anronomnom mxere ne pacnopxnrcx o
]nnanconom noxptrnn nx nneennx n xnsnt +roro saxona, o +rom y-
er ecnoxonrtcx mnnncrp ]nnancon, xoropt nmecre c pycnncxo-ro-
cyapcrnenntm mnnncrpom onpeennr cmery sarpar.
73

12. 3ror saxon ncrynaer n cnny co nx ero ornamennx, r.e. 22 e-
xapx 1918 r.
Hrax, +ror saxon cynepenno Benrepcxo Hapono Pecnynnxn nnep-
nte n ncropnn pycnncxo nannn npeocrannn xnrenxm Hoxapnarcxo
Pycn craryc anronomno pecnynnxn. Ho mexynaponomy npany, xax
rontxo pycnncxax nannx npnopena cnom (anronomnym nnn nesanncn-
mym) nannonantnym rocyapcrnennocrt, ona npnoperaer n nropoe o]n-
nnantnoe nasnanne pycnncxn napo. Bor nouemy c 22 exapx
1918 r. pycnncxym nannm nontne nnora nmenymr pycnncxn napo n
cunramr rocyapcrnoopasymme nanne.
Ha ocnonannn +roro saxona N 10 mnnncrpom no enam pycnnon n
npannrentcrne Benrpnn n exape 1918 r. tn nasnauen O. Caon. Brar
Mnnncrepcrna no enam pycnnon n mrar ynpannennx ryepnaropcrna n
Myxaueno tnn yxomnnexronant unnonnnxamn ns uncna pycnnon. Mn-
nncrp O. Caon n npemtep-mnnncrp Benrpnn . Fepnnxe 5 ]enpanx
1919 r. nonncann npannrentcrnennoe Pacnopxxenne N 928. B nem tno
cxasano, uro na nepno, noxa ne yer yupexen saxonoarentnt opran
Pycnncxo Kpannt, nx nneennx n ecrnne amnnncrpannn pycnncxo-
ro ryepnaropcrna n xonrponx na nnm, yer ecrnonart pycnncxo-
rocyapcrnennt Coner ynpannxmmnx, ammn npenoxennx mnnn-
crpy Pycnncxo Kpannt no enam, cnxsanntm c anronomne ryepna-
ropcrna.
Ha ocnonannn naparpa]on 1-7 +roro Pacnopxxennx N 928, Coner
ynpannxmmnx cosan nsnparentnte yuacrxn nx ntopon Coma (nap-
namenra) anronomnoro Pycnncxoro rocyapcrna. Onn cosanannct ra-
xnm opasom, urot n xaxom ns nnx pycnnt npecrannxnn ontmnn-
crno. Or xaxoro nsnparentnoro oxpyra, a raxxe or ropoon Vxro-
po, Cennmm (Bnnorpaono) n Xycr nsnpanoct no 2 enyrara. Anro-
marnuecxn enyraramn Coma cranonnnnct no onxnocrn: ryepnarop,
npecearent Conera ynpannxmmnx n roccexperapt ncero 45 eny-
raron.
Btopt n Com tnn nponeent 4 mapra 1919 r. K +romy npemenn
nxonnmn n Vnrcxym xyny npanoepexnt pernon Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
n ee cronnna Vnr (Vxropo) eme 12 xnnapx 1919 r. tnn oxxynnponant
uexocnonanxnmn nocxamn Anranrt. Iopo Mapamopomcxn Cnrer, a
raxxe nocenox Paxon n ceno cnnx, cronnna Iynyntcxo Hapono
Pecnynnxn n cnnx, roxe tnn oxxynnponant pymtncxnmn nocxa-
mn Anranrt. Ho+romy nacenenne +ro oxxynnponanno reppnropnn ne
cmorno npnnxrt yuacrnx n ntopax n nspart cnonx enyraron n Com.
Ha cocroxnmnxcx 4 mapra ntopax tno nspano rontxo 36 enyraron
Coma, nce pycnncxo nannonantnocrn. Onn nspann pycnna A. Bre]a-
na, anoxara ns Paxona, ryepnaropom. Hepnoe saceanne napnamenra
74
2009, N 2 (16)
anronomnoro Pycnncxoro rocyapcrna cocroxnoct 9 mapra, a nropoe
tno nasnaueno na 17 anpenx 1919 r. Ha nem npecroxno paccmorpert
npoexr Koncrnrynnn anronomno Pycnnnn.
Onaxo 21 mapra n Fyanemre nnacrt saxnarnna npntnmax ns Poc-
cnn rpynna xommynncron no rnane c F. Kynom (Koranom) n ero samecrn-
renxmn u. Mmnnnxom n T. Camy+nnn. B pesyntrare n mnnncrp no e-
nam pycnnon O. Caon roxe oxasancx ne y nnacrn. B cocrane rpynnt
Korana-Mmnnnxa ns Poccnn npntn xommynncr H. Monox, poom ns
Copannen, a raxxe xommynncr H. Tepex, poom ns Myxauena. F. Kyn
nanpannn nx no rnane rpynnt xommynncron-nnrepnannonanncron n My-
xaueno. Onn na entrn ontmenncrcxo Poccnn n Myxauene sanepo-
nann pasnoro poa nnn, xoropte nontrannct pasornart oprant nnacrn
anronomno Pycnncxo pecnynnxn, n rom uncne copanmncx 17 anpe-
nx na cnoe saceanne napnamenr. K +romy npemenn xommynncrnuecxoe
npannrentcrno Benrpnn nasnaunno ryepnaropa A. Bre]ana napontm
xomnccapom n Pycnncxom ryepnaropcrne. Ha cocroxnmemcx 17 anpe-
nx 1919 r. saceannn napnamenra A. Bre]ana nonpocnnn saunrart Vxas
o pocnycxe napnamenra. Hocne +roro n san saceannx nomnn oennxn
ns rpynnt Monoxa-Tepexa n ntrnann ns sana unenon pycnncxoro nap-
namenra.
Hpornn saxnarnnmnx nnacrt xommynncron 21 anpenx 1919 r. ntcry-
nnna pycnncxax nnrennnrennnx, noepxannax pycnnamn-xpecrtxnamn,
n orcrpannna n ropoe Myxaueno ontmennxon-camosnannen or nnac-
rn. 3arem n reuenne 2426 anpenx onn nsrnann xommynncron, nnmnn nx
nnacrn no nce Fepexcxo n ne oxxynnponanno uacrn Vnrcxo xynt.
nx noccranonnennx cnoe nnacrn xommynncrnuecxoe npannrentcrno
Benrpnn nanpannno ns Fyanemra n Pycnncxym anronomnym pecnynn-
xy perynxpnte nocxa. urot ne onycrnrt xpononponnrno pacnpant
na noccranmnmn esopyxntmn pycnnamn, Anranra npnnxna pemenne
oxxynnponart ncm reppnropnm Hoxapnarcxo Pycn. B xonne anpenx
1919 r. uexocnonanxne nocxa nomnn n Myxaueno n omnn o Feperona,
xoropoe yxe tno sanxro pymtncxnmn nocxamn Anranrt. Tax xax ns-
sa ontmennxon Fent Kyna ne morna cymecrnonart (e-]axro) nep-
nax Pycnncxax anronomnax pecnynnxa, +ro noronxnyno pycnnon nt-
rn ns cocrana Benrpnn n co cnonm nenrepcxnm anronomntm crarycom
norn n cocran uexocnonaxnn (uro pycnnam nosxe oomnoct oporo).
Hpara, orcpounn npeocrannenne mnpoxo anronomnn, nosnonnna an-
ronomnm e-]axro, an pycnnam nosmoxnocrt nmert nannonantnoe py-
cnncxoe npannrentcrno, pycnncxne mxont, xstx, pasnnnart xyntrypy,
nmert nonnrnuecxne naprnn n r..
H rontxo n 1938 r. Hpara n nonno mepe npeocrannna pycnnam ra-
xym mnpoxym anronomnm, xoropax conocrannma c nannonantntm cy-
nepennrerom.
75

HPHMEHAHHR
1. Tepmnn pycnncxax nonnrnuecxax nannx ynomnnaercx yxe n pasnnuntx
sanantx ncrounnxax, n uacrnocrn, n oxymenre 3axona Benrpnn N10 or 21 e-
xapx 1918 r.
2. Benrpt, cnonaxn, uexn, pymtnt, rannuane, nonxxn, xopnart n oruacrn cep-
t.
3. Hoxapnaropycnncxn napo - cnnerent npapyccxo pennocrn co npemen
cn. Knpnnna n Me]onx.
4. Hocne nonncannx n Mocxne oronopa mexy CCCP n uexocnonanxo
Pecnynnxo o 3axapnarcxo Vxpanne n Hporoxona x nemy (no ncxxom cnyuae,
nmenno raxo oronop tn nonncan n Kpemne 29.06.1945 r.) pycnnam sanpernnn
ynomnnart +rnonnm pycnn. Ho pycnnt samennnn ero na cnono mecrnt,
nopasymenax nmenno pycnna.
B cr. 1 nasnannoro oronopa ronopnnoct: 3axapnarcxax Vxpanna (nocxmax,
cornacno uexocnonanxo Koncrnrynnn, nasnanne Hoxapnarcxax Pyct) ... nxnm-
uaercx n cocran Vxpanncxo Conercxo Connanncrnuecxo Pecnynnxn. Ha-
npnmep, npn sanpere n Comse +rnonnma pycnnt camn mecrnte pycnnt ntpa-
orann pannonennte no cmtcny ]past: mt mecrnte, ronopn no-namemy, xynt-
xo ronn no-namemy, mt saxapnarnt, saxapnarcxn napo, napo 3axapnartx n
r.. axe rannuane, xnrenn Htnoncxo, Hnano-upanxoncxo onacre Hpnxap-
nartx n ceronx nmenymrcx pycnnamn 3axapnartx (rounee, Hoxapnartx), napnn
- nonxxamn, a enymxn - nontxamn.
5. Ancrpnx nponena amnnncrparnnno-reppnropnantnym pe]opmy, no xoro-
po ona tna noenena na nxrt ncrpnxron (pernonon) no nannonantntm npn-
snaxam: Ancrpncxn, Vropcxn, uemcxn, Pymtncxn n Pycnncxn (co nro-
ptm xstxom pycnncxnm). B cocrane Pycnncxoro ncrpnxra tnn rpn pycnncxne
onacrn c amnnncrparnnntmn nenrpamn n Vxropoe, Komnne n Hpxmene. Ce-
ronx Komnne n Hpxmeno n cocrane Cnonaxnn.
6. Pycnnt, nonyunnmne or Bent craryc Vxropocxo nannonantno anrono-
mnn.
7. Tax sa]nxcnponana pycnncxax nannx n nenrepcxom 3axone N 10 or 21 e-
xapx 1918 r.
8. Ceronx na +rnonnm pycnnt, xpome noxapnarcxnx pycnnon, nnxro n mnpe
saxonno ne nperenyer, pasne yxpanncxne nannonanncrt, xoropte, n npnnnnne,
nperenymr na +ror +rnonnm rontxo nx neennx nycrtx nanoron c pycnnamn, a
peantno onn ero anno n oxonuarentno orneprnn.
9. Honnt rexcr 3axona Benrpnn N10 nnepnte an n Hpnnoxennn N 1.
10. Rpnnuecxn o 21 xnnapx 1946 r., o roro xax Hpesnnym BP VCCP nesa-
xonno opasonan na pycnncxo reppnropnn Hoxapnarcxo Pycn 3axapnarcxym
onacrt Vxpannt.
11. C ropocrtm nastnax cex yxpannnamn, nannonanncrt paccxastnamr
pyr pyry, uro yxpannnt na camom ene ncrnnnte pyctxne, a pyccxne ne
pyccxne, a xonapnte mocxann, yrpo-]nnnt nnn axe monront no nponcxoxe-
nnm, a crpana nx nmena nasnanne Mocxonnx. H urot ornnuartcx or +ro
76
2009, N 2 (16)
nnsme pact, onn, pyctxne Knencxo Pycn, xax ncrnnnte cnanxne n apnnt
orxasannct or cnoero cnannoro nmenn n crann nastnart cex ne menee cnanntm
nmenem yxpannnt, npnymanntm n nnepenntm nonxxamn npn apxncrapa-
nnxx ancrpnxxon.
12. Xorx cymecrnonan n repmnn Dux Ruizorum pyccxn xnxst.
13. Bepoxrnee ncero, pycnnt cnoono mornn norn n cocran Benrepcxoro
rocyapcrna.
14. Cpannnre Pyccxax (pycnncxax) Kpanna c nasnannem Cepcxax Kpan-
na.
15. Xorx, xax noxasann nocneymmne cotrnx, +ror mar tn ne npoymannt
o xonna. Bet uexocnonaxnx, nooeman n Cen-Xepmene 10 cenrxpx 1919 r. art
pycnnam mnpouamym anronomnm n cocrane uCP, uro sanncano n rexcre ee
Koncrnrynnn or 1920 r., nmecre c rem yepxnnanact or peannsannn oemannx,
nocxontxy mnorne cnonaxn raxxe rpeonann anronomnn Cnonaxnn, a +ro, no mtcnn
T. Macapnxa n 3. Fenema, morno pasnannrt npnymannt nmn npoexr uexocno-
nanxo nannn, xya ne nnycrnnn nn nemnen, nn nenrpon, a cnonaxon n uexon
cmnnn nmecre nx rnopennx camo mnorouncnenno rnryntno nannn ue-
xocnonaxon (cm.xnnry Hpoexr uexocnonaxnn M.2009).
16. Hmenno rem ]axrom, uro Cen-Xepmencxn mnpnt oronop or 10 cenrx-
px 1919 r. sannmancx cyto nannonantno reppnropnn pycnnon na mr or
Kapnar (mpnnuecxn repmnn +roro oronopa) n nocunrancx c nonensxnnenn-
em xopennoro napoa - pycnnon, Hoxapnarcxax Pyct xax nannonantnoe rocy-
apcrno pycnnon n crana cyexrom mexynaponoro npana. 3ror craryc ono
e-mpe ne yrparnno o ceronxmnero nx.
17. Hpncxopen ror ]axr, uro pycnnt noxapnarcxne, nmex onnaxonte crap-
ronte npanonte ycnonnx co cnonaxamn, ceronx oxastnamr yxpannnam, uro
onn pycnnt, xora Cnonaxnx yxe nesanncnmoe rocyapcrno.
18. Eme xnnt ouennnt roro, uro rannuane-ceuennxn roronnnnct x pesne py-
cnnon n nenrpon, ocoenno x ]nsnuecxomy ncrpenennm npanocnannoro pycnn-
cxoro yxonencrna.
19. Ho nnnxnnem HKB n nnuno H. Xpymena n H. Mexnnca.
20. B rom uncne pycnnon Honropoa, Hcxona, Mocxnt, Typona, Knena n r..
21. 4o+uu B.B. Hauantnax ncropnx Pycn. Hsarentcrno Pyccxax nanopama,
2008. C . 4.
22. Bmecro ncxyccn no rnannomy nonpocy pyccxo ncropnn, no npnmepy
A.H. Bnenepa, nopmanncrt, ncera nouemy-ro naxoxmnecx y xopmnna ncropn-
uecxo poccncxo nayxn, ntcrannxnn ncex, or M.B.Homonocona o pycnnon
Hoxapnarcxo Pycn, nenanncrnnxamn ncex nepyccxnx.
23. K.m:eecru B.O. Hapocxn no napxxcxomy nonpocy; ero xe. Heony-
nnxonannte nponsneennx. M., 1983. C. 113, 119-120.
24. Coep H. 3noxa nnxnnron. CH., 2002. C. 18, 21, 56, 110, 176-212, 276-277,
293-294; 3u+er P. Bnxnnrn: mn] n +noxa. Cpenenexonax xonnennnx +noxn nnxnn-
ron // pennemne rocyapcrna Bocrouno Enpont. M., 2001. C. 9-25.
25. 3aoe.uu H.E. Hcropnx pyccxo xnsnn c pennemnx npemen. u. 1. M., 1876.
C. 44; 4opmuucru 4.B. Bapxrn n Pyct. Hcropnuecxoe nccneonanne C. Ieeo-
nona. 2 u. CH., 1876. CH., 1878. C. 2.
77

26. Mouuu B.A. Bapxro-pyccxn nonpoc // Slavia. Casopis pro slovanskou
filologii. Rocnik X. Sesit 1-3. Praze, 1931. C. 532-533.
27. Honecrt npemenntx ner uepnopnsna ueoctena manacrtpx Heueptcxa-
ro, orxyy ecrt nomna Pycxax semnx <...> n xro n ne nouan nepnee xnxxnrn, n
orxyy Pycxax semnx crana ecrt.
28. M.A. Maxcnmonnu ormeuan n 1841 r., uro n Kapamsnn, xorx n ntnen pyccon
ns Bnennn, no cnauana ntnyxen tn ocnanxnnrt nx n Hpyccnn n norom yxe
npnnecrn n Honropo. Kapa+suu H.M. Hcropnx rocyapcrna Poccncxoro. T. I.
M., 1989. C. 58, npnmeu. 111; Marcu+oeu: M.A. O nponcxoxennn napxro-pyccon
// Copanne counnenn M.A. Maxcnmonnua. T. I. Knen, 1876. C. 103, npnmeu. 1.
29. M.H. Horonn roxe ntnyxen tn naptnponart n 1872 r., yxastnax, uro
npnsnannoe nopmanncxoe nnemx morno trt cmemanntm nnn pocrnenntm c
nopmannamn cnanxncxnmn. Vunrtnax nn]opmannm Ientmonta o Barpnn, on
nncan: uyrt nn ne n +rom yrny Bapxxcxoro mopx saxnmuaercx xnmu x rane
nponcxoxennx napxron n pycn. 3ect coennxmrcx nmecre n cnanxne, n nop-
mannt, n narpt, n aruane, n napxrn, n pnycrpn, n pocenray. Ientmont - sana-
noenponecxn xponncr.
30. Hoeoouu M.H. Hccneonannx, sameuannx n nexnnn o pyccxo ncropnn. T. 3.
M., 1846. C. 296, npnmeu. 700; ero xe. I. Ieeonon n ero cncrema nponcxoxennx
napxron n pycn. CH., 1864. C. 47; ero xe. Honoe mnenne r. Hnonacxoro // Fecea.
Kn. IV. Or. II. M., 1872. C. 114-115; ero xe. Fopta ne na xnnor, a na cmeprt c
nontmn ncropnuecxnmn epecxmn. M., 1874. C. 297-298, 384.
31. Co.oeiee C.M. Kauenoncxn Mnx. Tpo]nmonnu // Counnennx. Kn. XXIII.
M., 2000. C. 83.
32. K.m:eecru B.O. Counnennx n noctmn romax. T. VIII. M., 1959. C. 441.
33. Henrpantnn epxannn apxin nnmnx opranin nnan i ynpanninnx Vxpann
(HABOBVV). u. 3833. On. 1. Cnp. 174. Apx. 9.
34. HABOBVV. u. 3833. On. 1. Cnp.174. Apx. 10.
35. HABOBVV. u. 3833. On. 1. Cnp.174. Apx. 10.
35. HABOBVV. u. 3833. On. 1. Cnp.174. Apx. 10.
37. Kapnamciru A. o yxpanctxo-nontctxnx nsacmnn. Hironnc VHA. T. 24,
C. 273.
38. Kapnamciru A. o yxpanctxo-nontctxnx nsacmnn. Hironnc VHA. T. 24.
C. 275.
39. Vxpanctxa epxannicrt n XX cronirri. Knn: Honirnuna ymxa, 1966. C. 148-
149.
40. Vxpanctxa epxannicrt n XX cronirri . Knn: Honirnuna ymxa, 1966. C.152.
41. Bopoeu: B. Vxpana i Hontma. Hironnc VHA. T. 24. C. 193.
42. Bopoeu: B. Vxpana i Hontma. Hironnc VHA. T. 24. C. 194.
43. Hmeercx n nny ntymxa nonxxa upanrnmexa yxnncxoro o rom, uro nenn-
xopyct ne xnnxmrcx cnanxnamn n renernuecxn ne nmemr nnuero omero c mano-
pycamn.
44. Tax paccyxaer Anpe Baxpa.
45. Pycnncxax axryantnax moent nannonantno nenrnunocrn na ]one py-
rnx nocrounocnanxncxnx nannonantntx npoexron. Ho nynnxannxm Onera Fopn-
connua Hemencxoro, corpynnxa Hncrnryra cnanxnoneennx PAH: http://
materik.ru/personnel/detail.php?ID=4537
78
2009, N 2 (16)
46. He+eucru O.B. Pycnncxax axryantnax moent nannonantno nenrnuno-
crn na ]one pyrnx nocrounocnanxncxnx nannonantntx npoexron. Hnr. ncrou-
nnx.
47. He cymecrnyer nnxaxoro yxpanncxoro anrpononornuecxoro rnna, ornn-
uammerocx or nennxopyccxoro. Hnaue ronopx, manopyct (yxpannnt) n nenn-
xopyct npecrannxmr coo onn n ror xe anrpononornuecxn rnn. Anrponono-
rnunn cxna yxpanctxoro napoy. AH VPCP. Incrnryr mncrenrnosnancrna, ]ont-
xnopy ra ernorpa]i // xuenxo B.. Knn, 1965. C. 105-124.
48. Kapnarcxn anrpononornuecxn rnn nxnmuaercx n xapnaro-anxancxym
sony. Hs yxpannnen-manopoccon nnn nx cenepntx n nocrountx cocee n +ry
anrpononornuecxym sony ontme nnxro ne nxonr. Bxoxr n nee pycnnt, uexn,
cnonaxn, mxnte nonxxn, nenrpt, pymtnt, onrapt, cept n xopnart. Honrn-
cxax (ocnonnax) sona nxnmuaer npaxrnuecxn ncm ocrantnym reppnropnm VCCP
(xpome Iannunnt n, xoneuno, 3axapnartx-Hoapnarcxo Pycn). Tam xe. C.126.
49. Kapnarcxo-yxpanncxoe nacenenne Iannnnn nmeer n snaunrentno mepe n
ne nocrounocnanxncxn anrpononornuecxn xomnonenr, ornnuaxct or nntx noc-
rounocnanxncxnx rpynn remno nnrmenranne, snaunrentntm nonocxntm no-
xponom n ntcoxnm nponenrom ntnyxntx cnnnox noca. Tam xe. C. 124.
50. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 2007.
51. Pyccxoe nacenenne no pasmepam ronont n nnna nnsxo x nexoropomy
nenrpantnomy enponecxomy napnanry, sannmammemy npomexyrounoe nono-
xenne mexy xpannmn onnxo- n paxnxe]anne, ysxo- n mnpoxonnnecrtm
cenan ntno, uro n cocrane pyccxoro nacenennx nmeercx ocot anrpononorn-
uecxn +nemenr nocrounoenponecxn. Ecrt nce ocnonannx cunrart, uro pac-
npocrpanenne nntmencxo-enomopcxoro anrpononornuecxoro xomnnexca n npe-
enax enponecxoro Cenepa cnxsano ne c yrpo-]nncxnm nacenennem, a nponcxo-
nno n nponecce rax nastnaemo nonropocxo xononnsannn nnn, ronopx nnaue,
nocnrenxmn npexontx ]opm +roro rnna tnn nonropocxne cnanxne. Hpn +rom,
ornnunrentno ocoennocrtm pyccxnx Poccnn xnnxercx nx onee cnernax nnr-
menrannx n ornnune or enponenen.
Hponcxoxenne n +rnnuecxax ncropnx pyccxoro napoa. Ho anrpononornuec-
xnm anntm. T. 88 (nonax cepnx). Cepnn AH CCCP. Tpyt nncrnryra +rnorpa]nn
nm. H.H. Mnxnyxo-Maxnax. M., 1965. C. 131-133, 136-137.
52. Tax, pycnnt Cnonaxnn ns roa n ro npocro nonnmr o uyonnmno accn-
mnnxnnn co cropont cnonanxnx nnacre. Taxoe xe nnauennoe nonoxenne n
Hontme, re nnacrn nomornn ]nnancono uacrn pycnnon crart yxpannnamn. A
axnnx Bncna nacnntcrnennax enoparnnx pycnnon-nemxon c pontx mecr, no
npemx xoropo rtcxun nme nornnn, xax n axnnn renonna, o cnx nop o]nnn-
antno ne ocyxena. A enoprnponanntm na Bontnt pycnnam-nemxam rax n ne
ann nosmoxnocrn nosnparnrtcx c Vxpannt na cnon ponte mecra pycnncxo
Hemxonmnnt. B Pymtnnn rontxo crapmee noxonenne ronopnr na pycnncxom
xstxe. ern mxontnoro nospacra yxe anno nepemnn na pymtncxn. 10-15 ner n
pycnnon Pymtnnn ne craner. onontno cnntnax accnmnnxnnx pycnnon nmeer
mecro n n Benrpnn, re ocnonnax uacrt nenrepcxnx pycnnon noxapnarcxne
pycnnt, nepecennnmnecx ns Hoxapnartx n Fyanemr n noxpyr nero. Hoonax
cnryannx n uexnn, Xopnarnn. Hyumax cnryannx y pycnnon Cepnn-Boenonnt n
n CBA.
79

53. Vxe ne ronopnm o rparenn, xora pyccxnx crann nastnart poccnxnamn
napxy c xasaxamn n rypxmenamn.
54. Kcrarn, Pmpnx ne npnnec na Pyct nn nnctmennocrt, nn pennrnm, a o npn-
necennom nm +rnonnme Pyct neyrcx o cnx nop cnopt yuentx, rax nn +ro.
55. Cornacno mexynaponomy saxonoarentcrny, nopaomennt napo nmeer
npano, ecnn nnte cnocot ncnpoonant, c opyxnem n pyxax onnartcx cnonx
npan n cnoo. Bet nnxro ceronx ne cynr xopnaron n cnonennen sa ro, uro onn
crpenxnn n cepon. Bect mnp npnsnan nx rocyapcrnennocrn, ornoenannte c opy-
xnem n pyxax!
56. Anoxar ns noc. Paxono Mapamopomcxo xynt-pernona. Ero samecrnre-
nxmn tnn nspant Anran Ionnxa n Inxop Crpnncxn.
57. B ro npemx tn axaemnxom Benrepcxo axaemnn nayx n nosrnannxn cno-
nanxn ynnnepcnrer n Fparncnane.
58. B Mnnncrepcrne xyntrypt saneonan orenom no enam pycnnon. On oxon-
unn Htnoncxn ynnnepcnrer n tn unenom yupexennoro M. Ipymencxnm na-
yunoro omecrna nm. T. Benuenxo.
80
2009, N 2 (16)
Anexcanp MAHOPOB
H3 HCTOPHH PYCCKO-BH3AHTHHCKHX
HHACTHHECKHX CBR3EH:
out nunepa1opa Hcaaxa II
n Iannnxo-Bonmncxon Pycn
B nnreparype snaunrentnoe pasnnrne npnopena nepcnx nnsanrnc-
xoro nponcxoxennx nropo xent Pomana Mcrncnannua. B cnoe npemx
H.A. Faymrapren ntcxasan oraxy, uro yymym cynpyry Pomana n
mart ero ctnone annnna n Bacnntxa cneyer ncxart cpen ouepe
nnsanrncxoro nmneparopa Hcaaxa II, poxenntx or nepnoro paxa, r.e.
eme o roro, xax on npnmen x nnacrn. Onaxo n antnemem ncropnx
orxasancx or +ro nen, nnnmo, ne nax cpen ouepe Hcaaxa no-
xoxme xannarypt.
O nepnom paxe Hcaaxa II nsnecrno ouent mano. Hexcntmn, n uacr-
nocrn, ocramrcx nmx n nponcxoxenne ero nepno xent. He nnonne
xcna raxxe cyta nexoroptx ns poxenntx em ere. 3ro oxcnx-
ercx rem, uro nepnax xena Hcaaxa ymepna, no-nnnmomy, eme o roro,
xax on cran nmneparopom. o nonapennx Hcaaxa noxnnnnct n ern, pox-
ennte or nepnoro paxa, n no+romy nx poxenne ne npnnnexano nnn-
mannx o]nnnantntx ncropnorpa]on.
Ocnonnte cneennx o noromcrne Hcaaxa or nepnoro paxa naxonm
y Hnxnrt Xonnara: napt Hcaax nmen or +roro paxa rpex ere nyx
ouepe n onoro ctna. Crapmym out on nocrpnr n monaxnnn, pyrym
ntan samyx sa ctna Tanxpea, xoponx Cnnnnnn, ctna xe Anexcex on
roronnn n nacnennxn npecrona. Henrn]nxannx nyx ns rponx nasnan-
ntx n +rom coomennn ere Hcaaxa ne ntstnaer sarpynenn. 3ro
ero ctn Anexce, yymn nmneparop Anexce IV, a raxxe out Hpn-
na, tnmax noouepeno cynpyro cnnnnncxoro xoponx Poxepa III n
nemenxoro xoponx unnnnna IV Bnacxoro.
Menee ncero nsnecrno o crapme ouepn Hcaaxa or nepnoro paxa,
ornpannenno ornom n monacrtpt. Ona onxna tna noxnnrtcx na cner,
nepoxrno, ncxope nocne roro xax Hcaax ncrynnn n cno nepnt pax,
r.e. nocne 1175 r. B monacrtpt ona tna onpeenena, no-nnnmomy, eme
n ercrne.
Hnxnra Xonnar yrounxer, uro nx cnoe crapme ouepn Hcaax nt-
pan ne otunt n yxe ecrnymmn xencxn monacrtpt, a cosan
xaxoe-ro nonoe n ocoennoe monacrtpcxoe yupexenne. Monacrtpt
tn ycrpoen n nexo pesnennnn, nmenyemo Hoannnnxnm omom.
81

V nac ecrt ocnonannx nonarart, uro npetnanne n monamecrne crap-
me ouepn Hcaaxa II ne tno noxnsnenntm. B maprnponore xa]e-
pantnoro coopa r. Bneepa, xnnxnmerocx yctnantnnne repmancxnx
xopone, re namnn cnoe ynoxoenne unnnnn Bnacxn n ero xena Hpn-
na (mnamax out Hcaaxa II or nepnoro paxa), cpen rpeuecxnx po-
crnennnxon nocnene snauarcx ee oren, mart, cecrpa n par. Vnomx-
nyro n cnnonxe cecrpo xoponent Hpnnt morna trt rontxo ee po-
nax cecrpa crapmax out Hcaaxa, n ercxom nospacre ornpannennax
nm n monacrtpt. Onaxo, nonpexn oxnannm, n nepxonnom cnnonxe
ona nomnnaercx es yxasannx monamecxoro unna, r. e. xax cnercxoe
nnno.
B ncropnn Bnsanrnn nsnecrno nemano cnyuaen, xora npecrannrenn
ntcme apncroxparnn, n rom uncne n unent nmneparopcxo ]amnnnn, n
cnny pasnnuntx npnunn, rnanntm opasom nonnrnuecxnx, npnnnmann
monamecrno, a norom cnarann ero, nosnpamaxct x cnercxo xnsnn, n
axe ncrynann n pax. Ocoenno uacro noonte nocnanennx onyc-
xannct n ornomennn xenmnn.
K npnmepy, nepnoe nocrpnxenne nmneparpnnt 3on Kapononcnnt,
uernepro xent Htna VI Myporo n marepn Koncranrnna VII Farpxno-
ponoro, cocroxnmeecx n 914 r., nnocnecrnnn tno ormeneno na rom
ocnonannn, uro 3ox nepe nocrpnrom (nponsomemnm no npemx nocra)
ynorpenxna n nnmy mxco. Heuro noonoe nponcxonno c oueptmn
nmneparopa Koncranrnna VIII 3oe n ueoopo. Hpeemnnx Koncranrn-
na Poman III Aprnp, onacaxct saronopa n no nacroxnnm 3on, orocnan
ueoopy n monacrtpt n npnxasan nocrpnut. Tem ne menee, n 1042 r. no
npemx noccrannx npornn Mnxanna V Kana]ara ueoopa tna ocran-
nena n Koncranrnnonont n xopononana. Hpn +rom ee cecrpy 3om Mnxa-
nn V nonenen cocnart na Hpnnnent ocrpona n raxxe nocrpnut. 3ro ne
nomemano 3oe ne rontxo nosnparnrtcx na npecron, no n n rpern pas (n
nospacre 64 ner) ntrn samyx sa nmneparopa Koncranrnna IX Mono-
maxa.
Hoonax npaxrnxa npoonxanact n no nropo nononnne XII n., n
rom uncne n npannenne Hcaaxa II, xora ona, cyx no nmemmnmcx an-
ntm, npnopena maccont xapaxrep. Cornacno coomennm Hnxnrt
Xonnara, xoncranrnnonontcxn narpnapx ormennn monamecrno rex xen-
mnn ntcmero cocnonnx, xoroptx npornn nonn sacrannn nocrpnutcx
nmneparop Anponnx I Komnnn. Vnomxnyrtm narpnapxom tn Bacn-
nn II Kamarnp, cnococrnonanmn nonapennm Hcaaxa, no sarem nnan-
mn n nemnnocrt n nnmennt narpnapmecrna xax pas n cnxsn c ero
pemennem o ormene monamecrna nx nnsanrncxnx apncroxparox
xeprn rnpannn Anponnxa, uro, pasymeercx, tno nnmt npenorom.
B namem pacnopxxennn raxxe nmemrcx nexoropte annte, nosno-
nxmmne nponnrt cner na nponcxoxenne nepno xent Hcaaxa II n, cne-
82
2009, N 2 (16)
onarentno, ere or ero nepnoro paxa. Ona morna npnnanexart x
poy Haneonoron n trt oueptm nennxoro +repnapxa Ieoprnx Haneo-
nora Komnnna yxn. B copannn ncropnuecxnx oxymenron nnnore-
xn nepycannmcxnx narpnapxon, onynnxonannom A. H. Honaonyno-Ke-
pamencom, n onom ns oxymenron, xoropt npenonoxnrentno arn-
pyercx 1191 r., ctn Ieoprnx Anponnx nasnan nosnmnenntm sxrem
nmneparopa Hcaaxa.
Honoe nosntmenne Haneonoron nponsomno n npannenne Anexcex III.
Ero nmnmnem cran eme onn ctn yxe ynomxnyroro nennxoro +repnap-
xa Ieoprnx Anexce. 3nmo 1199 r. no nacroxnnm Anexcex III on pas-
nencx co cnoe nepno xeno n xennncx na ouepn nmneparopa Hpnne.
Hs-sa orcyrcrnnx y Anexcex III nacnennxa myxcxoro nona Anexce
Haneonor, noxanonannt rnrynom ecnora, onxen tn n yymem
crart nmneparopom.
Taxnm opasom, n npannenne Anexcex III cnoxnnnct nectma naro-
npnxrnte ycnonnx nx roro, urot monamecxn nocrpnr crapme o-
uepn Hcaaxa II tn ormenen. Ho-nnnmomy, n Iepmannn ne snann rou-
noro nx ero xonunnt (xoropt, xcrarn cxasart, nensnecren n conpe-
menntm nccneonarenxm). Ho+romy ynomnnanne Hcaaxa tno nome-
meno no onnm nem c ero cynpyro, mareptm xoponent Hpnnt. Hpn-
na, necomnenno, onxna tna nomnnrt ent cmeprn cnoe marepn, ymep-
me na ee rnasax, r. e. n ro npemx, xora mnax nnsanrncxax npnnnecca
eme xnna n ponrentcxo cemte.
Bce cxasannoe nanonr na mtcnt, uro cnncox rpeuecxnx pocrnen-
nnxon Hpnnt-Mapnn c yxasannem art nx cmeprn nnocnncx n cnnonx
Bneepcxoro coopa yxe nocne ee cmeprn na ocnonannn xaxoro-ro npe-
napnrentnoro nepeunx, re morna trt yxasana rontxo ara cmeprn
marepn, a npornn ocrantntx nmen ocrannent npoent nx nocneym-
mero sanonnennx.
Hoxoxe, uro xaxym-ro cnxst co cnoe cecrpo, repmancxo xopone-
no Hpnno-Mapne nnnort o camo ee cmeprn n 1208 r. noepxnna-
na n nennxax xnxrnnx Pomanona. B Iannnxo-Bontncxo neronncn
nmeercx coomenne o yncrne xoponx unnnnna Bnacxoro n cnxsan-
ntx c nnm ocroxrentcrnax npnuacrnocrn x yncrny para nenrep-
cxo xoponent Ieprpyt (xent Anpex II) repnora 3xepra Anexc-
xoro enncxona Fameprcxoro.
Hoxnnenne +roro coomennx o cront anexnx or Iannua cotrnxx,
ne ynomnnammnxcx onee nn n ono pyccxo neronncn, na nam nsrnx,
morno trt cnxsano c rem snauennem, xoropoe npnanana emy rannnxax
xnxxecxax cemtx n, npexe ncero, nennxax xnxrnnx Pomanona. Tpa-
rnuecxax rnent repmancxoro xoponx, a ncne sa nnm n ero cynpyrn, a
raxxe ntxcnenne nnn, x +romy npnuacrntx, mornn nonnonart rora n
83

Iannue pasne uro nnsxnx pocrnennnxon nornmnx. H raxnmn po-
crnennnxamn tnn xnxrnnx En]pocnnnx n ee ern. Pacnpocrpanenne
nmenn En]pocnnnx xax n Bnsanrnn, rax n na Pycn, ouennno, tno cnx-
sano c xyntrom cn. En]pocnnnn Anexcanpncxo (ym. n 470 r.). B ee
uecrt monamecxne nmena nonyunnn out xnencxoro xnxsx Pocrncnana
Pmpnxonnua, out Mnxanna Bcenonoonnua uepnnroncxoro, cranmax
cn. En]pocnnne Cysantcxo, a raxxe cn. En]pocnnnx Hononxax.
Ocooe nounranne En]pocnnnn Anexcanpncxo npn nmneparopc-
xom nope n n xpyry nnsanrncxo snarn tno cnxsano, ouennno, c nc-
ropne nmneparpnnt En]pocnnnn, ouepn Koncranrnna VI Cnenoro,
cranme xeno Mnxanna II n mauexo nmneparopa ueo]nna.
B nospacre nxrn ner En]pocnnnx tna ornpannena cocrnenntm
ornom nmecre c mareptm n cecrpo n xencxn monacrtpt na Hpnnne-
ntx ocrponax, re nce onn npnnxnn nocrpnr. Taxnm cnocoom nmnepa-
rop Koncranrnn nsannncx or cnoe nepno cemtn n xennncx nnont na
cnoe anne nmonnnne, ono ns npnnopntx am no nmenn ueora.
uepes necxontxo ecxrnnern, nponeenntx n monamecrne, n cyte
En]pocnnnn nponsomna neoxnannax nepemena. B 823 r. nont nmne-
parop Mnxann II, neanno ononenmn, crpemxct yxpennrt cnoe nono-
xenne na rpone pocrnom c npecrannrentnnne npexne nmneparopc-
xo nnacrnn n rem camtm xax t xomnencnponart cnoe cocrnennoe
nnsxoe nponcxoxenne, nepnyn En]pocnnnm ns monacrtpx n couerancx
c ne paxom.
Hpetnanne En]pocnnnn n nmneparopcxom nopne npoonxanoct
necxontxo ner n saxonunnoct ncxope nocne cmeprn ee cynpyra. Hont
nmneparop ueo]nn, npnx x nnacrn, ne samennn nepnyrt cnom mauexy
x ee npexne monamecxo xnsnn.
Hoxoxe, uro cyty nnsanrncxo monaxnnn-nmneparpnnt En]pocn-
nnn, ouepn Koncranrnna VI n xent Mnxanna II, cnycrx uertpe crone-
rnx ynnnrentntm opasom nonropnna out nmneparopa Hcaaxa II, rax-
xe nocnnmax nmx En]pocnnnn. Orannax cnonm ornom eme n ercrne
n monacrtpt, ona uepes necxontxo ner tna nosnpamena x cnercxo
xnsnn, urot crart xeno rannnxo-nontncxoro xnxsx Pomana Mcrnc-
nannua, rnannoro noennoro comsnnxa nonoro nmneparopa Anexcex III.
Pano ononen nocne rnenn Pomana, En]pocnnnx uepes necxontxo ner
nnont nepnynact x monamecxo xnsnn.
84
2009, N 2 (16)
ennc AAHMOB
K BOHPOCY OB 3THOHOAHTHHECKOH
CHTYAHHH B BEPXHEM HOTHCLE B IX n.:
uec1opasnn1ne xapna1cxnx pycnnon
n noc1anapcxoe npoc1panc1no
B cnoe nporpammno xnnre Hauepranne pyccxo ncropnn, cran-
me nepntm ontrom nocneonarentnoro nsnoxennx ncropnn Poccnn c
nosnnn enpasncxo nen, I.B. Bepnacxn axrnnno ncnontsonan c]op-
mynnponannoe nm nonxrne mecropasnnrnx, no xoroptm on nonnman
onpeenennym reorpa]nuecxym cpey, xoropax nanaraer neuart cno-
nx ocoennocre na uenoneuecxne omexnrnx, pasnnnammnecx n +ro
cpee. Ho onpeenennm I.B. Bepnacxoro, connantno-ncropnuecxax
cpea n reorpa]nuecxax ocranonxa cnnnamrcx n nexoe ennoe nenoe,
nsanmno nnnxx pyr na pyra, npnuem n xoe ncropnuecxoro nponecca
pasnnunax conoxynnocrt connantno-ncropnuecxnx n reorpa]nuecxnx
npnsnaxon opasyer pasnnunte mecropasnnrnx n npeenax ono n ro
xe reorpa]nuecxo reppnropnn [1. C. 25].
Ecnn nontrartcx npnmennrt npecrannennx I.B. Bepnacxoro o me-
cropasnnrnn x reppnropnn ncropnuecxo Hoxapnarcxo Pycn, cocran-
nxmme uacrt reorpa]nuecxo onacrn Bepxnero Hornctx, ro nerpy-
no samernrt, uro n reuenne nnrentnoro npemenn +ra neontmax rep-
pnropnx tna uacrtm onee mnpoxoro, oxnartnanmero snaunrentnym
uacrt Kapnarcxo xornonnnt connantno-ncropnuecxoro npocrpancrna.
Tax tno, n uacrnocrn, n +noxy omnnnponannx n Cpenem Hoynante
anap. B xonne IX n. nocne nourn cronernero nepnoa nonnrnuecxo pas-
ponennocrn npocrpancrna, naxonnmerocx npexe no anapcxnm xon-
rponem, ero snaunrentnax uacrt tna cnona oennena, na ce pas
no +rno +rnononnrnuecxo omnocrn nenrpon. B +rnx ycnonnxx rep-
pnropnx yyme Hoxapnarcxo Pycn nocrenenno crana nnrerpantno
uacrtm ontmoro nonnrnuecxoro oprannsma - Benrepcxoro rocyapcrna,
xpo xoroporo raxxe naxonnoct n Cpenem Hoynante. C rex nop n
reuenne mnornx nexon connantno-ncropnuecxn xonrexcr, n xoropom
naxonnact semnx, npnopermax nnocnecrnnn nmx Hoxapnarcxo
Pycn, cymecrnenno ne menxncx. pamarnuecxn pacna Ancrpo-Benr-
pnn n pesyntrare Hepno mnpono nont, nxnmunnmn Hoxapnarcxym
Pyct n xonrexcr nntx mecropasnnrn, npeonpeennn uacrnunym
cmeny cnocrnenntx mecrntm xnrenxm connantno-xyntrypntx opnen-
85

rnpon. Onaxo, namxrt o rom, uro n reuenne mnornx nexon reppnropnx
conpemenno 3axapnarcxo Vxpannt cocrannxna ennoe connantno-nc-
ropnuecxoe npocrpancrno co Cpennm Hoynantem, n ntne nrpaer cy-
mecrnennym pont n ncropnuecxom cosnannn npoxnnammero sect no-
nn+rnnunoro nacenennx, nxnmuax rex, xro nmenyer cex pycnnamn.
B uacrnocrn, nemanonaxnym pont n ncropnuecxom cosnannn xapnar-
cxnx pycnnon nrpaer +noxa, nocneonanmax ncxope nocne pacnaa Anap-
cxoro xaranara n saxonunnmaxcx oxonuarentntm sanxrnem nenrpamn
Cpenero Hoynantx, ro ecrt IX n. Oxcnxercx +ro, rnanntm opa-
som, rem, uro x nepnoy oxono 900 r. nannonantno opnenrnponannax xap-
naropyccxax ncropnorpa]nx XIX - nepno nononnnt XX n. ornocnna
npannenne nepnoro nsnecrnoro no nmenn xapnaropyccxoro xnxsx Ha-
opna [cm.: 6. C. 69-70]. Pacnpocrpanennoe n cpee pycnncxo nnrennn-
rennnn ro +noxn npecrannenne o pyccxom xnxse, npannnmem n 3a-
xapnarte o npnxoa nenrpon, tno oxsano cnonm noxnnennem ren-
ennnosno nnrepnperannn nsnecrn snamennroro cpenenexonoro nnct-
mennoro namxrnnxa - exnn nenrpon Anonnma, cosannoro n xonne
XII - nauane XIII n., no n snaunrentno crenenn ocnontnammerocx na
neomeme o nac nenrepcxo xponnxe XI n. [ocnonnym nnreparypy o
namxrnnxe cm.: 13. C. 376]. B nem coomaercx o xomnre samxa Hung
(Vxropo) no nmenn Loborcy, nornmem n opte c nenrpamn-sanoena-
renxmn, nroprmnmncx n Bepxnee Horncte. Ecnn nepnrt exnnxm nen-
rpon, nmenno no nmenn +roro nnacrnrenx nonyunna cnoe nasnanne pexa
Haopen [23. P. 52]. Cyx no xonrexcry nonecrnonannx, Haopen ne tn
camocroxrentntm npannrenem, rax xax Bepxnee Horncte tno uac-
rtm sement, nonnacrntx noxm Canany. Cornacno Anonnmy, Canan,
npannnmn n mexypeute ynax n Tnct, tn noromxom onrapcxoro
npannrenx no nmenn Keanus [23. P. 48]. Honxrno, uro nastnart neren-
apnoro Haopna pyccxnm nnn pycnncxnm xnxsem moxno nnmt npn yc-
nonnn nrnopnponannx roro ]axra, uro +rnononnrnuecxn oprannsm c
nasnannem Pyct naxonncx n IXX nn. na snaunrentnom yanennn or
Kapnar. Honynxpnocrt noono rpaxronxn nsnecrn exnn nenrpon
moxer trt nonxra nnmt n xonrexcre ypntx nponeccon nannonantno-
ro crponrentcrna, pasnopaunnanmnxcx n XIX n. na reppnropnn monap-
xnn Iacypron, a nosnee npoonxnnmnxcx n opasonanmnxcx na ee
pynnax nannonantntx rocyapcrnax. Baxntm +nemenrom nannonant-
no optt n ycnonnxx nropo nononnnt XIX nepno nononnnt XX n.
tnn nontrxn oxasart pennocrt npoxnnannx roro nnn nnoro napoa
na ro nnn nno reppnropnn, ncnecrnne uero nosnemne +rnnuecxne
peannn n rpyax nannonantno opnenrnponanntx anropon nepenocnnnct
na panee cpenenexonte.
Homnmo nsnecrn o Canane n Haopne, exnnx nenrpon coepxar
noponym nn]opmannm o eme necxontxnx nosrnannxnmnxcx cocrnen-
86
2009, N 2 (16)
ntmn noxxmn nonnrnuecxnx oprannsmax, yro t cymecrnonanmnx
xo npemenn npnxoa nenrpon na reppnropnn mexy Tnco n Kapnaramn.
3ro crpana noxx Menymopyra, noromxa Mopyra, pacnonaranmaxcx na
reppnropnn conpemenno Kpnmant, crpana Inaa na reppnropnn Fana-
ra, crpana xeny na reppnropnn Tpancnntnannn n ysxom cmtcne cnona,
a raxxe crpana 3yypa na mro-sanae Cnonaxnn [noxannsannm cm., na-
npnmep: 22. P. 94-98]. Ena nn cronr nanomnnart, uro n conpemenno
ncropnorpa]nn nsnecrnx exnn nenrpon Anonnma nocnpnnnmamrcx
c ontmnm cxencncom, uro nnonne nonxrno, yunrtnax npemx cosannx
n xanponte ocoennocrn ncrounnxa [cm. o +rom, nanpnmep: 4. C. 87-
89]. Onaxo, neannne nccneonannx pymtncxnx yuentx noxasann, uro
napnconannax Anonnmom xaprnna n nenom xopomo coornocnrcx c apxe-
onornuecxnmn marepnanamn, npexe ncero, c npocrpancrnenntm pac-
npeenennem roponm IX-X nn. na reppnropnn Fanara, Kpnmant n
Tpancnntnannn [18. P. 191-207; 19. P. 38-51; 20. P. 113-146; 22. P. 104-
156]. Ha cymecrnonanne nexnx noxantntx nonnrnuecxnx crpyxryp yxa-
stnaer n npocrpancrnennoe pasmemenne roponm na reppnropnn ncro-
pnuecxo Hoxapnarcxo Pycn [2. C. 123-124].
Bmecre c rem, nnrepecno ormernrt, uro nce nepeuncnennte nonnrn-
uecxne opasonannx, nxnmuax crpany Canana n onacrt, ynpannxnmym-
cx Haopnem, onpeenxmrcx n rexcre Anonnma nno no nmenam nox-
e, nno uncro reorpa]nuecxn, n ro npemx xax +rnnuecxn xaxoe ns
nnx, xax moxno nonxrt ns ncrounnxa, cocroxno ns pasntx napoon, cpe-
n xoroptx Anonnmom ynomnnamrcx nnaxn, cnanxne, onrapt, xymant
n p. Hoonax xaprnna panxantno pacxonrcx c xapaxrepntm nx
pannecpenenexontx connymon enncrnom +rnnuecxo n nonnrnuecxo
npnnanexnocrn, noyxammnm conpemenntx nccneonarene nast-
nart pannecpenenexonte +rnoct, npexe nmenonanmnecx n ncropn-
orpa]nn nnemenamn, +rnononnrnuecxnmn omnocrxmn. Hecoorner-
crnne +ro moxer oxcnxrtcx nno rem, uro Anonnm npocro ne snan
nasnann mecrntx nnemen, nepenocx n IX n. nmena conpemenntx emy
napoon, xax +ro yxe neonoxparno npenonaranoct n ncropnorpa]nn,
nno ocoennocrxmn +rnononnrnuecxo cnryannn na +rom npocrpancrne.
nx roro urot nontrartcx npoxcnnrt cnryannm, neoxonmo opa-
rnrtcx x cneennxm onee pannnx ncrounnxon, ocronepnocrt nn]op-
mannn xoroptx ntstnaer ropaso mentme comnenn, uem nosnne ns-
necrnx Anonnma.
Ho 805 r. n Annanax xoponencrna ]panxon nomemeno coomenne
o rom, uro anapcxn xanxan Teoop nonpocnn ]panxcxoro nmneparopa
ntennrt emy n ero napoy nonte mecra nx nocenennx, rax xax ocra-
nartcx na npexnem mecre nenosmoxno ns-sa nanaenn cnanxn [14. P.
112]. Tounoe mecrononoxenne nonnrnuecxoro opasonannx, n xoropom
87

npannn naccantnt ]panxam xpement anapcxn xanxan, nensnecrno.
Ho mnennm X. Honmxntcxoro, ono naxonnoct x nocroxy or ynax, n
Horncte, rax xax n cnanxno-anapcxn xon]nnxr n semnxx x sanay or
ynax, n Hannonnn, oxsarentno t nmemannct ]panxcxne nnacrn [17.
S. 330]. C nepecenennem Teoopa n ero napoa (nnn ero uacrn) na ]panx-
cxym reppnropnm nonnrnuecxn naxyym n Horncte onxen tn eme
onee ycyrynrtcx. Bmecre c rem, ecrt nexoropte ocnonannx nona-
rart, uro ncxope anapcxn xonrpont n Horncte tn samenen onrapc-
xnm. O rom, uro nocrounax uacrt tnmero Anapcxoro xaranara ncxope
nocne ero naennx no yapamn ]panxon n rom nnn nnom oeme oxasa-
nact no nnacrtm onrapcxoro xana, cnnerentcrnyer nsnecrnoe coo-
menne nnsanrncxoro Hexcnxona Cnnt X n., re ronopnrcx o nounne-
nnn anapon xanom Kpymom (803-814 rr.) [ananns nsnecrnx cm.: 17. S.
329-331]. Hpana, cront pannee ycranonnenne nnacrn onrap na noc-
rouno uacrtm Anapcxoro xaranara ntstnaer cxencnc co cropont pxa
nccneonarene, rax xax nepnte nnnomarnuecxne xonraxrt mexy
upanxcxnm rocyapcrnom n Fonrapne, oycnonnennte norpenocrtm
onpeenennx uerxo rpannnt mexy reppnropnxmn, nonnacrntmn oe-
nm epxanam na nocranapcxom npocrpancrne ornocxrcx nnmt xo npe-
menn npannennx xana Omyprara [cm.: 3. C. 71]. Tax nnn nnaue, no x
nauany 820-x rr. nemanax uacrt nocranapcxoro npocrpancrna ecrnn-
rentno oxasanact no nnacrtm Fonrapnn. upanxcxne ncrounnxn, ona-
xo, amr noponym nn]opmannm nnmt o rex onrapcxnx nnaennxx,
xoropte cocecrnonann c upanxcxnm rocyapcrnom n paone nosne-
pnmcxo nponnnnnn Cnpmncxax Hannonnx. Hacxontxo anexo pacnpoc-
rpanxnact nnacrt onrap anee na cenep n cpenem reuennn Tnct n n
Tpancnntnannn, cynrt rpyno. annte Fanapcxoro reorpa]a (nro-
pax nononnna IX n.), n xoropom semnx onrap cneyer cpasy sa mopana-
namn n oxapaxrepnsonana xax regio immensa [7. C. 13], namexamr xax
yro na omnpnocrt onrapcxnx nnaenn n +rom paone [ananns ns-
necrnx cm.: 3. C. 7374; 17. S. 331]. Hsnecrne uyntcxnx annanon, no-
memennoe no 892 r., o rom, uro nocrouno]panxcxn xopont Apnynt]
nanpannn cnonx nocnon n Fonrapnm c npocto ne npoanart cont mo-
pananam [21. Vol. I. P. 119], nosnonxer ronopnrt o xonrpone onrap na
reppnropnxmn n Rxno Tpancnntnannn, re pacnonarannct nsnecrnte
c pnmcxo +noxn conxnte xonn [cm.: 16. S. 62-63].
Cront xe neonpeenenntmn ocramrcx n xpanne npeent mopanc-
xo +xcnancnn n +rom pernone. O rom, uro Mopannx ecrnnrentno npn-
cyrcrnonana n Horncte, cnnerentcrnymr, nosmoxno, annte Fanap-
cxoro reorpa]a, re Merehani, ro ecrt mopanane, nastnamrcx ncne sa
onrapamn [7. C. 14], a raxxe nsnecrnx rpaxrara Koncranrnna Farpx-
noponoro O ynpannennn nmnepne, noxannsymmero Mopannm x mry
88
2009, N 2 (16)
or nenrpon [5. C. 52]. B nosnemnx, no onnpammnxcx na onee pannne
ncrounnxn Annanax Anenrnna (XVI n.) npxmo ronopnrcx o npnna-
nexnocrn Bepxnero Hornctx Mopannn n npannenne Cnxrononxa [21. Vol.
I. S. 349]. B ncropnorpa]nn pacnpocrpaneno mnenne, asnpymmeecx na
nsnecrnn uyntcxnx annanon o nmenmem mecro n 883 r. onrapcxo-
mopancxom noennom xon]nnxre, xora onrapt onycromann semnn Mo-
pannn, cornacno xoropomy Cnxrononx, nauanmn +neprnuno pacmnpxrt
rpannnt Mopancxoro xnxxecrna nocne saxnmuennx n 874 r. uopxxam-
cxoro mnpa c Bocrouno]panxcxnm xoponencrnom, re-ro mexy 880 n
882 rr. nounnnn cnoe nnacrn Cpenee n, nosmoxno, Bepxnee Horncte,
panee naxonnmnecx no nnacrtm onrap [cm.: 17. S. 351-352; 10. C.
85].
Taxnm opasom, n IX n. omnpnt pernon mexy Tnco n Kapnaramn
n rom nnn nnom oeme n n reuenne roro nnn nnoro nepnoa npemenn
naxonncx no nnacrtm Fonrapnn n, nepoxrno, Bennxo Mopannn. Hpn
+rom mt ena nn moxem yrnepxart, uro nx nnacrt n +rnx cront ora-
nenntx or nenrpa oenx nonnrn onacrxx tna nacrontxo cnntno,
uro cnyxnna npenxrcrnnem nponeccam xpncrannnsannn mecrntx nonn-
rnuecxnx oprannsmon. Tax, n ononnennxx x Xoporpa]nn Oposnx, co-
crannenntx anrnocaxconcxnm xoponem Ant]peom Bennxnm, cpen se-
ment Henrpantno Enpont ynomnnaercx axnx, nexamax x nocroxy or
Mopannn, npnuem coomaercx, uro npexe ram xnnn rort [21. Vol. III.
P. 2834]. Cnoxno cxasart, nmenact nn n nny no anntm nasnannem
xonxpernax nonnrnuecxax ennnna, xax n nacroxmee npemx cunraer
A. Maxapy [20. P. 140141], nnn nepe namn ne nmemmn nnuero o-
mero c +rnononnrnuecxo cnryanne opas anrnuno reorpa]nn, xax no-
naran, nanpnmep, X. Honmxntcxn [17. S. 329]. Bnpouem, uro t nn cxpt-
nanoct no +rnm onpeenennem, cama ero axryannsannx n counnennn
Ant]pea yxastnaer na ouennno croxnmym nepe nnm neoxonmocrt
xax-ro ntennrt +ror pernon, orennn or pyrnx onacre, naxonn-
mnxcx n ro npemx no onrapcxo nnn mopancxo nnacrtm. C nsnecrn-
em Ant]pea cneyer conocrannrt n naccax ns Xponnxn Pernnona
Hpmmcxoro, re ronopnrcx o rom, uro matxpt, nroprmnecx n 889 r. n
semnn upanxcxo Hannonnn, nepemnn nepe rem uepes nycrtnn nan-
nonnen n anap [21. Vol. I. S. 137], no xoroptmn, nepoxrno, raxxe no-
pasymenannct semnn, cnao xonrponnponanmnecx, ecnn axe nonce ne
xonrponnponanmnecx cocennmn rocyapcrnamn - Fonrapne n Bennxo
Mopanne.
Cnnerentcrno cymecrnonannx re-ro x nocroxy nnn mro-nocroxy or
Mopannn camocroxrentnoro nonnrnuecxoro oprannsma, nounnennoro
nnocnecrnnn mopancxnm npannrenem Cnxrononxom, coepxnrcx n
Hernnnn anapcxnx enncxonon nane Hoanny IX, ornocxmecx x 900 r. B
89

ne enncxont, nporecryx npornn cosannx n Mopannn, ro ecrt na reppn-
ropnn, ornocxmecx, no nx mnennm, x nepxonno mpncnxnnn Haccayc-
xoro nonesa, nono nepxonno oprannsannn, opamamr nnnmanne nant
Hoanna IX na ro, uro nana Hoann VIII, nocnxmax n 880 r. Bnxnnra n
enncxont Hnrpt, nanpannn ero ne na reppnropnm Haccaycxoro none-
sa, a x nexomy nonoopamennomy napoy (in quandam neophitam
gentem), xoropt Cnxrononx nounnnn nono n oparnn ns xstuecrna
n xpncrnancrno [21. Vol. III. P. 235]. Ie xe cneyer noxannsonart no-
noopamennt napo, ynomnnaemt n Hernnnn? B ncropnorpa]nn na
+ror nonpoc orneuann no-pasnomy. B nonoopamennom napoe tnn
cxnonnt nnert nncnxn, ue npannrent, xax xncrnyer ns Hannoncxoro
xnrnx cn. Me]onx, tn noxopen Cnxrononxom n opamen n xpncrnan-
crno, cnanxn Hornctx, sanxroro Cnxrononxom n xoe nont c Fonrapn-
e mexy 880 n 882 rr., naxonen, xnrene camo Hnrpancxo onacrn
nnn reppnropnn Bocrouno Cnonaxnn [osop mnenn cm.: 25. S. 278-
279].
Tonxonanne, cornacno xoropomy nonoopamenntm napoom, noxo-
penntm Cnxrononxom, tnn xnrenn Hnrpancxo onacrn, nopasyme-
naer necoornercrnne coomennx Hernnnn ecrnnrentnomy nonoxe-
nnm en. Kax nsnecrno, Hnrpancxax onacrt nomna n cocran Mopanc-
xoro xnxxecrna eme npn Momnpe I n 830-e rr., a ne npn Cnxrononxe.
Xpncrnannsannx Hnrpancxo semnn raxxe nauanact saonro o nauana
npannennx Cnxrononxa: nepnax nepxont n Hnrpe tna ocnxmena santn-
yprcxnm apxnenncxonom Aantpamom eme n 828 r. [24. S. 395-396],
npnuem xpncrnannsannx, necomnenno, npoonxnnact npn mopancxnx
npannrenxx Momnpe I n Pocrncnane. Ho mnennm . Tpxemrnxa, ntc-
xasanmero npenonoxenne, uro n Hernnnn peut mna o camo Hnrpanc-
xo onacrn, na cocrannrene Hernnnn nonnnxno ro ocroxrentcrno,
uro Hnrpa eme oxono 869 r. xnnxnact nenrpom ocooro xnxxecrna, no
rnane xoroporo croxn nmenno Cnxrononx [25. S. 115-116]. Onaxo, noo-
spenart anapcxnx enncxonon n raxoro poa omnxe moxno nnmt n rom
cnyuae, ecnn pyrne napnanrt pemennx nponemt ntrnxxr nenpnem-
nemtmn. Ham npecrannxercx, uro +ro anexo ne rax. Hentsx sat-
nart, uro Hnrpa tna xpynnemnm nocenennem na nocroxe Mopannn,
nnnmo, xnnxxct raxxe xnxxecxo pesnennne. Hnxaxo pyro nenrp
na nocroxe Mopannn, ro ecrt na reppnropnn conpemenno Cnonaxnn, ne
mor nsxrt na cex ]ynxnnn enncxoncxoro nenrpa. Cneonarentno, no-
cnxmenne Bnxnnra n enncxont Hnrpt conepmenno neoxsarentno on-
xno yxastnart na ro, uro nonoopamennt napo naxonncx re-ro
nonnsocrn or pesnennnn Bnxnnra. Bmecre c rem, anno npenoxen-
nax nenrn]nxannx nonoopamennoro napoa c nncnxnamn npecran-
nxercx nce-raxn menee npenournrentno, uem ero oroxecrnnenne c
90
2009, N 2 (16)
xnrenxmn Hornctx nnn Bocrouno Cnonaxnn: nncnxne npoxnnann na
ouent snaunrentnom yanennn or Hnrpt, sa xperom 3anantx Kap-
nar. Bectma conasnnrentno tno t cnxsart nonoopamennt na-
po c xapnarcxnmn xopnaramn. Hoonax rnnoresa nmeer cmtcn rontxo
n rom cnyuae, ecnn cunrart, ncne sa pxom anropon [cm., nanpnmep: 8.
C. 162-165; 2. C. 122-125; 9. C. 235-236], uro xopnart npoxnnann ne
rontxo x nocroxy, no n x sanay or Bocrountx Kapnar, nx uero, onaxo,
ner ocrarountx ocnonann [cm.: 11. C. 173]. Ho+romy nanonee npn-
emnemtmn napnanramn noxannsannn nonoopamennoro napoa npe-
crannxmrcx reppnropnn nno x mry or Hnrpt n Cpenem Horncte,
nno x nocroxy or Hnrpt n Bocrouno Cnonaxnn n Bepxnem Horn-
cte.
Hpecrannxer nnrepec camo oosnauenne n Hernnnn oexra nac-
rtpcxo saort nnrpancxoro enncxona Bnxnnra xaxo-ro nonoo-
pamennt napo. Cnonom gens, ncnontsonanntm n annom cnyuae
anropamn Hernnnn, n pannecpenenexontx ncrounnxax oosnauanact,
xax nsnecrno, +rnononnrnuecxax omnocrt. Kasanoct t, nporecr npo-
rnn cosannx nono nepxonno oprannsannn n Mopannn rpeonan or ennc-
xonon maxcnmantno rmarentno aprymenrannn cnoe nosnnnn, nxnmuax
rounoe onpeenenne napoa, naxonnmerocx n mpncnxnnn Hnrpanc-
xo nepxnn. Houemy xe anropt Hernnnn ne nastnamr nmenn nonoopa-
mennoro napoa? Hs uncna nccneonarene, opamanmnxcx x npone-
me nonoopamennoro napoa, nnmt . Tpxemrnx cuen neoxonmtm
cnennantno npoxommenrnponart +ro ocroxrentcrno. Oroxecrnnxx
nonoopamennt napo c xnrenxmn ynomnnaemo n uyntcxnx an-
nanax crpant Cnxrononxa, coornercrnonanme, no ero mnennm, ca-
mo Hnrpancxo onacrn, . Tpxemrnx nncan: nnn regnum Cnxro-
nonxa ne xnnxnoct semne nnxaxo gens n anapcxne enncxont n 900 r.
omnannct, nnn +ro nmx tno satro, rax xax nocne 30-x roon IX n.
ono tno yxe (xax nmx) neaxryantntm [25. S. 131-132]. axe esor-
nocnrentno x comnnrentnomy nx nac oroxecrnnennm nonoopamen-
noro napoa c xnrenxmn Hnrpancxo onacrn npenaraemax . Tpxem-
rnxom antrepnarnna (nno enncxont omnannct n gens ne cymecrnona-
na, nno enncxont ne omnannct, no nmx +rnononnrnuecxo omnocrn
tno satro) npecrannxercx nsnnmne xecrxo. Hccneonarent ncxo-
nn ns roro, uro repmnnom gens oxsarentno onxna tna oosna-
uartcx yxe cnoxnnmaxcx +rnononnrnuecxax omnocrt, onaanmax
cocrnenntm nmenem. Mexy rem, xax yer noxasano nnxe, cnryannx
na nocranapcxom npocrpancrne morna trt onee cnoxno.
Tax, npecrannxercx necnyuantm, uro n ncrounnxax, conpemenntx
nnrepecymmemy nac nepnoy, mt ne naxonm nsnecrn o cymecrnona-
nnn xaxnx-nno +rnononnrnuecxnx omnocre na reppnropnn nocrou-
91

no uacrn tnmero Anapcxoro xaranara, sa ncxnmuennem, nosmoxno,
nnmt ono omnocrn, noxa ne noammecx rouno noxannsannn,
npeenenenron. Bnepnte npeenenenrt ynomnnamrcx n Annanax xo-
ponencrna ]panxon no 822 r., re onn nastnamrcx n uncne nocrou-
ntx cnanxncxnx napoon, npncnanmnx nocontcrna xo nopy Hmonnxa
Fnarouecrnnoro [14. P. 159]. Bropoe ynomnnanne ornocnrcx x 824 r.,
xora nocnt oopnron, xoropte otxnonenno nmenymrcx npeene-
nenramn n nacenxmr npnnexamym x ynam axnm y rpannn Fonrapnn,
xnnnnct xo nopy ]panxcxoro nmneparopa npocnrt nomomn npornn on-
rap [14. P. 165166]. H, naxonen, rperte nsnecrne, nosmoxno, nmemmee
ornomenne x anno omnocrn, +ro ynomnnanne no nropo uacrn
Fanapcxoro reorpa]a napoa Osterabtrezi [7. C. 14], xoropt n ncro-
pnorpa]nn uacro nenrn]nnnpyercx c nocrountmn oopnramn, ro
ecrt npeenenenramn [osop mnenn cm.: 7. C. 22].
Hponemt noxannsannn npeenenenron, nponcxoxennx nx nasnannx
n coornomennx +roro nasnannx c nmenem oopnron, a raxxe coorno-
mennx oopnron-npeenenenron c xopomo nsnecrno no ncrounnxam
+rnononnrnuecxo omnocrtm oopnron nonacxnx, xax nsnecrno, n
no ce ent ocramrcx npemerom ncxyccn. B cnxsn c nenosmoxnoc-
rtm rouno noxannsannn +ro omnocrn mt ne snaem, nosnnxna nn ona
nnmt ncnecrnne naennx Anapcxoro xaranara na reppnropnn, xonrpo-
nnponanmecx npexe anapcxnmn nnacrxmn, nnn ona pacnonaranact sna-
unrentno mxnee, n paone, re eme pantme mornn noxnnrtcx camocro-
xrentnte +rnononnrnuecxne oprannsmt. B nocnenem cnyuae npee-
nenenrt moryr trt nocrannent n onn px c rnmouanamn, npoxnnan-
mnmn n accene pexn Tnmox n eme pantme, uem npeenenenrt, ncnt-
ranmnmn na cee narncx onrap, noynnmn nx n 818 r. oparnrtcx sa
nomomtm x ]panxam. Bmecre c rem, opamaer na cex nnnmanne camo
nasnanne npeenenenrt, ne xapaxrepnoe nx cnanxncxo +rnonnmnn.
Xorx snauenne nmenn ocraercx nexcntm, ecrt necxne ocnonannx nona-
rart, uro ono ne nponsneeno or xaxoro-nno reorpa]nuecxoro nasna-
nnx. B ncropnorpa]nn npenaranoct rpaxronart +ro nasnanne, xax npo-
ncxoxmee or cnanxncxoro ntpaxennx nepenxx uat (snarnte
nmn), nnn xax narnncxoe cnono, nmemmee snauenne rpanrenn, pas-
onnxn [osop mnenn cm.: 3. C. 76-77; 7. C. 22]. B cnyuae, ecnn an-
nax omnocrt ecrnnrentno nmenonana cex snarntmn nmtmn nnn
pasonnxamn, +ro morno t yxastnart na xaxne-ro ocote, ne xa-
paxrepnte nx pyrnx cnanxncxnx +rnononnrnuecxnx oprannsmon o-
croxrentcrna ee ]opmnponannx, nosmoxno, oxcnxemte ee nosnnxno-
nennem n ycnonnxx nonnrnuecxoro naxyyma n axnn, ntsnannoro crpe-
mnrentntm naennem Anapcxoro xaranara. uro xacaercx ynorpene-
nnx n ornomennn npeenenenron nmenn oopnrt, ro nanonee ye-
92
2009, N 2 (16)
nrentno npecrannxercx nosnnnx rex nccneonarene, xoropte npe-
nonaramr nno ero nropnunt, xnnxnt, xapaxrep no ornomennm x
nmenn npeenenenrt, nno paccmarpnnamr +ro nasnanne xax pesynt-
rar ncxaxennx xaxoro-ro nnoro nmenn npeenenenron [osop mnenn
cm.: 7. C. 22]. Oxcnxrt nannune nenrnuntx nasnann y nonacxnx n
nocrountx oopnron xaxnmn-nno mnrpannxmn nnemen ne npe-
crannxercx nosmoxntm n cnxsn c cymecrnonannem mexy nnmn or-
pomnoro npocrpancrna, n reuenne nexon xonrponnponanmerocx anapa-
mn. Honcxam nponcxoxennx rax nastnaemtx nocrountx oopnron
n npacnanxncxom npomnom npornnopeunr n pacnpocrpanennoe mnenne o
nponcxoxennn +rnonnma oopnron or nmenn pexn Opt.
nx roro urot npnnnsnrtcx x nonnmannm ocoennocre ]opmnpo-
nannx +rnononnrnuecxnx oprannsmon n Horncte, neoxonmo oparnrt-
cx x cnryannn, cnoxnnmecx n paccmarpnnaemt nepno n pyrnx o-
nacrxx, raxxe naxonnmnxcx o xonna VIII n. no xonrponem anap. B
+ro cnxsn nam npecrannxmrcx nectma noxasarentntmn npnmept rax
nastnaemoro Hnrpancxoro xnxxecrna, pacnonaranmerocx na mro-sana-
e Cnonaxnn, n Hocancxoro xnxxecrna na cenepe conpemenno Xopna-
rnn.
Xorx ocroxrentcrna ]opmnponannx nonnrnn c nenrpom n Hnrpe oc-
ramrcx ne o xonna xcntmn, apxeonornuecxne annte nosnonxmr c
ocrarouno one nepoxrnocrn cnxstnart +ror nponecc c ynaxom
Anapcxoro xaranara oxono 800 r. [noponee cm.: 25. S. 107-135]. Baxno
ro, uro n nsopaxennn nmemmnxcx ncrounnxon n xauecrne cyexra
nonnrnuecxo exrentnocrn n onacrn Hnrpt ]nrypnpyer ne nexax,
onaammax cnonm nmenem +rnononnrnuecxax omnocrt, a npannrent.
Tax, n rpaxrare Opamenne anapon n xapanrannen (870 nnn 871 r.)
npn onncannn cotrn, nponsomemnx oxono 833 r., coomaercx o ns-
rnannn mopancxnm xnxsem Momnpom ns Hnrpt nexoero Hpnnnt,
xoropt, xax ntxcnxercx ns antnemero nonecrnonannx o xpemennn
Hpnnnt, nmen sect nnaenne [21. Vol. III. P. 310-312]. Xnrenn Hnr-
pancxo onacrn npn +rom nnxax ne oosnauamrcx. To ocroxrentcrno,
uro n ncrounnxe ronopnrcx o xon]nnxre Momnpa c Hpnnno, a ne c
nexo +rnononnrnuecxo omnocrtm, no rnane xoropo Hpnnna reope-
rnuecxn mor naxonrtcx, cosanano naronpnxrnym nouny nx noxnne-
nnx n ncropnorpa]nn rnnores o npnnanexnocrn Hpnnnt x xnxxecxo-
my mopancxomy poy, o xon]nnxre, nponsomemem mexy pocrnennn-
xamn nnn, no xpane mepe, npecrannrenxmn ono n ro xe nonnrn-
uecxo crpyxrypt [osop mnenn cm.: 25. S. 131]. Mexy rem, e-
crnnx Momnpa, na nam nsrnx, nerue ncero oxcnnrt npocro +xcnan-
cne Mopannn n nocrounom nanpannennn. Hpnunnt xe orcyrcrnnx yno-
mnnann n ncrounnxe o +rnononnrnuecxo omnocrn cneyer ncxart n
93

ocoennocrxx ne camoro xon]nnxra, a +rnononnrnuecxo cnryannn na
npocrpancrne, xoropoe nesaonro o onnctnaemtx n ncrounnxe cot-
rn naxonnoct no nnacrtm anapon. Hn n onom ns ncrounnxon, onn-
ctnammnx cnryannm n Mopannn, ne ynomnnaercx nmx +rnononnrnuec-
xo omnocrn, xoropax t morna coornercrnonart Hnrpancxo onac-
rn xax ocoo nonnrnuecxo ennnne. Vnomnnanne n Fanapcxom reo-
rpa]e nasnannx Merehani, xoropoe n ncropnorpa]nn nepexo npnnx-
stnaercx nmenno x Hnrpancxo onacrn [25. S. 157], ne xnnxercx npn
+rom ncxnmuennem, rax xax n +rom cnyuae ono nnmt orpaxaer pacnpo-
crpanenne na xnrene Hnrpancxo onacrn nasnannx mopanane. On-
peenenne regnum Zuentibaldi (crpana Cnxrononxa), ]nrypnpymmee
n uyntcxnx annanax no 869 r. [21. Vol. I. S. 101], n ncropnorpa]nn
raxxe otuno cnxstnamr c Hnrpancxo onacrtm, yro t xnnxn-
mecx nenrpom yentnoro nnaennx n cocrane Mopannn [24. S. 410].
Ecnn annax nenrn]nxannx nepna, noxasarentno, uro annax nonnrnx
onpeenxercx n ncrounnxe no nmenn npannrenx, es ynomnnannx o xa-
xo-nno +rnononnrnuecxo omnocrn.
Hoonax xe cnryannx ]nxcnpyercx n na mxno nepn]epnn nocr-
anapcxoro npocrpancrna - n Cpenem Hocante, re oxono 800 r. raxxe
noxnnnoct camocroxrentnoe nonnrnuecxoe opasonanne c nenrpom n
Cncaxe. B coomennn Annanon xoponencrna ]panxon no 818 r. o npn-
trnn x Hmonnxy Fnarouecrnnomy nocnon or pasntx napoon nocanc-
xn npannrent Hmennr ]nrypnpyer xax yxc Hnxne Hannonnn [15.
P. 320]. Hoxoxnm xe opasom xax npannrent (rector) Hnxne Han-
nonnn - Hmennr ntcrynaer n coomennn o +rom xe cotrnn n Xns-
neonncannn Hmonnxa Anonnma [15. P. 320]. Taxnm opasom, n oonx
ncrounnxax Hmennr onpeenxercx xax npannrent reppnropnn, a ne
+rnononnrnuecxo omnocrn. Ho cnpanennnomy sameuannm . Tpxem-
rnxa, Hmennr, ouennno, ne npannn nnxaxnm nnemenem, ero nnacrt
tna camocroxrentno, ona nn n xoem cnyuae ne ncxonna or nnemenn,
xax +ro tno n conpemenno emy Kapanrannn [12. C. 80]. Oosnaue-
nne Hmennra n coomennn o nocontcrnax xo nopy Hmonnxa Fnaro-
uecrnnoro no cnoemy xapaxrepy nnonne cornacyercx c remn onpeene-
nnxmn, xoropte amrcx anee npn onncannn xon]nnxra Hmennra c
]panxamn. Tax, coomax no 819 n 820 rr. o opte c Hmennrom npa-
nnnmero n anmannn yxca Fopnt n ]panxon, Annant xoponencrna
]panxon nastnamr nosrnannxemoe Hmennrom opasonanne onacrtm
Hmennra (regio sua, sua provincia, regio eius), n ro npemx xax n Xns-
neonncannn Hmonnxa npn onncannn rex xe cotrn ]nrypnpyer semnx
Hmennra (Liudeviti terra) [15. P. 321-323]. Cnryannx c oosnauennem
no ]panxcxnx ncrounnxax nocancxoro nonnrnuecxoro opasonannx ne
menxercx n n onee nosnmm +noxy, nnnort o roro npemenn, xora ono
94
2009, N 2 (16)
nonnocrtm ncuesaer co crpannn nnctmenntx ncrounnxon. Coomax no
827 r. o nanaennn na nannoncxne semnn onrap, Annant xoponencrna
]panxon ynomnnamr cnanxn, cnxmnx n Hannonnn (Sclavos in
Pannonia sedentes) [15. P. 331]. B coomennn rpaxrara Opamenne
anapon n xapanrannen o npntrnn tnmero nnrpancxoro xnxsx Hpn-
nnt x npenonoxnrentno npannnmemy n Hocante Parnmnpy ronopnr-
cx o onacrn (regio) xnxsx Parnmnpa [15. P. 337]. B uyntcxnx anna-
nax, coomammnx no 884 r. o nocancxom npannrene Fpacnane, ero no-
nnrnx nmenyercx crpano mexy pexamn pano n Cano (regnum
inter Dravo et Savo flumine) [15. P. 379]. Ho 896 r. n rom xe ncrounn-
xe ynomnnaercx crpana Fpacnana (regnum Brazlavonis) [15. P. 380].
Hmena nanomnnxon ns semnn Fpacnana (de terra Brasclauo) nnncant
na crpannnax Enanrennapnx ns unnnane [15. P. 382]. Taxnm opasom,
coomax o nonnrnuecxom opasonannn, cymecrnonanmem n Cpenem
Hocante, pasnte ncrounnxn nensmenno nno amr ero reorpa]nuecxne
opnenrnpt, nno npnnxstnamr x nmenn mecrnoro npannrenx.
Hrax, xax moxno yenrtcx, nonnrnuecxn naxyym, opasonanmncx
nocne naennx Anapcxoro xaranara na reppnropnn Cpenero Hoyna-
ntx, tn tcrpo sanonnen ncnecrnne npnxoa x nnacrn nontx +nnr,
npecrannrenxmn xoroptx tnn Hmennr n Hocante, Hpnnna n ona-
crn Hnrpt, a, nosmoxno, n re nerenapnte noxn, o xoroptx coomaer
nam nenrepcxn Anonnm. Bmecre c rem, paccmorpennt marepnan no-
snonxer cenart ntno o rom, uro n pamxax nonnrn, nosnnxmnx na
pasnannnax xaranara, o npnxoa n Cpenee Hoynante nenrpon rax n
ne ycnenn cnoxnrtcx cranntnte, onaanmne camonasnannxmn om-
nocrn, conocrannmte c +rnononnrnuecxnmn oprannsmamn 3anantx
Fanxan, cenepno uacrn Henrpantno Enpont (uexnx, Hontma, Hona-
te) n reppnropnn, nomeme nnocnecrnnn n cocran pennepyccxoro
rocyapcrna. Hntmn cnonamn, nonnrorenes na nocranapcxom npocrpan-
crne snaunrentno oronxn +rnorenes. Hpnunny romy, nosmoxno, cney-
er ncxart n ornocnrentno ntcoxo crenenn nnrerpnponannocrn axe
nepn]epnntx onacre, naxonnmnxcx no xonrponem anapon, n en-
noe +rnononnrnuecxoe npocrpancrno xaranara.
AHTEPATYPA
1. Bepuaocru I.B. Hauepranne pyccxo ncropnn. CH., 2000.
2. Bomoeu: H.B. Kapnarctxi xopnarn n ernononirnunomy posnnrxy Henrpant-
no-Cxino Cnponn panntoro cepentoniuux // Vxpana n Henrpantno-Cxino
Cnponi (s naannimnx uacin o xinnx XVIII cr.). Knn, 2004. Bnn. 4. C. 105132.
3. Imse.ee B. Cpenonexonna Fnrapnx n cnernnnara na nonn nsnopn. Co]nx,
1981.
95

4. exnnx nenrpon marncrpa H., xoroporo nastnamr Anonnmom / Hep.
B.H. Marysono, ncryn. crartx n xommenrapn M.K. Rpacona // Studia Slavica et
Balcanica Petropolitana. 2007. N 1/2. C. 8798.
5. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne / Ho pe.
I.I. Hnranpnna, A.H. Honocentnena; nep. I.I. Hnranpnna. M., 1991.
6. Maeo:i H.P. uopmynannx nanionantno camocniomocri: Hixapnarctxa
Pyct (18481948). Vxropo, 1994.
7. Hasapeuro A.B. Hemenxne narnnoxstunte ncrounnxn IXXI nexon. Texcrt,
nepeno, xommenrapn. M., 1993.
8. Heur C.I. Panntocnon`xnctxe i anntopyctxe nacenennx 3axapnarrx VI
XIII cr. Knn, 1980.
9. Hon .H. Panne]eoantnte rocyapcrna Henrpantno Enpont n noxap-
narcxne pycnnt // Kapnarcxne pycnnt n cnanxncxom mnpe: axryantnte npone-
mt. M.; Fparncnana, 2009. C. 231243.
10. Pamrou H. Bennxax Mopannx reppnropnx n omecrno // Bennxax Mopa-
nnx, ee ncropnuecxoe n xyntrypnoe snauenne. M., 1985. C. 8195.
11. Tu+ouvr B.A. Bocrounte cnanxne: or omnnt x ropoam. M., 1995.
12. Tpreumur . Bosnnxnonenne cnanxncxnx rocyapcrn n Cpenem Hoy-
nante // Panne]eoantnte rocyapcrna n naponocrn (mxnte n sanante
cnanxne VIXII nn.). M., 1991. C. 6986.
13. Lvuapuu B.H. Pannn +ran +rnnuecxo ncropnn nenrpon. Hponemt
+rnnuecxoro camocosnannx. M., 1997.
14. Annales Regni Francorum et Annales qui dicuntur Einhardi / Rec. F. Kurze.
Hannoverae, 1895.
15. Documenta historiae chroaticae periodum antiquam illustrantia / Collegit,
digessit, explicuit Dr F. Racki. Zagrabiae, 1877.
16. Havlk L.E. zemn rozsah Velkomoravsk re v dob poslednch let vldy
krle Svatopluka (Svetoplka) (K problematice vzjemnch vztahu stredoevropskch
Slovanu v 9. stolet) // Slovansk tdie. 1960. Roc. III. S. 977.
17. Lowmialski H. Poczatki Polski. Z dziejw slowian w I tysiacleciu n.e. T. IV.
Warszawa, 1970.
18. Madgearu A. Geneza si evolutia voievodatului bntean din secolul al X-lea
// Studii si Materiale de Istorie Medie. 1998. Vol. 16. P. 191207.
19. Madgearu A. Voievodatul lui Menumorout n lumina cercetrilor recente //
Analele Universittii din Oradea. Istorie-arheologie. 2001. Vol. 11. P. 3851.
20. Madgearu A. The Romanians in the Anonymous Gesta Hungarorum. Truth
and fiction. Cluj-Napoca, 2005.
21. Magnae Moraviae fontes historici. Vol. I: Annales et chronicae. Brunae, 1966;
Vol. III: Diplomata, epistolae, textus historici varii. Brunae, 1969.
22. Pop I.A. Romanians and Hungarians from the 9th to the 14th Century. The
Genesis of the Transilvanian Medieval State. Cluj-Napoca, 1996.
23. Scriptores rerum Hungaricarum tempore ducum regumque stirpis Arpadianae
gestarum / Ed. E. Szentptery. Vol. I. Budapestini, 1937.
24. Steinhbel J. Pvod a najstarie dejiny Nitrianskeho knieatstva // Historick
casopis. 1998. Roc. 46. C. 3. S. 369416.
25. Tretk D. Vznik Velk Moravy. Moravan, Cechov a stredn Evropa v letech
791871. Praha, 2001.
96
2009, N 2 (16)
Cepren CYARK
PYCHHCKHH H YKPAHHCKHH
BOHPOCL HAKAHYHE
HEPBOH MHPOBOH BOHHL
1
O epo+uo+ yepopyccuo+ npouecce, opamueue+ ua cea euu+a-
uue eceeo ceema, a o cux nop ue e cocmoauuu mu uanucamo uu
cuoea. Cuaxy omupoeeuuo: cmmuo muo Mue cmmuo u ououo
cueumo sa nopouocma+u npouecca, uau ueuoeeuy, cmoaue+y ua
epeey, maxeuo euemo ymonamuux, uomopm+ ue e cuuax no+ouo.
Hyecmeo cmma ycuuueauoco cosuauue+, umo uacmo euum sa +mo
uecuacmoe u, +oxem mmo, noaeuamuaa uacmo, naaem ua uac,
Poccum
M.O. Meuiuuroe (1859-1918). Cporu o.usmc.
22 qeepa. 1914 e. // Huci+a r pvccro uauu. M., 2005. C. 436.
Bom o uauoeo nosopa ope+auuco +m: e Kueee, ua uoue +ame-
pu eopooe pyccuux, pasauuco upuuu: ouo Poccum!. B Kueee,
ee uapo pyccuu npuuau upeueuue u omuya, e+ecme c Hoeeopo-
o+, nouua uaua eocyapcmeeuuocmo, cuoxuuaco s+euuaa us+e-
ua, npecmynuo uusocmu uomopo uem npeeua. Ecmo, enpoue+,
ueumo eue ouee eos+ymumeuouoe u eccoeecmuoe, ue+ +mom no-
um yum, - ceumu+eumauouoe c pasumx cmopou nomeopcmeo e+y.
M.O. Meuiuuroe. Moeu.iuura+ Poccuu.
27 qeepa. 1914 e. // Huci+a r pvccro uauu. M., 2005. C. 442.
Haxanyne Hepno mnpono nont, n nauane 1914 r. nponsomnn cot-
rnx, xoropte moxno paccmarpnnart n cnere cronxnonennx nyx npoex-
ron: cosannn ontmon pyccxon nannn n yxpanncxoro, ncxnmuan-
mero omepyccxym nenrnunocrt. C ono cropont - n1opon Mapa-
uopom-Cnre1cxnn n Atnoncxnn nponeccm, omcx n peaxnnn
uepnonnnxon rase1m Pyccxan npana n apec1 ee nsa1enn n
peax1opa (Anc1po-Benrpnn), c pyro - ueponpnn1nn, nponeen-
1. uacrt annoro marepnana tna osnyuena na mexynapono nayuno-npax-
rnuecxo xon]epennnn Hpnxapnarcxax Pyct n Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx (Canxr-
Herepypr, 18 nmnx 2009 r.).
97

nme n Poccnn x 100-ne1nm co nn poaennn T.I. menuenxo [25.02
(9.03).1814, c. Mopnnnt, ntne 3nennropocxoro paona uepxaccxo o-
nacrn - 26.02 (10.03).1861, Herepypr], ue mnne tn ncnontsonan
nx anrnnpannrentcrnenntx ntcrynnenn.
Hepe nauanom nont ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn npenpnnxnn mept
no nnxnnannn pycnncxoro nnxennx n Iannunne, Fyxonnne n Vropcxo
Pycn, xoropoe nocnno omepyccxn xapaxrep. Hanonee +]]exrnnntm
cpecrnom crano onnnenne pycnnon n rocyapcrnenno nsmene n mnn-
onaxe n nontsy Poccnn.
B1opon Mapauopom-Cnre1cxnn (Mapuapom-Cnre1cxnn) npo-
necc npoxonn c 29 exapx 1913 r. no 3 mapra 1914 r. n r. Mapamopom-
Cnrere (ceronx pymtncxn Cnrery Mapmanne). 3ro tn nepnt
maccont nonnrnuecxn nponecc n Ancrpo-Benrpnn. Bnauane x cyy
tno npnnneueno 189 uenonex, nosxe uncno cnnsnnoct o 94 uen., une-
non npanocnanntx omnn cen Bennxne Hyuxn (nns Myxauena) n Hsa
(Xycrcxn paon). Hpoxypop onnnnn xpecrtxn n nocrpexarentcrne
npornn matxpcxoro napoa, rpexo-xaronnuecxoro neponcnoneannx, rpe-
xo-xaronnuecxoro yxonencrna, nenrepcxoro saxonoarentcrna
1
. Kpec-
rtxn cynnn sa nepexo n npanocnanne, necmorpx na ro, uro xoncrnry-
nnx Benrpnn oecneunnana pennrnosnym cnooy, npanocnanne tno roc-
nocrnymme pennrne n cocenem repnorcrne Fyxonnna, a nocrpe-
xarentcxax rasera Pyccxax npana nerantno ntxonna n uepnonnax.
Poccncxax npecca, n uacrnocrn, mocxoncxax exenennax nnepant-
nax rasera Pyccxoe cnono, nsanaemax H.. Ctrnntm, n canxr-ne-
repyprcxax exeneentnax rasera Peut, nenrpantnt opran naprnn
xaeron, peaxrnpyemax H.B. Ieccenom n H.M. Mnnmxontm, cnennn
sa xoom nponecca, onnctnax xaxt ent cyenoro saceannx.
2 xnnapx 1914 r. tn onpomen onn ns rnanntx onnnxemtx A. Ka-
anmx. Tmpemntm crpaxnnxom n san nnonrcx Anexce Kaanmx.
Ha nem nnnnt uepnt cmpryx. On yntaercx n na nonpoc npecea-
renx cya orneuaer, uro on npanocnannt, n nacroxmee npemx ne nme-
er nnxaxoro nmymecrna, uro on npanocnannt mnccnonep n sa pacnpoc-
rpanenne sanpemenntx nepxonntx xnnr yxe ortn naxasanne.
Bonncxym nonnnnocrt Kaanmx ortnan nnxnnm unnom n 6-m ap-
rnnnepncxom nonxy. Kaanmx snaer, n uem ero onnnxmr, no ne uyn-
crnyer cex nnnonntm. On nnnonen nnmt n rom, uro pacnpocrpanxn
npanocnannym nepy. On nnxoro ne nosyxan npornn ynnarcxo nept n
cnxmennnxon. Pyccxym npany on ne pacnpocrpanxn. Monaxom on
xouer cenartcx noromy, uro nepnyncx c noenno cnyxt ontntm. On
nosnaxomnncx c npanocnanno nepo uepes Bopouyxa, xoropt cna-
nn ero xnnramn, ns xoroptx on yenncx, uro npanocnannax pennrnx
enncrnenno npanenax.
98
2009, N 2 (16)
On xoren cenartcx cnyxnrenem Iocnoa Fora. C Bopouyxom on
ocyxan nonpoc o noesxe na A]on. C Anexceem Ieponcxnm on nosna-
xomnncx n 1905 r. n cnne, re nnepnte ynnen ero n nepxnn nmecre c
ctnom cnxmennnxa Faunncxoro. Ieponcxn cxasan Kaanmxy, uro on
npanocnannt. B cnom ouepet Kaanmx coomnn, uro on xenaer no-
crpnutcx n monaxn. Ieponcxn oeman emy art cneennx, xax +roro
ocrnrnyrt. Bcnecrnne nnctma Ieponcxoro on na mecxna cnycrx nt-
exan n uepnonnt, a orrya n Knen, re npotn ne neenn, nocemax
monacrtpn n noxynax xnnrn. B Knene on tn orpanen n nosnparnncx n
Benrpnm. Bosnparnnmnct n Benrpnm, on n cnoem xnnnme ycrponn mo-
nnrnennt om, urot nororonnrtcx x monamecxo xnsnn.
B eceax c pasnnuntmn nnnamn n Benrpnn Kaanmx nnmt yxa-
stnan, uro npanocnannax nepa unme ynnarcxo. Kaanmx npotn na
A]one 4 mecxna, ram tn nocrpnxen n monaxn, nocne uero nosnparnncx
na ponny. Bnocnecrnnn on nropnuno ornpannncx na A]on, npnuem exan
uepes uepnonnt, re nocernn Ieponcxoro. Ieponcxn nanncan nnctmo
xonmcxomy enncxony, xoropt sarpeonan cneennx o xnsnn Kaanmxa.
Hocne +roro on tn pyxononoxen n naxont. Onauenne n yrnapt on
nonyunn or a]oncxoro monacrtpx.
Hpecearent cya cnpamnnaer, sanncxr nn a]oncxne monaxn or pyc-
cxoro narpnapxa n Koncranrnnonone? Kaanmx orneuaer, uro n Kon-
cranrnnonone naxonrcx rpeuecxn narpnapx. C A]ona Kaanmx nep-
nyncx n Benrpnm uepes Fyxapecr n uepnonnt. Ho nosnpamennn on co-
nepman orocnyxennx n Myxauene n Inuxo, re ocnxrnn monnrnennte
oma.
enexnte cpecrna Kaanmx nonyuan c A]ona. uepes nocpecrno
nacroxrenx nounncxoro monacrtpx Cepa]nma on nonyunn 50 py. n
or rp. Fopnncxoro 200 py. Ipa] npnesxan n monacrtpt nx ronennx
n nepean emy entrn nnuno.
Kora Kaanmx nepnyncx n Benrpnm, on nocernn xapnonnnxoro nar-
pnapxa n cnxmennnxa Mornna n Mnmxontre. Hocnenn saxnnn, uro
neopasymennx n Hse yyr ynaxent. Bnocnecrnnn on tn ntcnan
oxpyxntm nauantnnxom ns Hs, re conepman xpemennx n pyrne nep-
xonnte rpet.
Ha conepmenne rpe on nonyunn paspemenne or mnmxontrcxoro cnx-
mennnxa Mornna. Paspemenne +ro tno nornepxeno nauantnnxom
oxpyra. Hocne ntcenennx Kaanmx yexan n Amepnxy, re cocroxn npn
enncxone Hnarone. B Ancrpnm on nepnyncx, npounran n raserax o npo-
nsneenntx apecrax
2
.
7 xnnapx npoonxaercx onpoc onnnxemtx ns Hst. Onnnxemt
Hann Hamyntxa, ecxrt ner nasa onnnxnmncx n nponarane npano-
cnannx, saxnnxer, uro emy nnuero nensnecrno o xaxnx-nno yrposax, xo-
roptm yro t noneprannct ynnart co cropont npanocnanntx, n,
99

panntm opasom, o cenanntx yro saxnnennxx, uro pyccxn napt sa-
nomer semnm yrpopycon.
Onnnxemt Herp Cnmynnnr saxnnxer, uro on oxorno nepemen t n
npanocnanne, no +ro conpxxeno c ontmnmn sarpynennxmn. On yex-
en n ncrnne npanocnanno nept n n cnyuae, ecnn ero nacnntcrnenno
yyr npnnyxart x nosnpary n ynnarcrno, ro cenaer on +ro nnmt nx
nny. Onnnxemt Bacnnn Hpoxon saxnnxer, uro on npnnxn npanocna-
nne noromy, uro saxon oecneunnaer ncem n xaxomy cnooy neponc-
noneannx.
Bce onnnxemte xnrenn Hst xanymrcx na xecroxoe c nnmn opa-
menne co cropont xanapmon, xoropte ncrxsann nx axe n nepene y
cyenoro cneonarenx.
Haunnaercx onpoc nocynmtx ns omnnt Hnnrnun. Hocynmt
Cre]an Baxapo ne npnsnaer cex nnnonntm. On cosnaercx, uro npnnn-
man yuacrne n mepax, nanpannenntx nx roro, urot npanocnannte
yrpopyct tnn npnnxrt n xaxym-nnyt npanocnannym nepxont n Ben-
rpnn. C +ro nentm on nocernn pymtncxoro mnrpononnra n Hatcee-
ne, a xora nocnenn ornernn orxasom, on nocnan uncex n Xycaxa x
cepcxomy narpnapxy n Kapnonnax. Harpnapx npncnan xnnrn, coepxan-
mne monnrnt sa nenrepcxoro xoponx. Vrpopycct, - ronopnn anee Cre-
]an Baxapo, - xenann nepnyrtcx x pennrnn cnonx npexon. On unran
"Bepy n nepxont" n "Pyccxym npany", no pemnrentno nporecryer npo-
rnn npnnnctnaemtx emy cnon, uro npner pyccxn napt. On nenrepc-
xn nopxnnn n roron nrn na xoneconanne, ecnn on cxasan noonte
cnona.
Hnan uesax saxnnxer, uro napo tn neononen nponaranom oe-
nnennx xanenape n rem, uro ynnarcxne cnxmennnxn ntptnann nncr-
xn ns nepxonntx xnnr. Hntxo Iaypen ntcxastnaercx n rom xe cmtc-
ne.
Bce orpnnamr onnnennx, uro onn yro t nonocnnn ynnarcxym
nepxont n xnannnn pyccxym, a raxxe ronopnnn o yymem nnatuecrne
pyccxoro napx
3
.
8 xnnapx onpamnnaercx Bacnnn unce, npanocnannt. Hocy-
nmt ne npnsnaer cex nnnonntm. On saxnnn, uro nepemen n npano-
cnanne ns-sa oennennx xanenape. Hocynmomy nsnecrno, uro
cepcxn narpnapx Vmax saxnnxn, uro napo ne onxen npnnnmart oe-
nnenntx xanenape. On unran pommpy "Ie ncxart npany?", no ne
pacnpocrpanxn ee.
Hocynmt Bacnnn uecax saxnnxer, uro on nenrepcxn npano-
cnannt. On ne npnsnaer cex nnnonntm. Hpanocnanntm on cenancx
noromy, uro yxonnte nnna nsronxnn ns nepxne nme, yrnepxanmnx,
uro cnxro yx ncxonr rontxo or Fora-orna...
100
2009, N 2 (16)
Anexcanp Hnnue noxastnaer, uro on cenancx npanocnanntm ns-
sa oennennx xanenape.
Crenan Hnnue, npanocnannt, ne npnsnaer cex nnnonntm. On ne-
pemen n npanocnanne raxxe ns-sa oennennx xanenape.
Anexcanp 3exan npnsnaer, uro on pacnpocrpanxn pommpy "Ie
ncxart npany".
Cy nepexonr x onpocy nocynmtx ns Bennxoro Hyuxa. mnrpn
Parnnen ns Bennxoro Hyuxa roxe ne npnsnaer cex nnnonntm. On ce-
nancx npanocnanntm, rax xax cnxmennnx, orxasanmnct ocnxrnrt oro-
cnyxente xnnrn, namepenancx nx cxeut. On npnnnman yuacrne n me-
pax, npenpnnxrtx nx roro, urot art npanocnanntm Bennxoro Hyu-
xa cnxmennnxa
4
.
10 xnnapx Hnan Crexx saxnnxer, uro nepemen n npanocnanne,
noromy uro +ro pennxx pennrnx. On orpnnaer, uro unran ncnyx "Pyc-
cxym npany" n nepxnn Onnnxemte Hcnop n Mnxann Poccoxa sax-
nnnn, uro onn tnn neonontnt oennennem xanenape n nacnnt-
crnenntm nx sauncnennem n xaronnuecxn napont coms Oa xa-
nymrcx na xecroxoe opamenne xanapmon. Onnnxemt Mnxann Ko-
nau ntcxastnaercx n rom xe cmtcne Onnnxemt Ieoprn Hesa-
no, npanocnannt, ne npnsnaer cex nnnonntm
5
.
15 xnnapx saxonunnoct ornamenne xon]ncxonanno nnreparypt, noc-
ne uero nexoroptmn ns onnnxemtx tno saxnneno rpeonanne, urot
xnnrn nm nosnparnnn, rax xax nnuero npeocynrentnoro n nnx ner. 3a-
mnrnnxn npocxr sanecrn n nporoxon, uro nmx napx nourn no ncex mo-
nnrnennnxax ntuepxnyro. Cpen xon]ncxonanntx xnnr mnoro rpenn-
xon n ncanrnpe na cepcxom xstxe, nonyuenntx nnonne nerantntm
nyrem or xapnonnnxo narpnapxnn.
Kax nmontrnt nnnnenr moxno ormernrt, uro xora ornamanact
crartx ns xypnana "Bepa n nepxont" o nancxnx nperpemennxx, ro npn-
cxxnt nepenounx cya ynnarcxn xnnpnx Menenxn npocnn y npe-
cearenx paspemennx yannrtcx, rax xax emy "neymecrno cnymart no-
onym epect"
6
.
17 xnnapx cnnerent Hocn] unnnnn ns Fenona saxnnn, uro on ne
cntman, urot Kaanmx nopnnan ynnarcxym nepxont.
Cnnerent upann ueop Typann ronopnr, uro npn coecrnnn Iepon-
cxoro Fannen ocrannn ero n nounn. Tam n monacrtpe on nnen
uertpex mantunxon ns Hs. Mantunxn yunnnct n monacrtpe unrart n
nncart no-pyccxn.
Hpecearent paccnpamnnaer cnnerenx o noponocrxx monacrtp-
cxo xnsnn, o rom, conepmannct nn monnrnt sa napx n napcrnymmn
om. Cnnerent saxnnxer, uro n monacrtpe sa napx monnnnct. Hacro-
xrent monacrtpx Cepa]nm ronopnn, uro nentm nx oyuennx xnnxercx
pacnpocrpanenne npanocnannx n Benrpnn.
101

Ipa] Fopnncxn necxontxo pas npnesxan n monacrtpt, ronopnn mant-
unxam, urot onn npnnexno yunnnct n, nosnparnnmnct na ponny, pac-
npocrpanxnn npanocnanne. Fopnncxn ne ronopnn, uro pyccxn napt
sanomer semnm yrpopyccon. Fopnncxn ne ntcxastnancx npaxeno
npornn Ancrpo-Benrpnn.
Cnnerent Mnxann Bnanmnp, centcxn yunrent ns Cennemt-3pre-
me, saxnnxer, uro n ynnarcxom orocnyxennn ncrpeuamrcx cnona "npa-
nocnannte xpncrnane". Hapo o cnx nop cunraer cex npanocnanntm
7
.
23 xnnapx onpoc rpa]a B.A. Fopnncxoro nauancx nocne 9 uacon
yrpa. B sane saceann cxamtn nx xypnanncron n nynnxn nepenonne-
nt. Ha saceannn npncyrcrnymr mecrnt ryepnarop Hnerp, rnannt
npoxypop Hrnapro n npecrannrent nenrepcxoro mnnncrepcrna mcrn-
nnn.
.Fopnncxn npocnr nosnonennx ronopnrt cnepna no-pyccxn, a no-
rom no-]pannyscxn, urot ntpasnrt cnom mtcnt xcnee nx nonnma-
nnx onnnxemtx. Hpoxypop Hnnem npenaraer nponsnonrt onpoc
ncxnmunrentno no-]pannyscxn. Hpecearent cya paspemaer nonpoc
coornercrnenno xenannm npoxypopa n pasxcnxer cnnerenm, uro on
nnpane ne orneuart na nonpoct, ecnn ornert na nnx moryr nonneut nx
nero cyeno-yrononnoe npecneonanne. Ipa] Fopnncxn saxnnxer, uro
raxnx nonpocon ner.
Ha nonpoct npecearenx cya rpa] Fopnncxn orneuaer, uro emy
46 ner, uro on unen Iocyapcrnenno ymt, semnennaenen, oren nxre-
ptx ere, ne nmen omnx c onnnxemtmn nnrepecon, nn mopantntx,
nn marepnantntx. On npnnanexnr x naprnn pyccxnx nannonanncron n
cocronr npecearenem Iannnxo-pyccxoro comsa. Coms nmeer ex-
rentnocrt rontxo n Poccnn, a ne n Iannnnn, Fyxonnne n Benrpnn. Iannn-
xo-pyccxn coms ne nmeer orenenn n Iannnxo Pycn. Coms ne oxast-
nan marepnantno nomomn n Iannnnn, Fyxonnne n Benrpnn. Cnnerent
npnnnmaer xnnoe yuacrne n exrentnocrn nerepyprcxoro Iannnxo-pyc-
cxoro comsa, or nmenn xoroporo on neonoxparno opamancx c nossna-
nnxmn n nontsy rannnxnx pyccxnx. Iannnxo-pyccxn coms npecrannx-
er coo ne nonnrnuecxn coms, a rontxo nnreparypno-xyntrypnt, na-
npannennt npornn nnxennx yxpanncrna n nononnsannn. 3annmartcx
nonnrnxo Iannnxo-pyccxomy comsy sanpemeno. Hent Comsa cocro-
nr n osnaxomnennn pyccxo nynnxn c ycnonnxmn xnsnn pyccxnx n Ia-
nnnnn B 1908 r. cnnerent nocernn Iannnnm n Fyxonnny. On snaxom c
Mapxontm, Kypnnonnuem, ytxennuem, Fenauyxom, Ieponcxnm, cnx-
mennnxom Forartpnom, pexropom ynnnepcnrera n uepnonnax Kocca-
xom, cyte Mornnnnnxnm n Cepere n mnrpononnrom uepnonnnxnm. On
rya (na Fyxonnny) esnn orxptro n nnonne nerantno, urot yenrt-
cx, n cocroxnnn nn mecrnte pyccxne conpornnnxrtcx yxpanncxnm n
102
2009, N 2 (16)
nontcxnm renennnxm.. Onnnennx n nocrpexarentcrne npornn Ancr-
pnn noxnoe. Ha copannn n Cepere cnnerent cxasan, uro c paoc-
rtm nnnr, uro pyccxne coxpanxmr nepnocrt cnonm rocyapcrnam n
rem ne menee cocrannxmr ennt pyccxn napo.
.Bo npemx antnemero onpoca Fopnncxn saxnnxer, uro emy
nsnecrno o cymecrnonannn ntnoncxoro Haponoro oma n comsa Kau-
xoncxoro. Onaxo mexy nnmn n Iannnxo-pyccxnm omecrnom n He-
repypre ner nnxaxo cnxsn. Herepyprcxoe omecrno ne oxastnaer
enexnoro ncnomomecrnonnnx ntnoncxnm yupexennxm. Hapont om
nectma orar n onaaer nennxonenno nnnorexo. Cnnerenm nsne-
crno, uro saxon paspemaer yupexenne pyccxnx mxon n Iannnnn. Ona-
xo nnacrn ne xenamr onycrnrt raxnx mxon. Herepyprcxoe omecrno
nn n xaxo cnxsn c +rnmn mxonamn ne cocronr. Hoctnaer nm nnmt npo-
nsneennx pyccxnx xnaccnxon, no ne nponsneennx conpemenntx anro-
pon. Omecrno nsaer pommpt no xyntrypntm n +rnorpa]nuecxnm
nonpocam. Ho onn n mxont nnxora ne nanpannxnnct, rax xax ne npe-
nasnauent nx mxontnnxon.
Taxxe rpa] Fopnncxn noxasan, uro omecrno ne sannmanoct opra-
nnsanne nanomnnuecrna ns Iannnnn n Benrpnn, a nnmt xoaracrnona-
no o cnnxennn npoesno nnart nx nnx. Taxnmn xe ntroramn nontso-
nannct xaronnuecxne nanomnnxn. On exerono no necxontxo pas noce-
man nounn, eceonan c mantunxamn ns Benrpnn na pennrnosnte
remt. 3naer Cepa]nma n Kaanmxa. Hocnenemy on an 200 pyne,
xora Kaanmx copancx exart na A]on nnn Amepnxy. Kya nmenno,
cnnerent rouno ne nomnnr. Bnocnecrnnn Kaanmx saxnnn, uro on
conpaercx nosnparnrtcx na ponny, urot noepxnnart nonepram-
mnxcx pennrnosntm npecneonannxm ennonepnen. Ieponcxne ne nony-
uann ener. Cnnerent ne cocroxn n nepenncxe c Kaanmxom. Cnom
pommpy cnnerent ne noctnan n Benrpnm. B ne pommpe Fopnnc-
xn ne nncan "nt xnnere n Poccnn", no "na pyccxo semne", uro conep-
menno noxntno. Cnnerent nnxora ne ronopnn o pacnpocrpanennn ne-
nnxopyccxo nen n Benrpnn. Pyccxne rasert, a panno n nontcxne ntpa-
xamrcx ropaso pesue, uem "Pyccxax npana". entrn na nsanne rase-
rt "Pyccxax npana" cnnerent ne anan. Ipa] Fopnncxn no npemx
onpoca ornernn, uro "npanocnannoe nnxenne (Vropcxo Pycn) naua-
noct n Amepnxe. B Knene ner cnoero narpnapxa. Inanom npanocnanno
nepxnn n Poccnn nounraercx Hncyc Xpncroc. Iocyapm nmneparopy n
nepxonntx enax npnnanexnr mentmax nnacrt, uem npncnoennax an-
crpncxomy nmneparopy n Ancrpo-Benrpnn. B cnonx xnnrax cnnerent
xpnrnxonan nnmt nnacre, a ne monapxon". Fopnncxn saxnnn, uro on
monapxncr n nnxora ne cran t nosyxart napo npornn ero monap-
xa. B Poccnn nce pennrnn cnoont
8
.
103

25 xnnapx cnnerenn ns Hst, xanapmcxn naxmncrp Hnan Bep-
an n centcxn xysnen Hnan 3enenxx noxastnamr, uro n Hsax npano-
cnannte reppopnsnponann ynnaron, yrpoxann nm n ocxopnxnn ynnarc-
xoe yxonencrno. Boxxmn nnxennx tnn Kement, Cao, Cnmynnnr.
3enenxx saxnnxer, uro npanocnannte oxornponann ero, rax xax on
ne nepemen n npanocnanne. Cnnerent Bepan noxastnaer, uro npano-
cnannte yromann noxo, c nentm noynrt x nepexoy x npanocnannm.
Monoo uenonex Mnxann Mauxa saxnnxer, uro na nepnom onpoce
unnt norpannuno crpaxn n xanapmt nsnnn ero o norepn cosnannx.
On roron nornepnrt +ro no npncxro.
Hpecrannrent onnnennx n npecearent cya samnmamr xanap-
mon.
Mauxa saxnnxer, uro nnxro ero ne conpaman. On no cocrnennomy
noyxennm ornpannncx n Poccnm, n nounn, xenax cenartcx y-
xonntm nnnom. On nanpannncx n Poccnm uepes uepnonnnt, re noce-
rnn Ieponcxoro n c ero nomomtm conepmnn nyremecrnne n Poccnm.
B nounne on npotn 2,5 roa. Bnen ram Fopnncxoro, Bopouy-
xa, Ieponcxoro n Kaanmxa, nosnaxomnncx c pyccxo ncropne n oro-
cnyxennem. B monacrtpe on nponsnocnn monnrnt sa napx. Fopnncxn
ronopnn, uro mantunxn ns Benrpnn onxnt npnnexno yunrtcx n xo npe-
menn npnstna nepnyrtcx na ponny. Vsnan, uro n Benrpnn npnstnamrcx
18-nernne mnomn, cnnerent nosnparnncx. Emy noconeronan +ro n na-
croxrent monacrtpx Cepa]nm. Cnnerent oxorno t nosnparnncx n
monacrtpt n npnnxn cnxmennt can. Tem ne menee, on npean cnoemy
oreuecrny.
.Cnnerent Hnxona Camom saxnnxer, uro xnrenn Hst xenann
ocrart n Benrpnn npanocnannoro cnxmennnxa, no +ro nm ne tno pas-
pemeno. Cnnerent noxastnaer, uro on tn nsnr xanapmamn cront
cnntno, uro tn onen n reuenne mecxna n onxen no+romy conepmnrt
oparnt nepexo n ynnarcrno.
Cnnerent Rpn Cao noxastnaer, uro ynnart ocxopnxnn npano-
cnanntx, ncnecrnne uero pasopt tnn otuntm xnnennem.
Vnnarcxn cnxmennnx ns Hnnue 3mnnt Cre]an noxastnaer, uro o-
rocnyxente xnnrn c monnrnamn sa napx naxoxrcx n n nacroxmee npe-
mx no mnornx nepxnxx. On cam ntptnan ns xnnr +rn monnrnt. Cnne-
rent ntraercx oxasart, uro nnxenne x npanocnannm tno nnxenn-
em ne pennrnosntm, a nonnrnuecxnm. H ronopnr, uro nnxenne +ro ne
npexparnnoct. B omnne nmeercx nnmt necxontxo nnn, ocranmnxcx nep-
ntmn ynnarcrny.
Fontmnncrno yanemrcxnx raser ocnontnamr cnon cyxennx o
yrpopyccxom nponecce na onepnn x noxasannxm ynnmxonnua n neo-
nepnn x noxasannxm rp. Fopnncxoro, xoroporo cy ne noxenan onyc-
104
2009, N 2 (16)
rnrt x npncxre. Onaxo nexoropte rasert ntcxastnamr nnoe mnenne.
Zeit nnmer: onpoc Fopnncxoro oxasan cocrnenno nnmt, uro npo-
rnn pyco]nntcxoro nnxennx nnuero ne noenaemt npn nomomn cyon
n naparpa]on o rocyapcrnenno nsmene, a raxxe, uro +ror nponecc
neyauen n npeen nx nenrepcxoro rocyapcrna. Ecnn mnenne npoxy-
popa, uro pyco]nntcxoe nnxenne npornnno yrononnomy saxony, tno
nepno, ro rp. Fopnncxn nemenenno nocne onpoca onxen trt ape-
cronan, uem rpomxo rposnna emy nncnnpnpyemax neuart. Btmno, ona-
xo, nnaue, nmenno rax, xax c Cnanaxonnuem, xnnnmemcx art noxasa-
nnx na nencxom nponecce cepcxo-xopnarcxo xoannnnn. Hoxasannxm
ynnmxonnua Zeit ne npnaer snauenne n ronopnr: "Enpona anno ne-
pecrana paorart npn nomomn arenron, nponoxaropon, uero, ouennno,
ne snaer nenrepcxoe npannrentcrno. Ip. Fopnncxn ncnontsonan cy-
enym rpnyny nx mnpono pexnamt cnonx ne n oxasan yrpopyc-
cxnm xpecrtxnam, uro ero ecrnnx ne npecrynnt, no nnaue on, nanep-
noe, tn t apecronan, xax emy yrpoxann. Ero exrentnocrt ecrt rontxo
onn ns nnon nnxennx or Pnma, c pyco]nntcxo oxpacxo. Hepexo n
npanocnanne ne sanpemen, panno xax n ycnoenne pyccxoro xstxa, nns-
xoro x yrpopyccxomy napeunm"
9
.
13 ]enpanx samnrnnx -p Koncranrnn Xaxn (cep) n ocroxrent-
no peun, xpnrnxyx onot onnnnrenx, yxastnaer, uro noxnocrt no-
xasann ynnmxonnua ouennna, noxasannx pyrnx cnnerene ne mo-
ryr cnyxnrt ocnonannem nx npnronopa, rax xax cnnerenn or nnx or-
xasannct. Hontrxa xe yrpopyccon nepnyrtcx x nx npexne pennrnn ne
npecrynnenne, a nx npano. Fpommpa "Ie ncxart npany?" coepxnr
nnmt ncropnuecxym npany ornocnrentno ynnarcxo pennrnn. B sax-
nmuenne Xaxn oxastnaer necocroxrentnocrt yrnepxenn npoxy-
popa ornocnrentno xpecra n nepxonntx xnnr
10
.
Hao ormernrt, uro nponecc tn nocrpoen na noxasannxx nponoxa-
ropon. Cpen nnx rnannym pont ctrpan nncnexrop norpannuno nonn-
nnn Apnont ynnmxonnu. Ero exrentnocrt pacnpocrpanxnact na nen-
repcxne onacrn, nacenennte pycnnamn. Conpan marepnant on n Fy-
anemre, Bene, Htnone, Herepypre. B Poccnm on nonan naroapx
pexomenannn A. Ieponcxoro, x xoropomy nrepcx n onepne. A. ynnm-
xonnua noepxnnano rnanntm opasom yrpopyccxoe ynnarcxoe yxo-
nencrno. pyrnm arenrom-nponoxaropom nonnnnn tn Anpe Mano-
no, nocrpexanmn napo na ntcrynnennx npornn matxpnsannn n xa-
ronnuecxoro yxonencrna. Cnom pont ctrpan n o]nnnantnt nepeno-
unx apnan, xoropt nenpannntno nepenonn na nenrepcxn xstx noxa-
sannx xpecrtxn, xoropte sarem sannctnannct n nporoxon. Hnrepecno,
uro nce cnanxne Ancrpo-Benrpnn ntcrynnnn n noepxxy onnnxemtx.
Hanontmee couyncrnne npoxnnnn uexn. Homnmo nocroxnntx nynn-
105

xann n npecce, n Hpare 11 xnnapx npomen napont mnrnnr, n xoropom
npnnxnn yuacrne uexn-enyrart napnamenra n rannnxo-pyccxn eny-
rar . Mapxon. 27 xnnapx n Bene n sane uemcxoro Haponoro oma
cocroxncx omecnanxncxn mnrnnr nporecra npornn mapamopomcxoro
nponecca. Bropo raxo mnrnnr npomen n Bene 3 ]enpanx. Vxpannnt
Bent n anntx meponpnxrnxx yuacrne ne npnnnmann. B ro xe npemx
yxpanno]nntcxne nsannx onnnnnn no ncem poccncxnx incniparopin
n rannnxnx n yxonnncxnx arenron poccncxo ippeenrn
11
.
B xoe nponecca npoxypop cnxn onnnenne npornn mnornx nocyn-
mtx, x rmpemnomy saxnmuennm n enexntm mrpa]am npnronopnnn 32
uenonexa, 23 tnn ocnooxent. Inannt nocynmt nepomonax
Anexcn (Kaanmx) tn npnronopen x 4 roam n 6 mecxnam saxnmue-
nnx n mrpa]y n 100 xpon
12
.
Hao ormernrt, uro mnnonomannx n Ancrpo-Benrpnn, nnx xoropo
npnmencx na 1914 r., nauanact panee. Apecrt na Fyxonnne nauannct n
1909 r., n 1910 r. uepnonnnxo nonnnne tno saneeno 6 en n apecro-
nano 14 uenonex. 6 xnnapx 1914 r. tn nponsneen otcx y Ieponcxnx n
peaxnnn Pyccxo npant. Ftnn apecronant Anexce (ocnonarent
rasert), Ieoprn n Kcennx Ieponcxne, nx mart Anexcnx (out A. o-
pxncxoro) n peaxrop H. Hypxanonnu. uepes ent nocnennx rponx or-
nycrnnn. Fparten Ieponcxnx onnnnnn n nenom pyxonocrne n nepe-
xoe n npanocnanne onnnxemtmn n Mapamopom-Cnrercxom nponecce,
xonraxrax c B. Fopnncxnm, nponeennem anrnancrpncxo nponaran-
t n n nonyuennn na +ro ener ns Poccnn. Hocne apecra Ieponcxnx
pycnncxoe nnxenne na Fyxonnne samepno, rasera Pyccxax npana
nepecrana ntxonrt. 25 max (7 nmnx) 1914 r. partxm c nomomtm na-
snparenx yanoct exart ns rmptmt n nrpoem nepern ancrpo-poccn-
cxym rpannny uepes Honocennny (Feccapanx)
13
.
Hepexo n npanocnanne pycnncxnx cen na Hemxonmnne, n Coxantmn-
ne n Konomtmnne (Iannunna) roxe ntsnan penpeccnn co cropont an-
crpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre. 17 mapra 1911 r. tnn apecronant na npa-
nocnanntx cnxmennnxa - Hrnarn Iynma n Maxcnm Canonnu, a rax-
xe Cemen Rptennu Fenacmx n cryenr-mpncr Bacnnn Anpeennu
Konpa. Hx epxann n rmptme na c nononnno roa, ne npexnnxx
onnnenn. Hepe camo nono na nnmn no Htnone nauancx namy-
menmn na ncm Enpony nponecc o rocyapcrnenno nsmene n mnno-
naxe.
7 mapra ner onpoc cnnerene samnrt. onpoc +ror xacaercx,
rnanntm opasom, exrentnocrn ypc yuentx omexnrn. Hoxasa-
nnx xaccnpa pyccxo Pat nanonee nnrepecnt nx ceronxmnero
nx. Bmecre c samnro on nouepxnyn, uro pyco]nntcxax naprnx ne
pacnpocrpanxna npanocnannx, no axe crapanact ne onycrnrt ero pac-
npocrpanennx, urot ne pasponxrt cnnt n ne ntstnart npornn nnx
106
2009, N 2 (16)
npecneonanne nnacre. Cnnerenn ronopxr no-pyccxn, onaxo co sna-
unrentno npnmectm manopyccxnx cnon n ntpaxenn
14
.
8 mapra npnes no Htnon unenon ymt ntsnan ontmym cencannm.
enyrart pacnenonannct n sane cya c nocynmtmn.
B Iannunne npoonxaercx oxora na mnnonon. B Hepemtmne apec-
ronan nexro Knm, ypoxenen Bent. Knm nrpan n Hepemtmne n opxecr-
pe, n xanapmt ero apecronann npxmo na mystxantno +crpae n xa]e,
ntsnan rem cmxrenne nynnxn. B Fpoax apecronan pyro ancrpnc-
xn noannt, Haxoneunt, cnyxnnmn pantme nonnnecxnm. V Ha-
xoneunoro naen xxot ynnuammn ero marepnan
15
.
11 mapra. Henrpom ceronxmnero saceannx xnnxercx oxna n-
pexropa ntnoncxo nonnnnn, xoropt moxno tno t osarnannrt rax:
"O pasnnrnn pyccxoro nppeenrnsma npn nomomn o]nnnantno n nony-
o]nnnantno Poccnn". 3amnra uacro npeptnaer nsnoxenne +roro ox-
naa pennnxamn, xoropte cranonxrcx ocoenno pesxnmn, xora n oxna-
e npnnoxrcx nsnneuennx ns onoro oruera xnencxo "Pat"
16
.
14 mapra rnosem saceannx xnnnoct urenne no rpeonannm npoxy-
popa nnctma onacrnoro mxontnoro conera, n xoropom coner oxcnxer
npnunnt saxptrnx necxontxnx ypc.
"B +rnx ypcax, - ronopnrcx n nnctme, - npnnyxann nsyuart nmecro
ponoro yxpanncxoro xstxa pyccxn. Pyxononrenn ypc ntnnctnann
yunrene ns Poccnn, nenn c nx nomomtm nonnrnuecxym arnrannm n
nontsy Poccnn".
.K nnctmy mxontnoro conera npnnoxeno nossnanne, naennoe y
nocnnrannnxa ypct Mnxantuyxa, ocyxennoro sa noxymenne na n-
pexropa rnmnasnn. "A n nacroxmee npemx, - nouepxnyn npoxypop, - no
cnyxam, nocnnrannnxa xnromnpcxo cemnnapnn". Hpounrtnaercx rax-
xe nossnanne x conaram-pycnnam c npnstnom "ynnuroxart mnaon n
nepexonrt na cropony cnanxn".
onpomen rnannt cnnerent onnnennx npornn Konpt, nexro Hn-
mex. Ero ne npnnoxr x npncxre xax nnno, yxe ocyxennoe sa noxnoe
noxasanne no npncxro. 3ror narenronannt nxecnnerent noxast-
naer, uro Konpa npn emoncrpannn rymanntx xaprnn, anax noxcne-
nnx, yro t ronopnn: "Pycnnt onxnt nrn c Poccne".
.Hauantnnx nencxo rano nonnnnn Bryxapr nocernn Kpaxon n
Htnon n nmen conemannx c mecrntmn nauantnnxamn rano nonnnnn.
Tenept Bryxapr naxonrcx n uepnonnnax, ncnonnxx, xxot, nopyuenne
opennsonart nasop sa +mnrpanne. B ecrnnrentnocrn xe nent no-
esxn Bryxapra oprannsonart na mnpoxym nory opty co mnnona-
xem n nonmxy mnnonon. K eny ctcxa n nasopa n Iannnnn npnnnexa-
mrcx yxe ne rontxo xenesnoopoxnte, no n nouronte unnonnnxn, n
]axrnuecxn n Iannnnn nnonrcx ycnnennax oxpana
17
.
107

26 mapra npn nanpxxennom nnnmannn ncero sana nponsnonrcx on-
poc Fouyxa. Fouyx cropox y mocra na uepemome. Tontxo on onn n
nnen, xax nocynmte Iynma n Canonnu xxot omepxnn mocr. Hpn
nepexpecrnom onpoce nnna ncx esoxasarentnocrt onnnenn n
mnnoncrne. Kaxt nonpoc nonepraer cnnerenx n ecnomomnoe co-
croxnne. uyncrnyercx, uro ero sanyrann. Ie npana n ero cnnunntx,
nepemenunntx noxasannxx, ycranonnrt nentsx. Cnnerent xanyercx,
yro croponnnxn Iynmt yrpoxann emy cmeprtm, ronopx: "Bor npn-
er mocxoncxoe nocxo, rora n xanapmt ree ne nomoryr". 3rnmn
yrposamn cnnerent n oxcnxer nsmenenne cnonx noxasann na nro-
pom onpoce.
"Tenept xe, - saxnnxer on,- ronopm rontxo ony cnxrym npany".
On paccxastnaer, xax on nnen npn nynnom cnere Iynmy c pyrnm
cnxmennnxom, omepxnmnx mocr. Onaxo na nonpoc, xaxo ns nyx cnx-
mennnxon Iynma, Fouyx yxastnaer na Canonnua. B sane nnxenne.
3amnra sactnaer cnnerenx nonpocamn o noponocrxx. Fontmax uacrt
+rnx nonpocon ntstnaer y cnnerenx ecnomomnt orner: "He nomnm.
He snam"
Hpecearent nepnnnuaer, nsmenxx otunomy cnoemy nnepannsmy,
ycrpanxer px nonpocon, nosyxenno npepexaercx c npecrannrenem
samnrt, rposnr ouncrnrt san
18
.
B xonne xonnon, necmorpx na annenne co cropont cytn, nocyn-
mte tnn onpanant npncxxntmn sacearenxmn. Fenacmx n Konpa
nocne onpanannx yexann n Poccnm.
1 mapra n Canxr-Herepypre n nopxncxom sane cocroxnoct copa-
nne no nonoy ronenn na pyccxnx npanocnanntx n Vropcxo Pycn. Ip.
Fopnncxn oxnnn copanne nnenaprnntm, nonpocnn ncex epxart-
cx cnoxono, ne enart nnxaxnx ntxpnxon, urot ne art nparam nono-
a ronxonart +rn ntxpnxn n ypnym cropony, n paccxasan o cnoe noes-
xe n Mapamopom-Cnrer. Kora rp. Fopnncxn nomen n san cya, no-
cynmte opaonannct: onn ymann, uro nx nemenenno ocnooxr. Ho
neuantno omnnnct. Hpecearent cya ornocnncx x nocynmtm pesxo,
a na samnrnnxon xpnuan. Kaprnna, no cnonamn Fopnncxoro, n Poccnn
nensnecrnax. B uncne samnrnnxon na cye noe tnn or nenrepcxnx
connan-emoxparon. Ip. Fopnncxomy tno crpanno nnert c.-., sa-
mnmammnx npano pyccxnx na cnooy nept n xstxa. B Poccnn on ne
nanman +roro cpen nporpeccnnno n connanncrnuecxo uacrn pyc-
cxoro omecrna.
Benrepcxn cy npoxnnn ontmoe nenexecrno n pyccxo xnsnn. Ip.
Fopnncxoro cy cnpamnnan o xnencxom narpnapxe "+ro nonnoe ne-
snanne pyccxo reorpa]nn". Haparpa] 19 ancrpo-nenrepcxo xoncrnry-
nnn, oecneunnammn ncem napoam, nxoxmnm n cocran nmnepnn, non-
108
2009, N 2 (16)
nym cnooy nept n xstxa, ocraercx meprno yxno. Taxne exnapa-
nnn ne nmemr nnxaxoro snauennx, ecnn npannrentcrna ne xenamr nx
ncnonnxrt.
.Ho mnennm oxnaunxa, nponecct mapamopomcxn n ntnoncxn
npoyxr pyccxoe nannonantnoe camocosnanne. Pasnpan nce necoo-
pasnocrn ntnoncxoro nponecca n npnmen x ntnoy, uro n oonx nponec-
cax cyxrcx ne rannnxne pycnnt, a mt, pyccxne.
I. Hnxanopon ronopnn o pyccxo pxnocrn. Oa nponecca orner na
namy nonnrnuecxym cnaocrt n nocrounom nonpoce no npemx nocne-
ne cnanxno-rypenxo nont. Pyccxne pasnrt nsnne n nsnyrpn, no
tcrpo pacryr.
Cnxmennnx Mnrponxn npecrannn oa nponecca rannnxnx pyccxnx
xax opty Pnma c npanocnannem. Hpnnonnnct npnmept nenepoxrntx
myunrentcrn na npanocnanntmn n Iannnnn, myunrentcrn na noune
pennrnosno n nannonantno npaxt. H axe ecnn nononnna roro, uro
paccxastnann oxnaunxn, cnpanennno, nentsx es neroonannx cny-
mart o +rom. Ftno myunrentno n ontno, uro raxne yxact rnopxrcx
n Enpone n namn nn.
.Hoxastnannct cneronte xaprnnt. 3an tn nourn nonon. Cryen-
rt xpnuann: ono Ancrpnm. Hponenn pyccxn rnmn. H no npemx
peun cnxmennnxa Mnrponxoro namxrt samyuenntx tna nourena ncra-
nannem
19
.
B cnom ouepet nnepantnax Peut ntcxasana cnoe ornomenne x
anntm cotrnxm: Camo coo pasymeercx, uro noont yntrnma-
rym Ancrpo-Benrpnn moryr nocrannrt rontxo exrenn "pyccxo-rannn-
xoro" omecrna, pyccxoe xe omecrno n nonnnnom cmtcne noenart c
Ancrpne ns-sa yrpopyccon ne conpaercx
20
.
Mapamopom-Cnrercxn n Htnoncxn cynnnma mnpoxo ocnemannct
poccncxo n mnpono npecco. 3ro ocroxrentcrno, xax n axrnnnax
noepxxa co cropont cnanxn Ancrpo-Benrpnn (xpome yxpanno]nnon)
n pxa enyraron poccncxo Iocyapcrnenno ymt, cnococrnonann
romy, uro oprannsaropt anntx nonnrnuecxnx nponeccon ne ocrnrnn
xenaemtx pesyntraron - ncxpenrannn pycnncxoro nnxennx n sany-
rnnannx mecrnoro nacenennx. Haoopor, nponecct noxasann, uro, ne-
cmorpx na mnoronexonte matxpnsannm n nononnsannm, pycnncxoe na-
cenenne Vropcxo Pycn, Iannunnt n Fyxonnnt npoonxaer ocosnanart
cnom npnnanexnocrt x ennomy Pyccxomy mnpy.
B nepno nponeennx nponeccon npornn pycnnon Ancrpo-Benrpnn, n
nauane 1914 r. yxpanncxax omecrnennocrt roronnnact ormernrt 100-
nerne co nx poxennx T.I. Benuenxo n Poccnn. Hente n nnepantnte
rasert naunnamr mnpe ocnemart nororonxy n nponeenne mnnex
no+ra, coxpamax oem nn]opmannn o Mapamopom-Cnrercxom n
109

Htnoncxom nponeccax. Taxxe c noaun pxa enyraron IV Iocyap-
crnenno ymt tn nonxr nonpoc o sanpere nponeennx uecrnonann
T.I. Benuenxo.
11 xnnapx 1914 r. copanne Knencxoro xnya pyccxnx nannonanncron
(oprannsarop n npecearent ypoxenen Honrancxo ryepnnn
A.H. Canenxo) n cnxsn c npecroxmnm uecrnonannem cronernx co nx
poxennx Benuenxo npnnxno pesonmnnm, n xoropo yxastnanoct, uro
narept "masennnnen" yer uecrnonart Benuenxo xax nonnrnuecxoro
exrenx n npara neennmo Poccnn. anee pesonmnnx nouepxnnaer,
uro na menuenxoncxnx ropxecrnax yer emoncrpnponartcx pocr nen
yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma. Ho+romy copanne npnstnaer ntpasnrt npo-
recr npornn npnannx ropxecrnam n uecrt Benuenxo nonnrnuecxoro
xapaxrepa.
Copanne nannonanncron ornpannno renerpammy npecearenm Co-
nera mnnncrpon, mnnncrpam nnyrpennnx en, naponoro npocnemennx n
nnocrpanntx en no nonoy nponecca yrpopyccon. Honyrno nannonann-
crt coomann, uro n Rxno Poccnn neercx xpocrnax nponarana nen
yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma. Masennnnt, noepxnnaemte ancrpo-
nontcxo-rannnncxnm cemom, - ronopxr nannonanncrt, - onnamrcx
orropxennx Manopoccnn n nxnmuennx ee n cocran Ancrpo-Benrpnn na
]eeparnnntx nauanax n xauecrne anronomno ennnnt. Tenerpamma
yxastnaer, uro rnanapt masennnnen, npo]eccop Ipymencxn, cocronr
n pyccxom noancrne n uacro npoxnnaer n Knene, ecnpenxrcrnenno
pyxonox masennnnamn
21
.
KKPH npenoxnn nournrt namxrt no+ra nsannem conmecrntmn
ycnnnxmn yuenoro oxpyra, ryepncxnx n yesntx semcrn copannx ero
nponsneenn nx pasaun mxontnnxam. Hpnuem xnnrn naneuarart n
npexnem, xax no npemena no+ra, nanncannn. 5 ]enpanx 1914 r. mnnncrp
nnyrpennnx en nanpannn nnpxynxp, n xoropom pexomenonan ryepna-
ropam na mecrax nserart o]nnnantnoro xapaxrepa ropxecrn. Ipynna
enyraron ymt nnecna sanpoc no nonoy sanpera. 11 ]enpanx yma
npnnxna pemenne o ero cpounom paccmorpennn
22
.
19 ]enpanx na 40-m saceannn II ceccnn Iocyapcrnenno ymt mnn
ntcrynnennx no nonoy sanpoca o sanpemennn uecrnonannx Benuenxo,
xorx nnpxynxp rontxo pexomenonan ne npeanart ropxecrnam o]nnn-
antnt xapaxrep.
Hepntm ntcrynnn enyrar or ymcxo rpyono rpynnt B.H. sm-
nncxnn. Ero emarornunax peut cnonnact x ronocnonntm onnne-
nnxm noromxon xpenocrnnxon peaxnnn, xoropte, no ero cnonam, ne
moryr npocrnrt yxpanncxomy xosapm ero opty c xpenocrntm npa-
nom n xpenocrnnuecrnom. exrenn Comsa Mnxanna Apxanrena ocnon-
ntm rpexom yxpanncxoro artxn Tapaca cunramr, uro on tn nen-
110
2009, N 2 (16)
nom Vxpant. Broptm ero rpexom cunramr emoxparnsm. enyrar
nasnan xnenero saxnnenne Hypnmxennua, uro yro yxpanncxne nsa-
nnx tmar snoo n neroonannem npornn Poccnn. 3anpemenne ue-
crnonannx Benuenxo ntsnano neonontcrno cpen mnpoxnx macc yx-
panncxoro nacenennx. B saxnmuenne smnncxn saxnnn, uro ymc-
xax rpyonax rpynna cunraer anronomnm Vxpannt, panno xax n py-
rnx onacre, sanorom xyntrypnoro n cnoonoro omecrnennoro pas-
nnrnx.
Cnom peut H.H. Mnnmxon nauan c xpnrnxn opamenn xnencxnx
nannonanncron n crare unena ymt r-na Canenxo, xoropt, xax nona-
ran H. Mnnmxon, npenounraer ormanunnartcx n yme n ne xouer cpa-
snrtcx n orxptrym. On npnnonr rexcr opamennx xnya xnencxnx na-
nnonanncron. B nem ronopnrtcx: Kny cunraer oxsannocrtm onec-
rn o cneennx namero ntcoxonpenocxonrentcrna o cneymmem: na
reppnropnn nce Rxno Poccnn neercx saraennax nponarana ne
yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma. Mnorouncnennte arnraropt, xax sapyex-
nte, rax n semnne, oxastnamr, uro manopyct conepmenno orent-
nt napo, xoropt n onxen nmert ocooe cymecrnonanne, xax xynt-
rypno-nannonantnoe, rax n nonnrnuecxoe. Hnan masennnnen saxnmua-
ercx n rom, urot oropnart or Poccnn ncm Manopoccnm, or Bonrn o
Kanxasa, n nnecrn ee n cocran Ancrpo-Benrpnn na ]eeparnnntx naua-
nax, xax anronomnym ennnny.
Ho cnnerentcrny Mnnmxona, nce +ro nenpana. Vxpanncxoro nn-
xennx nnxro ne ntymtnan, yxpanncxoe nnxenne cymecrnyer, ono y-
er cymecrnonart, n nontrartcx orpnnart yxpanncxoe nnxenne ec-
nonesno. 3rn nmn nastnamr cex anronomncramn-]eepanncramn.
Vxpannnt rexymero momenra nouepxnnamr, uro peut ner nnmt o
neane yymero rocyapcrnennoro ycrpocrna, neane, xoropt on-
xen ocymecrnnrtcx n onee nnn menee oranennom yymem. Hnxro n
nnnnnnsonannom omecrne sa neant ne npecneyer.
Ipymencxn, na xoroporo sect ctnnmrcx npoxnxrnx n yrpost sa
ero nonnrnuecxoe ancrpo]nntcrno, ram, n Ancrpnn cntmnr onnnennx
n rom, uro ncx ero exrentnocrt n Iannnnn ]axrnuecxn neer x xynt-
rypnomy n nonnrnuecxomy pyco]nntcrny.
"Cenaparncrcxoro" nnxennx eme ner na Vxpane, a ecnn n ecrt ero
sauarxn, ro onn ouent cnat. Ho ero moxno nocnnrart, moxno pasnnrt,
- ncrnnnte nocnnrarenn, ncrnnnte "cenaparncrt", ecrnnrentno pa-
orammne na nontsy Ancrpnn, - +ro r-n Canenxo n ero nonnrnuecxne
pystx.
H.B. Tynnxon, connan-emoxpar, yxastnaer, uro sanpemenne uecrno-
nannx Benuenxo conepmenno neoxnanno, nenonxrno n eccmtcnenno.
Kaxoro xe ynaxennx xer x cee rocyapcrnennt crpo, xoropomy
111

onacnt xyntrypt orentntx nann? H ecnn nt xornre trt cnntnt-
mn, nt onxnt coennnrtcx no snamenem connan-emoxparnn.
A.A. Anexcanpon, npnmtxanmn x xaeram: Tenept Poccnn npe-
cronr paspemnrt orpomnym nonnrnuecxym n ncropnuecxym nponemy
onxen nn epxannt napo, nennxopyccxn, pycn]nnnponart, pas-
paxart n enannonannsnponart, nnn on onxen nrn pyrnm nyrem?
Bt onxnt npnsnart sa yxpanncxnm napoom ro, uro on nmeer npano
na ero napeune, na ero xstx, na ro xyntrypnoe camoonpeenenne, xoro-
poro on uecrno omoraercx n npocnr.
B cnom ouepet A.H. Canenxo n ntcrynnennn cxasan: Knencxne
nannonanncrt ne conpannct monuart n n Iocyapcrnenno yme.
xoren c oxymenramn n pyxax oxasart, uro yxpanncxoe nnxenne ecrt
ceptesnoe nonnrnuecxoe nnxenne, npecrannxmmee coo peantnym
yrposy enncrny n nenocrn Poccncxo nmnepnn. Ho H.H. Mnnmxon
necrxme ntnonnnn ceronx +ry saauy, onponeprnyn nce ro, uro rono-
pnn rpa] Kannncr. On nam oxastnaer, uro yxpanncxoe nnxenne, xax
nnxenne nonnrnuecxoe, cymecrnyer, uro ono nosnnxno n copoxontx ro-
ax, uro nnxenne ceptesnoe, uro ero ocranonnrt eccmtcnenno n ne-
ercx ono camnm napoom. conepmenno cornacen c nnepom xaerc-
xo naprnn n nmecre c nnm ronopm: yxpanncxoe nnxenne y nac ecrt,
ono ceptesno n c nnm nao cunrartcx.
cornacen n c xoe-uem pyrnm, uro ceronx pasnnnan H.H. Mnnm-
xon, n uro onee pente]no tno na pyro ent nocne nnecennx sanpo-
ca naneuarano n "Peun". Tam cxasano: "Hpannrentcrno sanpemano ue-
crnonanne ne Benuenxo, a sanpemano onpeenennt nonnrnuecxn cnm-
non". Taxnm opasom, cxoxn pacxptrt. H.H. Mnnmxon oxastnan, uro
ceuac nmemrcx rontxo sauarxn cenaparncrcxoro nnxennx. Ho +ro
ornocnrentnoe cyxenne: trt moxer ro, uro x cunram cospenmnm n
opnconanmnmcx, H.H. Mnnmxony yer yrono cunrart rontxo sauar-
xamn nnxennx. Menx onnnxmr n rom, uro x cnannnam nce n ony
xyuy. Ho pasne +ro moxno pasennrt? Bet mt xnnem n nexe, xora
npecrannrenn x.-. naprnn n nx comsnnxn ronopxr o cnooe nanno-
nantnoro camoonpeenennx, rpeyx ero nx ncex, pasymeercx, xpome
pyccxoro napoa (annoncmenrt cnpana). Bet eme n npomnom roy na
crpannnax "Peun" H.H. Mnnmxon, npoxnnxx rporarentnym nmont x
anannam, oxastnan neoxonmocrt nocrannrt nx n raxne ycnonnx,
npn xoroptx onn mornn t cnoono pasnnnartcx n nannonantnom na-
npannennn. B pxy oxpannntx nonpocon, repsammnx Poccnm n moxer
poxontx nx xnsnn nmnepnn, yxpanncxn xnnxercx camtm crpamntm.
3ro ne nnopouecxn nonpoc, n x ne snam, na xaxom ocnonannn r. Mnnm-
xon nasnan npecearenx Iocymt yxpannnem. Mt, manopocct, nonce
ne cunraem cex yxpannnamn, mt cunraem cex pyccxnmn nmtmn (ann.
cnpana).
112
2009, N 2 (16)
Bennune Poccnn ocnonano na rom nenpenoxnom ]axre, uro +ro en-
nt nenoxynnt, nennxn cromnnnnonnt napo (ann. cnpana), n nno-
pouecxne oxpannt ne ayr ocoennoro npnpocra nennunx Poccnn n
ne ymanxr ero. Ho xora n camoe reno ennoro pyccxoro napoa notmr
xnnn, xora ero pacmenxr na ne uacrn n pocxr nx pyr npornn pyra,
ro, n xonne xonnon, conepmnrcx crpamnoe eno n ncraner peantnax onac-
nocrt nx nenocrnocrn nmnepnn. Vmere cmorpert nnepe. Ecnn nam
pyccxn pasym n name pyccxoe cepne ronopxr nam, uro nyxno epeut
+ry nnraent rocyapcrna, ro ncxxn npar, xoropt ntraercx nponnx-
nyrt n +ry nnraent n nanecrn yap n cepne rocyapcrnennocrn, on-
xen ncrpernrt pemnrentnt ornop, n nt ne onxnt ncrannxrt nanxn n
xoneca npannrentcrna, croxmero na crpaxe nenocrn n nennunx Poccnn
(ann. cnpana)
23
.
Hynnxannn n rasere Peut, xorx n ne ncera oexrnnnte, amr
nn]opmannm o ornomennn pasnnuntx cnoen nacenennx Manopoccnn x
nontrxam npenparnrt npasnonanne mnnex no+ra n nonnrnuecxym ax-
nnm. Hecmorpx na pasxcnenne cnnoa, xnencxoe yxonencrno orxast-
nanoct cnyxnrt nannxnt no Benuenxo. Crapemnnt yxpanncxoro xnya
Ponna oparnnnct x nacroxrenm Co]nencxoro coopa 3naronepxon-
nnxony c npocto orcnyxnrt n ent poxennx Benuenxo nannxny no
nem. O. 3naronepxonnnxon, ne oxcnnn npnunn, orxasancx. Tora crap-
mnnt ornpannnnct x apxnpem, no on nx ne npnnxn. Ho nonoy +rnx orxa-
son yxonencrna crapemnnt ornpannnn renerpammy n Iocymy na nmx
xaercxo naprnn. B cnxsn c mnneem xanapmepnx nponsnena px
otcxon cpen yuamnxcx. Hecxontxo uenonex tno apecronano. Bce
nocranonnennx ropocxnx ym n Rro-3ananom xpae o uecrnonannn
Benuenxo npnocranonnent. Iyepnaropt nepeann nce nocranonnennx
na ycmorpenne nauantnnxa xpax. Emy tnn nepeant raxxe nce xoa-
racrna uacrntx oprannsann o ycrpocrne nnreparypntx neuepon n
namxrt Benuenxo
24
.
B mecrnom yxpanncxom omecrne ycnnnnamrcx renennnn, n nny
sanpemennx menuenxoncxnx ropxecrn, conepmenno orxasartcx or ue-
crnonannx mnnex. Hauantnnxom xpax paspemeno ycrponrt nnreparyp-
nt neuep nnmt omecrny nauantnoro opasonannx. Ocrantnte xoa-
racrna eme ne paccmorpent. Mecrnte nannonanncrt npoonxamr
arnrannm npornn ycrpocrna uecrnonannx. Hpantmn nannonanncramn
ornpannent renerpammt oep-npoxypopy cn. cnnoa, xnencxomy mnr-
pononnry unannany, a raxxe npantm enyraram Ioc. Conera, n xoroptx
yxastnaercx, uro ropxecrna n uecrt Benuenxo "xnxrcx cmorpom ma-
sennncxnm cnnam, omorammnmcx ycranonnrt neoxonmocrt opaso-
nannx yxpanncxoro rocyapcrna c orentntm repom". onymenne men-
uenxoncxnx ropxecrn nannonanncrt cunramr ceptesno omnxo.
113

Oecca. 3anpemennxmn napannsonant nauarte npnroronnennx x
mnnem. Mnorne nnreparypnte n npocnernrentcxne omecrna orxa-
stnamrcx or yuacrnx n ropxecrnax. Vxpanncxax Xara ormennna axe
nannxny no Benuenxo n nepenecna uecrnonanne na mapr, c namepenn-
em ntxart pesyntraron n pyrnx mecrax.
Cyum. Iyepnarop paspemnn ycrpocrno menuenxoncxoro neuepa,
sarpeonan noponym nporpammy. Ha npocty xpyxxa orcnyxnrt no
Benuenxo 25 ]enpanx nannxny narounnnt ornernn, uro on xer
coornercrnymmero pacnopxxennx enapxnantnoro nauantcrna.
Xaptxon. Iopocxax yma nocranonnna orcnyxnrt 25 ]enpanx na-
nnxny n coope n ycrponrt cnexraxnt n rearpe.
Exa1epnnoap. Hamecrnnx na Kanxase paspemnn npasnonanne mn-
nex.
Honopoccnncx. Iyepnarop onporecronan nocranonnenne rop. ymt
o nanmenonannn ono ns ynnn nmenem Benuenxo n o nomemennn nopr-
pera no+ra n ropocxnx mxonax.
Exa1epnnocnan. Benuenxoncxomy xomnrery sanpemeno nomemart
na a]nme o mnnenom saceannn noprper Benuenxo.
Xepcon. Hauaro paccneonanne o pe]epenre, cenanmem oxna o
Benuenxo n naponom rearpe na menuenxoncxom cnexraxne.
Capa1on. Amnnncrpannx noconeronana nenuecxomy omecrny or-
noxnrt nponeenne neuepa n namxrt o Benuenxo na onee naronpnxr-
nte npemena
25
.
25 qenpann. Knen. Haxanyne menuenxoncxoro nx no ncex ntcmnx
yuentx saneennx tnn paspocant npoxnamannn na pyccxom,
nontcxom n yxpanncxom xstxax c npnstnom x saacronxam. Bnacrn
no+romy oparnnn ocooe nnnmanne na ntcmne yuente saneennx, n c
pannero yrpa ncmy macca nonnnnn n nocxa.
B ynnnepcnrere nnxaxnx nnnnenron ne nponsomno. Hepnte sanxrnx
n ynnnepcnrere cocroxnnct npn manom xonnuecrne axaemncron, n 12
uacon ynnnepcnrer concem onycren. Ha nonnrexnnuecxnx xypcax sanx-
rn concem ne tno. Ha xencxnx mennnncxnx xypcax ent npomen
cnoxono. 3anxrnx cocroxnnct.
Fypno npomno yrpo n xommepuecxom nncrnryre, npnunno xnnnnct
axaemncrt, epxanmne cex ntstnamme. Amnnncrpannx nncrnry-
ra npnnxna mept nx coxpanennx nopxxa. Cryenrt nponycxannct
uepes rypnnxert. Ha necrnnnax n n xopnopax copanoct cntme nony-
ropa rtcxun cryenron, sanenmnx "Beunym namxrt", a sarem "Bt xep-
rnom nann". 3ect paspactnannct npoxnamannn. Axaemncrt nauann
esopasnnuart. Oxono 1000 cryenron, croxnmnx nosne sannx ynn-
nepcnrera, ycntman nenne, pocnnnct n nomemenne. Honnnnx ntra-
nact nperpanrt nm nyrt, no macca cryenron cmxna nonnnnm, saxna-
114
2009, N 2 (16)
rnna nncrnryrcxne nepn, ynnuroxnna rypnnxert n coennnnact c oc-
rantno macco.
Benuenxoncxn ent n Knene ceronx nocxpecnn n namxrn xaprnny
craptx cryenuecxnx emoncrpann. Inannte ynnnt ropoa na noen-
nom nonoxennn. Mnoro xonno n neme nonnnnn, ncmy ontmne narpy-
nn xasaxon n nonnom cnapxxennn, n nexoroptx mecrax port xasaxon
pacnonoxnnnct npnnanamn. Iyepnarop n nonnnemecrep naxoxrcx
nce npemx na ynnne, oranax npnxasannx.
.Honnnnx crporo cnenr, urot nynnxa ne conpanact n rpynnt.
Onaxo x 11 uacam yrpa Bnanmnpcxax ynnna n nce aprepnn, neymne
x Kpemarnxy, sanpyxent cnnomno ronno napoa. B ronne npeonaa-
mr cryenrt n xypcncrxn. Hoxnnxnmnxcx n nannonantntx yxpanncxnx
xocrmmax unnt nonnnnn momenrantno apecrontnamr. Hynnxa cnaua-
na rnxo sanena "Beunym namxrt", a norom nenne cranonnnoct nce rpom-
ue. Ha uynyxneencxo ynnne raxxe nocntmanoct nenne "Beuno na-
mxrn", n rya nemenenno nomuannct xasaxn, xoropte oxpyxamr ronny
yuamnxcx, nexoroptx apecrontnamr, ocrantntx pasronxmr.
Hynnxa nce npemx npntnaer. Ha Kpemarnxe nere xnoxy ynacrt.
B Co]ncxom coope npenonaranact nannxna. Tonna n necxontxo rtcxu
uenonex nanpannnact x coopy, no na opore ronny ncrpernn orpx xa-
saxon n xonntx ropoontx, nperpannmn antnemee nnxenne. Ho
narncxom ropoontx ronna crana orcrynart no nanpannennm x Hpopes-
no yn. H sect, pasnnmnct na rpynnt, nena penonmnnonnte necnn.
Kasaxn, xonnte ropoonte n crpaxnnxn n necxontxo mnnyr paccexnn
ronny.
Hontrxn orentntx rpynn yuamnxcx nert "Beunym namxrt" npoon-
xannct n reuenne nx. Ha ynnnax snyxn nennx pasanannct ro n onom,
ro n pyrom mecre. unnt nonnnnn momenrantno pasronxnn yuamnxcx.
Cnuqeponont. Enncxon mnrpn nocnpernn orcnyxnrt nannxny
no Benuenxo, oxcnnn orxas nexenannem coecrnonart emoncrpa-
nnn.
Exa1epnnoap. Omecrny napontx ynnnepcnreron sanpement nex-
nnn o Benuenxo.
Bapmana. Ha npocty npecearenx yxpanncxoro omecrna npo]ec-
copa Iyrnnxona paspemnrt n ono ns napmancxnx nepxne nannxny no
Benuenxo, apxnenncxon Hnxona ornernn, uro paspemaercx orcnyxnrt
nannxny n Bontncxo xnanmencxo nepxnn, npnuem tno yxasano,
uro neoxonmo nosepxartcx or xaxnx-nno peue n nonnrnuecxnx
mann]ecrann.
Cyum. yxonencrno orxasanoct cnyxnrt nannxnt no Benuenxo.
Kypcx. Benuenxoncxn ent npomen neormeuenntm nn onnm ns
mecrntx yupexenn n oprannsann.
115

Xaptxon. Hnreparypno-xyoxecrnennt xpyxox ycrponn n namxrt
Benuenxo ropxecrnennt neuep, npnnnexmn maccy nynnxn B yue-
ntx saneennxx menuenxoncxn ent nnuem ne tn ormeuen.
Boponea. Vxpanncxnm omecrnom orcnyxena nannxna no Ben-
uenxo.
Oecca. B nne nporecra npornn sanpemennx menuenxoncxnx rop-
xecrn oxnnena ononennax saacronxa na mennnncxom ]axyntre-
re.
Canx1-He1epypr. Ha centcxoxosxcrnenntx xypcax orcnyxena
rpaxancxax nannxna no T.I. Benuenxo. B snax nporecra npornn ne-
onymennx uecrnonannx nenna Vxpant cnymarenn oxnnnn saac-
ronxy.
B rexnonornuecxom nncrnryre cpen cryenron conpamrcx nonn-
cn no opamennem x npecrannrenxm nentx ]paxnn Ioc. ymt. B
opamennn ntpaxaercx nporecr npornn sanpemennx nynnuntx uecrno-
nann nenna Vxpannt T. Benuenxo n npornn nannonannsma peaxnnon-
ntx cnoen pyccxoro omecrna.
Mocxna. Cryenrt-yxpannnt n Mocxne npnnxnn pesonmnnm: Hpn-
nnmax no nnnmanne, uro penpeccnn npornn uecrnonannx namxrn
T.I. Benuenxo xnnxmrcx rontxo ono ns cropon n ncropnn ronenn
npornn yxpanncxo emoxparnn, yxpanncxoe cryenuecrno n Mocxne yx-
nonxercx or npasnonannx 100-nernero mnnex Benuenxo.
Atnon (Anc1po-Benrpnn). Ha menuenxoncxne ropxecrna npntn
npyccxn xoncyn
26
.
26 qenpann. Ha ynnnax Knena nanmanact ra xe xaprnna, uro n
nuepa. Bcmy nemax n xonnax nonnnnx, xasaxn. o 12 u. nce tno cno-
xono, nnxaxnx +xcneccon ne nponcxonno. Hocne 12 na Bnanmnpcxo n
uynyxneencxo ynnnax noxnnnnct ronnt yuamnxcx, xoropte c nennem
"Beuno namxrn" nanpannnnct x Kpemarnxy. Opasonanact rpynna n
600 uen. Hancrpeuy nm n xaptep nomuannct xasaxn n xonnte ropoo-
nte. emoncrpanrt pocnnnct npacctnnym. Kasaxn oronxnn nx n nnn
naraxamn, uero nuepa ne tno. Hontrxn nnont opasontnart rpynnt
nonropxnnct mnoro pas, no ne tnn onycxaemt xasaxamn. Bo npemx
cronxnonenn xasaxon c ronno nocrpaano mnoro nocroponne nynn-
xn, cnyuano oxasanmecx na rporyapax.
Fnns yuentx saneenn exypnnn napxt nonnnnn. Hexnnn cocro-
xnnct npn manom xonnuecrne cnymarene. 3xcneccon nnxaxnx ne npo-
ncxonno.
Apecronant paoune Rxno-Pyccxoro mamnnocrponrentnoro sano-
a. nnnmnct na sano yrpom, paoune cxopo noxnnynn ero n n xonnue-
crne 600 uen. ntmnn no nop, re nponenn Beunym namxrt. 3arem
paoune ntmnn na ynnny, no noocnenmax nonnnnx emoncrpanron pa-
sornana.
116
2009, N 2 (16)
Buepa tno apecronano 80 uenonex, ns nnx 10 xypcncrox.
Exerono ycrpannaemax nannxna n ent cmeprn Benuenxo ceronx
tna ormenena.
B yxpanncxoe copanne Ponna xnnnact rpynna nonxxon n ocrann-
na nenox c nannctm: Henny Vxpannt or parten-nonxxon.
ent osnamenonancx cronxnonennem comsnnxon n nyxrnannen, nt-
memnx na ynnnt c nannonantntm ]narom, c emoncrpanramn. Ha-
nmanact raxax cnena: na ono cropone ynnnt comsnnxn naunnann
nert Cnacn, Iocnon, na pyro emoncrpanrt nenn Beunym na-
mxrt. Comsnnxn pocannct na emoncrpanron, n naunnanact cnanxa.
Hoxnnxnmnecx xasaxn pasronxnn n rex, n pyrnx. emoncrpannn n crtu-
xn npoonxannct o neuepa. Iyepnarop Cyxonxnn nce npemx naxonn-
cx na ynnnax n yexan cryenron pasornct.
Xaptxon. Cryenrt, ntx ns ynnnepcnrera, crann nert Beunym
namxrt, no tnn paccexnt nonnnne.
Cnuqeponont. Apxnepe paspemnn cnyxnrt nannxnt no Benuen-
xo, rontxo ne n coope.
Pnra. B yxpanncxom xnye Ipomaa nponenn uecrnonanne mnnex
Benuenxo.
Hepnnron. Iopocxax yma nocranonnna orcnyxnrt nannxny, o-
pasonart n ropocxo nnnorexe menuenxoncxn oren, nepenmeno-
nart onn cxnep, nocrannrt ram mcr Benuenxo n yupenrt ne crn-
nennn nx ere ropoxan n xyoxecrnenntx n mystxantntx yunnn-
max. yxonencrno orxasano ropocxo yunnnmno xomnccnn n npocte
orcnyxnrt nannxny, cocnanmnct, uro omecrnennte nannxnt ono
npannrt ne moxer. Mecrnte yxpannnt n nne nporecra nosepxannct
or xaxnx-nno uecrnonann namxrn Benuenxo.
B Hpxy1cxou coope n npncyrcrnnn npecrannrene raser, o-
mecrn, yupexenn n rtcxuno macct monxmnxcx nporonepeem un-
necxnm orcnyxena nannxna no Benuenxo.
B Kanene na mornne Benuenxo nnxaxnx nannxn ne tno orcnyxe-
no.
Canx1-He1epypr. Bosne Kasancxoro coopa copanact rpynna cry-
enron n xypcncrox oxono 100 uen. n nanpannnact n coop. Ona oparn-
nact x yxonencrny c npocto orcnyxnrt nannxny no Benuenxo. B
+rom nm tno orxasano. Cryenrt ntmnn ns coopa n paccennct n
cxnepe no cxamexam. Kynnn y ropronna mapamn nce xpacnte mapt,
cryenrt crann nx nycxart. Bcxope nonnnnx npenoxnna cryenram
yrn ns cxnepa.
Bosne Hnrenoro nepeynxa rpynna cryenron nanpannnact x Hnxona-
encxomy noxsany. Kro-ro sanen: "Beunax namxrt". Cryenrt tnn ne-
menenno paccexnt, n onn ns nnx apecronan.
117

B Canxr-Herepyprcxom ynnnepcnrere cpen cryenron nanma-
noct nontmennoe nacrpoenne. C yrpa cryenrt conpannct n xopno-
pax n nenn oxnnnennte ecet no nonoy uecrnonannx namxrn Ben-
uenxo. Cxoxa cryenron npnnxna pesonmnnm nporecra npornn amn-
nncrparnnntx npenxrcrnn no uecrnonannm Benuenxo n nocranonnna
npexparnrt sanxrnx na onn ent. 3arem cryenrt nomnn no xopnopy
c nennem "Beuno namxrn". uacrt cryenron nanpannnact x aynropnn,
n xoropo unran nexnnn npo]. B.M. Ipnoncxn, n norpeonana npexpa-
mennx nexnn. Hpo]eccop n pesxo ]opme nonpocnn cryenron yannrtcx
n npoonxnn urenne nexnnn.
Hpecearent xomnccnn no naponomy opasonannm CH. rop. ymt
H.A. Horexnn saxnnn, uro xomnccne yxe paspaoran nnan yupexe-
nnx ropocxnx neuepnnx pnconantntx xnaccon n namxrt Benuenxo nx
yuamnxcx ropocxnx mxon, xoropt n nnxamee npemx yer npe-
crannen na yrnepxenne rop. ymt.
upaxnnx napono cnoot nocnana peaxnnn rasert Paa n crap-
mnne xnya Ponna n Knene renerpammy cneymmero coepxannx:
upaxnnx napono cnoot mner coponuam Benuenxo n ent crone-
rnx ero poxennx cno npnner n rnyoxo coxaneer, uro remnte cnnt
ompaunnn cnernt ent uecrnonannx namxrn nennxoro no+ra. Tene-
rpamma nonncana npecearenem ]paxnnn H.H. Mnnmxontm
27
.
27 qenpann. Ha nmx npecearenx yxpanncxoro nayunoro omecrna
M.C. Ipymencxoro or axaemnxa Baxmarona nonyuena cneymmax
renerpamma: B nnne Bamem npnnercrnyem oa nayunte yxpanncxne
omecrna no nonoy 100-nerne roonmnnt poxennx cnannoro no+ra
28
.
28 qenpann, Knen. B ryepncxom ynpannennn cocroxnoct conema-
nne unnon xanapmepnn, a raxxe amnnncrpannn n nonnnnn nx onpe-
enennx naxasannx apecronanntm n menuenxoncxne nn emoncrpan-
ram. Bcero tno apecronano 104 uen., 6 nx nnx sa neoxasannocrtm
nnnt ocnooxent, ocrantnte, no nocranonnennm ryepnaropa, no-
neprnyrt apecry: 5 uen. cpoxom na 3 mecxna, 23 na 1,5 mecxna, 19
na onn mecxn, 47 na ne neenn. uerneptm sacunrano npemx, npone-
ennoe no apecrom.
Honnnnx npoonxaer paccneonanne ecunncrn, yunnenntx nyxrna-
nonnamn na Anexcanponcxo yn. Ftnmn rnmnasncr Cononxon sa pas-
nrne oxon noneprnyr ryepnaropom n amnnncrparnnnom nopxxe, na
ocnonannn nocranonnennx o xynnrancrne, apecry na 3 mecxna
29
.
H.H. Mnnmxon, yxe yyun n +mnrpannn, rax ntcxasancx o cnonx
nsrnxax n 1914 r.: Ocranonnmct nnmt na moe peun 19 ]enpanx
(1914 r.) n samnry yxpanncxoro nannonantnoro camoonpeenennx, xoro-
pym nsnecrnt cenaparncr A. Byntrnn nnocnecrnnn npnsnan "npe-
xpacno" nnmt nx roro, urot npornnonocrannrt ee monm nsrnxam n
118
2009, N 2 (16)
1939 r. Peut tna cxasana no npocte camnx yxpannnen samnrnrt nx
or nanaox xnencxnx pyccxnx nannonanncron, ntsnanmnx sanpemenne
uecrnonannx mnnex Benuenxo. urot nororonnrtcx x ne, x cnenn-
antno cesnn n Knen n nmen ram omnpnte conemannx c rpynno no-
urenntx yxpanncxnx "nporpeccncron". Moe raxrnxo tno orennrt
cpannnrentno ymepennte nx rpeonannx "yxpannnsannn mxontnoro npo-
cnemennx, npan yxpanncxoro xstxa n cyentx n npannrentcrnenntx
yupexennxx, ycrpanennx orpannuenn nx yxpanncxoro neuarnoro cno-
na, ynyumennx ycnonn nerantnoro cymecrnonannx yxpanncxnx nanno-
nantntx yupexenn". 3rnm noxn TVH (Tonapncrno yxpainctxnx
nocrynonnin) yonnernopxnnct, cornamaxct oronnnyrt n yymee rpe-
onanne "]eepannn" n conepmenno ncxnmuax "cenaparnsm". Tontxo
npo]eccop Ipymencxn xnrpnn co mno, cxptnax or menx cnon ncrnn-
nte namepennx
30
.
B cnom ouepet, cnona A.H. Canenxo o rom, uro, xora n camoe
reno ennoro pyccxoro napoa notmr xnnn, xora ero pacmenxr na ne
uacrn n pocxr nx pyr npornn pyra, ro, n xonne xonnon, conepmnrcx
crpamnoe eno n ncraner peantnax onacnocrt nx nenocrnocrn Hmne-
pnn, oxasannct npopouecxnmn. B 1997 r. +ry xe mtcnt, ronopx o Vx-
panne, ntpasnn nsnecrnt amepnxancxn nonnronor 3. Fxesnncxn n
cnoe paore Bennxax maxmarnax ocxa: Orpeuenne or onee uem
300-nerne poccncxo nmnepcxo ncropnn osnauano norepm norennn-
antno oraro n nnycrpnantno n centcxoxosxcrnenno +xonomnxn n
52 mnn. uenonex +rnnuecxn n pennrnosno nanonee recno cnxsanntx c
pyccxnmn, xoropte cnocont npenparnrt Poccnm n ecrnnrentno xpyn-
nym n ynepennym n cee nmnepcxym epxany
31
.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Ipaoe M. K ncropnn Mapmapomcxoro nponecca (eno 94-x 29/XII 1913 -
3/III 1914). Vxropo: Hsanne Kapnaropyccxo rpyono naprnn, 1934. - 56 c. C. 3.
2. Pyccxoe cnono. 1914. 3 (16) xnnapx. N 2.
3. Peut. 1914. 8 (21) xnnapx N 7.
4. Peut. 1914. 9 (22) xnnapx. N 8.
5. Peut. 1914. 11 (24) xnnapx. N 10.
6. Pyccxoe cnono. 1914. 16 (29) xnnapx. N 12.
7. Peut. 1914. 18 (31) xnnapx. N 17.
8. Peut. 1914. 24 xnnapx (6 ]enpanx). N 23.
9. Peut. 1914. 26 xnnapx (8 ]enpanx). N 25.
10. Peut. 1914. 14 (27) ]enpanx. N 44.
11. Ipaoe M. K ncropnn Mapmapomcxoro nponecca (eno 94-x 29/XII 1913 -
3/III 1914). C. 20-22, 16, 36, 37, 40.
119

12. Tam xe. C. 33.
13. ooprauciru O. Hanionantnn pyx yxpannin Fyxonnnn pyro nononn-
nn XIX - nouarxy XX cr. uepninni: 3onori nnranpn, 1999. 574 c. C. 407-409.
14. Pyccxoe cnono. 1914. 8 (12) mapra. N 56.
15. Pyccxoe cnono. 1914. 9 (22) mapra. N 57.
16. Pyccxoe cnono. 1914. 12 (25) mapra. N 59.
17. Pyccxoe cnono. 1914. 15 (28) mapra. N 62.
18. Pyccxoe cnono. 1914. 27 mapra (9 anpenx). N 71.
19. Peut. 1914. 2 (15) mapra. N 59.
20. Peut. 1914. 28 ]enpanx (13 mapra). N 57.
21. Peut. 1914. 12(25) xnnapt. N 11.
22. Muxvmuua H.B. Vxpanncxn nonpoc n Poccnn. M.: Honarepa, 2003. - 288 c.
C. 138-139.
23. Peut. 1914. 20 ]enpanx (15 mapra). N 49.
24. Peut. 1914. 22 ]enpanx (7 mapra), 1914. N 51.
25. Peut. 1914. 23 ]enpanx (8 mapra). N 52.
26. Peut. 1914. 26 ]enpanx (11 mapra) 1914 r. N 55.
27. Peut. 1914. 27 ]enpanx (12) mapra. N 56.
28. Peut. 1914. 28 ]enpanx (13 mapra) 1914 r. N 57.
29. Peut. 1914. 1 (14) mapra. N 58.
30. Mu.mroe H.H. Bocnomnnannx, M.: Hsarentcrno nonnrnuecxo nnrepary-
pt, 1991. -528 c. C. 381-382.
31. Bresuucru 3. Bennxax maxmarnax ocxa. M.: Mexynaponte ornome-
nnx, 1999. 256 c. C. 114-115.
Ennan PYCL
http://www.edrus.org
Car cosan n 1999 r. nx npornnocroxnnx cranme
o]nnnantno nannonanncrnuecxo nepcnn ncropnn na
Vxpanne. Coepxnr marepnant no ncropnn yxpanncxoro
pacxona, cosannx "mont" n ronenn na omepyccxn xstx,
pasmtmnennx o xyntrype n reononnrnxe, anannrnuecxne crartn
n apxnnnte oxymenrt.
Ha care moxno narn xnaccnxy nonemnxn c yxpanno]nnamn
(H. Vntxnon, H. Bonxoncxn, xnxst Tpyenxo n p.) n
conpemenntx xpnrnxon yxpanncxo nen (C. Cnopenxo).
120
2009, N 2 (16)
Anpen MAPHYKOB
PYCCKHH BOHPOC, POCCHHCKHH
HATPHOTH3M H YKPAHHA
Hcropnx nannonantnoro pasnnrnx noxapnarcxnx pycnnon, a raxxe
pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannnnn, Fyxonnne n Hoxapnarte nmeer xax ont-
mo nayunt, rax n npaxrnuecxn nnrepec n naxnocrt. Xopomo nsnec-
rno, xax crpemnrcx ncxasnrt n samonuart annte cmxert yxpanncxax
ncropnorpa]nx: net onn npornnopeuar romy, uro yrnepxaer nanno-
nantnax xonnennnx ncropnn n ncx neonornx yxpanncrna. H yxe c +ro
rouxn spennx nx npornnoecrnnx anno neonornn remt nyxno
nonnmart n ocyxart. 3ro ne ronopx yxe o uncro nayunom nnrepece.
Ho npnsnaemcx: sananoyxpanncxn pernon (npexe ncero Iannnnx n
3ananax Bontnt) +ro orpesannt nomort, on yxe norepxn nx Pyc-
cxoro mnpa. Tam oxonuarentno na macconom yponne yrnepnnact yxpa-
nncxax nenrnunocrt (npnuem n nanonee panxantno ]opme). Tenept
peut ner o rom, xaxnm trt nannonantnomy onnxy n mnponosspennm
nacenennx onacre Vxpannt, nexamnx ropaso nocrounee, n axe
Kptma.
Omepyccxoe, npopoccncxoe n axe conercxo-yxpanncxoe cosnanne
npetnamr na Vxpanne n nonoxennn ooponxmmerocx. A yxpanncxn
nannonannsm axrnnen, nacrynarenen, sa ero cnnno cronr rocyapcrno,
y nero na noopyxennn uerxax n yonax nx nocnpnxrnx neonornx,
nmemmax momnym noepxxy xax nne, rax n nnyrpn Vxpannt.
B raxnx ycnonnxx nce, uro emy npornnocronr, opeueno na nopaxe-
nne. Homomt n comsnnx rontxo sect, n Poccnn. H cxontxo t nn
ronopnnoct o rom, uro rem nmxm na Vxpanne, xoropte ne npnemnmr
nen pasenennx n yxpanncxn nannonannsm, naexrtcx nao na cnon
cnnt, ne cexper, uro enart +ro n yxpanncxnx ycnonnxx rpyno. H n
oprannsannonno-marepnantnom, n n nenom ornomennn. Haunnamrcx
nnonne nonxrnte (n npononnpyemte) paspo n maranne, xenanne npn-
cnoconrtcx x rocnocrnymme neonornn n nocrponrtcx no nee.
Ho+romy neapom nmn na Vxpanne rax nepxr n xyr, uro Poccnx npn-
er nm na nomomt.
A uro xe Poccnx? Ta Poccnx, xoropax npecrannena sect, rorona
cenart +ro npxmo ceuac. Ho ne or nac sanncnr xypc crpant no nnem-
ne n nannonantno nonnrnxe. Bor o ono ns cocrannxmmnx +ro no-
nnrnxn (a moxer, n o ee nepnoocnone) xorenoct t cxasart necxontxo
cnon. Tem onee, uro yxe saxonna peut o rom, nouemy Poccnx sannma-
121

er no ornomennm x nponcxoxmemy na Vxpanne nosnnnm raxym, a ne
nnym. Bxparne cyrt raxona: o rex nop, noxa ornomenne x pyccxocrn n
Poccnn yer ocranartcx npexnnm, ne nsmennrcx n cnryannx na Vxpa-
nne.
Bsxrt, x npnmepy, nonpoc o poccncxom narpnornsme. B nocnenee
npemx rema narpnornsma npnopena nonynxpnocrt, o ero naxnocrn nx
crpant saronopnnn c camtx ntcoxnx rpnyn. uro xe, +ro orpano, ecnn
ronopnrcx +ro ncxpenne n yer noxpenneno ecrnnrentno cmeno
npnopnreron no nnyrpenne, connantno-+xonomnuecxo n nannonantno
nonnrnxe. Bet ceptesno ronopnrt o narpnornsme n crpane, ycrpoen-
no, no mnennm ontmnncrna napoa, ne no cnpanennnocrn, ne rax,
xora nx onnx npoxnrount mnnnmym, a nx pyrnx - Kypmanent,
sarpynnrentno.
Harpnornsm - +ro nmont x ponne. 3ro uyncrno ono ns ca-
mtx pennnx, npncymnx uenoneuecxo xyntrype, onn ns apxernnon ue-
noneuecxo ncnxnxn. Henpocro nayunrt uenonexa nmnrt cnom semnm,
omymart nepasptnnym cnxst cnoe cytt c ee cyto. 3ro nno
ecrt, nno ner. Bmecre c rem, narpnornsm uyncrno eme n rpaxanc-
xoe, ocosnannoe. H ono saxnatnaercx n ]opmnpyercx xax camnm ueno-
nexom, rax n cemte, mxono, pennrnosntmn oprannsannxmn, rocyap-
crnom.
H camo xnsntm, xora omecrnennoe, rocyapcrnennoe ycrpocrno
ne npornnopeunr trymmnm n napoe npecrannennxm o npane n cnpa-
nennnocrn, xora nonxrnx ponna n rocyapcrno ne xnnxmrcx an-
raronncramn. Bet ecnn mexy +rnm cymnm n rem onxntm ne
ycranonnrcx nespnmax yxonnax cnxst, +ror ncnxonornuecxn apxernn
moxer ne nepepacrn n rpaxancxoe uyncrno n arpo]nponartcx. Oco-
enno ecnn +ro uyncrno yer noannxrtcx n yrnerartcx remn xe
rocyapcrnom, mxono n r.. A npnmepon romy n name ncropnn XX
XXI nn. mnoxecrno.
Hntmn cnonamn, narpnornsm uyncrno rnopnmoe, npnnanexamee x
c]epe omecrnennoro cosnannx. H +ro ponnr ero c uyncrnom nanno-
nantntm. B conercxom omecrnoneennn cnono nannonannsm tno
uyrt nn ne pyrarentntm n yx rouno nerarnnno oxpamenntm. On tn
yenom uepnocorennen, mpaxoecon n npounx anrnnporpeccnnntx
cnn. Hoont nsrnx npncym n nnepantno mtcnn 3anaa c ee no-
nom myntrnxyntrypannsma n rorantno ronepanrnocrn. Hs +rnx nyx,
na nepnt nsrnx, pasnnuntx, no renernuecxn pocrnenntx nanpanne-
nn uepnaer cnoe ornomenne x nannonannsmy n poccncxax o]nnnosnax
mtcnt.
Mexy rem, nannonannsm +ro ona ns ]opm nonnmannx n nnrepnpe-
rnponannx oxpyxamme ecrnnrentnocrn n nponsnonte or +roro no-
122
2009, N 2 (16)
nnmannx nonnrnuecxne n connantnte npaxrnxn. Hannonanncrnuecxn
cnoco nnennx mnpa (n ocnone xoroporo nexnr nex nannn n nann-
onantnoro xax xpaeyrontntx momenron uenoneuecxoro nuepa, ce-
ronx n sanrpa) nmeer annmm ncropnm n nnanerapnte macmrat.
Ho+romy n ornocnrtcx x nemy nao es nonnrnuecxo +xsantrnponan-
nocrn.
Harpnornsm n nannonantnoe uyncrno (uyncrno conpnuacrnocrn co
cnonm napoom nnn nanne) xort n nnsxn pyr x pyry, no ne roxe-
crnennt. uyncrno ponnt n uyncrno napoa nnsxn n nanontme cre-
nenn. Ho narpnornsm xax uyncrno rpaxancxoe nopasymenaer eme n
ornomenne x rocyapcrny, nnacrn n r..
Hannonantnte uyncrna cnyxar naxnemnm ycnonnem nx npoxnne-
nnx n uyncrn narpnornuecxnx. Ho napoon mnoro, n y xaxoro ns nnx
nmeercx cnoe nnenne peantnoro n neantnoro oreuecrna. Hannona-
nnsm xaxoro necer cnoe nonnmanne narpnornsma, n ono moxer ne co-
nnaart, a ro n nonce naxonrtcx n npornnopeunn c narpnornsmom no
ornomennm x crpane n nenom.
Hmenno n +ro nnemme oruyxennocrn or rocyapcrna nnn, na-
oopor, cosnannn cnoe nepasptnnocrn c nnm, n xpoercx ona ns rnan-
ntx onentx rouex Poccnn. 3ro ornocnrcx xo ncem napoam name
crpant, ute uyncrno naponocrn onxno connaart nnn, no xpane
mepe, ne npornnopeunrt nee omepoccncxoro narpnornsma n npnnep-
xennocrn x Poccnn xax ponne. Ho n ropaso ontme crenenn +ro or-
nocnrcx nmenno x pyccxomy napoy. Orneuaer nn rocyapcrnennocrt
ero uaxnnxm n uyncrny ponnt? He ncrynaer nn ona n npornnopeune c
ero nannonantntm uyncrnom xax uyncrnom conpnuacrnocrn c napoom/
nanne? Ho npane nn n cnpanennnocrn ona ycrpoena?
Kcrarn cxasart, n cnyuae c Vxpanno +ra nnemma cront xe ouenn-
na. Coornercrnyer nn yxpanncxax rocyapcrnennocrt n necomax nm
neonornx n nenrnunocrt naponomy n nannonantnomy uyncrny rex,
xro cunraer cex pyccxnm, manopoccom nnn axe yxpannnem (no c ne-
nannonanncrnuecxnm, conercxnm, xax t cxasann pantme, cosnannem)?
Bosnpamaxct x poccncxnm peannxm, ormernm, uro saora nnacrn o
npancrnennom n ]nsnuecxom soponte pyccxoro napoa, ero nannonant-
nom enncrne, uyncrne xomnnnmenrapnocrn c rocyapcrnom camt
naexnt sanor n nannunx n nem narpnornuecxnx uyncrn, n mexnanno-
nantnoro mnpa, n npounocrn crpant n nenom.
Hoxa xe omymaemax necnpanennnocrt nmeer ne rontxo connantno-
+xonomnuecxoe, no n nannonantnoe nsmepenne. O nem npenounramr ne
ronopnrt, no xnnenne or +roro ne ncuesaer. Pyccxn nonpoc tn, ecrt n
n nepcnexrnne yer ocranartcx rnanntm nonpocom name crpant.
A npnmept raxo oruyxennocrn camoro mnorouncnennoro napoa
name crpant, ee npnunnt n nocnecrnnx xopomo nsnecrnt. Menee
123

nsnecrno ro, uro nennnmanne x oecneuennm nannonantnoro enncrna
pyccxoro napoa n nexenanne ero oecneunnart, nacnntcrnennoe pas-
enenne ero na necxontxo nann, n xoneunom cuere, saxanunnanoct xpy-
mennem rocyapcrnennoro enncrna Poccncxo nmnepnn n CCCP. Ho
nannn, nocrpoennte na orpnnannn enncrna Pyccxoro mnpa, na npornno-
nocrannennn ncemy pyccxomy, nmenn cnoe nonnmanne oreuecrna n nar-
pnornsma.
Hcropnx nannocrponrentcrna na nocrounocnanxncxom (pyccxom n
mnpoxom cmtcne +roro cnona) +rnnuecxom npocrpancrne romy no-
rnepxenne. A reppnropnx conpemenno Vxpannt narnxnt npn-
mep, no nmenno sect cronxnynoct necxontxo nannonantntx npoexron,
npenonaranmnx ]opmnponanne na ocnone mecrnoro nacenennx pasntx
nann[1]. Hann, onaammnx pasntmn nenrnunocrxmn, xstxamn, o-
pasom npomnoro. H pasntm ornomennem x Poccnn n ee rocyapcrnen-
nocrn.
Taxontx npoexron tno rpn. Cornacno nepnomy ns nnx, nontcxomy
(orcrannancx nontcxnmn nannonanncramn), mecrnoe nacenenne npe-
nonaranoct nononnsnponart. A camn mxnopyccxne semnn aenramn
npoexra nmenonannct nocrountmn oxpannamn Hontmn. Hontcxn
npoexr eme n cepenne XIX n. norepxn axryantnocrt (sa ncxnmuennem
Iannnnn n Xonmmnnt), n ocnonnax opta pasnepnynact mexy npoex-
ramn yxpanncxnm n omepyccxo-manopyccxnm.
Cornacno omepyccxomy npoexry, manopoccncxoe nacenenne pac-
cmarpnnanoct xax nernt ennoro pyccxoro napoa n nmecre c nennxo-
pycamn, enopycamn n xapnarcxnmn pycnnamn onxno tno cocrannrt
ennym pyccxym nannm (npn ro nnn nno crenenn coxpanennx cnoe
+rnnuecxo cnenn]nxn). 3ror nannonantnt npoexr cran conpemenntm
ntpaxennem nce npetyme ncropnuecxo rpannnn (nnreparypno,
omecrnenno, napono) n Mano, n Bennxo Pycn n xopnxmn yxonn
xo npemenam pennepyccxoro +rnnuecxoro, xyntrypnoro n nonnrnuecxo-
ro enncrna.
pyrnm nannonantntm npoexrom tn yxpanncxn. Cornacno emy,
manopyct n pycnnt rpaxronannct xax ocoax, nepyccxax, yxpannc-
xax nannx, na cosannem xoropo n rpynnnct aenrt nnxennx. Vx-
panncxn npoexr ntpoc xax ns mecrno nount, rax n tn pesyntrarom
nenoro n oprannsannonnoro nosecrnnx nontcxoro nannonannsma (ne-
peopnenrnponanmerocx na noepxxy yxpanncxo nenrnunocrn xax
anrnrest nenrnunocrn omepyccxo). A sarem yxpanncxn nannona-
nnsm no ro xe npnunne noepxnnancx reononnrnuecxnmn npornnnn-
xamn Poccnn.
Ecnn nx nme, cunranmnx cex pyccxnmn nnn manopoccamn, Poc-
cnx tna (n ocraercx) Ponno, a cnyxa Poccncxomy rocyapcrny
124
2009, N 2 (16)
pacnennnanact xax cnyxa rocyapcrny cnoemy, ro nx nocnrene ]op-
mnpyemo nenrnunocrn yxpanncxo oreuecrnom nnenact Vxpanna
- ocot, eme ne cymecrnymmn n peantnocrn nannonantno-nonnrn-
uecxn oprannsm, nxnmuammn n cex semnn, nacenennte manopocca-
mn (nnn, n nx rpaxronxe, yxpannnamn). A Poccnx, cornacno neonornn
yxpanncxoro nnxennx, cunranact uyxnm nx Vxpannt n yxpanncxo
nannn rocyapcrnom-nopaornrenem. Knmuentm npnnnnnom, xoropt
ner n ocnony ncero mexannsma crponrentcrna yxpanncxo nannn, crano
npornnonocrannenne ncemy pyccxomy, a yxpanncxo nenrnunocrn
nenrnunocrn pyccxo. H +ra anrnpyccxax n anrnpoccncxax cocrannx-
mmax co npemenem npocrynana n yxpanncxom nnxennn nce cnntne,
cran ocnono ncnxonornn n mnponosspennx aenron yxpanncrna.
H npornnocroxnne yxpanncxoro n omepyccxo-manopyccxoro npoex-
ron npoonxaercx n no ce ent. Hmemrcx npenoctnxn n nx ]opmn-
ponannx nexoroptx pernonantntx nenrnunocre (renept yxe, rnanntm
opasom, na npornnonocrannennn nenrnunocrn yxpanncxo). Hy a py-
cnncxn npoexr ]axrnuecxn onncx cnonx rnanntx nene.
Hoepxxa yxpanncxoro npoexra co cropont poccncxnx omecrnen-
ntx xpyron (nnepantntx n penonmnnonntx) n nnacre (ontmennxon
nnn conpemenno nocrconercxo +nnrt, npnsnanme saxonntm n npa-
nnntntm nonnrnuecxn n nannonantnt pasno Poccnn, Vxpannt n Fe-
nopyccnn) nopasymenana n opty c pyccxocrtm, pyccxnm nanno-
nantntm uyncrnom. A n nepcnexrnne nspamnnanne cenaparncrcxn
nacrpoenntx mecrntx nannonannsmon c ono cropont n noptn uyn-
crna xomnnnmenrapnocrn c rocyapcrnom y napoa pyccxoro (nennxo-
poccon n ncex, xro cex cunraer pyccxnm a uncno raxontx axe ce-
uac ncuncnxercx mnnnnonamn) c pyro. A xax nror n xpymenne
+roro rocyapcrna.
Ionopx o ne ceronxmnem, neoxonmo ynomxnyrt, uro n uncno na-
nn, cosanntx nnn cosanaemtx na orpnnannn pyccxocrn, nao nxnm-
uart ne rontxo yxpanncxym (n n mentme crenenn enopyccxym), no n
rax nastnaemym poccncxym nnn poccnxncxym nannm. Bet ona
npenonaraer cosanne omnocrn n rpannnax Poccncxo ueepannn n
npenpamenne pyccxnx n poccnxn (npn ononpemennom nocrynnpona-
nnn orentnocrn yxpannnen n enopycon xax ocotx nannonantnocre).
A snaunr, roxe crponrcx na orpnnannn nen pyccxocrn n omepyccxoro
enncrna.
Hexenanne nnacre yunrtnart n ncnontsonart n nonnrnxe pyccxn
]axrop (n ne rontxo ncxpenne, no axe nparmarnuecxn) n cenart nn-
repect pyccxoro napoa nacroxmnm npnopnrerom moxer saxonunrtcx
nx Pu rem xe, uro n n cnyuae c Poccncxo nmnepne n CCCP.
125

H n saxnmuenne nao cxasart, uro pemenne yxpanncxoro n pycnncxo-
ro nonpocon ne na Vxpanne, a sect, n Poccnn. Hpexpamenne nonnrnxn
nannonantnoro nnrnnnsma no ornomennm x pyccxomy napoy n Poccnn,
orxas or nsrnxa na nero xax na ncrounnx pecypcon n esnnxn ne-
menr, nyxnt nnmt nx roro, urot, pacrnopnnmnct n poccnxncrne,
coennnrt npoune napot n Poccncxo ueepannn, anromarnuecxn
nsmennr n cnryannm na Vxpanne. Bet pyccxn nannonannsm (a nponc-
xoxenne cnoe on nen n ns Bennxo, n ns Mano Pycn) n ocnonnom nce-
ra mtcnnn cex n omepyccxnx macmraax. B +rom sanor nenoro
n oprannsannonnoro yxpennennx namnx pyse na Vxpanne, npexpame-
nnx paspoa n marannx. B +rom xe n sanor enncrna Pyccxoro mnpa
noome n Poccnn n uacrnocrn.
AHTEPATYPA
1. O +rom cm: Map:vroe A.B. Vxpanncxoe nannonantnoe nnxenne. VCCP.
19201930-e rot. Henn, merot, pesyntrart. M., 2006; Mu..ep A.H. Vxpannc-
xn nonpoc n nonnrnxe nnacre n pyccxom omecrnennom mnennn (nropax no-
nonnna XIX n.). CH, 2000; Muxvmuua H.B. Vxpanncxn nonpoc n Poccnn (xonen
XIX nauano XX nexa). M., 2003.


nn1epne1-uarasnn
Hepnt remarnuecxn
xnnxnt marasnn no
yxpanncxomy nonpocy.
Btctnaem xaranor no noure n
nomoxem c npnoperennem
menxoonrontx naprn xnnr.
Knnrn n nannunn:
- Vntxnon H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma
- Pyccxax Iannnnx n "masennnnt"
- Cnopenxo C. Vxpanna - roxe Poccnx
- uyen C. Vxpanncxn Hernon
- Ieponcxn I. stx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Apncron u. Hnreparypnoe pasnnrne Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Hon H. 3nnnxnonenx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Xypnan Pycnn n mnoroe pyroe...
Apec marasnna n Hnrepnere: http://magazin.malorus.org
e_mail: magazin@malorus.org Ten.: +7 (903) 53 44 218
Apec: Poccnx 109028 Mocxna. o nocrpeonannx.
Hpexnnrenm O3H 5 IN 1196995
126
2009, N 2 (16)
3opan MHAOmEBHH
PYCHHL B CEPBHH
Pycnnt ne xnnxmrcx nx cepon uem-ro nensnecrntm n anexnm.
Hanpornn, cepon n pycnnon cnxstnaer mnoroe, a na nporxxennn oc-
rarouno onroro nepnoa, noxa cymecrnonana Ancrpo-Benrepcxax mo-
napxnx, oa napoa npnnanexann ono nepxnn Cepcxo npanocnan-
no. Ho +ro npnunne nexoropte nsnecrnemne orocnont n apxnepen
Cepcxo nepxnn ornpannxnnct n 3axapnarte, at nepnyrt pycnnon ns
ynnn n npanocnanne. Hpnneem n xauecrne npnmepa apxnenncxona Hoan-
na (Maxcnmonnua) n apxnmanpnra Hycrnna (Hononnua)
1
.
Tax tno o 1948 r., xora pycnnt nepnynnct n nono marepnncxo
Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn. 3ro osnauano npeptnanne cnxse, xax
orocnoncxnx n nepxonntx, rax n xyntrypntx n nonnrnuecxnx. Ocrox-
rentcrna tnn raxont, uro nenosmoxno tno orcrannart ne rontxo
nannonantnte nnrepect pycnnon, no n cepon.
Ornocnrentno neontmax rpynna pycnnon ocranact na reppnropnn
Cepnn. Cornacno nepenncn 2002 r., n cepcxom anronomnom xpae Boe-
nonna npoxnnano oxono 15 rtcxu pycnnon. Cornacno npetyme ne-
penncn 1981 r., nx tno 23 rtcxun
2
. Cotrnx, nponsomemne n Cepnn
c 1990 no 2000 r. ntronxnynn orrya mnornx xnrene, n rom uncne n
uacrt pycnnon. uame ncero pycnnt +mnrpnponann n Kanay.
Pycnnt, xoropte xnnyr n Cepnn, npenmymecrnenno ynnart - uaa
rpexo-xaronnuecxo nepxnn. Kyntrypnt nenrp pycnnon Cepnn ceno
Pycxn Kpcryp, re, n uncne npouero, naxonrcx n rnmnasnx c pycnncxnm
xstxom npenoanannx. Pycnnt nocennnnct n Cepcxo Boenonne n
XVIII n., n ocnonnom c reppnropnn Xopnnnt (3axapnarte), no tnn n
nepecenennt ns Komnne, Vxropoa n Mnmxontna.
3nauenne Pycxoro Kpc1ypa nn pycnnon Cepnn
Camn pycnnt n Cepnn xnnyr yxe onro, onaxo onn nce eme o
xonna ne camoonpeennnnct ornocnrentno cnoe nannonantnocrn. Mno-
rne cunramr cex manopycamn, pyrenamn, r.e. pyccxnmn
3
, no npn nepe-
nncn nacenennx pycnnt onpeenxmrcx xax pycnnt-yxpannnt. 3ro xn-
nxercx onnm ns momenron, re cpen camnx pycnnon Cepnn ner co-
rnacnx, nocxontxy ecrt rpynna pycnnon onn n ornocnrentnom ment-
mnncrne, xoropte yexent n rom, uro pycnnt nnxora ne tnn yxpa-
nnnamn.
Mexy rem, omnnnpymmee ceuac yxpanncxoe camoonpeenenne
xnnxercx cnecrnnem npnnanexnocrn x rpexo-xaronnuecxo nepxnn,
127

xoropax, xpome npouero, n ocnonana tna c nentm pacmennennx xax
pyccxoro nannonantnoro xopnyca, rax n npanocnannoro camocosnannx
4
.
Kax yxe tno ynomxnyro, xyntrypnt nenrp pycnnon Cepnn ceno
Pycxn Kpcryp, n xoropom xnnyr, cornacno nocnene nepenncn 2002 r.,
5 557 xnrene, npenmymecrnenno pycnncxo nannonantnocrn. Cpenn
nospacr xnrene cena 41,2 roa, cpenxx uncnennocrt cemtn 2,54
uenonexa
5
.
Pycnnt pasnnnn necxontxo nanexron cnoero xstxa, xoropte nmemr
onee-menee noxantnt xapaxrep. Ha Hepnom pycnncxom xonrpecce
1918 r. tno npnnxro pemenne n xauecrne ocnonnoro cranapra npn-
nxrt nanexr, xoropt ncnontsyercx n Pyccxom Kpcrype. B mexnoen-
nt nepno npomno mnoxecrno xyntrypntx meponpnxrn, nanpannen-
ntx na pasnnrne pycnncxoro xstxa. Cneymmnmn snaunrentntmn ma-
ramn n yrnepxennn pycnncxoro xstxa cepcxnx pycnnon tnn na ns-
annx rpamarnxn n npanonncannx (n 1960 n 1970 rr.). Ceuac pycnncxn
xstx n Cepnn ncnontsyercx n omxontnom nocnnrannn, mname n
cpene mxone, n xypnanncrnxe, na pano n renennennn.
Pycnnt ynnart, n n Pyccxom Kpcrype ecrt nepxont, nocrpoennax n
1784 r., xoropax neanno nonyunna ocooe nonnrnuecxoe nonoxenne n
craryc xa]epantno nepxnn, nocxontxy Barnxan onpeennn ram xa-
]epy rpexo-xaronnuecxoro apxnepex, oxopmnxmmero ynnaron Cepnn
n uepnoropnn.
Hepnax mxona n Pyccxom Kpcrype nauana paory n 1753 r., xax r.n.
Tpnnnantnax mxona, re yunnn urennm, nnctmy, cuery, ocnonam nepxon-
noro nennx n 3axony Foxnm. B xonne XIX n. mxona crana rocyapcrnen-
no. Ceuac n Pyccxom Kpcrype ecrt ercxn ca, mnamax mxona n
rnmnasnx, ecrnymmne na cepcxom n pycnncxom xstxax. Hpnuem rnm-
nasnx enncrnennax n Enpone c pycnncxnm xstxom npenoanannx. Py-
cnncxn xstx ncnontsyercx n enonpnsnocrne n noctmn omnnax Cep-
cxo Boenonnt
6
.
3ect nepnonuecxn npononrcx necxontxo xyntrypntx ]ecrnnane.
Hanonee snaunrentnt ns nnx ]ecrnnant xyntrypt pycnnon n yxpa-
nnnen Hpnena pyxa (Kpacnax posa), sarem pamarnuecxn me-
mopnan Herpa Pnsnnua-xn, Kocrentnnxona ocent. Tyr xe naxo-
xrcx nsarentcrno Pycxe cnono c rnnorpa]ne, myse, ranepex n
apxnn pycnncxo ncropnn.
B Hncrnryre ]nnoco]nn n ropoe Honn Ca ecrt xa]epa pycnncxo-
ro xstxa, xoropax cpen cepcxnx pycnnon xnnxercx paccannxom yx-
panncrna. Hpnuem, ecnn Poccnn ner ena o pycnnon, ro Vxpanne
ecrt. Vxpanna yupenna crnnennn nx cepcxnx pycnnon n npnnnmaer
nx na yuey, a ontmnncrno oxropon nayx ns pycnncxo omnnt Cep-
nn xnnxmrcx unenamn AH Vxpannt.
128
2009, N 2 (16)
Ha nonnrnuecxnx ntopax pycnnt nsnparentnoro oxpyra Kyna (x
xoropomy ornocnrcx Pycxn Kpcryp) ronoconann n ocnonnom sa npoenpo-
necxne naprnn:
56 % - sa emoxparnuecxym naprnm;
17 % - sa panxantnym anrncepcxym n anrnnpanocnannym Hne-
pantno-emoxparnuecxym naprnm;
7 % - sa xpane comnnrentnym(opaureevm) nposananym naprnm
G17+;
9 % - sa Cepcxym panxantnym naprnm
7
.
(He)yonne1nopnnoc1t pycnnaun
cnonu nonoaenneu n Cepnn
B ro xe npemx pycnncxax +nnra n Cepnn ne onontna cnonm nono-
xennem. oxrop Rnnan Tamam, axaemnx Hannonantno AH Vxpannt
n Knene, mrarnt npo]eccop Hncrnryra ]nnoco]nn ropoa Honn Ca,
npenoammn xypc pycnncxo n yxpanncxo nnreparyp n pamxax npe-
mera mnpono nnreparypt, n 2005 r. onynnxonan npnunnt neonont-
crna ne rontxo pycnncxoro mentmnncrna n Cepcxo Boenonne, no n
ocrantntx nannonantntx mentmnncrn.
Hpnunnm 1axonm:
Hepnan emorpa]nx. Mentmnncrna neonontnt rem, uro nocne
1945 r. +rnnuecxn cocran nacenennx Boenonnt pasnrentno nsmennn-
cx. Hs-sa nsrnannx (nonxrne, xoroptm onepnpyer ynaxaemt axae-
mnx Rnnan Tamam) saynacxnx nemnen n non 1992-2000 rr. nce ment-
mnncrna samerno pacraxnn. Hx onx coxparnnact c 30% o 15%.
(annte rnnorernuecxne, nocxontxy nopasymenamr ro, uro exennt
ns Focnnn n Xopnarnn nonyuar rpaxancrno Pecnynnxn Cepnn). Ta-
mam nnnr n +rom rocyapcrnennym nonnrnxy.
B1opan +xonomnuecxoe nonoxenne mentmnncrn cnaoe, nocxontxy
npnnarnsannx n Cepnn ynnuroxnna cpenn xnacc, a cpen nontx onn-
rapxon ner npecrannrene nannonantntx mentmnncrn.
Tpe1tn n nayxe, ocoenno n omecrnenntx ncnnnnnnax, cncrema-
rnuecxn cnnxaercx panr nccneonannx nponemarnxn mentmnncrn.
He1np1an n nonnrnxe, xpome xoe-xaxnx ocnnnen n nenrpon, xo-
ropte ecrnymr no yxasxe nnacrn, a ne mtcnxr xpnrnuecxn, ner npe-
crannrene mentmnncrn. enerar onxen nmert sa cnnno ecxrt rt-
cxu nsnparene, a pycnnon ncero 15 rtcxu. B ro npemx xax nenrpon
300 rtcxu, a cepon 7 mnnnnonon.
3rnx npnunn ynaxaemomy axaemnxy Tamamy oxasanoct ocrarou-
no, urot oxnnrt Cepnm nocrouno ecnorne n pnrnntm na-
nnonantntm rocyapcrnom
8
.
Bmecre c rem, Tamam ynpexaer rocyapcrno Cepnm n uepnoropnm
n rom, uro ono orenxer pycnnon or yxpannnen (uro, no ero mnennm,
129

ncropnuecxn necnpanennno). 3ro ronopnrcx na ocnone nenonncanntx,
no nororonnenntx nycroponnnx oronopennocre mexy nymx crpa-
namn. B cetmom nynxre Vxpanna nacrannaer na ]opmynnponxe: Vx-
panna nmeer pycnnon n yxpannnen xax na nna cnoe ncropnuecxo
nacnopt. B nocnene nncrpyxnnn npexnnn no nonpocy nsanmoor-
nomenn c Poccne, n cnxsn c nneennem n onxnocrt nocna emuenxo,
MH Cepnn n uepnoropnn, ronopx o yxpanncxo nacnope, nmeer n
nny nnmt 5 rtcxu yxpannnen, npoxnnammnx n Boenonne. O 15 rtcx-
uax pycnnon ner n cnona xax t roro ne xorenoct Vxpanne.
Hosnnnx Tamama nenpemenno sacnyxnnaer ornera.
Hepnoe. Hsmenenne emorpa]nuecxoro cocrana Cepcxo Boeno-
nnt xax npnunna neonontcrna mentmnncrn. Hsnecrno, uro sayna-
cxne nemnt noxnnynn Cepnm cornacno mexynapontm oronopenno-
crxm, oxstnanmnm omnnt nannonantntx mentmnncrn trt noxnt-
ntmn rocyapcrnam npoxnnannx. 3aynacxne nemnt no npemx Bro-
po mnpono y 99 cnyuaxx ns 100 tnn na cropone Inrnepa n nanncrc-
xo Iepmannn. Hx ne Cepnx nsrnana, nx ne sauncrnnn +rnnuecxn,
xax +ro cenann xopnart c cepamn, nemnt camn cex nsrnann npe-
nepexennem x epxane, n xoropo onn xnnn.
Hpnuem +ro xacaercx ne rontxo saynacxnx nemnen Cepnn, no n
noome ncex nemnen, npoxnnanmnx o nont nne Iepmannn n Ancrpnn.
Tamam raxxe ynpexaer rocyapcrno n rom, uro n Boenonne paccenx-
mrcx exennt ns Xopnarnn n Focnnn. 3naunr nn +ro, uro Boenonna ne
onxna trt cepcxo, no onxna npnnanexart ncxnmunrentno ment-
mnncrnam? uro enart exennam n xpaxx, n xoroptx nm nere pasme-
crnrtcx? Boenonna nmeer nannyumne ycnonnx nx npnema exennen,
rem onee, uro ycnonnx xnsnn n +rom xpam raxne xe, xax n n Cnanonnn
pannnna, ror xe napo, nanexr, otuan.
Onaxo n cept ne onontnt nonoxennem cnonx cooreuecrnennnxon
n cocennx crpanax. B Benrpnn cepcxoe mentmnncrno pacraxno n
95% cnyuaen cept tnn nacnntno accnmnnnponant nenrpamn. B An-
annn cept ne nmemr npan nn na xstx, nn na opasonanne. Kax t
nocxasart Tamamy, urot on ynpexnyn Vxpanny sa accnmnnxnnm cep-
on Cnanxnocepnn n Hono Cepnn (:acmi meppumopuu uiueuuux
Kupoeoepaocro u uenponempoecro oo.acme)?! Ouennno ro, uro
Tamam ne oexrnnnt n naronamepennt uenonex, no nm nnxer
nenanncrt no ornomennm x Cepnn.
H1o xacae1cn +xonounuecxoro nonoaennn uentmnnc1n, nyx-
no nanomnnrt o rom, uro n y ontmnncrna rouno raxo xe r.e. nnxa-
xo yponent xnsnn. Cxontxo cepon yexano sapaorart na xycox xne-
a? Crarncrnxn yxastnamr na cornn rtcxu ntexanmnx monotx cep-
on, x romy xe ntcoxoopasonanntx. Cranem nn mt sa +ro ocyxart
mentmnncrna? Conepmenno xcno ro, uro rpeonart mentmnncrnam
130
2009, N 2 (16)
onee ntcoxoro marepnantnoro nonoxennx no cpannennm c ontmnn-
crnom snyunr necxontxo pacncrcxn. Tamam ne xouer nonxrt roro, uro
pycnnt n Enpone nmemr rontxo ony rnmnasnm, xoropym ]nnancnpyer
nmenno Cepnx. He ymaer xe on, uro nce pycnncxne oprannsannn (o-
mxontnym, mnamym n cpenmm mxontnym, xa]epy pycnncxoro xst-
xa n Hncrnryre ]nnoco]nn, om xyntrypt n Pyccxom Kpcrype n r.., a
raxxe perynxpnte ]ecrnnann) moryr trt npo]nnancnponant ns xap-
mana camnx pycnnon?
Ecnn nce +ro ]nnancnpyer rocyapcrno Cepnx, a conepmenno oue-
nnno, uro +ro nmenno rax, rora nnau o +xonomnuecxom nonoxennn
nannonantntx mentmnncrn npecrannxer coom nynnune n nencxpen-
nocrt. To, uro cpen cepcxnx onnrapxon ner npecrannrene nanno-
nantntx mentmnncrn, ontme ronopnr ne o cepax n Cepnn, a o rom,
uro npecrannrenn omnn ne ntcrannxmr cex nanoxas. Hsnecrno, uro
nannonantnte mentmnncrna xnnyr n Cepnn ocrarouno saxptro ne
xenxrcx n ne ntamr samyx sa uyxnx, a n noome nectma neoxorno
omamrcx c npecrannrenxmn pyrnx nann. Kpome roro, ncem nsnec-
rno, uro mentmnncrna neyr cex nectma cypono no ornomennm x npe-
crannrenxm ontmnncrna.
Hpnneem necxontxo npnmepon. Hs-sa nannonantno crpyxrypt nce
xomnccnn no onenxe ycnenaemocrn n macrepcrna yuennxon mnamnx
xnaccon nmemr npecrannrene mentmnncrn. Hs-sa +roro onn n cono-
xynnocrn nmemr ontmnncrno, n npn ronoconannn pexo xora cepc-
xn peenox noenr, x npnmepy, na xonxypce urenon. pyrnm npnme-
pom xnnxercx ntnemnxx Koncrnrynnx Boenonnt, xoropo npeycmor-
peno ro, uro cept yyr nounnent mentmnncrnam. Tax, nn ono pe-
menne Cxynmnnt +roro xpax ne yer npnnxro, ecnn ero noxnpymr
npecrannrenn xort onoro-enncrnennoro mentmnncrna
9
. 3ro uro?
emoxparnx?
Tpe1nn nonpoc +ro cnnxenne nnrepeca n nayuntx xpyrax x npo-
nemarnxe nanmentmnncrn, cnnxenne nayunoro neca raxnx nccneo-
nann. Ho +ra camax xanoa nnonne npnmennma n x onenxe cepcxo
nponemarnxn. Tax, Mnnncrepcrno nayxn Cepnn npnnxno r.n. caenc
cnncxn nepeunn nayuntx xypnanon, nynnxannx n xoroptx npnnocnr
anropy ononnnrentnte ouxn, neoxonmte nx noema nnepx no axa-
emnuecxo necrnnne. Hn onn ns cepcxnx xypnanon ne tn o 2009 r.
n +rom cnncxe. 3ro snaunr, uro nn onn ns ynnnepcnrercxnx npo]ecco-
pon Cepnn ne nmeer ycnonn nx nsnoxennx oxropcxnx nccneona-
nn es pasnnnt, ornocnrcx nn on x nannonantnomy mentmnncrny nnn
xe x nannonantnomy ontmnncrny.
Taxxe nponsomna maprnnannsannx cepcxoro xstxa sa cuer nos-
ntmennx anrnncxoro. B nayxe +ro xnnenne anno yxe xapaxrepnsyercx
131

xax onn ns rnoannsannonntx nponeccon. Hexoropte cepcxne xypna-
nt ns-sa +rnx nanxsanntx 3anaom cranapron nepemnn na anrnncxn
xstx nsnoxennx nynnxann. Xypnan neuaraercx n Fenrpae, no neua-
raercx na anrnncxom! 3ro nn ne xyntrypnoe camoyncrno?! Taxxe
axryantna n nponema penensnponannx nayuntx nynnxann. Cepcxne
nccneonarenn omecrnenntx nayx n +rnx r.n. mexynapontx nayu-
ntx xypnanax ne moryr onynnxonart crartn o Kocono n Meroxnn nnn
xe o arpeccnn noxa HATO npornn Cepnn, ecnn yyr nncart c nosn-
nn cepcxoro nannonantnoro nnrepeca.
Tamam nnmer: Cymecrnymr nenepoxrnte npnmept, xora oecne-
nnnamrcx nynnxannn npeocmaeume.e uauoua.iuix> mentmnncrn
ns-sa roro, uro xnrant n ]pannyst nx ne nnrnpymr, n nonyuaercx, uro
nayunax nennocrt raxnx rpyon oxastnaercx sannxena. 3annxena remn,
xro u+euuo ucxoo us ua.u:u peeusu e +erovuapoouix usoa-
uux> onpeenxer uav:uvm> nennocrt raxoro rpya. Onaxo, no
cnoemy snomy ymtcny, nmenno cytn cosann raxne ycnonnx, uro nno-
crpannte yuente nnment ocryna x rexcram no anno nponemarnxe
n npnnnnne. H npecrannrent nayxn, ue pernnr us-sa maroeo no.o-
reuu eeue> sannxaercx, ne oxercx nn nsmenenn, nn nsnnne-
nn
10
.
Ho net rouno raxax xe cnryannx n c cepcxnmn xypnanamn n yue-
ntmn. Xypnant, xoropte, no nontm npannnam, ne nnrnpymrcx sa pye-
xom, nnxro ontme n Cepnn ne nennr, xax ne nenxr n nynnxannn n
nnx. Kcrarn, +rn camte nonte npannna Cepnn nanxsan ror camt 3a-
na, sa xoropt c sannntm nocroxncrnom oramr cnon ronoca npe-
crannrenn mentmnncrn.
Oxnnenne Cepnn nocrouno ecnorne ntrnxnr nacroxmnm
ntsonom, pomenntm n nnno ne rontxo ncnonnnrentno nnacrn Cepnn,
no n ncemy cepcxomy napoy.
3ro epsxoe n xpane esopasnoe saxnnenne ne nmeer no coo
nnxaxnx aprymenron. Bo-nepntx, nce nesanncnmte mexynaponte
oprannsannn (npanxrcx onn nam nnn ner) ntopt n Cepnn oxnnnn
emoxparnuntmn, necmorpx na ro, uro npecrannrenn cepcxoro napo-
a nmenn mnoxecrno ocnonann ocnopnrt +ro yrnepxenne. Bcem ns-
necrno, uro Enponecxn Coms ncemn cpecrnamn noepxnnan npo-
enponecxne nonnrnuecxne naprnn, n ro npemx xax nannonantnym opn-
enrannm npecrannxn xax er n npomnoe, nemepnt nannonannsm
n r.n. C rouxn spennx cepcxnx nannonantntx nnrepecon, +rn ntopt
ne tnn nn uecrntmn, nn emoxparnuntmn. Ha rex camtx ntopax
mentmnncrna ronoconann sa npoenponecxne nonnrnuecxne naprnn, xo-
ropte norom ymnnn ne rontxo npana mentmnncrn, no n npana ncero
cepcxoro napoa:
132
2009, N 2 (16)
- nnonnn narnnnny nmecro xnpnnnnnt;
- cnnmann ]nntmt, n xoroptx cept snte n npnmnrnnnte, a xopnart
n mycyntmane opte n nporpeccnnnte;
- onocroponne saxnmuamr oronopt c Enpono, uro oxonrcx xn-
renxm Cepnn 300 mnnnnonon enpo exerono;
- cocrannxmr caenc cnncxn nayuntx xypnanon, xpane nenaron-
pnxrnte nx cepcxnx yuentx n nx cepcxo nayxn, n npexpamamr
]nnancnponart nayunte yupexennx n cepcxom mxere pacxot
na nayxy oxastnamrcx n crarte ocrantnoe (nmecre c ycnyramn, na-
npnmep, no mtrtm oxon sann rocyupexenn).
Bonpoc yuacrnx nonnrnxon ns uncna nannonantntx mentmnncrn n
nonnrnuecxo xnsnn xnnxercx naxntm nonpocom, n on pemen na yponne
anronomnoro xpax Boenonna, re mentmnncrna n ocnonnom n xnnyr.
Hpecrannrenn mentmnncrn nmemr cnonx npecrannrene n opranax
nnacrn xpax, no xomy-ro, ouennno, +roro ne xnaraer xorenoct t
nopynnrt n nce Cepne. Bnpouem, nentsx cxasart, uro npecrann-
rene mentmnncrn ner n cepcxom napnamenre. Tam ecrt npecrann-
renn ntran, anannen n pyrnx nannonantnocre, xoropte nspant n
napnamenr xax unent nexoroptx naprn.
Heyxenn re-ro ecrt npannna, cornacno xoroptm ncxxomy nannonant-
nomy mentmnncrny nne sanncnmocrn or uncnennocrn omnnt nono-
xeno mecro n napnamenre? Ecnn raxax npaxrnxa nmeer mecro, ro noue-
my xe cepcxoe mentmnncrno, x npnmepy, n Anannn ne nmeer cnoero
npecrannrenx n ramomnem napnamenre?
Haxonen, nanomnnm, uro nosnnnx rocyapcrna ornocnrentno pycnnon
raxona, uro onn ne npnsnamrcx uacrtm yxpanncxo nacnopt. 3ro pe-
menne noxastnaer, uro MH Cepnn pasnpaercx n pycnncxom nonpo-
ce, ne aer cex omanyrt MHy Vxpannt, yrnepxanmemy, uro xxo-
t y Vxpannt ecrt na nna cnoe ncropnuecxo nacnopt: yxpannnt
n pycnnt.
B saxnmuenne cxaxem, uro nce +ro ronopnr o ynnarcxo neonornn
axaemnxa Tamama, a ne o ]axrax omecrnenno xnsnn.
3axnmuenne
Ananns nonoxennx pycnnon n Cepnn noxastnaer, uro +ro nannonant-
noe mentmnncrno nmeer nce xyntrypnte yupexennx, o xaxnx rontxo
moxer meurart cront manouncnennax nannonantnax omnna. Onaxo
uacrt ee +nnrt, xoropax onnpaercx na yxpanncxym nonnrnuecxym nem
n ynnarcrno xax pennrnosnoe onpeenenne, nocroxnno noorpenaer omy-
menne yrpost co cropont Cepnn n cepon, ne oxct npn +rom ocxop-
nxrt ncex npanocnanntx cepon (npnnepxennen nocrouno ecnornn).
B ro xe camoe npemx n ontmnncrne cnyuaen onn ronocymr sa anrn-
133

cepcxne n npoenponecxne nonnrnuecxne naprnn, a ro n cranonxrcx
rouxamn npnnoxennx momn sanantx nenrpon (Barnxana n Fpmccenx).
Ho ecnn t tna peannsonana pyrax nonnrnxa xax Cepnn, rax n
Poccnn, ro +ro nmeno t narornopnte no mnornx ornomennxx nocne-
crnnx: c ono cropont, pycnnt Boenonnt, nepnynmnct n nono pycnn-
cxo nannonantno omnocrn, nepnynnct t n npanocnanne n, xax cne-
crnne +roro, nepnynnct t x pyco]nntcrny xax nnnnnnsannonnomy nt-
opy. C pyro cropont, Cepnx tna t ocnooxena or annennx
mentmnncrna, xoropoe ncnontsyercx 3anaom n xauecrne opynx pas-
pymennx rocyapcrna.
AHTEPATYPA
1. Cm: 3opau Mu.oueeu:. Pyccxoe 3axapnarte n cn. apxnmanpnr Anexcn
Kaanmx. Becrnnx uepenonenxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. N 2. 2007.
C. 69-73.; 3opau Mu.oueeu:. Cnanxncxn nonpoc n npanocnanne. IOV BHO
uIV, uepenonen, 2007; 3opau Mu.oueeuh. Honn nyr Pycnje, Pycnja y nocrnn-
sanrnjcxom reononnrnuxom n pennrnosnom nprnory. 3ano sa yuennxe n nacran-
na cpecrna, Hcrouno Capajeno, 2005.
2. Cranonnnmrno, ynopenn nperne poja cranonnnxa 1948, 1953, 1961, 1971,
1981, 1991, 2002, noann no nacenma. Knnra 9. Penynnuxn sano sa crarncrnxy,
Feorpa, 2004.
3. Bnn: 3opau Mu.oueeu:. Hs manopycon n yxpannnt. K nonpocy o nsme-
nennn xyntrypnoro n nannonantnoro cosnannx manopoccon. CATHCT, Canxr-
Herepypr, 2009.
4. Cm: J. H. Mapau. Fpercxa ynnja, y sopnnxy: Vnnja, nonnrnxa Pnmoxaronn-
ue npxne npema npanocnannnm Cnonennma, npnpeno: 3opau Mu.oueeuh. Hn-
crnryr sa nonnrnuxe crynje, Feorpa, 2005. C. 78-137.
5. Cranonnnmrno, non n crapocr, noann no nacenma. Knnra 2. Penynnuxn
sano sa crarncrnxy, Feorpa, 2003.
6. Hoxpajnncxn cexperapnjar sa nponnce, ynpany n nannonanne mannne. Honn
Ca, 2006.
7. http://www.nspm.rs/savremeni-svet/ukrajina-rusini-i-povratak-rusije.html
8. Julijan Tamas. Razlozi nezadovoljstva nacionalnih manjina u Srbiji, http://
www.argus.org.rs/index.php/masok-irjak/9-masok-irjak/93-razlozi-nezadovoljstv...
9. Cm: Kocma Uaeouru. pxannocr Bojnonne n moryhnocr cenecnje. Heuar,
p. 32, Feorpa, 2008. C. 8.; 3opau Mu.oueeuh. Hanpr craryra Bojnonne ocnon
sa enann]nxannjy Cpa y noxpajnnn, y sopnnxy: Cpnja, nonnrnuxn n nncrn-
rynnonannn nsasonn., Hpnpennn: Momunno Cyornh n Xnnojnn Typnh. Hncrn-
ryr sa nonnrnuxe crynje, Feorpa, 2008. C. 191-202.
10. Julijan Tamas. Razlozi nezadovoljstva nacionalnih manjina u Srbiji, http://
www.argus.org.rs/index.php/masok-irjak/9-masok-irjak/93-razlozi-nezadovoljstv...
134
2009, N 2 (16)
Kpin AHHAEHL
3 ICTOPI HPABOCAABHO HEPKBH
HA 3AKAPHATTI
3rino apxeonoriunnx ra nncemnnx xepen xpncrnxncrno mano nomn-
pennx na repnropi cyuacnoro 3axapnarrx me o npnnxrrx oro o]ini-
nom peniricm n Knnctxi Pyci. Fintmicrt ocninnxin non`xsymrt nomn-
pennx xpncrnxncrna rpentxoro opxy s imenamn cn. Knpnna ra Me]o-
ix, ao, npnnamni, x yunin (I. Fasnnonnu, M. Hyuxa, apxim. Bacnni
(Hponin). Oxpemi yropctxi xepena cniuart npo re, mo na uac npnxoy
yrpin y Hannonim micnene cnon`xnctxe nacenennx mano cnncxoncrno
(Honicrt npo npnxi yropnin). Ha ymxy apxim. Bacnnix (Hponina), yuni
cn. Knpnna ra Me]oix, xxi smymeni ynn sannmnrn Casanctxn monac-
rnp ra uectxi semni, noxnann nouarxn Vrontctxoro monacrnpx [1. C.
55]. Cniuennxm roro, mo na 3axapnarri nanynan rpentxn opx, c
ixntnicrt Ieoprix, C]pema ra Mocex Vrpnnin npn nopi xnnctxnx xnxsin
Fopnca ra Inia.
xepenom yxonnocri ra ocnirn ynn monacrnpi. Ananisymun xepe-
na ra monorpa]iunn marepian moxna npnrn o nncnonxy, mo n ora-
rapctxi uacn na 3axapnarri mornn nxe icnynarn monacrnpi n Ipymeni ra
Vrni. Hm ymxy nirnepxyc ocninnx nou. XX cr. R. Xarxonnu, xxn
nnme, mo nicnx nixoy rarap rpymenctxi monaxn cxapxnnncx yropct-
xomy xoponm Feni IV npo nrpary oxymenrin ra rpamor na semnenono-
innx [2. C. 97]. Croconno monacrnpx n Myxaueni, ro oxymenrin npo
oro sacnynannx panime ni 1360 p. ne nnxnneno. Cnpanxni posxnir npa-
nocnan`x na 3axapnarri non`xsymrt s ixntnicrm nointctxoro xnxsx s
poy Ienminin ueopa Kopxronnua. Knxst posyynan Myxauinctxn
monacrnp ra naan omy y nonoinnx px cin is cnox macrxin, nin cnpnxn
posnnrxy ocnirn ra xyntrypn y xpa.
Cxnane nnrannxm sannmacrtcx nnsnauennx nepxonno mpncnxni y
xpa. Bueni npnnycxamrt, mo na 3axapnarri nouann ]opmynarncx na
nenrpn nepxonno nnan. Hepmn n Myxaueni ra pyrn n Ipymeni.
V cepenni XV cr. n Myxaueni sraycrtcx npecnirep Hyxa, xxn mir
nnxonynarn cnncxonctxi ]ynxni, ninopxxonymunct cepctxomy mnr-
pononnry. Bioma raxox rpamora xoncranrnnonontctxoro narpiapxa
Anronix ni 1391 p. npo naannx Ipymenctxomy monacrnpm npano cran-
poniri. V 1491 p. n Myxaueni nxe sraycrtcx cnncxon Ioann, mo nparnyn
nomnpnrn cni nnnnn na ncm repnropim xpam.
V XVI-XVII cr. cxinn opx na 3axapnarri nouan norepnarn ni
rncxy xaronnnrna ra pe]opmarcrna. 3 ininiarnni micnennx npannrenin ra
135

nepxonno nepxinxn yno ininionano yxnaennx Vxropoctxo yni 1646 p.
3rino yni nona nepxna sepirana cxinn opx ra mony orocnyxin-
nx, ane nnsnanana ormar ra nnay pnmctxoro nann. Hicnx cmepri cnnc-
xona Bacnnx Tapaconnua yniarctxnm cnncxonom yno opano Herpa
Hap]enix, a npanocnannnm cnncxonom Ioannnxix 3exana. Ocranni yn
smymenn y 1663 p. sannmnrn Myxauinctxn monacrnp xepynarn cnap-
xicm s Imcrnuena ra Vrni. 3 roro uacy nx npanocnanno nipn posnouann-
cx ne nerxi uacn. Henrpom onopy yni ra narnnisani sannmanacx Mapa-
mopomnna, e nanpnxinni XVII - na nou. XVIII cr. nocrano ninn px
monacrnpin. Cepe nnx, srino Cnncannx onrene Mapamopomcxnx,
ynn: parinctxn, Kpnuenctxn, Foponxnctxn, Feennxnctxn, Fino-
nepxinctxn, Bintxinctxn, Fnuxinctxn. Bnme nasnani monacrnpi ynn
sacnonani crapannxmn npanocnannnx nnanx Hocn]a (Croxn) (1690-
1711) ra ocn]ex (ueoponnua) (1717-1735), xxi nparnynn crnopnrn
minnn nnanapm nx oponn nipn.
Ancrpictxa nnaa, na xant, crana na ix ynino nepxnn ra sponna
nce, mo ne onycrnrn nnopin nonoro npanocnannoro nnanxn, a imne-
parpnnx Mapix-Tepesix saxnnna, mo na 3axapnarri npanocnannnx nipnnxin
intme ne icnyc.
Cxinn opx na npanocnanna nipa seperna cee sanxxn nianocri
micnenoro nacenennx ra ixntnocri oxpemnx yniarctxnx cnxmennxin.
3arantno nioma oporta nporn narnnisani nnctmennnxa-nonemicra
Mnxana Anpennn (1635-1710). Bin nixpnro nipixcx ni yni ra nann-
can nporn ne exintxa rnopin. Haintm niomi s nnx Horoc ra Oo-
pona. Pxrymunct ni nepecniynannx nepecennncx o c.Isa, e i noxo-
nann. Horo cnpany npoonxnn Inan Paxonctxn (1815-1885), xxn man
snaunn nnnnn na nipoxennx npanocnan`x.
Ha nou. XX cr. uepes ninn px npnunn posnouanocx nipoxennx
npanocnanno nepxnn. Vropctxn ypx ncinxxo namarancx npnymnrn ne
pyx, nauamun n ntomy coniantnn ra nanionantno-nnsnontnn xapax-
rep. Fyno ininionano na cyoni nponecn nporn npanocnannnx y Mapa-
mopom-Cnrori (1903-1904, 1913-1914 pp.), xxi ne mornn npnnnnnrn ne
nponec. V ne na uoni npanocnannoro pyxy cran icpomonax Onexci (Ka-
anmx).
Hicnx nxnmuennx 3axapnarrx o uexocnonauunnn ni nasnom Hixap-
narctxa Pyct (1919 p.) npanocnanna nepxna orpnmana moxnnnicrt nintno
posnnnarncx. 3rino xanoniunnx npan, na nm repnropim nomnpnna cnom
nnay Cepctxa npanocnanna nepxna. V 1921 p. Cnno CHH nanpannn
na Hixapnarctxy Pyct cnoro enerara cnncxona Himctxoro ocn]ex
(Bacnu). Htomy cnncxony nanexnrt snauna pont n yrnepxenni npano-
cnan`x y namomy xpa. Fyno sacnonano ecxrxn npanocnannnx rpoma
ra nnopxxonano uepneue xnrrx. Crnopeno uononiui ra xinoui monac-
136
2009, N 2 (16)
rnpi n Isi, Hnnui, Tepeni. Onicm s naintmnx nponem roro uacy, yna
neocrarnx xintxicrt npanocnannoro yxonencrna. V sn`xsxy s nnm y
1920-1930-ri pp. unmano saxapnarnin soynann yxonny ocniry n oro-
cnonctxnx saxnaax Cepi. Hicnx cnncxona ocn]ex npanocnannnmn
rpomaamn, mo yno nnopxxonani y ]opmi Kapnaropyctxo npanocnan-
no nepxnn xepynann cnncxon Honocactxn Ipnne (unpnu), Hpnspenct-
xn Cepa]nm (Inanonnu) ra Firontctxn Hocn] (Hnicnnu). V 1931 p.
yno ninonneno pennm Myxauinctxy xa]epy, o xxo nnimnn raxox
npnxon Cxino Cnonauunnn. Hepmnm Myxauinctxo-Hpxminctxnm cnnc-
xonom cran -p amacxin (Ipannuxa). Cnncxon peopranisynan yxonny
xoncncropim, cnpnxn ocnirntomy pinnm yxonencrna. nx ntoro yno
opranisonano nacrnpctxo-orocnonctxi xypcn n Istxomy Cnxro-Mnxonan-
ctxomy monacrnpi. 3a oro npanninnx npanocnanna nepxna orpnmana
ynnox cnapxiantnoro ynpanninnx n Myxaueni. uectxn ypx nouan na-
anarn npanocnannomy yxonencrny rpomony onomory. Cranom na
1936 p. Myxauinctxo-Hpxminctxa cnapxix cxnaanacx s 127 npnxoin ra
160 rnc. nipnnxin. ixno raxox n`xrt monacrnpin: rpn uononiui Cnxro-
Mnxonanctxn (Isa), Cnxro-Hpeopaxenctxn (Tepenx), Hpen. Iona
Houanctxoro (Haomnpona), ra na xinoui Pisna Hpecn. Foroponni
(Hnnua) Fnaronimennx Hpecn. Foroponni (omoxn). Kpim roro icny-
nano me n`xrt uononiunx cxnrin [3. C. 99].
V 1920-1930-x pp. uacrnna npanocnannnx npnxoin, monacrnpin ra
cxnrin ninopxxonynanacx Hpastxomy apxicnncxony Cannarim (Bpaen),
mo orpnman xiporonim ni xoncranrnnonontctxoro narpiapxa.
V 1938 p. na Myxauinctxo-Hpxminctxy xa]epy yno npnsnaueno cnnc-
xona Bononmnpa (Pau). Hepeynannx nonoro cnncxona n Myxaueni yno
manorpnnannm, nosaxx, srino Mmnxenctxo yron uacrnna Hixapnarct-
xo Pyci yna oxynonana Vropmnnom. Cnapxiantne ynpanninnx ra cnnc-
xon nepemnn o Xycra, xxn y epesni 1939 p. raxox saxonnnn yropni. V
xnirni 1941 p. cnncxona Bononmnpa saapemrynann, a n xonrni roro x
poxy nncnann o Cepi. Perenr Vropmnnn Mixnom Xopri npnsnaunn a-
minicrparopom rpexo-cxinnx yropctxnx ra rpexo-cxinnx pycnnctxnx
nepxonnnx uacrnn [4. C. 1]. Honon npononn npoyropctxy nonirnxy ra
namarancx crnopnrn n Vropmnni Anroxe]antny npanocnanny nepxny.
5 nmroro 1944 p. nonnm aminicrparopom yno npnsnaueno irymena ue-
o]ana (Caon). V oxymenri oro nocaa snaunrtcx xx cnncxonctxn
sacrynnnx i aminncrparop Hpanocnanno Myxauinctxo-Hpxminctxo
cnapxi [5. Apx. 395].
V xonrni 1945 p. Myxauinctxo-Hpxminctxa cnapxix nepemna ni
mpncnxnim PHH. 3a intme xx 50 poxin paxnctxo nnan npanocnanna
nepxna nepexnna unmano rparei ra norpxcint. Fyno nixnionano ma-
xe nci monacrnpi ra cxnrn, oxpemi cnxmennxn ynn penpeconani rorani-
rapnnm pexnmom.
137

xicno nonn eran n xnrri npanocnanno nepxnn posnouancx nanpnxinni
1980 - na nou. 1990-x pp., xonn na uoni Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo cnapxi
croxn apxicnncxon Cn]nmi (Byrax). 3a exintxa poxin yno ninonneno
ecxrxn npanocnannnx nepxon ra monacrnpin, niponnacx yxonna ocni-
ra y xpa. V 1994 p. si cxnay Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo cnapxi yno
nnneeno Xycrctxo-Bnnorpainctxy cnapxim. V 2000-2007 pp. cnapxicm
n Myxaueni xepynan cnncxon Aranir (Fennnx). 21 rpynx 2007 p. Cnx-
mennn Cnno VHH npnnxn pimennx npo npnsnauennx apximanpnra
ueoopa (Mamacycn) na nocay cnncxona Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo-
ro. 23 rpynx 2007 p. y Tpanesnomy xpami Kncno-Heuepctxo Hanpn co-
op apxicpen nncnxrnn oro y cnncxonn. Cnncxon ueoop pe]opmynan
cnapxiantne ynpanninnx, crnopnn 7 niinin, mo ye cnpnxrn nocnnennm
micionepctxo ra nacrnpctxo poorn cepe nacenennx.
Ha ann uac na repnropi Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo cnapxi ic 290
npnxoin, xxi ocnyronymrt 265 cnxmennxin ra 14 monacrnpin (inx 200
monaxin ra monaxnnt). V m. Vxropo ic yxonna axaemix imeni cn.
Knpnna ra Me]oix.
OKYMEHTH
N 1
yxonencrny Myxauinctxo cnapxi
N 6654-1912.
Bnsmarnuni pyxn
1
, mo npoxnnxmrtcx micnxmn cepe namnx npnxo-
xan, nnmaramrt ceposny ynary. He rintxn s merom npnymennx nnx
nepmnx osnax, ane, n nepmy uepry, s merom nisnannx npnunn x nopo-
xennx ra s merom nonepexennx nnnnnnamun is nnx nemacrt.
Is noannx Mapamopomctxoro
2
yxonencrna (nono naintme sani-
xanneno n ntomy) ra s annx aminicrparnnnnx ycranon ra cyy, ninxom
sposymino, mo ne pyx nirpnmycrtcx is-sa xopony, racmni sapyixni
arenrn, raseramn, naponnmn nncrinxamn, eciamn nnnnnamrt na inn
nm. Ane snnuano, ynn nenni neonixn, in, xxi raxox cnpnxnn nomn-
pennm ntoro pyxy.
3arantnom c cxapra na xyntrypny nicranicrt ra cnae mopantne npo-
rncroxnnx namoro napoy: nesanepeunnm c raxox nennuesna xintxicrt
nerpamornnx ra nomnpennx nnxnrna cepe napoy, a raxox re, mo nam
napo croponnrtcx ni raser ra yt-xxnx xnnxox, croponnrtcx mxonn
romo.
snam, mo n nopoxenni ncix nnx i rononny pont rpac niepantnn
cnirornx. uepes ne nomnnxone cnpnnxrrx, nancrno nnaxano npnnnsnn-
nnm nx cee nirpnmynarn sn`xsxn s napoom ra nnsnanano anrnnar-
1. Hpanocnanni pyxn.
2. Mapamopomnna cxina uacrnna 3axapnarrx.
138
2009, N 2 (16)
0piornunnm ncinxxe namarannx roro, mo napo, xxn ne nonoic yropct-
xom monom, nparne yocxonannrn piny mony i mac xyntrypni sannrn.
Ane nonn nanpxmox cycnintnoro posnnrxy nouan peaxnim nponem i
coniantno ie, xorpi y ncix c]epax nopx is cnooom ra npanamn npo-
ronomyc oon`xsxn (sa xpncrnxnctxnmn saxonamn).
Posyminnx ntoro nctoro noynno moro nonepennxa (nnni noxino-
ro)
3
npocnrn ni ypxy onomory s merom nopxrynxy napoy, ne noyn-
no oro, xonn nin cnox cnxmennxin saxnnxan nanunrn opocne nacenen-
nx, necrn pos`xcnmnantny poory cepe napoy, saxnnxan x crnopmna-
rn monnronni ronapncrna ra nnxnaarn 3axon Foxn cepe nacenennx.
Bennxe syoxinnx napoy, macona emirpanix oro ra pesyntrarn mns-
marnunnx pyxin ononrt, mo xepinnnxn napoy mamrt yrn intm co-
niantno uyrnnnimnmn, mo arn napooni nanaxnnnimi mopantni ra ma-
repiantni nara.
Konn saxnnxam Bac, Bentmnmanonni, nmnrn cni napo, ro n nepmy
uepry snepram Bamy ynary na inrencnnnime nixnynannx penirinocri
Bamnx npnxoxan. Ionopxrt, mo nam napo penirinn. Ane rpea pos-
pisnxrn cxnntnicrt o penirinocri i cniomy penirinicrt. V ne naxxn
uac mn nonnnni omararncx roro, mo penirini snannx ynn nepexonnn-
nimnmn, i, pasom is rnm, nami nipnnxn ynn nipnnmn penirinnm opxam.
Onax, ntoro nemoxnnno ocxrrn, rintxn roi, xonn 3axon Foxn nnx-
naac yunrent y mxoni (xx nin ne ponrt, mn nanirt ne moxemo nepe-
nipnrn). Mn ne ocxrnemo mern, xxmo ne cnixynarnmemo sa nanuannxm
i nnxonannxm y rpexo-xaronnntxomy yci.
Hi neonixn x nnaxam nepmoxepenom ycix i, romy mn nonnnni na-
mararncx x ycynyrn.
Vcniomnmmun cnom nennxy ninoniantnicrt sa mopantne i marepi-
antne cranonnme namoro napoy, nocranonnxm:
1. 3axon Foxn xx y npnnarnnx, rax i n epxannnx mxonax nonnnen
nnxnaarn nepconantno cnxmennx (ao nomiunnx cnxmennxa), i, sa pos-
nopxxennxm N13 nann pnmctxoro Heo, ne mac ponrncx pinom nx
yunin monom, sa cnncxonctxom nporpamom. Tomy mo naxnnnnm c esno-
cepeni nnnnn cnxmennxa na mxonxpin.
V epxannnx mxonax, sa posnopxxennxm Minicrepcrna peniri ra
napono ocnirn ni 1907 p., y crapmnx xnacax (IV, V, VI) nanaxnnnimi
posinn 3axony Foxoro moxyrt nnnuarncx raxox yropctxom monom.
V I-II xnacax 3axon Foxn nounnacrtcx ne s manoro xarexisncy, a s
mano Fini (oronopennx nanaxnnnimnx momenrin).
V III-IV xnacax nanaxnnnimi 3axonn Foxi nunmo nxe is manoro xa-
rexisncy. Oxpemo erantno noamun many Finim.
3. Macrtcx na ynasi cnncxon Rni (uipnax) (22.8.1836 Xyneno 1.6.1912 Vxro-
po).
139

V V-VI xnacax nonropmcrtcx marepian, panime nnnuenn is mano Fini
ra manoro xarexisncy, ononnmmun marepianom is cepentoro xarexisn-
cy. Oxpim ntoro nepmn pix nnxnaacmo niryprim, a nacrynnn icropim
nepxnn.
Is nipyunnxin nnxopncronycmo:
V I-II xnacax: Bonomnn. Mana Finix.
V III-IV xnacax: Mann xarexisnc. Bonomnn. Mana Finix.
V V-VI xnacax: Cepeni xarexisnc. Bonomnn. Mana Finix.
oxrop Mnxnra. Houarxona niryprix.
oxrop Mnxnra. Houarxona icropix nepxnn.
Is merom nepenipxn naxasym, mo yunrent n xoxni mxoni nin oxpe-
mn xypnan ycnimnocri (poorn), n xxomy nonnnen ]ixcynarn xoxnoro
pasy onpantonann marepian. O]inini nininnn nporoicpe rex sanncyc
y ne xypnan. Bnannnnrno Vnio nnano somnr Hporpama nnnuennx
rpexo-xaronnntxoro peniricsnancrna, y xxomy nnxnaeni erantna npo-
rpama ra nxasinxn nnxnaannx. Horo nina 1 xopona 20 ]inepin. Haxasym
oon`xsxone nnxopncrannx ntoro xypnany.
Taxn camn xypnan norpino necrn cnxmennxy y epxanni nouar-
xoni mxoni, i npn pisnnx nepenipxax noxasynarn nporoicpem.
xmo cnxmennx is pisnnx npnunn ne moxe nnxnaarn peniricsnancrno,
ro ne ponrt npnsnauenn mxintnn yunrent. Cam cnxmennx moxe
niminnrn cee yunrenem nnme na 1-2 ypoxn, xxmo ertcx npo intme
ypoxin, ro nx raxo saminn norpinn cneniantnn osnin cnncxona. Ta-
xn neonix y poori x yy cynopo xaparn srino ycranonnennx nepx-
nom saxonin.
2. Cepe ocnonnnx npnunn mnsmarnunoro pyxy, c raxox nepemxoa
yinnnnrna nonnx mxin ra nocrina cxapra napoy, mo nami mxonn ne
rypymrtcx npo nnnuennx pino monn ra nepxonnnx nicent. Fesnepeuno,
mo npn raxomy crani, napo nonnicrm niannrtcx ne rintxn ni mxonn,
ane cnoc nepxnn, y ntomy noracne nouyrrx narpiornsmy. Tintxn nmo-
n`m ra noposyminnxm moxna necrn naronn, nnxonynarn oro, npnnnnarn
omy narpiornsm i npnnyunrn m nmon o yropctxo monn.
Bnane y 1907 p. nx nepxonnnx mxin erantna nporpama cnyxnrt
onomorom y ni cnpani.
Xoen yunrent nemac npana nexrynarn nopmantnnm nnxnaannxm nnx
npemerin, o ne ye cynopo noxapano.
Ane, xxn ne nanirt ne yno nxasano saxonom, coniantni nepeymonn
nnmaramrt, mo naponn yunrent, nanunnmn unrarn-nncarn pinom
monom, posnnnan ini ni snannx i nnxopncronynan x s merom mopantnoro
nnxonannx napoy.
3axnnxam Bamy Bentmnmanonnicrt, nonepenrn Bamnx yunrenin, mo
y ni cnpani nonn rax camo opoconicno nopxno nnxonynann cni oo-
140
2009, N 2 (16)
n`xsox, a nepenipnrn ne saxnnxam xx cnxmennxin, rax i nporoicpex.
3. cam npnnyuycx o cnpann sacnoxocnnx posxnnntonanoro napoy, i
s nic merom niniam nannxunm uacom npnxoxan naneesneunimnx
repnropi.
A orn, npomy Bamy Bentmnmanonnicrt saunrarn nepe cnomn npn-
xoxanamn moc cnncxonctxe nocnannx (is neoxinnmn noxcnennxmn).
3aunrarn ne nocnannx y nocenennxx, e xnnyrt pyrenn ra ronrn
4
, roro
ram, e osnaxn mnsmn me ne npoxnnnncx. Fo mera ntoro nocnannx:
sminnennx nipn npnxoxan, ycniomnennx nnmn ninomennx x o xaro-
nnntxo nepxnn, a ne neoxino ncmn.
A na rnx repnropixx , e nxe nomnpnncx mnsmarnunn pyx, cnxmenn-
xa na cni poscy nonnnni posarn crintxn exsemnnxpin nnx snepnent,
cxintxn norpino.
Bn nonnnni namararncx nacniynarn onoro is naintmnx anocronin
cnxroro Hoca]ara (ynmn nonontxn apxicnncxon), xorpn:
1) ycepnnmn monnrnamn ra nnacnnm cnxrnm xnrrxm;
2) nponxrnmn rnnoxnm nouyrrxmn cnxrocri a raxox npononixmn;
3) cnom sansxrrxm o cnoniannx nanepnyn o xaronnntxo nipn a-
rartox namnx noporin (y mnnynomy).
Hpoxnnxre i Bn sansxrrx y yxonnomy xepinnnnrni napoy i roi For
raxox narocnonnrt namy poory.
Hocnnam Bam cnoc cnncxonctxe narocnonennx.
Vxropo, 12 cepnnx 1912 poxy.
Bam y Xpncri cnncxon Anran
5
[6].
Hepexna s yropctxo.
N 2
Vropctxe xoponinctxe minicrepcrno peniri i napono ocnirn
nx cnyxonoro nnxopncrannx.
Bixpnrrx n epeneni ceminapi Ipexo-cxino nepxnn.
Bceuecnn nan npecrannnx ypxy nnrxsm Kosma Mixnomy.
Ha ocnoni pimennx Pan minicrepcrna, ni 19 uepnnx norounoro poxy,
x axam sponrn npecrannennx no cnpani nixpnrrx n epeneni ce-
minapi nx niroronxn cnxmennocnyxnrenin rpexo-cxino nepxnn, i re-
nep mam moxnnnicrt nncnarn Bam n ntomy nnctmi rexcr npecrannen-
nx nx nonepento in]opmani Bceuecnoro Bennuecrna. Hpnmirt, Bama
Bceuecnicrt, mom nonary ninocno Bamo Ocon.
Hpecrannnx ypxy na Hixapnarri.
oa1ox N 1.
4. Hepecenenni si Cnonauunnn.
5. Cnncxon Anroni Hann.
141

Konix npecrannennx, noannoro o Bceuecno Pan minicrepcrna ni
N 14.370/1941, nanom minicrpom yropctxoro xoponinctxoro minicrepcrna
peniri ra napono ocnirn:
20 poxin cnxmennxn rpexo-cxino nepxni Vropmnni, n sn'xsxy s nicyr-
nicrm ceminapi rpexo-cxino nepxni, npoxonnn niroronxy n Rrocnani
ra Pymyni. Pesyntrar, oconnno s rouxn sopy Vropmnnn, ne yn sao-
nintnnm. Hi cnxmennxn, niroronnenni sa xoponom, s onoro oxy, s rouxn
sopy penirino mopani i inrenexryantnocri, yxe nicranann ni niruns-
nxnnx cnxmennxin, i s pyroro oxy, s rouxn sopy nipnocri o epxann,
crann nenoxntnnmn, raxox n exxnx nnnaxax nonn nonepranncx is-sa
xopony, xx neesneuni nanionanicrnuni ariraropn. Pymynctxi i cepctxi
nepxonni oprann nnan ne rintxn crnnenixmn npnmanmnann mnaxin Vrop-
mnnn rpexo-cxinoro nipocnoniannx nanunrncx na cnxmennxin rpexo-
cxino nepxnn, ane n intmocri nnnaxin, ni uac nanuannx mnaxin n
ceminapi, nonn marepiantno onomarann xnim artxam. Taxnm unnom,
ne n onomy nnnaxy yananocx m nepennxonynarn cnpanxnix yropct-
xnx mnaxin na noporin yropctxoro napoy. Hiroronxa yropctxnx cnxme-
nnxin rpexo-cxinoro nipocnoniannx yna maxe ninxom nemoxnnnnm
romy, mo nonn smornn npoxonrn niroronxy n cnxmennxn rintxn yram-
nannxm cnox yropctxnx nouyrrin i inmnmn rannmn mnxxamn. Ho ni
npnunni nnaxacrtcx onnm is naxnnnimnx sanant n c]epi ynopxxy-
nannx cnpan rpexo-cxino nepxnn Vropmnni, pimennx nponem niroron-
xn cnxmennxin rpexo-cxino nepxnn. B renepimni uac is uornptox nep-
xon: yropctxo, pymynctxo, pyrenctxo i cepctxo - rintxn pymynctxa
nepxna mac ceminapim n micri Konoxnap, ane rintxn na cnpanxnix nnx-
naauin sannmnnncx na micri npn noss`cnanni, a n inmnx xa]epax noca-
n nnxnaauin sanonnenni sacrynnnxamn. 3 inmoro oxy, cmn nino-
cnrtcx i pymynctxa rpexo-cxina nepxna, ni ona nepxna is uornptox
ne mac marepiantny ocnony nx roro, mo ycranonnrn i yrpnmarn cemi-
napim, snaunrt xoxna npocnna ni epxann onomory i xoxna nepxna
nperenynana na nioxpemneny ceminapim. 3amicrt ntoro intm po-
symnnm pimennxm nponemn yno , rax s nonirnuno rouxn sopy, xx i s
marepiantno rouxn sopy ro, mo epxana n mayrntomy xa ycranon-
nxc cnny, nenrpanisonany, epxanny ceminapim rpexo-cxino nepxnn, na
npnxnai maxe 60 poxin niminno imuoro Incrnryry nx niroronxn
pannin. nnpan nx micnesnaxoxennx ceminapi epenen, npn-
mamun o ynarn, s onoro oxy, axannx yropctxo i pyrenctxo nepxon
no ntomy nnrannm, a raxox ry ymony, mo n epeneni monoi cnxmennxn
rpexo-cxinoro nipocnoniannx nononnny npemerin is reonoriunnx nayx
mornn nnnunrn na ]axyntreri pe]opmarctxo reonori yninepcnrery im.
Tnca Kanmana, mo npnneno o cyrrcno exonomi n nepconantnnx ma-
repiantnnx nnrparax. Ceminapix mana nicim xypcin, a xonxperno nouar-
142
2009, N 2 (16)
xoni uornpn: ni V-ro xnacy o noctmoro xnacy rimnasi, xonn monoi
nnxonanni ceminapix napanentno s nanuannxm n ceminapi onouacno xo-
nnn i n pe]opmarctxn xonex, a nnmi 4 xypcn no reonori saxinuyna-
nn uacrxono i n ceminapi, i na ]axyntreri nayxonoro nipocnoniannx
yninepcnrery. Ha nporxsi noctmn poxin yropctxi, pymynctxi, pyrenctxi i
cepctxi nnxonanni pasom nnxonynanncx , xoxnn nnxonanent soon'x-
sann yn n snarn inmnx s nirunsnxnnx mon, raxnm unnom nicnx nocnx-
uennx x n cnxmennocnyxnrenin, x moxnnno yno nanpannxrn n rpexo-
cxiny nepxny nmo nanionantnocri. 3 raxom cninnpanem i cnintnnm nn-
xonynannxm mayrnto renepani, i s xyntrypom i monom inmnx nanio-
nantnocre, x xorin n ocxrrn ro rapmoni, xxy neoxino marn n ara-
ronanionantni xpani Cnxroro Cre]ana. B nami Fartxinmnni, npaxony-
mui i repnropi, xxnx snony npncnacmo ni Rrocnani, napaxonano intm,
nix Cimcor rpexo-cxinnx cnxmennxin, i uncnennicrt rp.-cx. nipymunx
npnnnsno mintona. nx nononnennx xintxocri cnxmennxin, neoxino
nnxonynarn n xoxnomy poni 25-30 nonnx cnxmennxin. 3naunrt, na crintxn
nnxonannin-nnnycxnnxin macmo pospaxonynarn na xoxnomy nonomy nn-
nycxnomy xypci. Ane s nepmoro nnnycxy rintxn uepes nicim poxin ye-
mo marn nnnycxnnxin-nnxonannin, n ro uac, xonn nxe n renepimni uac
icnyc nicyrnicrt pesepnin rp.-cx. cnxmennxin xx n yropctxi, rax i n py-
mynctxi ra cepctxi rp.-cx. nepxni. Bo nx necraua cnxmennxin ne
nnxnnxana neoxinicrt sacrocynannx inosemnnx cnxmennxin i cnxme-
nnxin-emirpanrin, norpino nxe n ntomy poni nixpnrn reonoriunoro
niinennx nx nnnycxnnxin rimnasi i arn moxnnnicrt nirunsnxnnm xan-
naram-cnxmennxam pymynctxo i cepctxo ceminapi saxinunrn na-
nuannx n ceminapi. Taxnm unnom, nouarxona uncnennicrt ceminapi moxe
yrn 60 nnxonannin. Camo coom posymicrtcx, mo 60 nnxonannin nun-
nnct n na ocnoni epxannnx marepiantnnx xomrin, o rintxn raxnm
unnom moxemo npnarn is ninocno inoro rp.-cx. nacenennx, camnx
ninnnx enemenrin. yxe naxnnno, mo nanuannx nenocx n ceminapi unc-
ro na ocnoni epxannnx marepiantnnx xomrin, a ne sa paxynox ]onin
ao nepxonnnx marepiantnnx xomrin. Tax xx epenenctxa ceminapix c
onouacno yuonnm saxnaom nx nnxonynannx cnxmennxin ncix uorn-
ptox cnapxi, ro nn cnncxon is 4-x cnapxi ne moxe nnxonarn oon'xsxn
rononnoro oprana nnan, i romy mn nonnnni snarn raxn rononnn opran
nnan, xxn xepynan n ncima 4-ma cnapxixmn. He oon'xsox mir n
nnxonynarn xoncranrnnonontctxn narpiapx, ao o rnx nip, noxn s nar-
piapxom ne ninncancx oronip, oro sacrynnnx Cannari, nparnennx xxo-
ro ynn i o nnx nip nosnrnnnnm no ninomenni yropctxnx inrepecin. Hicnx
ntoro, x s nonarom npomy Bceuecny Pay minicrpin, (o rnx nip, noxn n
mayrntomy npnmertcx 3axon npo nixpnrrx rp.-cx. ceminapi n e-
peneni), mo ana osnin meni nx nouarxonnx opranisaninnx poir nx
143

nixpnrrx ceminapix. Onouacno npomy, mo nx crnopennx anoro yu-
onoro saxnay /pemonr i onanannx yonn/, a raxox nx nepconant-
nnx i inmnx nnrpar, nnnnxamunx npn norouno paxynxn i n 2. ninpiuui, arn
osnin na nnauy nenepeauenoro xpenry n cymi cro n`xrecxr rncxu
nenre (150 rnc.)
Fyanemr, 28-ro uepnnx 1941 poxy.
p. Xoman Faninr s.x.
Micne neuarxn.
3anipnn o]inino xonim: Ipyep Anpam, unnonnnx xannenxpi
Minicrepcrna [7. Apx. 7-7 sn].
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHHX EPEA TA AITEPATYPH:
1. Bacu.u (Hpouuu), apxu+auopum. Hcropnx Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3a-
xapnarte. K., 2005.
2. amroeu: P. Ouepx ncropin Ipymencxaro monacrtpx // 3emneentuec-
xn xanenapt na 1944 r. Vxropo, 1943.
3. A.ercu (exmepee), uuor. Hpanocnanie na Hoxapnarcxo Pycn // Hoxap-
narcxax Pyct (1919-1936). Vxropo, 1936.
4. Budapesti Kozlony. 1941. 13 aprills. X. 1.
5. Apxin Vnpanninnx Cnyxn Fesnexn Vxpann n 3axapnarctxi onacri. Apx.
Kpnminantna cnpana 1411-C. (Honon M.M.) (7.04. 1947-16.08. 1947 pp.).
6. Apxin Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo npanocnanno cnapxi.
7. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri. u. 151. On. 18. Cnp. 2299.
144
2009, N 2 (16)
Bacnnt MImAHHH
HOBI OKYMEHTH HPO
KOAEKTHBI3AHIK HA 3AKAPHATTI
1946-1950 pp.
Arpapna nonirnxa na 3axapnarri y nepmi nonocnni poxn yna came rnm
xnmuonnm naxenem, xxn xapnnantno sminnn cncremy cycnintnnx nino-
cnn i coniantno-exonomiune onnuux xpam. Cintctxe rocnoapcrno
ominymua ranyst nnponnnrna i rononnn o`cxrnnnn cncremornop-
un unnnnx posnnrxy micneno exonomixn, coniantno, emorpa]iuno i
npocropono-nocenenctxo crpyxrypn 3axapnarrx n 1944-1950 pp. - cra-
no ocnonnom c]epom, s xxo y mono noss`cnanomy s Vxpanom perioni
nonirnuno-npnmyconnmn meroamn micnennmn xomynicramn i nenrpant-
nnmn xomnaprino-epxannnmn opranamn CPCP i VPCP posropnynocx
ninecnpxmonane nacaxennx paxnctxo moeni nonirnunnx i coniantno-
exonomiunnx ninocnn, rocnoapmnannx i aminicrparnnno-npexrnnno-
ro ynpanninnx. Cenxncrno xpam yno niuyxene ni semni i saxpinauene
xonrocnno-parocnnnm naom. Posnouanacx pynanix nixonnx rpanni,
xyntrypn i mopantnnx ninnocre saxapnarctxoro cena, oro nponerapn-
sanix i maprinanisanix. Komynicrnuna nonirnxa n arpapnomy cexropi yna
cxnaonom uacrnnom nponecy npncxopeno paxnisani 3axapnarrx y nepmi
nonocnni poxn.
Bnpoonx ntoro nesnaunoro sa rpnnanicrm icropnunoro nepioy sa-
xapnarctxe ceno nepexnno na panxantni nepenoporn. Cnouarxy se-
mentny pe]opmy 1944-1945 pp., xxa rnmuacono crnopnna macy cepenix
i pinnx npnnarnnx nnacnnxin xasxn semni. I nipasy x norim xonex-
rnnisanim 1946-1950 pp., xxa nixniynana raxoro xasxna. Heoxino
nixpecnnrn, mo arpapna nonirnxa na 3axapnarri sanepmantnoro erany
pyro cnirono ninn i nepmnx nonocnnnx poxin, ]opmynanacx i sicnm-
nanacx y emo niminnnx ymonax icnynannx xnasiepxannoro yrnopennx
3axapnarctxa Vxpana n 1944-1945 pp., e ]opmantno me icnynano
nirpynrx nx camocrinoro pe]opmynannx nonom nnaom sementnnx
ra inmnx arpapnnx ninocnn, a norim n 3axapnarctxi onacri n 1946-
1950 pp. cxnaoni aminicrparnnno-repnropiantni onnnni Vxpann,
e camocrinicrt i onacnnx i micnennx opranin nnan y c]epi arpap-
no nonirnxn yna maxe nnxnmuena.
Maconann rncx paxnctxo penpecnnno mamnnepi saesneunn mnn-
xe nacaxennx xonrocnno cncremn n 3axapnarctxi onacri. Came nnac-
niox ntoro nnpoonx exintxox poxin crpimxo sanepmnncx nponec xo-
145

nexrnnisani n xpa. V 1946 p. n onacri ynn crnopeni nnme 2 xonrocnn, n
1947 p. 11 xonrocnin. A na 1 ciunx 1949 p. n 3axapnarri napaxonynano-
cx yxe 411 xonexrnnnnx rocnoapcrn. Maxcnmymy xintxicrt xonexrnn-
nnx aprine n onacri ocxrna n xnirni 1950 p. 546 xonrocnin. Ha xinent
1950 p. n pesyntrari yxpynnennx n onacri sannmnnncx 294 xonrocnn. x
sacniunno ne x yxpynnennx xonrocnin 1950 p., saxapnarctxe ceno yxe
nonnicrm posnnnanocx n pycni sarantnoepxannoro xonrocnnoro nay.
Innoxn nayxonn ananis nponecy ]opmynannx i peanisani nonocnno
nonirnxn arpapnnx nepernopent na 3axapnarri ra o`cxrnnna oninxa
pesyntrarin norpeymrt perentnoro nnnuennx i snaunoro posmnpennx
xona xepen nx neynepexenoro ocnixennx nponemn. Taxn nixi
osnonxc aprymenronano nepernxnyrn exxi crepeornnn nepenaxno ie-
onoriuno saanraxonannx poir s icropi arpapnnx ninocnn i naprino-
epxanno nonirnxn n c]epi cintctxoro rocnoapcrna paxnctxoro nepi-
oy. Hponononann nonn xpnrnunn nixi ne sanepeuyc naromoro nne-
cxy xnani]ixonannx yxpanctxnx nuennx icropnxin, exonomicrin ra inmnx
cycnintcrnosnannin 50-80-x pp. XX cr. y nncnirnennx nonocnnnx nepe-
rnopent n saxapnarctxomy ceni. Hnmn sponeno nasnnuano araro
nx nnxnaennx icropi ]axry, maxcnmantno nepconi]ixani icropnunoro
nponecy i nanonnennx oro xonxpernnmn xnnmamn i noixmn. Hponemn
nonocnno arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri n ninomy ra peanisani es-
nocepento na micnxx rpynronno posxpnnanncx n ocnixennxx s xpacs-
nancrna 1960-1980-x pp. V nopinnxntno-icropnunomy xonrexcri cnintne i
oconnne n nepernopenni cintctxoro rocnoapcrna 3axapnarrx sa pa-
xnctxnm nsipnem nncnirneno n ysarantnmmunx nynixanixx s icropi
yxpanctxoro cenxncrna, naponoro rocnoapcrna, saxinoyxpanctxnx
sement i n ninomy s icropi Vxpann paxnctxoro uacy. Haintm nonnnm
unnom naprino-epxanna nonirnxa 1944-1950 pp. na ceni nnxnaena n
cneniantnnx nynixanixx paxnctxoro nepioy s xomnaprino icropi. Ane
ni poorn mann nepenaxno renenninn xapaxrep. Bonn niopaxann
nnme nnrinn nx xomynicrnunoro pexnmy nosnrnn arpapnnx neperno-
pent. Fintmicrt nynixani s naprino icropi sa nponemarnxom ocni-
xennx asynanacx na nystxomy xoni osnonennx ocninnxam nx osna-
omnennx apxinnnx marepianin ra na onynixonannx oxymenrax s icropi
xomynicrnuno arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri nepioy 1944-1950 pp.
Cyrrcno posmnpena i sarauena xepentna ocnona y nocnanni s noni-
rnimn ocxrnennxmn yxpanctxo icropnuno nayxn s nnnuennx ocnixy-
nanoro nepioy crane ocnonnom nepeymonom n ananisi i nncnirnenni
xomnaprino-epxanno nonirnxn n saxapnarctxomy ceni n 1944-1950 pp.
3asnnua n icropnunnx poorax paxnctxoro nepioy s nonocnno arpap-
no nponemarnxn nnmn oxymenrantnnmn niipxamn i nnuepnynanacx
apxinno-xepentna asa. Taxa npaxrnxa sepiracrtcx, na xant, i n ex-
146
2009, N 2 (16)
xnx cyuacnnx icropnunnx ocnixennxx. Hosa ynarom npo]ecinnx icro-
pnxin sannmacrtcx nennuesna maca oxymenrantnoro marepiany s inmnx
]onin A3O. Hanirt intme, perentno osnaomnnmnct is apxinnnmn
sipxamn, moxemo is nnennenicrm crnepxynarn, mo snauna uacrnna i
xomnaprinnx ]onin, xxi crocymrtcx, y anomy nnnaxy, nonocnnnx ar-
papnnx nponem, soncim ne onpantonana nuennmn-icropnxamn. A ocnon-
na maca oxymenrin me nixonn ne yna nneena o nayxonoro oiry. ue-
pes pax ocxry, synnnnmocx na niomi nnme omexenomy xony icro-
pnxin rpyni apxinnnx oxymenrin, xxi sacniuymrt icnynannx antrepna-
rnnnoro napianry nnopy arpapno nonirnxn i mnxxy posnnrxy cintctxoro
rocnoapcrna xpam y 1950 p. yxropoctxnmn icropnxamn B.I. Intxo ra
I.B. Intxo n A3O nnepme yno nnxnneno nasnnuano naxnnnn nx
posyminnx nponem arpapno pe]opmn i arpapno nonirnxn na 3axapnarri
n nepmi nonocnni poxn oxymenr. V nmromy 1950 p. xepinnnxn micnennx
naprinnx i epxannnx opranin 3axapnarrx cnpoynann onecrn Kncny
neonintnicrt i exonomiuny nee]exrnnnicrt cynintno xonexrnnisani xoua
y cmysi ripctxnx nacenennx nynxrin. o HK Komynicrnuno napri
(intmonnxin) Vxpann 4 nmroro 1950 p. yno nanpanneno onixy npo
Hpo cran i noantmn posnnrox cintctxoro rocnoapcrna y ripctxnx
cenax 3axapnarctxo onacri, ninncany rononom 3axapnarctxoro on-
nnxonxomy I.I. Typxnnnem i nepmnm cexperapem oxomy xomnapri
I.. Komnannem [1].
V namomy posnopxxenni c nonna xonix anoro oxymenry. Ocnon-
nnm oro nncnonxom yno nonoxennx, mo opranisanix n ripctxnx cenax
cintctxorocnoapctxnx aprine c neonintnom. Bncrynnrn s raxom
neopnnapnom ininiarnnom y nepio craninctxoro nxrary ra xypcy na
cynintny xonexrnnisanim n 3axapnarri npocro rax onacne naprino-ep-
xanne xepinnnnrno ne morno. He napro nepeoninmnarn pinent camo-
crinocri, cminnnocri i pimyuocri roimnix nomenxnarypnnx xapin. Hpn-
unnn noxnn ntoro oxymenry nonxrann n inmomy.
Hponeenn namn oarxonn ananis marepianin ]onin A3O sacni-
uyc, mo cnpoa saxapnarctxoro xepinnnnrna nsxrn ni cymnin onintnicrt
cynintno xonexrnnisani n ripctxnx paonax 3axapnarrx yna nnxnnxana
mnnme coniantno-exonomiunnmn unnnnxamn. Konexrnnne rocnoapcrno
y ripctxi soni npocro yno nee]exrnnnnm, a nx oro neennx enemen-
rapno ne nncrauano semni. I nsarani xnreni ripctxo cmyrn nepenaxno
ynn sanxri na nicopospoxax ao samanncx nixinnnrnom, rax xx
nemoxnnno yno icnynarn sa paxynox xynnx sementnnx nainin. In]op-
manix npo raxi nerarnnn yna sipana i npoananisonana nnanono-exono-
miunnm niinom onacnoro ynpanninnx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna. V ]on-
ax A3O namn nnxnneno px npnnnnnono nonnx oxymenrin onynpan-
ninnx moo ntoro: 3neeni exonomiuni noxasnnxn 12-rn ripctxnx xon-
147

rocnin nx pospoxn saxoin s posnnrxy cintctxoro rocnoapcrna y xon-
rocnax no oxpyrax onacri na 1950-1955 pp., Hepenix exonomiunnx no-
xasnnxin ripctxnx xonrocnin nx pospoxn saxoin is posnnrxy cintctxoro
rocnoapcrna n xonrocnax Bennxoepesnxnctxoro, Bononentxoro i Boni-
nctxoro oxpyrin onacri na 1950-1955 p. [2].
Haneeni y nnx oxymenrax xonxperni ani nxrnn n ocnony aprymen-
rani nnctmonoro snepnennx onacnoro xepinnnnrna o Kncna is npono-
snnicm ne nomnpmnarn xonexrnnisanim na cena ripctxo cmyrn [3]. Ane i
came onacne ynpanninnx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna raxox 4 nmroro
1950 p. nanpannno ranysenomy pecnynixanctxomy minicrepcrny cne-
niantny in]opmanim npo noantmn posnnrox cintctxoro rocnoapcrna
y ripctxnx xonrocnax 3axapnarctxo onacri [4]. 3a smicrom, nncnonxa-
mn i nponosnnixmn nx in]opmanix yna nnstxom o nncra-snepnennx sa-
xapnarctxoro onacnoro xepinnnnrna o HK KH()V.
Taxnm unnom, noni apxinni xepena sacniuymrt, mo y nmromy 1
950 p. xepinnnnrno 3axapnarctxo onacri sponno cnpoy ne nomnpnrn
cynintny xonexrnnisanim na ripctxi paonn. Ane yno nxe nisno. Banc na
snaxene xoonepynannx cintctxoro rocnoapcrna 3axapnarrx sa napo-
no-emoxparnunom moennm cycinix xpan Cxino Cnponn nrparnncx
me n 1944-1946 pp.
r. Vxropo, 4 ]enpanx 1950 r.
CEKPETAPR HK KH()V
ron. Mentnnxony H.I.
Teppnropnx onacrn panna 1,273 rtc. rexrapa. Hs ome sementno
nnoman no namne sanxro 235,1 rtc. ra, cenoxocamn - 161,3 rtc. ra,
nacrnmamn 179,0 rtc .ra ( ns nnx ntcoxoropntx nononnn 50 rtc.
ra), no necamn 592,2 rtc. ra, nnnorpannxamn -3,8 rtc. ra, caamn -
6,6 rtc. ra.
Ho xosxcrnenno-ronorpa]nuecxnm npnsnaxam onacrt moxno pas-
ennrt na rpn sont: nnsnnnym, nperopnym n ropnym.
Iopnax sona: pacnonoxena n cpene n nepxne uacrn cxnonon Kap-
narcxnx rop n nx orporon. B nee nxoxr oxpyra: Paxoncxn, Bononcxn,
Bononenxn, B. Fepesnxncxn n uacrt Txuencxoro, Cennmcxoro, Cna-
nxncxoro, Xycrcxoro n Hepeunncxoro oxpyron.
Hount +ro sont n cnoem ontmnncrne npecrannxmr npoyxr nt-
nerpnnannx rneptx esxaponarntx nopo, menxne n onosonennte
yposemt c xamenncro nnn xpxmenaro nonouno.
148
2009, N 2 (16)
Fontmax uacrt reppnropnn ropno sont noxptra necamn. Tax, no
Paxoncxomy oxpyry necamn sanxro 64 %, a namne 1,8 % nnoman, no
Bononcxomy necom 55 %, a namne 11 %.
Ocnonntmn centcxoxosxcrnenntmn xyntrypamn ryr xnnxmercx xap-
ro]ent, onec n nesnaunrentnoe xonnuecrno xpono pxn. Kyxypysa n rop-
ntx cenax ntspenaer ne ncera. Mnorne xosxcrna nosentnamr nen n
xononnm, ns onome ntpamnnamrcx xanycra, nyx, crononte n xopmo-
nte xopnennot.
Vpoxanocrt centcxoxosxcrnenntx xyntryp c onoro rexrapa n cpe-
nem: xapro]enx 110-130 nenrnepon, onca 7-8 nenrn., xpono pxn 8-10
nenrn., oon 7-8 nenrn.
Arporexnnxa opaorxn nount n ropno sone npnmnrnnna. Hpocre-
mn centcxoxosxcrnennt nnnenrapt xax nnyr, opona, cexnxa n nexn-
xa pacnpocrpanent mano. Opaorxa nount n 70 % xosxcrn Bononc-
xoro n 90 % Paxoncxoro oxpyron nponsnonrcx, rnanntm opasom, npyu-
nym.
Ocnonntm yopennem no nonente n oroponte xyntrypt xnnxer-
cx nanos, onaxo ero nx yopennx ncex nnomae ne xnaraer, a no+ro-
my ontmax uacrt cenoxocntx n ntnacntx yron ocraercx es yo-
pennx. Ha nnecenne ncxyccrnenntx yopenn nount ouent orstnun-
nt, n onn amr xopomn +]]exr. Hourn nce nount nyxamrcx n nsne-
crxonannn.
Haxornym semnm, pacnonoxennym n onnnax pex n na cxnonax n nn-
sn nacenenntx nynxron, yopxmr ycnnenno, ncnontsyx ee ecxrxamn
ner no onn n re xe xyntrypt. Taxo nopxox ncnontsonannx cnoco-
crnyer pacnpocrpanennm npenrene n onesne centcxoxosxcrnen-
ntx xyntryp. Hourn no ncex ropntx cenax xapro]ent sapaxen paxom,
mnpoxo pacnpocrpanent centcxoxosxcrnennte npenrenn.
Hanonee nenecoopasno orpacntm centcxoro xosxcrna +ro sont
xnnxercx xnnornonocrno, xoropoe nosnonxer nacenennm onee nonno
ncnontsonart nacrnma n cenoxoct. Ocnonntmn nnamn pasnonmoro
sect cxora xnnxmrcx onnt n xpynnt porart cxor, n mentme crene-
nn noman n n nesnaunrentnom xonnuecrne cnnntn.
Kpynnt porart cxor npecrannen, rnanntm opasom, ypo xap-
narcxo nopoo n n nesnaunrentnom xonnuecrne nnncrancxo nopoo
n ee merncamn c cnmenrantcxo. Vo ontmnncrna xopon xonenercx
or 1200 o 1600 nnrpon monoxa n ro.
Koncxoe norononte n ocnonnom npecranneno rynyntcxo nopoo,
xoropax, necmorpx na mant pocr (125-135 canrnmerpon), ornnuaercx
xopome paorocnoconocrtm, ntnocnnna n nenpnxornnna, a no+romy
nectma nenna nx ropno sont.
Onnenocrno, nanonee pacnpocrpanennoe n ropno sone, npecran-
neno mecrno nopoo panxa, xoropax xopomo npncnoconena x mecr-
149

ntm ycnonnxm xopmnennx n coepxannx, no aer ouent nnsxym npoyx-
rnnnocrt. Xnno nec ono ronont pannxercx 25-30 xnnorpammam, na-
crpnr mepcrn o 1,5 xr, mepcrt nnnnax, no ouent rpyax n nomxax.
antnemax nnemennax paora c +ro nopoo nanpannena, rnanntm
opasom, na ynyumenne xauecrna mepcrn n ynennuenne xnnoro neca
onen.
Hactmennocrt cxora na ono xosxcrno n ropntx cenax nnxe, uem n
nperopno n nnsnnno sonax, ocoenno no xpynnomy poraromy cxory n
cnnntxm, rontxo onnt pasnoxrcx n ontmem xonnuecrne.
Bosmoxnocrt x ynennuennm noronontx cxora n oecneuennm ero xop-
mamn n ropntx oxpyrax nmeercx.
Omax nnomat ropntx nacrnm (o 50 rtc. ra) ncnontsyercx nace-
nennem, xax npannno, nx ntnaca cxora n xnnxercx ocnonno nerne
xopmono aso. Ha ropntx nacrnmax cxor naxonrcx c 20 max no 10-
20 cenrxpx, nnn oxono 80 ne, uro aer nosmoxnocrt cenoxocnte yro-
nx, pacnonoxennte nnnsn nacenenntx nynxron, ncnontsonart nx ce-
noxomennx.
Cocroxnne nononnn n nopxox nx ncnontsonannx n nacroxmee npemx
neyonnernopnrentnt. oporn, cnxstnammne mexy coo nononnnt
n onnnt, paspymnnnct n crann ocrynntmn nx npoesa rontxo n ner-
nee npemx. Hocroxnnoro yxoa sa oporamn ner. Bce +rn oporn xnnx-
mrcx ouent naxntmn, n nx npnneennx nx n nopxox rpeymrcx ont-
mne sarpart.
3emnenontsonanne xapaxrepno paspocannocrtm sementntx yuacr-
xon, uacro oranenntx onn or pyroro n or ocnonno ycatt na 5-6
xnnomerpon. Kax npannno, semnenontsonanne onoro xosxcrna tno
pacnonoxeno n 3-5 n onee mecrax neontmnmn yuacrxamn.
Ocnonnoe sanxrne nacenennx ropno sont naxonrcx n npxmo sa-
nncnmocrn or nannunx nnoman semnn, npnrono nx ncnontsonannx.
B ome cnoxnocrn sement centcxoxosxcrnennoro nontsonannx nx
nacenennx +ro sont conepmenno neocrarouno, n ono ntnyxeno nc-
xart sapaorxa na cesonntx n nocroxnntx paorax n cnoem nnn pyrom
oxpyre.
Bo ncex xpecrtxncxnx xosxcrnax ropno sont xnnornonocrno nmeer
omnnnpymee snauenne, a nonenocrno nounnennoe.
3xonomnuecxn yponent xnsnn nacenennx ropntx cen sa rot coner-
cxo nnacrn snaunrentno nontcnncx, uemy cnococrnonann nponeenne
sementno pe]opmt, ynennuenne paspaorox neca, oprannsannx nontx
n pacmnpenne cymecrnonanmnx orpacne npomtmnennocrn, a raxxe
oprannsannx xonxoson. Onaxo yponent +xonomnxn xpecrtxncxnx xosxcrn
n ropntx cenax eme onontno nnsox.
Kopenntm nonpocom nacenennx ropntx cen xnnxercx nonpoc oecne-
uennx xneom, xoropt tn nepaspemenntm n reuenne mnornx ecxr-
150
2009, N 2 (16)
xon ner n npomnom. Fontmnncrno cen ropntx oxpyron xneom cocrnen-
noro ypoxax ne oecneuent.
Oecneuennocrt nacenennx sa cuer cnoero ypoxax n npoyxnnn xn-
nornonocrna moxno oxapaxrepnsonart anntmn no 17 ropntm cenam
Paxoncxoro oxpyra, n xoroptx nacunrtnaercx 47 rtc. nacenennx. Ha
ymy nacenennx npnxonrcx cocrnenno npoyxnnn n ro sepna n xy-
xypyst 25-26 xr, xapro]enx 300-350 xr, mxca 10-12 xr n monoxa
100-120 nnrpon. Taxnm opasom, nacenenne oecneueno ncemn npoyx-
ramn nnrannx sa ncxnmuennem sepna, xoroporo ne xnaraer na uenonexa
n ro o 200 xr.
uncno orxonnxon n +rnx cenax oxonr o 70 % nspocnoro nacene-
nnx, n nourn nce rpyocnoconoe nacenenne ontmym uacrt npemenn
sanxro na necopaspaorxax, ntnosxe, cnnane n nepepaorxe neca na ne-
connntntx n necoxnmnuecxnx sanoax.
B xonxosno-xpecrtxncxom cexrope nacunrtnaercx (no anntm yue-
ra na 1 noxpx 1949 roa) ncero 141 726 xosxcrn, cnxsanntx c centc-
xnm xosxcrnom, npn +rom 27 340 xosxcrn ropno n nperopno sont
3axapnartx ]axrnuecxn cocrannxmr cemtn paounx, ocnonntm ncrou-
nnxom cymecrnonannx xoroptx xnnxercx sapaorox na nocroxnno nnn
cesonno paore n necno n necoxnmnuecxo npomtmnennocrn. B cno-
em nontsonannn +rn xosxcrna nmemr nesnaunrentnte no nnoman yua-
crxn nonentx sement (rnanntm opasom, cenoxocnte n ntnacnte yro-
nx, ne npentmammne pasmepon, ycranonnenntx nx paounx n cnyxa-
mnx necno npomtmnennocrn nynxrom 30 Hocranonnennx Conera mn-
nncrpon Comsa CCP or 8 anrycra 1947 roa N 2804).
Hannune y +ro xareropnn rpyxmnxcx nonentx sement oxstnaer
sementnte oprant n coornercrnnn c yxasannxmn Mnnncrepcrna centc-
xoro xosxcrna VCCP ornocnrt +ry rpynny x xareropnn ennonnuntx
xpecrtxncxnx xosxcrn.
Hpaxrnxa oprannsannn xonxoson n 74 nepxonnnntx cenax 3axapnartx
(ropnax n nperopnax sont) noxasana, uro ncrynnnmne n xonxost xpec-
rtxncxne nopt cocrannxmr ncero 21,6 nponenra no ornomennm xo ncem
xosxcrnam +rnx nacenenntx nynxron, rora xax omecrnennte nnn
naxornte yronx cocrannxmr cntme 70 % ome nnoman namnn.
Ocrantnax uacrt nacenennx +rnx cen, ncnecrnne roro, uro ona nnn
nourn ne cnxsana c centcxnm xosxcrnom (no npnunnam, yxasanntm
ntme), nnn ncnecrnne ncxnmunrentnoro manosementx n ysocrn centc-
xoxosxcrnenno nponsnocrnenno ast, ne moxer trt ncnontsona-
na n xonxosnom nponsnocrne.
Kpome roro, n pxe nacenenntx nynxron oecneuennocrt naxorntmn
yronxmn nacrontxo nnsxa, uro npn ntnonnennn nocranonnennx Conera
mnnncrpon Vxpanncxo CCP n HK KH()V N 514 or 8 mapra 1949 roa
151

O pasmepax npnycaentx yuacrxon xonxosnnxon n sanantx Hsma-
nntcxo n 3axapnarcxo onacrxx npn xonnexrnnnsannn nepxonnnntx
cen (cocroxmnx n ontmnncrne ns paounx necno n necoxnmnuecxo
npomtmnennocrn) nce naxornte (n naxorno-npnronte) yronx noyr
n opesxn x ycaentm yuacrxam xonxosnnxon, n nx omecrnentx no-
cenon xonxosa ne ocranercx namnn, nnn n nyumnx cnyuaxx ocrarox na-
xorntx yron ne moxer yonnernopnrt norpenocre xonnexrnnnoro
xosxcrna.
Tax, nanpnmep, no ceny Herponen Bononcxoro oxpyra npn nonneuennn
n xonxos ncex 376 xosxcrn cena nx opesxn o mnnnmantno nopmt x
ycaentm yuacrxam norpeyercx 98 ra, ncero xe nmeercx 101 ra na-
xorntx yron, n na omecrnennte nocent nourn nnuero ne ocraercx;
no ceny Typtx Pemert Hepeunncxoro oxpyra na opesxn 567 xosxcrnam
x npnycaentm yuacrxam norpeyercx 147 ra, n nannunn namnn ncero
299 ra, na omecrnennt nocen ocraercx no 0,25 ra n cpenem na ono
xosxcrno; no ceny Kymnnna Hpmancxoro oxpyra na opesxn x npnyca-
entm yuacrxam 676 xosxcrn norpeyercx 176 ra, nmeercx naxorntx
sement 310 ra, na omecrnennt nocen ocraercx 134 ra, nnn n cpenem
no 0,20 ra na ono xosxcrno. B cenax Bnpoxn yr, yonoe n Inyo-
xn Horox Txuencxoro oxpyra npn opesxax x npnycaentm yuacrxam
npnercx nepeart nce naxornte semnn. B cenax Fepesnnxa n p. Cna-
nxncxoro oxpyra raxoe xe nonoxenne. B cenax Foran, Hyrn, cnnx Pa-
xoncxoro oxpyra naxorntx sement ne xnaraer axe nx npnycaentx
yuacrxon.
Hemnornm nyume nonoxenne n n pyrnx nacenenntx nynxrax ropno
sont onacrn.
Hcxox ns ntmensnoxennoro n yunrtnax, uro n nexoroptx ropntx
cenax oecneuennocrt naxorntmn yronxmn upesntuano nnsxax n npn
+rom naxornte semnn nnoxoro xauecrna, a raxxe yunrtnax, uro rnan-
ntm ncrounnxom cymecrnonannx nacenennx xnnxercx sapaorox na ne-
copaspaorxax n pyrnx npenpnxrnxx n oprannsannx n +rnx cenax cent-
cxoxosxcrnenntx aprene xnnxercx nenenecoopasno, Onncnonxom
n mpo oxoma KH()V npocxr Coner mnnncrpon VCCP n HK KH()V:
1. C nentm ynyumennx +xonomnxn nacenennx ropntx cen n ncnontso-
nannx paoue cnnt cunrart nenecoopasntm orxonnuecrno na neco-
paspaorxax, paory nacenennx n necno npomtmnennocrn n oprannsa-
nnm xonxosno-xooneparnnntx npomtcnon no nsroronnennm pasnnuntx
nsenn ns epena, a centcxoe xosxcrno - nocono orpacntm.
2. B coornercrnnn c nocranonnennem Conera mnnncrpon Comsa CCP
or 8 anrycra 1947 roa N 2804 O mexannsannn necosaroronox, ocnoe-
nnn nontx necntx paonon n cosannn neoxonmtx ycnonn nx sax-
pennennx paounx n nnxenepno-rexnnuecxnx xapon Mnnncrepcrna nec-
152
2009, N 2 (16)
no npomtmnennocrn CCCP paspemnrt nepenecrn 27 nacenenntx nyn-
xron, cornacno npnnoxennm N 1, n paspxt necntx paounx nocenxon c
nepeaue semnn n rocyapcrnennt sementnt ]on nx naenennx
paounx necno npomtmnennocrn npnycaentmn yuacrxamn, cenoxo-
camn n nacrnmamn n npeenax nopm, ycranonnenntx saxonom.
3. Paspemnrt ncxnmunrt ns uncna uncnxmnxcx xpecrtxncxnx xo-
sxcrn 23 165 nopon mrarntx paounx npenpnxrn necno n necoxn-
mnuecxo npomtmnennocrn n 86 nacenenntx nynxrax ropno n npe-
ropno sont cornacno npnnoxennm N2, rax xax ocnonntm sapaorxom
+rnx xosxcrn xnnxercx paora n npomtmnennocrn. Bonneuenne +rnx
xosxcrn n xonxost ncnecrnne mano semneoecneuennocrn (n cpe-
nem na ono xosxcrno npnxonrcx 0,5 ra namnn) cunrart nenenecoo-
pasntm.
4. Ocnonntm nanpannennem n centcxom xosxcrne ropno sont cun-
rart xnnornonocrno c ynennuennem noronontx, rnanntm opasom, onen
n xpynnoro poraroro cxora.
Honenocrno pasnnnart n raxom nanpannennn n pasmepax, urot ono
oecneunno nacenenne xapro]enem n onomamn, a cxor - countmn rpy-
tmn n uacrnuno xonnenrpnponanntmn xopmamn.
nx ynennuennx noronontx cxora, nontmennx ero npoyxrnnnocrn n
nontmennx ypoxanocrn cunrart neoxonmtm:
a) Hnxnnnponart nepenoxnym cncremy semneennx, ne ymentmax
nnoman nocena sepnontx xyntryp. Bcemepno pacmnpxrt nnoman no-
cena oontx n snaxontx ononernnx n mnoronernnx rpan c oneenn-
em nx o 48-50 % ome nnoman namnn.
) Vcnnnrt sanos mnnepantntx yopenn (npenmymecrnenno ]oc-
]opntx) ns pacuera 3-4 nenrnepa na rexrap n nx nsnecxonannx noun
(ns pacuera 5-6 ronn nsnecrn na rexrap uepes xaxte 8-10 ner) ncnont-
sonart paspaorxy nmemmnxcx mecropoxenn nsnecrnxxa.
n) C nentm antnemero coxpanennx neyme xyntrypt n ropntx
cenax xapro]enx n nontmennx ero ypoxanocrn nponecrn sameny ncex
copron paxoycrounntmn.
nx oecneuennx cxora countmn xopmamn n cnnocom ynennunrt cna-
xenne ropnte cen nnxooncom, rypnencom, ronnnamypom, pyrnmn xynt-
rypamn, mnpoxo nnepxx cnnoconanne xopmon.
r) nx nontmennx npoyxrnnnocrn nyron n nacrnm, nx ynyumennx
xauecrnennoro cocrana rpanocrox nponsnonrt xopennoe nx ynyumenne
nyrem penaxa, ynnuroxennx xycrapnnxon n xouex, nocena mnoroner-
nnx oontx n snaxontx rpan. Hpnmenxrt saronnym cncremy ntnaca-
nnx n npaxrnxonart nepenocnte cronma nx cxora.
5. B nenxx maxcnmantnoro ynennuennx noronontx mononxxa n nony-
uennx emono npoyxnnn orronnoro xnnornonocrna, n coornercrnnn
153

c nocranonnennem CHK CCCP n HK BKH() or 11 mapra 1944 roa,
pexomenonart oprannsonart na nononnnax naryntnte craa ns cnoero
cxora n cxora nnsnnntx xonxoson na oronopntx nauanax.
Hanonee nepcnexrnnntmn nopoamn cunrart no xpynnomy poraro-
my cxory ypym xapnarcxym nopoy, a no onnam, panxy, ynyumennym
ronxopynntmn nopoamn (nnra n mepnnoc).
C nentm cosannx ycnonn nx pacmnpennx nuenonocrna n nont-
mennx ero npoyxrnnnocrn nnecrn nocent meonocntx pacrenn n
nepenecrn nce nuenonocrno na pamounte yntn.
6. nx paspemennx nonpoca o cnaxennn nacenennx ropno sont xne-
om n tcrpemero ynyumennx cocroxnnx xonxoson:
a) Oprannsonart xonxosam n xonxosnnxam ncrpeunym npoaxy sepna
npornn npoyxnnn xnnornonocrna, canno cnepx nnana na ycnonnxx
xonrpaxrannn
sa 1 xr mxca n xnnom nece 2 xr sepna
monoxa xopontero 0,3
macna xopontero 8
ctpa-ptnst 3
mepcrn 6
sa 1 mr. onunnt 1 copra 8
mxypy xpynnoro poraroro cxora rxxenym 30
cpenmm 20 .
) Vcranonnrt ntauy xonxosam sepna anancom n cuer canaemo no
xonrpaxrannn npoyxnnn n pasmepax: n I xnaprane 50 %, no II xnaprane
30 % or xonnuecrna npnunrammerocx sepna sa nonexamym cauy
npoyxron xnnornonocrna n nocneymmem xnaprane.
7. B nenxx pasnnrnx nnemennoro xnnornonocrna n nontmennx npo-
yxrnnnocrn cxoro]epm ycranonnrt npemnantnym npoaxy sepna npn
ycnonnn ntnonnennx oxsarentntx nocranox n cneymmnx pasmepax:
sa 1 xr xnnoro neca 1 xnacca 4 xr sepna
+nnrt 5
xopontero monoxa cnepx naox 700 n 0,6
1000 1
macna xopontero cnepx oronopa o 25 % 20
o 50 % 30
ctpa ptnst cnepx oronopa no xonrpaxr. 8
sa 100 r mepcrn or nacrpnra cntme 1,5 xr na ronon.
8. B coornercrnnn c nocranonnennem Conera mnnncrpon VCCP or 16
nmnx 1946 roa N 1247 O nepeaue cenam necon nenpomtmnennoro
snauennx oecneunrt xaxt xonxos necntm yuacrxom n nepeart ns
rocnec]ona ns nnomae, npnnerammnx x xonxosntm maccnnam, neco-
yuacrxn n pasmepax o 100 ra na xaxt xonxos.
154
2009, N 2 (16)
9. 3aroronxy n xonxosax n y xonxosnnxon ropno sont npoyxnnn xn-
nornonocrna na ycnonnxx xonrpaxrannn n ncrpeunym npoaxy xonxo-
sam n xonxosnnxam sepna nopyunrt onacrntm oprannsannxm Mnnncrep-
crna saroronox c 1 xnnapx 1951 roa.
Hepeuncnennte meponpnxrnx xnnxmrcx neoxonmtmn nx ant-
nemero pasnnrnx xonxoson n ropntx cenax onacrn.
HPECEATEHI HCHOHKOMA
OFHCOBETA
(TVPHHHA) (Fes ninncy)
CEKPETAPI OFKOMA KH()V
(KOMHAHEH) (Hinnc)
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHHX EPEA TA AITEPATYPH
1. Hn]opmannn, oxnante sanncxn oxoma naprnn HK KH()V no nonpocam
xonnexrnnnsannn centcxoro xosxcrna. T.1 (4.01 28.07.1950 r.) // u. H-1. On. 1.
Cnp.1276. A. 36-44.
2. Cnonte +xonomnuecxne noxasarenn 12 ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn
meponpnxrn no pasnnrnm centcxoro xosxcrna no oxpyram onacrn na 1950-
1955 rr. // u. P.-179. On. 1. Cnp. 631. A. 1-34; Hepeuent +xonomnuecxnx noxasare-
ne ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no pasnnrnm centcxoro xo-
sxcrna n xonxosax Bennxoepesnxncxoro, Bononenxoro n Bononcxoro oxpyron
onacrn na 1950-1955 rr. // u. P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 632. A. 1-104; Hepeuent +xonomn-
uecxnx noxasarene ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no pasnnrnm
centcxoro xosxcrna n xonxosax Hpmancxoro, Myxauencxoro n Hepeunncxoro ox-
pyron onacrn na 1950-1955 rr. // u. P-179. On.1. Cnp.633. A.1-105; Hepeuent +xo-
nomnuecxnx noxasarene ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no pas-
nnrnm centcxoro xosxcrna n xonxosax Cnanxncxoro, Cennmmcxoro n Paxoncxoro
oxpyron onacrn na 1950-1955 rr. //u. P.-179. On.1. Cnp.634. A. 1-104; Hepeuent
+xonomnuecxnx noxasarene ropntx xonxoson nx paspaorxn meponpnxrn no
pasnnrnm centcxoro xosxcrna n xonxosax Txuencxoro, Vxropocxoro n Xycrcxo-
ro oxpyron onacrn na 1950-1955 rr. // u. P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 635. A. 1-104.
3. Hn]opmannx Mnnncrepcrny centcxoro xosxcrna VCCP o cocroxnnn n ant-
nemem pasnnrnn centcxoro xosxcrna n ropntx xonxosax onacrn (4.02.1950 r.)
// u. P-179. On. 1. Cnp. 680. A.1-16.
4. O cocroxnnn n antnemem pasnnrnn centcxoro xasxcrna n ropntx cenax
3axapnarcxo onacrn // u. H-1. On. 1. Cnp.1276. A. 35-44.
155

Inan BAHHHCLKHH
HPOCBITHTEAI HEPEHHHmHHH
Icropix namoro xpam XVIII cr.- nouarxy XX cr. non'xsana s xnrrxm
i rnopuicrm arartox nnarnnx ixuin nayxn, xyntrypn i ocnirn xxi nicro-
mnann naponi inrepecn, ann sa ninxrrx yxonnoro, ocnirntoro, xynt-
rypnoro ra coniantno-exonomiunoro pinnx nacenennx namoro xpam. exxi
s nnx ynn ao ypoxennxmn Hepeunnmnnn, ao nenni nepion xntoro
xnrrx ra ixntnocri non`xsani s namnm paonom.
Hepxonnn i xyntrypnn ixu, nearor, ocni-
nnx icropi nepxnn, noer-carnpnx xanonix Inan
Hac1enin naponncx 21 ciunx 1741 p. n ceni Mana
Hacrint nnni ceno Hacrinxn Hepeunnctxoro
paony. Bi nasnn cena sroom npnnxn ncenonim
Hacreni, a cnpanxnc oro npisnnme Inan Ko-
nau.
Ocniry soyn y nanuantnnx saxnaax Vxro-
poa, Fyanemra, Erepa, yn cnxmennxom y Xycri,
Myxaueni, Iymennomy, Kepexni, npanmnan npo]e-
copom ernxn n Myxauinctxi orocnonctxi mxoni.
nx cnoro uacy nin yn nncoxoocniuenom nmn-
nom i cno snannx, rananr i sinocri noxnan posnnrox yxonnocri pino-
ro xpam. 3 1787 no 1790 p. nin yn renepantnnm nixapicm Cnnctxoro
nixapiary s ocixom n Komnnxx, xxn nxonn o cxnay Myxauinctxo
rpexo-xaronnntxo cnapxi, xxa roi samana repnropim, renep posineny
mix uornpma epxanamn - Vxpanom, Vropmnnom, Cnonauunnom ra Py-
mynicm, a roi yna ni mpncnxnicm Myxauinctxo rpexo-xaronnntxo
cnapxi. 3axinunn cni semnn mnxx Hacreni n 1799 p. i noxonann n
Vxropoi.
Cnomn npanxmn Icropix Myxauinctxo cnapxi
ra Hpo noxoxennx pycnnin saxnan ocnonn icro-
pnuno xonnenni 3axapnarrx i sanouarxynan nnnuen-
nx raxo naxnnno remn xx icropix nepxnn xpam. Vx-
ropoctxn nayxonent mnrpo annnmx no npany
nasnan Inana Hacrenix npereuem 3axapnarctxo
icropiorpa]i.
Be onn nennxn cnn namoro xpam - xanonix
Inan Hypronnu naponncx n ceni Honocennnx He-
peunnctxoro paony n cim` rpexo-xaronnntxoro cnx-
156
2009, N 2 (16)
mennxa Bacnnx uypronnua 26 ciunx 1791 p. 3axinunn Vxropoctxy rimna-
sim. Ponna, auaun, mo sinn o nayxn, ninpannna oro npoonxyna-
rn nanuannx o Fyanemra, a sroom o yxropoctxo orocnonctxo
ceminapi. V 1817 p. npnnxn yxonnn can i onouacno nouan nnxnaarn
n Vxropoctxi rimnasi . Ho nox poxax ninpannncx na nayxy o Binx
y upinraneym. Tyr y 1823 p. orpnmyc crynint oxropa orocnon`x. B
1825 p. oro npnsnauamrt npexropom Vxropoctxo rimnasi xxy ouo-
nmnan o1856 p. Hicnx cmepri cnncxona Onexcix Honuix n 1831p. xa-
nonix Inan uypronnu ynpannxn Myxauinctxom rpexo-xaronnntxom cnap-
xicm xx xaniryntnn nixapi o nncnxuennx na cnncxona n 1838 p. Bacnnx
Hononnua. B ro nepio nin yn ininiaropom crnopennx xa]epantnoro
xopy n Vxropoi. Cn. Hononnu snintnnn uypronnua s nocan xaniryntno-
ro nixapix i nasnaunn npexropom Vxropoctxo yunrentctxo ceminapi,
xxnm nin npoyn s 1839 no 1861 p. Hepeynamun na nocaax npexropa
Vxropoctxnx rimnasi ra yunrentctxo ceminapi, sanyuan o nnxnaant-
xo poorn n ni nanuantni saxnan xnani]ixonannx yunrenin nacamnepe
s micneno, nanionantno cniomo inrenirenrni, an nnxonynarn yunin, oco-
nnno mayrnix yunrenin, cnpanxnimn narpioramn cnoro napoy, yxon-
no spinnmn i ope niroronnennmn o npaxrnunoro xnrrx. 3 nicm me-
rom cam nanncan xintxa npant s reopi ra npaxrnxn ocnirn, nanuannx ra
nnxonannx. Hocrino an npo crnopennx, yinnnnrno n saxapnarctxnx
cenax nonnx mxin, saesneuennx x nearoriunnmn xapamn. Homep n
1862 p.
Inan uypronnu yn onnm is nnexn naintm ocniuennx nme cnoro
uacy, nonoin enxrtma cnponectxnmn monamn. 3annmnn nicnx cee
iniorexy xxa ronopnrt npo naxnnicrt n ntoro ]inoco]ctxo epynni i
npo oro ]inoco]ctxy ocniuenicrt, ra npo xono oro ymox. Knnrn inio-
rexn ronopxrt npo ntoro xx npo nmnny, mo croxna nncoxo na pinnem
cnoro orouennx i na pinni cnponectxo nnninisani, ane npn ntomy nin mnpn
narpior i cniomn myx cnoc on. Hixano, mo monoma cecrpa Inana
uypronnu - Kaponina (1824-1858) yna pyxnnom rpexo-xaronnntxoro
cnxmennxa Onexcanpa Bonrnca (1818-1884), xxn cnyxnn n Kocroni
Hacreni, a s 1872 p. no 1884 p. n ceni 3apnuoni. B x cim` ponnncx ni
ouxn Ipma ra Mapix , a raxox rpoc cnnin Inan, mna ra Onexcanp.
Onexcanp Onexcanponnu mon1nc (1854-1931), nneminnnx Inana
uypronnua, nanxrt poxin npanmnan nunrenem n c. Typ`x-Pemerax. Horo
xinxa Anna nxonnu (1855-1935) rex noxonrt s ponnn cnxmennxin
artxo rpexo-xaronnntxn cnxmennx Bacnnt nxonnu, a mama Bapnapa
Heresa rirxa Ipnnex Heresn nnctmennnxa i rpomactxoro ixua, xxn
naponncx 1 xnirnx 1861p. n ceni Typ'x Fncrpa. 3axinunn n Vxropoctxy
yxonny ceminapi. Hpanmnan cnxmennxom y pinomy ceni n c. Knenono-
my, e posropnyn rpomactxy npanm (opranisynan xpenrni xacn, xoone-
157

parnnn Fparcrna rnepesocri), a raxox n Hopomxoni ra Typ`x Hacini.
Fyn anropom uncnennnx ononiant - rymopncrnunnx, ncnxonoriuno-mo-
panisaropctxnx ra coniantno-noyronnx. Homep Ipnne Heresa 8 nepec-
nx 1929 p.
Bennxn nepio xnrrx me onoro rpomact-
xoro ixua, nnctmennnxa-ynrenx Inana
Cintnan, ricno non'xsann s Typxnctxom o-
nnnom.
Haponncx nin 15 epesnx 1838 p. n cna-
nxnctxomy ceni Cycxono n ponni cnxmennxa
Anronix Cintnax ra Karepnnn Heresn.
Houarxony ocniry soyn yoma, n Cycxoni,
ni xepinnnnrnom artxa, xorpn nparnyn o-
nyunrn cnna o nepxonnoro xnrrx ra nepxon-
nnx opxin, a romy i n yni, i n cnxra pan
oro s coom o nepxnn. Hanuamunct n Vx-
ropoctxi ra Carmapctxi rimnasixx (renep Pymynix), a noromy n oro-
cnonctxi ceminapi npn Fyanemrctxomy yninepcnreri, Cintna soyn
ocnrt nncoxy ocniry nx cnoro uacy.
onrn uac npanmnan cnxmennxom na Cnanxnmnni n cenax Cycxoni ra
ycnni. A s epesnx 1881 p. o rpannx 1899 p. xnn na Hpeunnmnni n ceni
Typ`x-Pemera. Fyyun narounnnnm Typnnctxoro nepxonnoro oxpyry.
Horim oro yno nepeneeno o Honoro annxona na Myxauinmnni, e
cnyxnn Fory o camo xonunnn 13 nmroro 1904 p.
Inan Anrononnu Cintna c nanpoyxrnnnimnm cepe nnctmencrna
namoro xpam pyro nononnnn XIX cr.: oro rnopn cxnaamrt uornpn
o`cmni pyxonncni romn, intmicrt s xxnx, ne nnme ne nnxonnn oxpe-
mom xnnxxom, ane ne pyxynanncx n nepionni.
o pyxonncy ne nxoxrt 40 narponnx npononie, mo ynn nnani y
1898 p. oxpemom xnnxxom, a raxox npnnami 35 aox, xxi, mayrt, se-
piramrtcx n oni is npnnarnnx inioreuox Vxropoa.
Fintmicrt rnopin I.Cintnax onynixonano ni ncenonimom Vpin Me-
reop (Vpin rocnonc nonym`x), y romy uncni pyxonnc, nasnann
anropom Counnennx Vpnnna Mereopa. Ane ncenonim I.Cintna nsxn
ne s nensypnnx mipxynant, o ncx rorouacna inrenirennix 3axapnarrx
snana, xro raxn Vpin Mereop. Cni ncenonim nin crnopnn cyro xx y-
nrentctxn, nxnaamun n ntoro iem npo cnoc nncoxe noxnnxannx
ocnirnrn mnxx napoy, nonecrn oro o xpamoro xnrrx.
Hireparypna cnamnna Inana Cintnax one is nanomirnimnx xnnm
nireparypnoro nponecy 3axapnarrx, npore nanexno ynarn o oro nire-
parypnoro cnaxy ne nnxnneno, snauna uacrnna oro rnopin rax i sann-
macrtcx nenioma mnpoxomy unrantxomy sarany.
158
2009, N 2 (16)
3naunn cni na Hepeunnmnni sannmnn i oro cnn o. Cion Cintnan.
Haponncx 29 ciunx 1876 p. n Cycxoni.Fyn nasnnuano rananonnrom
nmnnom, nncan n`ccn, rexcrn nicent i cxnaan mysnxy o nnx, yn uyo-
nnm pisnxpem, xyoxnnxom. 3axinunn rimnasim ra yxonny ceminapim n
Vxropoi. Hpnnxn can rpexo-xaronnntxoro cnxmennxa n 1900 p. V ce-
nax e cnyxnn, crnopmnan naponi xopn, xxi ni oro xepinnnnrnom o-
cxrann nncoxoro npo]ecinoro pinnx ra macrepnocri. Tax n ceni Bopo-
uono e ocnrt snaunn uac nin yn napoxom, pasom s yunrenem Mnxo-
nom Hannnmnnnem crnopnn uornpnronocn xop cenxn. Ha cneni sponn
nocranonxy nopouinctxoro naponoro necinnx. Xop Bopouena n
1923 p. s rpiym]om nncrynan na rearpantnnx cnenax Vxropoa, Hpxme-
na ra Komnnt.
V cepenni 20-x pp. Cion Cintna cran xepinnnxom niomoro na Hixap-
narctxi Pyci i anexo sa mexamn nepxonnoro xopy Iapmonix, xxn
npnman yuacrt y ncix naxnnnnx xyntrypnoro
xnrrx xpam. Homep n 1932 p.
Onoymnem O. yxnonnua i npoonxyna-
uem oro narpiornunnx ie y posropranni y-
nrentctxoro pyxy n namomy xpa yn
o. Onexcanp Mn1pax, niomn nnctmen-
nnx, xypnanicr, ernorpa] i monosnanent. Bin
naponncx 16 xonrnx 1837 p. n c. Hnocxomy
na Cnanxnmnni y cim` micnenoro cnxmennxa
Anpix Mnrpaxa. Hicnx soyrrx nouarxono
ocnirn n pinomy ceni ecxrnpiunnm xnonun-
xom ncrynac n Vxropoctxy mecrnxnacny
rimnasim, a ocranni na xnacn saxinuyc n
m. Carmapi (ctoroni Cary-Mape n Pymyni).
Horim nanuacrtcx n Vxropoctxi orocnonctxi ceminapi, nicnx saxin-
uennx xxo n 1862 p. cnyxnn cnxmennxom y cenax Intnnni, Bennxnx Hyu-
xax, cenoni, Knenonomy ra Bopoueni. exxn uac (1864-1868 pp.) yn
yunrenem peniri n Myxauinctxi naponi mxoni.
Hireparypny cnamnny O. Mnrpaxa cxnaamrt xintxa ecxrxin nipmin,
nyninncrnunnx ra ernorpa]iunnx napncin, crare na pisni remn i sray-
nani sipnnxn ]ontxnopnnx sanncin. 3nomix nposonnx rnopin oconnno
nninxcrtcx oro napnc Hyrente nneuarnennx na Bepxonnne, n xxomy
anrop npannno noxasyc ninenintne xnrrx cnox semnxxin-nepxonnnnin,
x nemonipny nyxy i remnory na rni uyonnx nanxonnmnix ripctxnx
xpacnnin.
Cnpanxnim nonnxnnnrnom moxna nasnarn nennxy npanm Mnrpaxa
xx monosnannx-nexcnxorpa]a xintxapiune snpannx marepianin, yxna-
annx i nnannx nennxoo`cmnnx nepexnannx cnonnnxin Pyctxo-ma-
xpctxoro (1881 p.) i Maxpctxo-pyctxoro (1922 p. ocranni nna-
159

no nxe nicnx cmepri anropa). Ocnonnom xepentnom asom nx nic
nayxono npani nocnyxnna sipana nnm nexcnxa pycnnctxnx naponnx
ronopin y Cnanxnmnni, Myxauinmnni, Vxanctxi i Typxnctxi onnnax
Hepeunnctxoro paony. Homep 17 epesnx 1915 p. n c. Pocnnrono.
B xoropri naponnx ynrenin 3axapnarrx nomirne micne samac
o. Cnren mennnx, unx rnopua ixntnicrt xx noera, nposaxa i pama-
rypra, xypnanicra, icropnxa nireparypn i nyninncra npnnaac na pyry
nononnny XIX cr. Haponncx 1844 p. n cim` cintctxoro cnxmennxa c.
Mano Maprnnxn na Cnanxnmnni.
Hanuancx n Vxropoctxi i Carmapctxi (nnni micro Cary-Mape n
Pymyni) rimnasixx, sarnm na orocnonctxomy ]axyntreri Bienctxoro
yninepcnrery. Hi uac yninepcnrerctxnx cryi y Bini nin sanixannncx
icropicm ra xyntrypom cnon`xnctxnx napoin i nponxncx iecm x cnannx,
niniynan ryprxn ntoro cnpxmynannx.
3oynmn nnmy ocniry, s 1869 p. cran npanmnarn cintctxnm cnxme-
nnxom y saxapnarctxnx cenax Forapennni, Fyxinni, ycnni, Hopomxoni,
Bennxomy Paxonni ra Iopinueni e i nomep n 1903 p.
Hireparypna cnamnna C. uennnxa ocnrt pisnomanirna cnocm re-
marnxom i xanponom mnporom. Bin yn anropom uncnennnx noernunnx,
nposonnx i pamarnunnx rnopin, nyninncrnunnx napncin ra ernorpa]iu-
nnx crare, nepexnain i ]ontxnopnnx sanncin, yxnaauem nepxonnnx
npononie. Cno pisnoxanponi rnopn i xpacsnanui npani pyxynan n yx-
ropoctxnx i ntninctxnx raserax.
Hporpecnnnom i nninom c raxox uennnxona nnannnua i xypnani-
crctxa ixntnicrt. V 1885 p. nin sacnynan xypnan Hncrox, xxn pea-
rynan o ocrannix nin cnoro xnrrx. V uaconnci nynixynanncx oro
nnacni ra inmnx anropin nireparypno - ra icropnxo-xpacsnanui posnixn,
nayxono-nonynxpni crarri. Vxnan raxox nx naponnx mxin n`xrt ni-
pyunnxin s pycnnctxo rpamarnxn, icropi, apn]mernxn, npnpoosnancrna,
]isnxn, a nx nipymunx Monnrnocnon i Hnryprnxy.
AR HAHHCAHHR HIC ICTOPHHHO PO3BIKH
BHKOPHCTAHO CAIYKHI
EPEAA TA AITEPATYPY
1. Beuoacu Cmeqau, Beuoacu auu.. Cnxmennxn-myuennxn, cnoninnxn
nipnocri. Vxropo: Harenr, 1999. - 234 c.
2. auu.mr . Ioann Hacreni npereua saxapnarctxo icropiorpa]i // Hyu-
xa M. Icropix xapnarctxnx pycnnin. T. 5. Vxropo, 1999. C. 5-16.
3. Maeo:iHae.o Pooepm. uopmynannx nanionantno cniomocri: Hixapnarct-
xa Pyct (1848-1948). Anropctxn nepexna s anrnictxo. Vxropo: Honnuxa Kap-
narctxoro xpam, 1994. - 296 c.
160
2009, N 2 (16)
4. Muuauu: O.B. Kapnarn nac ne posnyuart. Vxropo.: Cpina 3emnx, 1993. -
282 c.
5. Herap Amauaci B., UCBB. Hapncn icropi Hepxnn 3axapnarrx. Tom II. Bnyr-
pimnx icropix. Pnm-Htnin: Bnannnnrno ornin Bacnnian Micionep, 1997. - 492 c.
6. Homvuur 4eoip Muxa.oeu:. i esxoneunicrt (Hapncn icropi ]inoco]i
3axapnarrx). Vnopx. ra nicnxmona P. O]innnctxoro. Vxropo: Ipaxa, 2003. -
127 c.
7. Caooe Ce+eui. Xpecromarix nepxonnocnanxnctxnx n yrpopycxnx nnrepa-
rypnnx namxrnnxon c npnannennm yrpopycxnx naponnx cxasox na nonnnntx
napeunxx. Vnrnap: Knnroneuarnt ]on enapxnn Myxauencxo, 1893. - 232 c.
8. Uv:ra Hae.o . Vxropoctxa rimnasix. Icropix, marepiann, cnoran. Vxropo:
CH TOB HoniHpinr, 2001. - 269 c.
9. anni s ponnnoro apxiny ra cimenoro reneanoriunoro epena anropa.
Cnxro ncrounnx Hoanna Couancxoro n r. Fenropo-necrponcxom
exerono nocemaer ontmoe uncno nanomnnxon. Ho npeannm, ncrou-
nnx sann na rom mecre, re nnepnte crynnn na necrponcxn eper
rpanesyncxn xynen, npnnxnmn sect myuennuecxym cmeprt sa Xpn-
cra n XIV n. Ha +rom xe mecre naxonrcx nosemnax nepxont, coopy-
xennax n XV n. Pxom c nepxontm ntcrpoena xynantnx. Hoann Couan-
cxn cran nepntm cnxrtm Monancxoro xnxxecrna. Cn. Hoann Couan-
cxn nsanna cunraercx noxponnrenem Monannn n ropronnn. On rny-
oxo urnm n 3anpyrcxo Monone (Pymtnnx), Monannn, Fyxonnne,
Rxno Feccapann. B xa]epantnom Bosnecencxom coope Fenro-
po-necrponcxoro naxonrcx uacrnuxa nernenntx mome Hoanna Co-
uancxoro.


161

Ienena MECmH
HACO-BHOBO OHOmEHR Y
HPHHOBEKOX IABPHAA KOCTEALHHKA
Honyxnyra crynx nnnrnncrnu-
nnx nnrnconantox y pycxnm xsnxy
p Mnxana uecn no cnomnyrnm
nacnonom nme cen snaunn npnnor
sa namy ncocxxny nnnorexy s
onacnn pycnnncrnxn nayxono-
yuennxoro rnny se anrop, no pe-
e]nnonane nayxone meroo-
norn, na xonxpernnm xsnunnm ma-
repnxny 10 npnnonexox Ianpn-
na Kocrentnnxa anannsyc snoxe-
nn uaco-nnono onomenx y ponn
mop]ocnnraxcn na cnosnantox ]yn-
xnnonanne rpamarnxn n ana nn-
maxn ynn o xsnxa ocnonononox-
nxa name nncmenocnn.
V name nayxn opesena nnrnc-
onanxa ynara yna nomnenonana
xareropn uacy, anc me y nornxse
xareropn nny ynary sarpnmonano
yrnannnm na yponnm e]nnonanx
xareropn n ocnonnnx nonxnox y c pamnxox, es nnrnconanx na xonx-
pernnm xsnunnm marepnxny. Tora ocxxna crynx, xropa nmenxx sac-
nyxyc ocran cnoo pamnxn, omoxnnmc nnnrnncrom cnarpnn pycxy
ccnonny cncremy na nonn cnoco nper na]pexnenrncme n, ]yn-
xnnonanno narpann, naposxonapenme ]opmn y nc. Koncrpyxnnx Bo
(]opma rpene ocon cnnnn npesenra es saxonuenx, ao na nynry mop-
]emy; penpesenranr ]opmox xropn crynam o napanrmn npesenra) nc
ncm xe cnna xoncrpyxnnx y pycxnm xsnxy nenrnuna sos cny cnome-
sn mecnox nnsennnx ]opmox pycxoro xsnxa, anc n cnna ncnpemennna
y sanncnocnn o nnnoneanx, onocno ncnnnoneanx cycxra. Bona, no-
npn rnm, n cnna xropa yxnmuena o ]opmonanx mnnxnx nanan ccnon-
nnx xoncrpyxnnox pycxoro xsnxa un camocrono, un nper cynnernn-
noro mopa com, mn nr., un nper cynnernnnoro mopa ysem, ysem
nr., a mop]ocnnraxcnunn n cemanrnunn xapaxrepncrnxn re xoncr-
162
2009, N 2 (16)
pyxnn o xropnx anrop omon y nnrnconanxe uacnn mox nmenxx npe-
nopyunn n sa xacnonanc y nacrann pycxoro xsnxa, n sa antmn noponny-
mnn n xonrpacrnnnn nnrnconanx. Iy romy, y pycnnncrnune nayxn no
nepmnpas n nocnncuno n cncremno opoenn moann, a x moannocn
xnacn]nxonana na cnnraxcnuno-cemanrnunnx ocnonox (enncremonorn-
na, eonrnuna n nnamnuna), se anannsa yxasana na nnmaxn xapaxrep
enncremonornne moannocnn, nonexe nona nc noposymmc naxno-
nanc opesene peannsann are cnryann y cermenry yyunocn, anc
npenomn opesenn cy o cnryann xropa me peannsyc y cermenry re-
pamntocn, noposymmmnn npn rnm n yyny noxannsannm re cnryann.
Knxxa nosencna na 13 uacnn y nepme, na camnm nouarxy, arn
rexnunn cxpanenx n cnmnonn xropn omoxnnmm exonomnuncme xacno-
nanc rexcry, a nornm mnsn yno o nnrnconanx nno-uaconnx ono-
mentox y pycxnm xsnxy n nnrnconanx xropn npexosenn nnopy remn,
ccnonnn ]opmn n xoncrpyxnn y pycxnm xsnxy, ra nnrnconanxn xopnyc.
V pyre uacnn arn npernx nnnrnncrnunnx nonarpynxox penenanrnnx
sa meroonornnn nocrynox n npernx cnanncrnunnx n anrnncrnunnx
nonarpynxox na xareropnm uacy n nny, a rpene nornanc nomnenene npe-
cranxnm noarxox sos nnrnconanxoro xopnyca, se ennenronann no-
arxn na npnxnase npnnonexn annn naramxn, ra nnnor-anannsa n
xonrexcryanno npecranenn noarxn sos nnrnconanxoro xopnyca.
Brnapra uacn pesepnonana sa erentny anannsy ]ynxnnononanx xoncr-
pyxnn ABo y npnnonexox Iapa Kocrentnnxa, nnxra sa anannsy ]ynx-
nnononanx xoncrpyxnn TBo, mecra onanx anannsy ]ynxnnononanx xon-
crpyxnnox s moannnma ccnonamn, cema npecranx ]ynxnnononanc
]opmn Bo y xoncrpyxnn HaBo, a y ocme opoene ]ynxnnononanc
]opmn Bo y xoncrpyxnn Bo+me. V senxre uacnn me naxosa onnrnn,
opexamnn n onnrno-opexamnn nnpeuenx y npenomenm uaco-nnonnx
moannnx onomentox, y semare saxnmunn xoncrarann, y cenac-
re - pesnme na cepcxnm xsnxy, a y nanacre pesnme na anrnncxnm
xsnxy. Crynx me saxonuyc sos rpa]nunnm npnxasom pesynrarox n o-
cxxnnm cnncxom xacnonane nnreparypn.
Tpea narnamnn xe y re cryn nnrnopenn snaunn pesynrarn nenrn-
]nxonanx ccnonnnx xoncrpyxnnox, nnsencnn cpecrna sa npenomenc
uaconnx n nnonnx onomentox, oxonuene x noponnonanc y noonoc-
nox n posnnxox y pycxnm n anrnncxnm xsnxy, pee]nnonann onna
ccnonnn xareropn na sacnnxe nnar]opmn, nnsencna xareropnx ax-
nnoncapra n oxpemnn snauenx rornnnnx n arornnnnx ccnonox n arn
opesenn yxasonanx na x ]pexnennnm. Hepmn nanocnn nposnn rexcrn
na pycxnm xsnxy 96 oxn sos xono 2.000 nnpeuenxmn sos pyre,
rpene n mrnapre enenn naneroro nnxy y xropnx sasnauena xpnno-
na, napona emea Pycnanox, ncacnmnnonana y raxnm crynnm xx ncmxa,
163

nmenxx xe moxy oesneunn somnnxnm ncyrpannn n ocxrnnnn nnrnco-
nanxn xopnyc xropn s nnmaxoro oxy npnxasan anannsonany nponema-
rnxy y mnnxnx namnx rpox norepamnx rpamarnxox (Kocrentnnx, Ko-
unm, Pamau).
Tory osnntny, ]ynamenranny n nacamnpes xacnonnry crynm p
Mnxana uecn namnpme com npenopyuena nnanarentonn sa oxno-
nanc npe rpn ocnonnn npnunnn:
1. Crynx ocxxne onpnnomenc nononnomy cnarpanm ccnonnnx
]opmox n xoncrpyxnnox y namnm xsnxy na nacyuacncmnx meroono-
rnnnx ocnonox y nnnrnncrnxn, xropn ncsaonxonn y antmnx pycnnnc-
rnunnx n noome cnanncrnunnx n anrnncrnunnx nnrnconantox;
2. Crynx yse nentxa nomon npo]ecopom n nacrannxom pycxoro
xsnxa y opoxy ccnonnnx ]opmox, a cryenrom omoxnnn nento mnp-
me n erantncme cnarpnn cnomnyry remarnxy xropa nx ynese xx o
nponemarnxn xonrpacrnnnoro nnyuonanx nox xsnxox, rax n o npo-
nemarnxn xpnrnunoro onomenx ry rpamarnunnm arocnom;
3. Crynx, na xonny, n mnpmomy xpyry unrauox yxaxe na moxnnocnn
]ynxnnononanx xoncrpyxnn/]opmn Bo y npenomenm uaco-nnonnx o-
nomentox na ncmxamn xsnx, xxn y uame xon]nxaropa pycxoro xsnxa
p Iapa Kocrentnnxa ynn ]pexnenrnn.
Ha ueaynaponmn
nc1opnuecxnn aypnan Pycnn
osnnnena nonncxa
no Pecnynnxe Monona.
Honncno nnexc - PM 31808.
Honnca1tcn na aypnan uoano n nmou
o1enennn cnnsn Pecnynnxn Monona.
2010
164
2009, N 2 (16)
Mnpocnan CHAA
PO3YMOBAHR 3BHHAHHOIO
PYCHAKA O mHHKHM HO HOBR3AHE
3O3 PYCHAHAMH / PYCHHAMH
H X HCHOBAHK
Meno Pycnn nnsnauyc oxpemne uyncrno ncropnnoro nenrnrery. Ho
sme, ernuna rpyna, napo un nannx? Hc raxe aps naxne. Mn nmse
xropnx nonxsyc sacnnxn xsnx, uyncrno npnnanocnn, xynrypa, rpan-
nnx n p. Hcmame cnom nannonanny pxany, anc m nc mam an Bxorn n
Benmanc y Bentxe Fpnrann, Fperonnn n Kopsnxannn y upannycxe,
Karanonnn n Iannuanc y Bnann.
Hann me nc moxy crnapxn mryuno. Hannm rnopn cam napo npes
nnxn, a nnpas nocroxnx ro oro camocnnomocn.
Crnapxnc nonnx pxanox na nocroxy n mro-nocroxy Enponn rnca pn-
monanc nnranx nannonannnx menmnnox y yxy enponcxe rpannn. Fy-
senc ncropnunnx nenrnrerox snmyc nyropounn rpen norananx ma-
nouncnennx napoox y nentxnx pxanox.
Hponecn rnoannsann crnapxm nexmn moxnnocnn ynopesonanx pos-
nnunnx uacnox mnera, ra me rax sxnmc nonexmana cnnomocn nocnn-
nox n pyxrnennx sacnnox o nnacnnm nonoxenm y pamnxox pxann
se xnm. Tax nocrana oaunne nnrnoponanc unonexonnx npanox y pnx-
nnx pxanox. Tam se rorn npana nc nnrnopenn, sxnmc me ncsaonont-
crno, ra nonn connxnnn n npnnpenn cran.
Ho nacyuacncmnx nnrnconanox VHECK-a, Connry Enponn, En-
poncxe Vnn n pyrnx mesnnaponnx oprannsannox, nanaxncmn
uyn1nxyn1ypannsau sa ponnonpannn nxnor posnnunnx nannox. Bon
nounna sos ouynantom nannonannoro n xynrypnoro nenrnrery n opn
nponnn mnnxnx ]ypmox acnmnnann n ncxpnmnnann. Cnaxocn nmsox
remen me na cnaxocnn npana na ocroncrno, na oxpemnocn, npano er-
nunnx n nannonannnx sacnnox na camoonpesencnc.
Tax n Pycnann/Pycnnn, xropn cnoo meno uynam nene xx 1000 poxn,
mam npano na camoonpesencnc, na cno ernunn nenrnrer, es ornxy
na epxannxncrno ao acnmnnannnn namaranx nonnrnuapox n nocnn-
nox. Ernunn nenrnrer ro ano no nxro nc moxe an an nxan.
Rxn c1an sos Pycnncxnu/Pycxnu uennun, xento n nxn nn-
qopuann oc1anaue, nx oncn o nnqopuann?
165

To nancne uexxe nnranc o me o nn]opmannox aps uexxo oxo-
sn. Xro cne ano osnan mymn npenponasnn rosnnn n rosnnn na nn-
repnery xe n na axxn nomrpenn cnoco ano osnan. V nenx xemox
se xnm Pycnnn posno menox na nouarxy. pyxonann men cxopo n
xe ncr, pano emncn ccr acnto rosnnn memauno a renennsnnxn nme
menc. Honnnape y rnannnm pox nononrepcxn. V nac ro axyc nnmax
o mn mame nncrnrynn xorpn pox ym poxamn anc...
Hamo, Pycnncxn/Pycxn, men y Cepn-Bononnn nc aps posnono-
xenn ano nonecn ao nanncan xe rema axyc osnntncma. Fox me
xe axoro nonpesa (xoro? Coms Pycnnox Vxpannox) a ro xe nentxe
uncno cnox conaponxox, narpauox, cnyxauox, unrauox npe ro rpnmam
y nmorn x nc nnrepecyc. 3ancsym am n ocnonnn nocrynarn nonnnap-
crna nnaconan nn]opmannm na uac n npannno. Onncnnn cnox xac-
nonarentox no me cnyuyc.
Hoxapnarc n rpeano yn y ]oxycy namnx menox o y nnranm
namo nmse, namo pana n mecrpn. V namnx menox me pnxo moxe
npeunran ao uyn ano no me cnyuyc sos npecnarentom Coma Ho-
xapnarcxnx Pycnnox nporocpeom o. nmnrpnom Cnopom, nc moxe
me osnan xe ro cnyxa esneunocnn Vxpann nponasn, npncnyxyc, xe
my yx acxentopas nperpecana xnaprent n nepxny, xe my nxana xomnm-
repn, xe my rpoxa sos xapy rapemry npe oro axrnnnocnn. Fes ornxy
na mnnxo roro non n anc, ynapro pon na nnrnopenm nentxoro nnnm.
Hamo Pycnncxn/Pycxn men myma an nexmy ynary n na ro no pon
npecnarent camonpernamene Bnan Penynnxn Hoxapnarcxa Pyc
Herpo Ienxo, xento xemn ym onmon, xenm nnaom n napnamenrom
an nnmory xe nm nm me nomorno y nnrnoponanm cnooro xaanx
yn cno na cnom, yn PVCHH, a nc xonap yxpancxoro napoy, ocran
roncm craryc nannonanne menmnnn xx no mam pycnann y pyrnx xe-
mox... Torn namaranx rnpnam nento poxn anc nnacn y Kncne ocrana rny-
xa na mnnxn nnmorn.
Hamo Pycnncxn/Pycxn men myma an nexmy ynary n na ro no pon
n xxn saxnmuenx npnnccon 1. Bneronn Konrpec Hoxapnarcxnx Pycn-
nox. xn nnann, no nnranm pycnncrna n corpynnrne sos pyrnm Pycnn-
cxnm oprannsannxmn ma oro npecnarent Bacnnn xyran.
Tnx rax, Pycnncxn/Pycxn men y Cepn mymenn n anan nene
nn]opmann o axnnox n arnnnocnox oprannsannox unenox Bneronoro
Konrpecy Pycnnox/Pycnaxox/Hemxox se sacrynenn npecrannrenc Py-
cnnox sos xemox Enponn n Cnnepne Amepnxn. umenxx xe n rpeano
yn n nn]opmann o axrnnnocnox Pycnncxnx oprannsannox xorpn nc unenn
Konrpecox Pycnnox.
To n rax rpeano, mymeno n morno yn. Mesnrnm, ro uemxo nnrno-
pnn n ro nc npe ncocrarox nonnnapox, x sexn n mennn moxnnocnn
166
2009, N 2 (16)
anc npe npnnncxn na men n nonnnapox xe n nc anann nentxy snau-
nocn nentxnm n naxnnm noom n na ror cnoco rpnmann y ncsnanm
cnox conaponxox. Faps mnnxn npnxna sa ro nncrpyxnnx cnoro une-
na Vnpannoro Oopy Pano Tenennsn Bononnn xorpa ynynena pe-
axroponn pycnncxe peaxnn. V re nncrpyxnn my rnapene (npnnxno
rax) mepxyne no n xento ysene oxnonan sos 10. Bneronoro
Konrpecy PPH o rento mymnne nn]opmonan n sos poune cxasxn Co-
msy Pycnnox Vxpannox (es n). Ty me noome nc nosn paxynxy o rnm
xe Bneronn Konrpec n pouna cxasxa cne oprannsann nc ncrn ypo-
nent ra camnm rnm nc moxe yn cnaxe xonnuecrno nn]opmannox. Hc
nnrepecyc ro xe na 10. Bneronnm Konrpecy PPH yno npncyrne nene
o 200 enerarox n rocnox, xe Konrpec ornopenn mnnncrep y nnan Pe-
nynnxn Cepn n npecnarent Bnnepmne Pan Bononnn. xe nn-
repeconanc nnnonan ror Bneronn Konrpec moxe yxasan n ro xe xono
TB Honn Ca ynn npncyrnn exnnn epxannnx renennsnox Pycn n Py-
mynn xx n snmarenc sos Cnonanxe, uecxe n Hoxapnarx a rnx rax n
nonnnape sos pyrnx menox. Ke me raxn nncrpyxnn ocranam sa
nn]opmonanc sos nanexme no y Pycnncxnm mnene y re xnnntxn,
moxe me ncm npenocrannn xxe nen onomenc cnpam menc naxnnx
noox. Bnnxo me snosn na ro xe xro no pon na nonm n xxn nonn
mnnnanxn n rannn nnnexann y xynrypno ymernnxnx pyxrnox. Iou xx
yno, moxe me nonecn xe me n nonpn npnnncxox nonnnape namarann
(xento mornn n mmenn) npenccn mnnxn naxnn nn]opmann cnom cnyxa-
uom, narpauom n unrauom.
Hpe rorn npnnncxn opesennx nmsox na pnxnnx nonoxentox (na
xo1pn npnmnn nx Pycnann) nonnnape n peaxrope myma anancnpan
nomesn na onnn, cxpanonan nn]opmann, anan pamnx es cnnxn xe
n nc sarpoxenn cnom ersncrennnm onocno poorne mecro n nnany.
Ke me rax npenyxn ponn nen nam nc ocranc an o mnconoro nonn-
napcrna n mncon nn]opmonanx. V rnm cnyuam npeocrana nam menxn
pyxonocrna y namnx menox ao ]opmonan nonn men xorpn ronn
mncono n no conncnn ponn, omncosenn o npnnncxox Comsa Pycn-
nox Vxpannox xorpn nernpa Pycnanox xx oxpemnn napo a ]nnancnpa
me sos ]ony Hanonannoro Connry Pycxe nannonanne menmnnn a aps
nentxe nnranc un ocrana ]nnancnny norpnmonxy o Vxpancxoro Ha-
nnonannoro Connry.
Ho Pycnann y Bononnn snam o rnm xe ynma Bnerona paa PPH,
xx nnnepmnn opran Bneronoro Konrpecy Pycnnox/Pycnanox/Hemxox na
cne o cnox cxasxox, npemnoro 2008. poxy, ocysena nocrynxn Co-
ma, orpasena me o nx n nnxnmuena Com sos unencrna rou 1axy
onyxy uoae npnnccn ncu Konrpec. Ocysenn nx npe ro xe onyue-
nn nconymnn cnoo mesonanc, xe cny sauynan cnoo meno n Pycnncxn
167

nenrnrer. Ocrann camn, anc nc es monox, npenyxnn anc. uopmn-
ponann Enponcxn Konrpec sos xorporo nocnann nnmory Kncny xe n nme
pas posyman n npnncc onyxy o npnnosnananm noxapnarcxnx pycnnox
xx oxpemnn napo n ana my anronomnm na x ncropnne repnropn.
Kncn n rory nnmory nrnoponan. Ha pyrnm Enponcxnm Korpecy npnnccnn
onyxy xe npernama Penynnxy Hoxapnarcxa Pyc xe Kncn o ope-
senoro poxy nc a onnr na x nnmory sos nepmoro xonrpecy. Onnr ypx-
onoro Kncna yn ... nxxn, oxpem npenyxonanx nponasenx, npncnyxo-
nanx, nperpecanx oncnox, ncxpenronanx nper menox, mnpenx
ncnpann o axrnnnocnox unenox Coma nr. Ennnor mnnxoro roro xe
Hoxapnarcxn Pycnnn ]opmonann cno, Bneronn Konrpec Hoxapnar-
cxnx Pycnnox, oprannsonann n rpenn Enponcxn Konrpec, nnpann Hapo-
ny Pay n sos oarnnma mornnamn npenyxenn cnoo namaranx nnr-
nopnn epxany Hoxapnarcxy Pyc.
Hme npe 150 poxamn Anexcanep yxnonnu nanncan crnxn se ry-
ropn ...Hoxapna1cxn pycnnn, oxane rnoxn con, naponn rnac
nac nona, nc saysne na cnono, nam napo unnn a anc mnco-
no... Tora nncnx yna ypxona rnmna Hoxapnarcxe Pycn xe yna, xx
anronomna onacn, y cocrane uexocnonanxe Penynnxn (1919-1938).
Tora nncnx n narpnorcxn uyncrna nenx pycnnox n unenox Coma Ho-
xapnarcxnx Pycnnox ynn nopymymna mon xe n y enempy 2008. poxy
npernamenn Penynnxy Hoxapnarcxa Pyc. O ren me na unenox Bna-
n n Coma nepma nme nexmn npnnncxn. Vxpancxn men xropn o ren
ynn xento-rento ocxrnnnn n anann nn]opmann, nouann nnrnoponan
nonn nnan sa pnmonanc nnranx PVCHH. Tax me y ]epyapy, roro, 2009.
poxy na ne cary arennn VA Penoprep sxnen rexcr y xropnm me nnme
xe nen snaunn pycnnn xx no ro Ipnropn Xarxonnu, Aon] opxncxn
ra am n Anexcanep yxnonnu nc pycnann anc yxpannn!!!
Hocranx me nnranc xe no mn, nonoxncxn pycnann, mame ponn y
raxnx ocrannnox.
x Pycnax uyncrnycm nentxy norpey an nm roncm mopanny norpn-
monxy sa roro no pox o oconc nepnm xe roro no nonn pox ncropn-
nn xnnntxn sa mnnxnx pycnanox/pycnnox/nemxox. Mam nonn n npannn
ocnonn sa roro no pox n ro nme o 1918. poxy xe nm na Cen-Xepmen-
cxe mnponne xo]epennn npnnosnare npano na camoonpesencnc, npe-
cnarenx, napnamenr, ycran, anronomnm. Honnrnunn ocrannnn y mne-
ne ncmxa me menxm, rax repas nona mnnxnx npanox nonoxene npano
uHOBEKA. Honoxene c nona epxannoro cynepennrery. o ]yna-
menrannnx unonexonnx npanox cnaa n nannonanne onpesencnc. Toro
npano nnxacnonann n xoconcxn anannn ra npernamenn cnom penynnxy.
Ha ocnonn roro npeceany n Hoxapnarcxn Pycnnn ocrann npanny
moxnnocn xe n npernamenn cnom penynnxy, ]opmonann Bnay n o-
nouann axrnnnocnn na mesnnaponnm npnnosnananm.
168
2009, N 2 (16)
3 pyroro oxy, ro nocrana aps mncxn repen o, xx no mn Cepn
ope sname, raxa poora moxe onecn ax n o npennanx xpenn. Mn,
nonoxncxn pycnann, moxeme an xnny norpnmonxy pycnnom noxap-
narx anc me ro moxe nperonmaunn n xx mnmanc o nyxamnx ocrann-
nox pyre xemn. Hamenc no moxeme ponn ro norpnmonxa y rnm
smncny xe n nx, roncm mn, nc onryxonann n orpasonann me o nx.
3 rpenoro oxy-mymnme yman n na ro xe xx nonn yy narpnn na nac
xe, na xonny, nnrnopx ncsanncny Penynnxy Hoxapnarcxy Pyc a mn me
o nx orpasonann n ocysonann x nocrynxn. x me mn yseme uyn-
crnonan xe nonn nnrnopx cnom, anc nen n namy, epxany sa no nm mn nc
ann norpnmonxy ao sme nx ax ocysonann.
3 mrnaproro oxy, moxeyn xe n nonn axyc npnrnpam Amepnxy n
Enpocoms sos cnom yxasonantom oxpemnnx cnmnarnox cnpam Mocx-
nn, a sname xe onomenx Amepnxn n Enponn sos Pycm nme ]me na ocn
nsxnm yponnm. Hccnem nonecn xe nm ro rpnmxa anc y raxnx nonnrnu-
nnx ocrannnox y xxnx nonn mymenn n man nene nnanancnpann cra-
nonncxa, roncm rorn no nx xnno nncnonmm. Bnnxn sname xe Amepnxa
norpnmyc axryennoro npecnarenx Rmenxa a Enpona, xento ro cne-
na yn mncona, narpn n cnyxa no yma Amepnxa. Camnm rnm rncanc
nomonn o axoro xoro noxyc npnrnpam ana menmn e]exrn. Bnnxnm
noxapnarcxnm pycnnom norpnmonxa Mocxnn snauna n x posymnm x
nosexonnocn. Fyse xx yse anc x ymam xe n mymenn nene ynarn
opannn na Enpony. Horpnmonxa Pycn snauna anc o xoncunnm pnmenm
nc npecysn. 3 pyroro oxy narpene, moxe me nonecn n xe nonn ym
aps nyro ynn ronepanrnn n raxrnunn n xe cy nene nc y cranm uexan,
uexan, uexan...
uac npexosn, acnmnnannx n nonnrnxa pox cnoo. 3auynan nanno-
nannn nenrnrer ncm sos nncnm n rannom aps uemxo. Cna o sayna-
rox Bnerone Pan PPH Hoxapnarcxnm pycnnom ro xe me nouann
sanman sos nonnrnxy. un me moxe oxpann nannonannn nenrnrer es
xacnonanx nonnrnxn. Vesenn com xe nc. Ben pyrn napon y opn
sa cnom camocronocn nonomenn nnmorn xemom y xorpnx xnnn. Cny-
uonano me rax xe epxana xorpe yna ynynena nnmora nc pearonana
ao onaronana sos onnrom, nnxnonana xe ncr nu o rnx nnmorox. Ha
xonny me o nane cnryann ymnmana mesnnapona sacnna. Ke me
ymnma mesnnapona sacnna nen onuno epxana xorpa nccnena an
mano na xonny a mnnxo, onocno nento nene o roro no me na nouarxy
nnmarano.
Oconc moxe xro xx cne, an norpnmonxy ao nc (x oconc nm anam
norpnmonxy), o]nnnnn Pycxn/Pycnncxn oprann n oprannsann myma oc-
ran, roncm, na yponnm ncocysonanx a men myma anan nanocnn nn-
]opmann n ro es yno xxnx xomenrapox. Mn camn ocrarouno mypn n
cnnomn xe nam an nc rpea axro xe n nam ronmauen.
169

Pycxa ua1xa
Pycxa marxa mymn yxasan n oxasan xe c nosana oprannsannx Pyc-
nanox y Cepn-Bononnn. Marxa xcno n rnacno mymn pearonan na
mnnxn norynonanx n npoonanx norynonanx npanox npnnanxox Pyc-
xoro/Pycnncxoro napoa yno se y mnene a oxpeme ry y name epxa-
nn. Marxa mymn rncan o Penynnxn Cepn xe n samnnena cnox
epxannxnox o namarantox pyre epxann npenecn Pycnnox o Vx-
pannox. Ty me mymn nonecn xe nc raxn nentxn nponem Vxpannnn no
xnm y Bononnn xento pnxnn xonneprnrn xorpn me ypxono exnapn-
my xx Pycnann, xacnym mnnxn npana n moxnnocnn no nm rora nama
epxana ana a pox nponnn nnrepecy Pycnanox npe nonoxenx, rnrynn,
onnxonanx a moxeyn n nencx. Pycxa marxa mymn xcno n rnacno no-
necn xaxn unonex no exnapann 3cnncnnx Hannox ma npano nn-
xmnn me o cnoc nannonanne npnnanocnn. Ke me axro nnxmncn xe
c Pycnax nen moxe yn ncm PVCHAK a nc, ncrouacno, n npnnanx nme
acne nann.
10. Konrpec Pycnnox/Pycnanox/Aeuxox
Konrpec na acne o rpn nnenapnn cxasxn mymen posnpanxn o
onyxn Bnerone Pan PPH xono nnxnmuenx Coma n ornopnn axxy
eary na remy Penynnxn Hoxapnarcxa Pyc n crany pycnncxoro na-
poa na rnx npocropox ra rou n na xonny an ne ynn npnncmenn axxn
xonxpernn pnmenx. Ha cxasxn Bnerone Pan nononxom ]epyapa
2009. poxy y Hpemone npnncmena onyxa xe n me o o]nnnnoro Knc-
na nnmarano xe n na nonncy xnrentcrna y Vxpann 2011. poxy yna
yxnmuena n pypnxa PVCHH. Tora onyxa nomna n o saxnmuentox 10.
Konrpeca Pycnnox /Pycnanox/Hemxox. To aps ope anc ram cnryannx
nento xomnnnxonanma ra mn ro nnnarpa ncm xx oantonanc n xx npo-
onanc saramnn nentxn orent sos xynaxom. Ho yseme ponn no 2011.
pox? Homncme nncmo Bnan n Hpecnarentonn Vxpann n nonn me rax
npecrpama xe raxo npnnosnam Pycnnox sa oxpemnn napo! Posymn me
xe nc. To nm yse cnrnan xe mam nme na poxn ponn na acnmnnann n
oxyntonnm n rax xyonoro napoy, xe mam nme na poxn nepmnn npn-
nncxn na xaxoro xro me ommen xnno nonecn xe c Pycnax-Pycnn a nc
Vxpancn.
Bnerona Paa PPH mymn npenxan na cee oonxsxy nponasnn cran
na Hoxapnarm n omrpo pearonan na xaxn nana na yno xorpy Pycnn-
cxy oprannsannm ao yno xorporo unena Pycnncxe oprannsann. Ha
xaxn cnoco npoonan nc nanpannn rpnmxy xxy nanpanena BP y npe-
xonnm cocrane. Tnx rax mymena n crynnn o xonraxry sos npecna-
rentom Bneronoro Konrpecy Hoxapnarcxnx Pycnnox n ncno ycorna-
mnn cranonncxa n namaranx xorpn y nnrepecy nanocnoro Pycnncxoro
napoy. Cen o ocnonnnx saarxox BP PPH mymn yn n xonraxronanc
170
2009, N 2 (16)
Enponcxoro Hapnamenry n oro xomncn sa nannonannn menmnnn. O-
nncnonan rory xomncnm o yponnm n nnrnoponanm npanox Pycnncxoro
napoa y mnnxnx xemox se xnm.
Bnerona Paa PPH mymn nponasnn cran Pycnncxoro nonoxenx n y
pyrnx xemox n rnx raxo pearonan na yno xxn npnnncxn ao namaranx
norynonanx npana na nannonannn nenrnrer. Ty ]menxx ymam n na
nac y Bononnn n na namaranx Comsa Pycnnox Vxpannox snmnn namy
nannonanny cnnomocn, snmnn namo ncropnne meno, npemenn ncro-
pnm.
Hnn crnonanx Comsy Pycnnox Vxpannox moxy me ope nnsnn
y x craryry se me y nepmnm uneny, cran 2 nanosn: o comsy me
ypyaym rpaaanc n oprannsann xo1pn nn1nopmm nnn n saa1-
xn y onacnn npocnn1n, opasonann, nsnxa, nn1epa1ypn, nayxn,
yue1nocnn, xyn1ypn n yxonnen 1nopuocnn pycuucue yupauc-
ue uapouocuu. Camnm rnm nernpa ncnonanc Pycnaxox xx oxpenmoro
napoa xorpn npnnosnarn y mnnxnx xemox se xnm oxpem y Vxpann.
Kono roro norennnpa me nasna Pycnax Vxpancn no xx napo nc moxe
ncnonan. Hco mn Pycnax nco Vxpancn, onna napas nc moxe me yn.
x n Bxorn pearonann xe n axro ]opmonan spyxenc n nanonan ro
Coms Bxorox Enrnesox n nouan rnepsnn xe Bxorn nc Bxorn anc En-
rnesn n xe x marnuna xem Enrnecxa.
Hannonannn Conn1
Pycxen/Pycnncxen nannonannen uenmnnn y Cepn
Hannonannn Connr Pycxe/Pycnncxe nannonanne menmnnn y Cep-
n ma oxpemno naxny ynory y samnrn nannonannoro nnrepecy. o repas
me nc aps yxasan na rnm nnany. Inanna oro xnnocn no repas yna
nosenn ]nnancnnn cpecrna ocrarn o Hoxpann namnm pyxrnom
sa nopxnn xnnocnn, pnxnn mann]ecrann xynrypn n noonomy.
Mn repas mame n 3ano sa xynrypy ra nexmy uacn poorox xono xo-
opnnann n oprannsann mann]ecrannox rpea xe n npenxan non a
Hannonann connr n me nene moron sanman sos samnry nannonannoro
nnrepecy Pycnano/Pycnnox. Ty, cxope mnnxoro, ymam na ro xe n
mymen nosnn nene paxynxy o rnm xoro ]nnancnno nomara. ymam
xe ]nnancnne nomaranc oprannsan xorpa nernpa nocroxnc Pycnaxox/
Pycnnox xx oxpemne nann nc nornune. Cam ]nnancnpan cnooro ncnpn-
xrenx? Tpea npecran ]nnancnpan xaxy oprannsannm xorpa y cnom
craryry ncma rouxy y xorpe nnme xe me saxnaa sa ouynanc PVCKO-
IO/PVCHHCKOIO nannonannoro nnernrery xx oxpemnoro napoy.
Ho xnnntxy ox Coms man nasny COR3 PVCHHOX H VKPAHHOX
ncman com nu nponnn xe n n x axrnnnocnn ]nnancnponan nam Hanno-
nannn connr (anc ncm o 50%) ncno sos Vxpancxnm Hannonannnm co-
nnrom. Haxant (sa Coms) nnnarpa xe Vxpancxn Hannonannn connr nc
npnnosnana rory oprannsannm ra m an nc ]nnancnpa.
171

Ty Hannonannn connr mymn nanpannn panxannn nonar n nperaprnyn
raxy npaxcy. Oxonunn npemenxn y Vnpannnx oopox namnx menox n
nocrannn ocon xorpn yy nosnn paxynxy o PVCKHM nnrepecy a nc n
o nnrepecy xxemnx mryune (PycnaxVxpancn) nann. To yse ncm na
xacen Pycnanox y Bononnn n nannm mnene.
Hpe namn nme cna nentxa poora nnop nonoro Hannonannoro
connry. Mymnme ncm ouexan xe n me Hannonannn connrn nomesn
coy n epxana ornapenn o cnocoy na xorpn me ro nopon. Ccr na
moxnnocnn, nnop no crapnm enexropcxnm cncremy n no nonnm cncre-
my se n nepme rpeano nnnepmnn nonnconanc npnnanxox nannonan-
nnx menmnnox, nanpannn nnepanxono cnncxn sa mnnxn mecra se xnm
Pycnann n oxonunn nnepanxn sa nonn Hannonannn connr. V xaxnm
cnyuam yseme man naroy nnepan cnox npecrannxox. Oconc com
nene sa onnnm npannx nnepanxox no cnncxy xx sa enexropcxn cnc-
rem. ymam xe n na ror cnoco nmse ynn omncosenn npnnncxy
xxomy cy nnnoxenn xe xannarn sa enexropcxy cxynmrnny sos pnx-
nnx onnnox xosa o xnxn o xnxn n yesym nmsox uom am m
rpea xe n nonncann norpnmonxy. 3nam xe nmsom ncsrono xe axro
npnse xe n my nonncann a non ym axomy an nonnc. Ten rora
ocoa mymn nco norynnn npannno xe moxe ncm pas axomy nonncan
ao nonecn xe axomy ym nonncana n camnm rnm me rpann ranocn
nnxmntonanx.
3os mnnxoro roro moxe me saxnmunn xe ccr nme aps nento roro no
rpea noponn. Bento poorn sa Bnerony Pay PPH, Hannonannn co-
nnr, anc no sa nac y Cepn nme naxncme, ccr nme nento poorn xorpy
rpea xe n nopoena Pycxa marxa. Tepas xe mame sa npecnarenx
Bnerone Pan PPH mpy Hanyry, mymnme ro nnxacnonan na xacen
mnnxnx Pycnnox/Pycnanox/Hemxox es ornxy na ro un cy Hoxapnarc-
xn un nc.
V rnm no com nanncan nc cnomnnan com opn crnapn no cnomnyrn
nncrnrynn nopoenn a yno n roro naocn. 3nam xe n nonn noncnn ncm
raxe unran o cee anc roro no nc nopoene a mymeno yn n roro no me
mymn noponn npnnaryc nexmy ynary.
Moxe yn xe n rpnmnm y aunm anc x ym mam rnapo ]opmnpann
ymanx rax xe nx nc ysem menxn (an nc cnem).
172
2009, N 2 (16)
3 naron 80 poxn o naposenn nana Mnxanna Iop-
nnxa mnpo uy nnnuym Pycxn-Pycnncxn oprannsa-
nn n aaam nme nento spann n mecna y annone.
Mnxano Iopnxx, amaca-
op y nensn, naposenn y mp-
tone, 1929. poxy xx mrnapre
senxo y ]amenn Iopnxx. Brn-
pn xnacn ocnonne mxonn sa-
xonuen y mptone no 1940.
pox, rpn xnacn no uac oxyna-
nn 1941-1944, na maxpcxnm
xsnxy, rnmnasnm y Pycxnm Ke-
pecrype, Bepame n Feuem.
nnnomonan na Honnnapcxo-
nnnomarcxe nncoxe mxonn
n na unnoso]cxnm ]axynrery
(ncropnx). x corpynx poen
y Pycxnm cnone n nen-
nnx-y.
o Mnnncrepcrna non-
xamnx nox yn npnxrn 1957.
poxy a 1958. poxy c nocnarn na
poory o Amacan CuPH y
Fyxypemry y snanm arame. 1968. poxy yn nocranenn sa me]a ocexy
sa Knra a nornm, 1969. poxy menonann sa connrnxa y onomenxmn sos
xemamn Hnoxnnn (Bncrnam, Kamoxa, Haoc n Cnnepna Kopex) n npe-
mecnenn o Amacan CuPH y Hexnnry.
3os Hexnnry c y enempy 1972. poxy npemecnenn o Xanom (Bncr-
nam) se ornopen Amacay CuPH n yn nepmn oxonuonarent poo-
rox. Hornm snona poen y Mnnncrepcrny nonxamnx nox xx me] oce-
xy sa Knra n yuacrnonan y nopmannsann onomentox sos Knraom
(namnna Xyao Kno-uenra Rrocnann n namnna npecnarenx Rrocna-
nnn Hocnna Fposa Tnra Knram).
x Mnnncrep connrnx poen y Amacan CuPH y Toxnm. Hornm,
no npananm o xemn poen y Vnpann sa anannsy n nnanonanc nonnrnxn,
nornm yn nauantnx Vnpann sa Asnm, me] Kannera comsnoro Mnnn-
crpa, yn menonann sa ocrarntoro amacaopa CuPH y emoxparcxe
Penynnxn Bncrnam oxant nomon o nensn.
173
!
O 1974-1990. poxy yn na cxasxox OEFC, OVH, mnnncrepcxnx n
camnrox y Hm enxnm, Hyann, Xapapey. Femeyc anrnncxn, ]pan-
nycxn n pymnncxn, xacnyc me sos maxpcxnm n mnancxnm xsnxom n po-
symn mnnxn cnanxncxn xsnxn.
Tepas c oxpemno axrnnnn na nnrantox ouynanx nannonannoro nenrn-
rery pycnnox, s uacy na uac sxnme me sos npnnoramn y pnxnnx ntonnx
nonnnox n yuacrnyc na mnnxnx ]opymox na nnrepnery se rema pycnnn/
pycnann, axrnnnn c corpynx ne cara Pycnax nn]o.
Oxencrn c sos Emnnnm, naposeny Kocrennnx (nepmn marncrep ma-
remarnuxe nornxn y Rrocnann), maer cnna Fopnca xorpn y Hexnnry,
na xnracxnm xsnxy, saxonuen mrpenm mxony, na xnoncxnm saxonuen
Apxnrexrypy y Toxnm a nncoxy mxony sa menaxmenr saxonuen na ynn-
nepsnrery Cran]op y Can upannncxy. Pon no mnene sa xnoncxn n
amepnxancxn xomnann. Xnc sos ]amennm y 3A.
Pexonnernn ueaynaponoro nc1opnuecxoro
aypnana Pycnn npncoennne1cn x nospannenn-
nu n apec mnnnpa. Mnxanno Iopnnx nnnne1cn une-
nou pexonnernn namero aypnana. On ax1nnno yua-
c1nye1 ne 1ontxo n omec1nennon ansnn pycnnon
Cepnn, no n xon1ax1npye1 c unornun en1ennun
pycnncxoro nnaennn pyrnx c1pan. Ero unorounc-
nennme c1a1tn nynnxym1cn n pasnnunmx nsann-
nx n nn1epne1-can1ax. en1entnoc1t M. Iopnnxa na
naro pycnncxoro napoa onana cnyan1t npnue-
pou nn uonomx. Mm, n cnom ouepet, aenaeu
mnnnpy xpenxoro sopontn, onrnx ne1 ansnn, ce-
uennoro cuac1tn n coxpanennn ax1nnnon ansnen-
non nosnnnn.
174
2009, N 2 (16)
Cepren CYARK
HO TPOHAM HCTOPHH
H HEPEHYTLRM COBPEMEHHOCTH
21 nmnx 2009 roa
ncnonnnnoct 60 ner
samecrnrenm rnan-
noro peaxropa xyp-
nana Pycnn Herpy
Mnxanonnuy Bop-
nnxony. Hsnecren on
cran n ypnte 90-e
rot xax enyrar
napnamenra, samnr-
nnx nannonantnoro
pannonpannx. B npec-
ce n Hnrepner-ny-
nnxannxx ormeueno,
uro on ncropnx, no-
nnrnuecxn exrent, nynnnncr. pystx n xonnern xapaxrepnsymr ero
xax rnyoxoro nccneonarenx, opoconecrnoro paornnxa, neyromn-
moro oprannsaropa, rananrnnnoro xypnanncra, uyrxoro nearora, nm-
xmero myxa, orna n ea, nepnoro pyra, ocrpoymnoro coecennxa.
Honnrnuecxne onnonenrt snamr ero xax xecrxoro n ecxomnpomncc-
noro nonemncra, nnepa nenmnmoro nmn Hnrep]ponra. Ho npany
coparnnxa npnney ocnonnte ]axrt ero norpa]nn.
Ponncx Herp Bopnnxon n cene Hepeceunna Opreencxoro paona
Monannn n cemte yunrene. Orna, xopomero oprannsaropa, nepepa-
ctnann no cnyxe n cena, re rpeonanoct ornanrt nponecc mxontno-
ro oyuennx, n cemtx necxontxo pas nepeesxana ns onoro cena n py-
roe. Herpy onenoct xnrt cpen monanan, onrap, rarayson, n mnoro-
nannonantno pyccxoxstuno cpee. B mxone yunncx cnauana na mon-
ancxom, norom na pyccxom xstxe. 3axonunn ncropnuecxn ]axyntrer
Knmnnencxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera, nonyunn nanpannenne
n acnnpanrypy, no or pacnpeenennx na paory yxnonxrtcx ne cran. Hpe-
noanan n cpene mxone rarayscxoro cena Konras. Peaxrnponan rase-
ry Knmnnencxn ynnnepcnrer, ntcrynan n pecnynnxancxo neuarn.
nx roro, urot trt cuacrnnntm, ronopnr mnnxp, nentsx xpnnnrt
175
!
ymo n nyx cnyuaxx npn ntope npo]eccnn n ntope cynpyrn. B
oonx cnyuaxx cam on ne omncx. B 1977 r. on xennncx n tn no xon-
xypcy npnnxr na paory n Hncrnryr ncropnn AH MCCP. 3ect, n nan-
onee npoyxrnnnt nepno cymecrnonannx +roro nayunoro yupexe-
nnx, Bopnnxon c]opmnponancx xax yuent. Hpeoonen amnnncrpa-
rnnnte npenont, cam c]opmynnponan remy ncceprannn. Paoran c
yonontcrnnem. 3amnrnn ncceprannm, n 1986 r. ntmna n cner ero mo-
norpa]nx Hpomtmnennocrt n paoun xnacc Monancxo CCP n rot
Bennxo Oreuecrnenno nont. 3a ne nocneonann pyrne nynnxa-
nnn no ncropnn Monannn +roro nepnoa. Ponnnct n pocnn rpoe ere.
Ho npemena mnpno nepecrpoxn noxonnn x xonny. B xonne 80-x n
crpane paspasnncx cncremnt xpnsnc.
Kax ncropnx n xypnanncr H.M. Bopnnxon onaan onxntm nonn-
rnuecxnm xpyrosopom, n no nonpocy o rom, na utm cropony crart n
pasropenmecx n crpane nonnrnuecxo opte, ne xoneancx. Ho e-
moxparnx no-xnmnnencxn onycxana ne rontxo saxonoarentnoe sax-
pennenne nannonantno ncxpnmnnannn no xstxonomy npnnnnny, no n
nsnenne neyrontx napnamenrapnen n xypnanncron, noxorn nepe
nx xnaprnp, mentmonanne na mnrnnrax, n neuarn, n +nexrponntx CMH,
ynontnenne c paort nx pontx n nnsxnx. Ho+romy samnmart nanno-
nantnoe pannonpanne pannct rontxo nmn, cnoconte paorart npn
orcyrcrnnn rapanrn nnuno esonacnocrn. H.M. Bopnnxon ntcrynnn
onnm ns oprannsaropon Hnrepnnxennx Vnnrare-Enncrno, npnsnan-
noro orcroxrt n Monannn o]nnnantnt craryc pyccxoro xstxa, ro ecrt
sa npano rpaxan na nem yunrtcx, nontsonartcx npn opamennn n rocy-
apcrnennte yupexennx, nonyuart nn]opmannm. On paspaoran oc-
nonnte nporpammnte oxymenrt nnxennx, npnnxrte na Vupenrent-
nom cese n nmne 1989 r. B 1990 r. on tn nspan enyrarom napna-
menra n npecearenem Pecnynnxancxoro Conera Enncrna. Bxo-
nn n pyxonocrno enyrarcxo rpynnt Coms, a n 1995-1996 rr. n
cocran Conera cooreuecrnennnxon npn poccncxo Iocyapcrnenno
yme. Peaxrnponan rasery Enncrno. Onaxo nn nsnecrnocrt n o-
mecrne, nn enyrarcxn nmmynnrer ne orpannn ero or ronenn. Ho
rene]ony n nnuno, n rom uncne n xynyapax napnamenra, emy rposnnn
cmeprtm, ero naxt nsnnn n npncyrcrnnn nonnnnn, ntnynnn yrn ns
Hncrnryra ncropnn, a cynpyry Iannny Ipnroptenny, npenoanarenx xa-
]ept nporpammnponannx, ynonnnn ns ynnnepcnrera.
Tem ne menee, H.M. Bopnnxon npoonxnn cnom npanosamnrnym pa-
ory. B anrycre 1989 r., xora n mra Enncrna nocrynnn nernacno
nororonnennt annaparom Bepxonnoro Conera saxononpoexr o xstxo-
nom pexnme, npeycmarpnnanmn ncxnmuenne pyccxoro xstxa ns o]n-
nnantno c]ept, on onynnxonan +ror oxymenr n ntcxasancx sa npo-
176
2009, N 2 (16)
neenne Pecnynnxancxo nonnrnuecxo saacronxn n samnry o]nnn-
antnoro craryca pyccxoro xstxa n Monannn. B mapre 1991 r. Enn-
crno oprannsonano n Knmnnene n pyrnx ropoax Monannn nponee-
nne pe]epenyma CCCP. B napnamenre H.M. Bopnnxon onnancx npe-
ocrannennx pecnynnxancxoro rpaxancrna ncem xnrenxm Monannn,
nesanncnmo or mecra poxennx, rpeonan coxpanennx cncremt opa-
sonannx c npenoanannem na pyccxom xstxe, cosannx enapramenra
nannonantntx ornomenn, ynpasnennx nnnrnncrnuecxo nonnnnn
enapramenra xstxon, orment arrecrannn na snanne rocyapcrnenno-
ro xstxa. B 1990 r. nspannte n napnamenr exrenn Enncrna nomor-
nn npeornparnrt xpononponnrne na mre Monannn, a n 1992 r. cnoco-
crnonann npexpamennm oentx ecrnn na necrpe.
Hocne ntopon 1994 r. H.M. Bopnnxon tn nspan conpeceare-
nem ]paxnnn Connanncrnuecxoe enncrno n unenom Hocroxnnoro mpo
napnamenra. Crpemxct npeornparnrt nonym nonny +rnnuecxo uncrxn
n rocyapcrnenntx yupexennxx, Bopnnxon oprannsonan cop oxy-
menrantntx marepnanon o maccontx ynontnennxx cnyxamnx n pao-
unx, nponeenno n Monannn no xstxontm npenorom n 1990-1993 rr.
3rn cneennx, a raxxe annte o cneprtnannn npenoanannx na pyc-
cxom xstxe, on npean rnacnocrn n cepnn raserntx n nayuntx crare, a
n 1997 r. n xnnre Hoxymenne na craryc. Ouepeno payn nanno-
nantntx ronenn yanoct copnart. Bopnnxon yuacrnonan n paspaorxe
npoexra Koncrnrynnn Pecnynnxn Monona, saxononpoexron O rpax-
ancrne, Konnennnn nonnrnxn opasonannx n Pecnynnxe Monona,
O opasonannn, O npanax nannonantntx mentmnncrn, Konnen-
nnn rocyapcrnenno nannonantno nonnrnxn Pecnynnxn Monona n
pyrnx. onnancx npncoennennx Monont x pamountm mexynapo-
ntm axram o npanax uenonexa, nannonantntx, nnnrnncrnuecxnx n pern-
onantntx mentmnncrn. Pesyntrart +ro paort n nontne no mnorom
onpeenxmr n Monone ornomennx mexy nannonantntmn coomecrna-
mn n rocyapcrnom. Onaxo nac nnrepecyer npexe ncero nayunax e-
xrentnocrt ncropnxa.
B 1990 r. n yuentx saneennxx Monannn npenoananne monanc-
xo ncropnn tno sameneno xypcom Hcropnx pymtn. 3ro tn oue-
peno nocne nepenoa monancxo nnctmennocrn na narnncxym rpa-
]nxy n saxonoarentnoro npnsnannx nenrnunocrn nnreparypnoro mon-
ancxoro n pymtncxoro xstxon yap no monancxo nannonantno
nenrnunocrn. Hpenoananne +roro xypca tno naneneno na noptn
neonornuecxnx ocnon cymecrnymme monancxo rocyapcrnennoc-
rn. Kpome roro, xypc Hcropnx pymtn tn nocrpoen n oxo npone-
marnxn, cnxsanno c annnm npoxnnannem n Kapnaro-necrponcxnx
semnxx, a sarem n Monancxom xnxxecrne cxnanenon, anron, rnnepnen,
177
!
ynnue, pycnnon. Ho cymecrny, +ro tna nontrxa saxpennrt n ome-
crnennom cosnannn nponaranncrcxne xnnme o pyccxnx xax mnrpan-
rax n oxxynanrax, utn nnrepect ne sacnyxnnamr ynaxennx. Cyme-
crnonana raxxe yrposa nnxnnannn opasonannx na pyccxom xstxe.
H.M. Bopnnxon oprannsonan paspaorxy xonnennnn ynnnepcnrera, ne-
sanncnmoro or Mnnncrepcrna opasonannx Monont. Taxo ynnnepcn-
rer tn yupexen n Tnpacnone n xonne 1990 r. H.M. Bopnnxon cran
ero npopexropom no nayxe n oprannsonan nayuno-nccneonarentcxym
naoparopnm, n xoropo ncxope cnoxnnact Hpnnecrponcxax ncropn-
uecxax mxona. Ho xnmnnencxne oxont nnep Enncrna ne noxnnyn.
B 1993 r. on nmecre c rpynno yuentx, pyxononmtx npo]eccopom
C.C. Fynnxontm, nauan nororonxy x cosannm Cnanxncxoro ynnnep-
cnrera n cronnne Monont.
Hsnauantno nxonn H.M. Bopnnxon n xpyr ncropnxon (B.. Ipocyn,
A.M. Hasapen, H.A. Annynon, B.H. Crarn, B.H. Hapanon, H.B. Fan-
nynra n nexoropte pyrne), pemnnmnx oportcx npornn ]antcn]nxa-
nnn ncropnn Monannn. Hnep Enncrna oxasan coecrnne nsa-
nnm xonnenryantntx paor B.. Ipocyna, npo]eccopa-]nnonora
H.. uoany, axaemnxa A.M Hasapena, a raxxe nyxromnnxa
H.3. Hennra, nocnxmennoro cotrnxm 1917-1918 rr. Cam Bopnnxon nt-
nycrnn xnnry Hena nont, n xoropo noxasan, uro nonnrnxa renonna,
npononmax pexnmom Hona Anronecxy n Monannn n 1941-1944 rr., tna
nanpannena ne rontxo npornn enpeen n ntran, no n npornn pyrnx nann-
onantntx coomecrn, naunnax c monanan. Hmenno na nx onm npn-
mnact n rot Bennxo Oreuecrnenno nont ontmax uacrt emorpa-
]nuecxnx norept Monannn. B 1994 r. H.M. Bopnnxon nnnnnnponan
nanncanne xonnexrnnnoro rpya Hcropnx Pecnynnxn Monona c pen-
nemnx npemen o namnx ne. Hepy Herpa Mnxanonnua npnnane-
xar rpn ns 17 rnan xnnrn, n rom uncne ne nocnenne, nocnxmennte
conpemennocrn. B 1997 r. nepnt nocne nponosrnamennx nesanncnmoc-
rn PM cnnres monancxo ncropnn tn nsan na monancxom n pyc-
cxom xstxax no peaxnne unena-xoppecnonenra Axaemnn nayx
Monont B.H. Hapanona. Knnra crana n Monone sanperntm, no nony-
nxpntm y yunrene n npenoanarene yuennxom nannonantno ncro-
pnn.
B orcyrcrnne nayuntx onoon onnonenrt H.M. Bopnnxona ncnont-
sonann nnte aprymenrt. B 1998 r., no sanepmennn nroporo enyrarcxo-
ro manara, emy tno orxasano n noccranonnennn na paore n axae-
mnuecxom Hncrnryre ncropnn. Ho cnpoc na cnennanncron nmencx, n on
cran npopexropom uacrnoro yuenoro saneennx ncrannnonnoro oy-
uennx monancxoro orenennx Conpemennoro rymannrapnoro ynnnep-
cnrera c axxpenranne n Mocxne n Oxc]ope. Bosononnn paory n n
178
2009, N 2 (16)
Hpnnecrponcxom ynnnepcnrere. B 2001 r. nosnparnncx na rocyapcrnen-
nym cnyxy nosrnannn Vnpannenne nn]opmannn n monnropnnra n e-
napramenre mex+rnnuecxnx ornomenn. Pesyntrart monnropnnra no-
rnepxann noxntnoe ornomenne ontmnncrna nacenennx x nee npna-
nnx pyccxomy xstxy o]nnnantnoro craryca, n coornercrnymmax nn]op-
mannx nanpannxnact napnamenry n npannrentcrny. B 2002 r. H.M. Bop-
nnxon paspaoran npoexr Konnennnn rocyapcrnenno nannonantno
nonnrnxn Pecnynnxn Monona. B oxrxpe 2003 r. npoexr, opaoran-
nt npn yuacrnn nauantnnxa enapramenra T.H. Mneuxo n enyraron
M.H. Cnopona, B.H. Crarn n H.u. Ipexa, tn npnnxr napnamenrom.
Hpopymtncxne nannonan-panxant ornernnn na +ro xamnanne nana-
ox n npecce, a nx croponnnxn n npannrentcrne onnnct ynpasnennx
Vnpannennx nn]opmannn n monnropnnra; H.M. Bopnnxon tn ntnyx-
en ns enapramenra yrn.
On npenoanan n Hpnnecrponcxom ynnnepcnrere. Kax ncropnxa ero
ocoenno nnrepeconana nponemarnxa monancxo +rnoxyntrypno nen-
rnunocrn, ncropnx rocyapcrnenno nen monanan. Hentsx tno npn-
snart xoppexrntm, uro axe monancxne ncropnxn-rpannnonanncrt,
npaxente pymtnncram, rpaxronann ncropnm Monannn cxopee xax
ncropnm rontxo monanan. Hannune n xnxxecrne snaunrentnoro no
uncnennocrn pycnncxoro nacenennx, a y pyccxoro xstxa o]nnnantnoro
craryca onxno tno nnnxrt na +rnoxyntrypnte nponecct cpen mon-
anan, nonexano nonomy ocmtcnennm. Ero rpy Monancxax camo-
trnocrt, nsannt n 2007 r. n Tnpacnone, cran necomtm nxnaom n
peannnrannm monancxo ncropnn n nononnnn aprymenrannm ncropn-
xon-monanncron. Hcropnx Monannn, noxasano n xnnre, ne moxer trt
nonno n ocronepno es yuera roro ocroxrentcrna, uro snaunrent-
nym uacrt ee nacenennx ncera cocrannxnn pyccxne nmn. Honyrno
H.M. Bopnnxon nonepr xpnrnuecxomy pasopy onee 40 monorpa]n,
yuennxon n oomammnx paor, nanncanntx c nosnnn pymtnnsma.
Hynnxannx penensn, n xoroptx ncxptnannct npornnopeunx, nora-
conxn n ymonuannx, onymennte anropamn, sarpynxna pacnpocrpane-
nne n Monannn mn]onornn pymtnnsma. Hror ocymecrnnennomy nm
emonraxy ncropnuecxo xonnennnn pymtnnsma tn noneen n
2009 r. n xnnre Honx naennx: ncropnorpa]nx monancxo +rnononnrn-
xn.
Vxe n 90-e rot H.M. Bopnnxon ocyxan c xonneramn nonpoc o
paspaorxe ncropnn pyccxoro nacenennx Monannn. oxymenrannm
Enncrna n marepnant cnoero omamnero apxnna, n xoroptx orpasn-
nact omecrnennax opta sa coxpanenne cncremt opasonannx, ]yn-
xnnonnpymme na pyccxom xstxe, on nepean n axaemnuecxn Hncrn-
ryr nannonantntx mentmnncrn. 3aneymmym cexropom ncropnn n xynt-
179
!
rypt pyccxoro nacenennx Monont T.H. Mneuxo on yenn nororo-
nnrt monorpa]nm, nocnxmennym +ro reme. Hccneonarentnnna nsx-
nact sa paory, n n 1999 r. xnnra Ftrt nnn ne trt? Pyccxn xstx n
cncreme opasonannx Pecnynnxn Monona, pacxptnammax xpxym
crpannny ncropnn pyccxoro nacenennx Monannn n mex+rnnuecxnx or-
nomenn n pecnynnxe, ynnena cner. Hstcxan ronny ymarn, Bopnn-
xon oxasan coecrnne raxxe ee nsannm. B 2001 r. on nnnnnnponan
nanncanne xonnexrnnno monorpa]nn H pasomnnct cnanxne no sem-
ne, n xoropo tn pacxptr npenmymecrnenno cnanxncxn cocran na-
cenennx Kapnaro-necrponcxoro pernona n omonancxn nepno, na-
unnax c VI n. B 2002 r. xnnra, orpeaxrnponannax Herpom Mnxanonn-
uem, tna nsana na cnoncopcxne cpecrna. Ho cnennantnte nynnxa-
nnn o cytax pycnncxoro nacenennx Monancxoro xnxxecrna n nayu-
nom oopore orcyrcrnonann, n nontrxa ycrpannrt pyroe enoe nxr-
no ncropnn Monannn, oprannsonan nanncanne xonnexrnnnoro rpya,
ne yanact.
Hsyuenne +ro remt nomno pyrnm nyrem. Bopnnxon uacro nynn-
xonancx na crpannnax peaxrnpyemo mno rasert Knmnnencxn oo-
spenarent, x yuacrnonan n nsnparentntx xamnannxx, a na napnamenr-
cxnx ntopax 1998 r. annornponancx no cnncxy Fnoxa Connanncrnuec-
xo naprnn n nnxennx Enncrno, n mt tnn xopomo snaxomt. Vs-
nan o npenpnnxrtx mno noncxax apxnnntx oxymenron o monx npe-
xax-pycnnax, npntnmnx n Feccapanm ns Ancrpncxo Fyxonnnt n
cepenne XIX n., on yenn menx ne orpannunnartcx xnsneonncannem
monx eon n npaeon, a cosart neuro ontmee ncropnm ncex py-
cnnon Monannn. Paora oxasanact ynnexarentno, copannte mno
]axrt n nx rpaxronxy mt ocyxann c Herpom Mnxanonnuem, uacro
cnopnnn. Ero xpnrnxa n conert nomornn nanncart xnnry tcrpo n na
onxnom nayunom yponne. H.M. Bopnnxon ntcrynnn ee nayuntm pe-
axropom. B 2004 r. monorpa]nx Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnn-
uecxo ncropnn pycnaxon Monannn ynnena cner.
Ho npenoxennm Bopnnxona, monorpa]nn, nocnxmennte ncropnn
pyccxnx (nennxopoccon) Feccapann n XIX n. n n nepno pymtncxo
oxxynannn 1918-1940 rr., nanncann ero tnmne xonnern no Hncrnryry
ncropnn A.R. Cxnopnona n H.B. Aaxymona. Hponaranncrcxn resnc
o pyccxnx rpaxanax Monont xax mnrpanrax tn oxasarentno on-
poneprnyr. B re xe rot H.M. Bopnnxon yuacrnonan n nanncannn xon-
nexrnnntx rpyon Bexn monancxo rocyapcrnennocrn, uenomen
Hpnnecrpontx, Hcropnx Hpnnecrponcxo Monancxo Pecnynn-
xn, Hcropnx n xyntrypa rarayson n pyrnx, nonynxpnsnponan rpyt,
nocnxmennte ncropnn monanan, rarayson, onrap.
Vuacrne n nonnrnuecxo opte nosnonnno H.M. Bopnnxony orro-
unrt nantxn oprannsaropa. Ha pyexe 90-x roon on yuacrnonan n ]op-
180
2009, N 2 (16)
mnponannn +rnoxyntrypntx oprannsann uona cnanxncxo nnctmen-
nocrn n cnanxncxnx xyntryp n Pyccxoro xyntrypnoro nenrpa. B 1993 r.
on nosrnannxn Pyccxym omnny poccncxnx cooreuecrnennnxon. Xorx
nannonan-panxant ns Mnnncrepcrna mcrnnnn orxasann n perncrpannn
omnne, nosrnannxemo me]om Hnrep]ponra, POPC ycnemno e-
crnonana o 1996 r. C 1998 r. Herp Mnxanonnu nxonr n pyxonocrno
PKH n yuacrnyer n ntnycxe ero oprana xypnana Pyccxn antom.
Btxo n cner Ocxonxon Cnxro Pycn n nynnxannx namn pxa na-
yuntx n raserntx crare o pycnnax Monannn noxasana, uro namxrt o
cnoem pycnncxom nponcxoxennn, nycrt na cemenom yponne, xpanxr
ecxrxn rtcxu rpaxan Monont yxpannnen, pyccxnx, monanan.
Hpesenrannx xnnrn 9 nmnx 2004 r., crana nepntm ]opymom pycnnon
Monannn. Hex yupenrt +rnoxyntrypnym oprannsannm pycnnon no-
cnnact n nosyxe. Perncrpannx Pecnynnxancxo omecrnenno opra-
nnsannn Pyct npenxrcrnn ne ncrpernna. Hecxontxo mecxnen cnycrx
mt npncrynnnn x ntnycxy mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana
Pycnn. Herp Mnxanonnu nomen n cocran pexonnernn xypnana, cran
samecrnrenem rnannoro peaxropa.
Cnoe 60-nerne Herp Bopnnxon ncrpernn omecrnenntm exrenem,
ycnemntm nccneonarenem n nynnnncrom, onenrom ynnnepcnrera.
Kax noxastnaer ontr snamennrtx ncropnxon, nmenno ceuac ncrynaer
on n nanonee npoyxrnnnt nx yuenoro nospacr, no+romy nrorn ero
exrentnocrn nononrt pano. Hoxenaem namemy ronapnmy sopontx,
opocrn n nontx ycnexon n ero rpyax.
Can1 Pycnnm Monannn
http://www.rusyn.md
Ha care pasmement xnnra Ocxonxn Cnn1on Pycn. Ouep-
xn +1nnuecxon nc1opnn pycnaxon Monannn (pdf), nce no-
mepa xypnana Pycnn, a raxxe monorpa]nn n crartn no ncro-
pnn n xyntrype pycnnon Monannn.
181

HOHHCKA HA MEYHAPOHLH
HCTOPHHECKHH YPHAA PYCHH
Hepnonunoc1t nmxoa 1 pas n xnapran.
Oseu 192 crp.
mopua1 A5.
Teua1nxa: ncropnx nacenennx Kapnarcxo Pycn.
Rsmx: pyccxn, pycnncxn, yxpanncxn. Ho cornaconannm c peax-
nne onycxamrcx nynnxannn n na pyrnx xstxax.
Hoc1onnnme pypnxn: ncropnx, xstxosnanne, snamennrte pycn-
nt, nynnnncrnxa, pycnncxax nnnorpa]nx.
Ha aypnan osnnnena nonncxa.
C1onuoc1t nonncxn na onn +xs. c yue1ou nou1onmx ycnyr:
CmA n Kanaa: 8 USD (nce xomnccnn nnarnr nonncunx, npn nepe-
uncnennn npocnm yxasart ]axr onnart xomnccnn n nnarexnom oxy-
menre);
Enpona: 6 EURO (nce xomnccnn nnarnr nonncunx, npn nepeuncne-
nnn npocnm yxasart ]axr onnart xomnccnn n nnarexnom oxymenre);
Yxpanna: 45 rpnnen;
Poccnn: 220 pyne;
Monannn: 35 neen.
B nna1eanou oxyuen1e npocnu yxasa1t, sa u1o nepeuncne-
nm entrn: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn, a 1axae sa xaxne
nouepa n nx xonnuec1no.
nx roro urot o]opmnrt nonncxy, neoxonmo nepeuncnnrt neo-
xonmym cymmy na cuer Omec1nennon acconnannn Pyct n ntc-
nart nnctmo n apec peaxnnn nnn na +nexrponnt apec
sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
B nnctme neoxonmo yxasart nouront apec nonncunxa, nomep
nnarexnoro oxymenra n nepeuncnennym cymmy. Ho nosmoxnocrn npo-
cnm ntcnart xonnm nnarexnoro oxymenra.
SUBSCRIPTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL
HISTORICAL JOURNAL RUSIN
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Number of Pages - 192.
Format - A5.
182
2009, N 2 (16)
Themes: History of the Population of Carpathian Rus'.
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183

Beneficiary Bank: BC Victoriabank S.A. Chisinau, Moldova,
SWIFT Code: VICBMD2X
Beneficiary: Account: 222400100181787
Asociatia Obsteasca Rusi
IPHBHM
Fanx nonyuarent: Hpnna1anx
r. nenpone1poncx
MuO 305299
Honyuarent: KB Victoriabank A.O., Knmnnen, Monona
K/C 16000000324001
Hasnauenne nnarexa: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn
nx Omec1nennon acconnannn Pyct
cuer N 222405100181787
POCCHHCKHE PVBBH
Fanx nonyuarent: Cepanx Pm
r. Mocxna.
FHK 044525225
K/c 30101810400000000225
HHH 7707083893
KB Bnx1opnaanx AO.
P/c 30111810200000000220
Hasnauenne nnarexa: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn
nx Omec1nennon acconnannn Pyct
cuer N 222405000181787
MOBABCKHE BEH
Asociatia Obsteasca Rusi
uncxantnt xo 40038013
Pacuernt cue1 225100000181787 n BC Victoriabank SA,
qnnnan 3.
Ko anxa VICBMD2X416
Hasnauenne nnarexa: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn
184
2009, N 2 (16)
OTOmEA B BEHHOCTL BEAHKHH CLH
PYCHHCKOIO HAPOA
18 anrycra n 2009 r. na 72-m roy
sanepmnn cno xnsnennt nyrt Mn-
xann Hnanonnu Bapra, npecearent
3axapnarcxoro omecrna 3nannx,
samecrnrent npecearenx Pycnnc-
xoro nayunoro omecrna, unen npe-
snnyma Coma noxapnarcxnx pycn-
non, unen pexonnernn mexynapo-
noro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Py-
cnn. Hoxopont cocroxnnct n npano-
cnannom xa]epantnom coope, re
cnyxnr nporonepe nmnrpn Cn-
op, rnana Coma HP, npn yuacrnn
pontx, nnsxnx, pocrnennnxon n
ontmoro uncna croponnnxon n noc-
neonarene Mnxanna Hnanonnua.
B noxoponnom Hncre npomannx ynomnnannct nce pycnncxne n nanno-
nantnte xyntrypnte omecrna Hoxapnarcxo Pycn, npecrannrenn
xoroptx npnmnn nponecrn n nocnenn nyrt nennxoro ctna pycnncxoro
napoa, narpnora xpax, neyromnmoro rpyxennxa na nannonantno-xynt-
rypno n nonnrnuecxo nnne. Hpncyrcrnne na noxoponax ncex pyxono-
nrene pycnncxnx oprannsann noxasano, uro cmeprt onoro ns pycn-
non cnocona oennxrt nme na nocneymmym omym opty sa
cnon npana n cnoot. Ttcxun nme ns Mexropmnnt, Hpmanmnnt,
Paxonmnnt n ns pyrnx ropoon pernona npnmnn orart ant nonnx-
nnxy xapnaropycnncxo semnn. Pycnncxoe nnxenne nonecno ontmym
yrpary. Cmeprt Mnxanna Hnanonnua Baprn, onoro ns axrnnntx n an-
ropnrerntx exrene nnxennx, npnnena mnornx pycnnon x ocosnannm
roro, uro xaxt ymemn pycnn - orcyrcrnymmee sneno, xoropoe
onxno trt noccranonneno ocrontmn npeemnnxamn.
Com HP n pyrne pycnncxne oprannsannn ntpasnnn coonesnonanne
xene noxonoro, erxm n pocrnennnxam.
Hmx nennxoro pycnna, npeannoro narpnora pycnncxoro xpax, sono-
rtmn yxnamn yer nnncano n ncropnm pycnncxoro napoa n Hoxap-
narcxo Pycn. Beunax emy namxrt!
185

Hpannna nynnxannn n aypnane Pycnn
Pexonnernx xypnana Pycnn npnnnmaer rontxo crartn, npncnannte ]a-
nom, npnxpennenntm x +nexrponnomy nnctmy. Crartx onxna trt o]opmnena
crporo n coornercrnnn c nsnoxenntmn nnxe rpeonannxmn n rmarentno ntun-
rana. B nnctme neoxonmo coomnrt cneennx o cee: ]amnnnm, nmx n orue-
crno nonnocrtm, yuente crenent n snanne, mecro paort n onxnocrt, +nexr-
ponnt apec, nouront apec c nnexcom.
Crartn ne onxnt npentmart 1 a.n. (32 000 snaxon c npoenamn) c oxsarent-
no annoranne na anrnncxom xstxe, coomennx 0,5 a.n., penensnn 0,2 a.n.
unent pexonnernn snaxomxrcx c marepnanom n npnnnmamr pemenne o ny-
nnxannn. Orstnt unenon pexonnernn n penensenron anropy ne coomamrcx.
mopua1 1exc1a
Asan orcryn 1,27 cm
Mexycrpount nnrepnan 1,5
Bpn]r Times New Roman, pasmep 14
Fes nepenocon!
Fyxna e crannrcx rontxo n rex cnyuaxx, xora samena na e ncxaxaer cmtcn
cnona, no ncex ocrantntx cnyuaxx rontxo e.
Coxpamennn
Hpn nepnom ynomnnannn nnna oxsarentno yxastnamrcx H.O., H.O. orenx-
mrcx npoenom or ]amnnnn.
Iot npn yxasannn onpeenennoro nepnoa yxastnamrcx rontxo n nn]pax, a
ne n uncnnrentntx: 20-e rot, a ne nanarte rot
Konxpernax ara aercx c coxpamennem r. nnn rr.: 1920 r., 19201922 rr.
He nex nnn nexa, a n. nnn nn. (pnmcxnmn nn]pamn): IX n.
Hncart rontxo nonnocrtm: rax xax, rax nastnaemte.
Hs coxpamenn onycxamrcx: r.., r.n., p., r.e., cm.
% crannrcx snauxom, a ne cnonom, ecnn cnxsan c nn]po, n orenxercx or
nn]pt nnrepnanom: 3 %.
Hn]pt: mnnnnont or rtcxu n rtcxun or coren orenxmrcx npoenom:
4 700 000, 1 560.
000 moryr trt samenent coornercrnymmnmn coxpamenntmn cnonamn n
apennarypamn: rtc., mnn., mnp.
Hasnannx enexntx snaxon amrcx no npnnxrtm coxpamennxm: onn., ]p.,
py., ]. cr., mapxa.
Kantuxn rontxo , ecnn saxantuennoe cnono naunnaer nnrary nnn npnmt-
xaer x xonny nnrart, ynorpenxmrcx xantuxn n xantuxax: "pas", na, rpn, "ue-
rtpe".
Cnocxn n ccmnxn n 1exc1e oqopunnm1cn n nopnxe cneonannn n 1exc1e
apacxnun nnqpaun. Pasnnunn ueay cnocxaun, o1cmnammnun x npnueuann-
nu nnn nnnorpaqnuecxouy onncannm nc1ounnxon, ne enae1cn. An1opcxne
npnueuannn n nnnorpaqnuecxoe onncanne nc1ounnxon am1cn n xonne c1a-
1tn ennmu noxou.
uamnnnn H.O. anropon xypcnnom.
Cnocxn ne anromarnuecxne, nponymeponannte apacxnmn nn]pamn.
Hn]pa cnocxn n xonne npenoxennx crannrcx nepe rouxo.
Hnnmcrpannn npeocrannxmrcx n ]opmarax tif nnn jpg (paspemennem ne me-
nee 200 dpi).
186
2009, N 2 (16)
CBEEHHR OB ABTOPAX
Annuon ennc Enrentennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, accncrenr xa]e-
pt ncropnn cnanxncxnx n anxancxnx crpan ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera Canxr-
Herepyprcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera. aljimov@mail.ru
Baunncxnn Hnan 3uynonnu - enyrar Hepeunncxo paonno Pat (3a-
xapnarcxax onacrt), xpaene. bachynskyj@gmail.com
annnen Kpnn Bacnntennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept
ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera.
jurijdanilec@rambler.ru
Manopon Anexcanp Bnuecnanonnu - oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop,
san. xa]epo myseeneennx CHIV (Canxr-Herepypr). maiorow@rambler.ru
Mapuyxon Anpen Bnancnanonnu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, nayunt
corpynnx Hncrnryra poccncxo ncropnn PAH. marchukov@mail.ru
Meemn Ienena - marncrp nnnrnncrnuecxnx nayx, nepenounx n npenoana-
rent pycnncxoro n cepcxoro xstxon. medesi@Eunet.yu
Mnmannn Bacnnnn Bacnntennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa-
]ept ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera.
vvmichanin@rambler.ru
Mnnomennu 3opan- oxrop nonnronornn, npo]eccop Hncrnryra nonnrnuec-
xnx nccneonann (Fenrpa). minsk@sezampro.rs
He1pon Cepren Kptennu - xannar rexnnuecxnx nayx, npexrop nayuno
]npmt. s.pribor@mail.ru
Cnop nun1pnn nun1pnennu - xannar orocnonnx, nporonepe, nacrox-
rent Kpecronosnnxencxoro coopa (r. Vxropo), npecearent Acconnannn
pycnncxnx oprannsann Com Hoxapnarcxnx pycnnon. dsidor1@online.ua
Cnnann Mnpocnan - npecearent npannennx orenennx Pycxe Marxn
(r. Bpac, Boenonna), unen rnannoro npannennx Pycxo Marxn Cepnn, onn
ns ocnonarene Pycxe ]onann, ocnonarent ne-cara www.rusnak.info.
svmiros@eunet.rs
Cynnx Cepren Ieoprnennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, rnannt peaxrop
mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn, npesnenr Omecrnenno
acconnannn Pyct (Monannx). sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
Hapanon Bnanunp Hnanonnu - unen-xoppecnonenr Axaemnn nayx Mono-
nt, oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop, npecearent Acconnannn yuentx
Monont nm. H. Mnnecxy Cn+rapy. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
187

ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Alimov Denis - Candidate of Historical Sciences, Assistant of the Faculty of
Slavic and Balkan History, Faculty of History of St. Petersburg State University.
aljimov@mail.ru
Bachinskii Ivan - Deputy of the Perechin Regional Council (Transcarpathia),
local historian. bachynskyj@gmail.com
Danilets Iurii - Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the
Faculty of the History of the Ukraine, Uzhgorod National University.
jurijdanilec@rambler.ru
Maiorov Aleksandr - Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor and Director of
Museum Studies of St. Petersburg University. maiorow@rambler.ru
Marchukov Andrei - Candidate of Historical Sciences, scholarly co-worker of the
Institute of Russian History, Russian Academy of Sciences. marchukov@mail.ru
Medeshi Helena - Master of Linguistic Studies, Translator of Rusin and Serbian.
medesi@Eunet.yu
Mishchanin Vasilii - Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of
the Faculty of the History of the Ukraine, Uzhgorod National University.
vvmichanin@rambler.ru
Miloshevich Zoran - Doctor of Political Science, Professor of the Institute of
Political Research (Belgrade). minsk@sezampro.rs
Petrov Sergei - Candidate of Technical Sciences, Director of scholarly firm.
s.probpr@mail.ru
Sidor Dimitrii - Candidate of Theology, Archpriest, Rector of Holy Cross Cathedral
Uzhgorod, President of the Association of Rusin Organizations The Council of
Subcarpathian Rusins. dsidor1@online.ua
Siladii Miroslav - President of the filial of Ruska Matka, Vrbats, Voivodina,
member of the main administration of Ruska Matka of Serbia, one of the founders
of Rusin Fondatsia, founder of the web-site www.rusnak.info. svmiros@eunet.rs
Suleak Sergei - Candidate of Historical Sciences, chief editor of the international
historical journal Rusin, President of t he Association Rus' .
sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
Tsaranov Vladimir - member-correspondent of the Academy of Sciences of
Moldova, Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, President of the Association of
Scholars of Moldova in honour of N. Milesku Spetaru. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
188
2009, N 2 (16)
SUMMARY*
Vladimir Tsaranov. Moldavian State: a Curved Path of Development. Formulated
in the middle of the 14th century, Moldavia lost its independence in the 19th
century although the memory of it remained with the people. On Dec. 2, 1917 a
Moldavian Democratic Republic was proclaimed. Unable to establish and strengthen
itself, it was occupied by Romania in 1918 and dissolved. The Moldavian Autonomous
Soviet Socialist Republic was established in 1924 on the left bank of the Dniester as
part of the Ukrainian SSR. On June 28, 1940 the Moldavian people were peacefully
united and the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, as part of the USSR, was formed.
Its development, the help of the government of the USSR, and the work of the
people provided for a formerly unheard of progress, a good quality of life for the
population of MSSR. In August 1991 an independent Moldova was proclaimed.
Sergei Suleak. Protest of the Moldovans against unity with Wallachia (about
the events which occurred on April 3, 1866 in the city of Yassy). The period of
unification of the Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia into a single state
unfortunately has not been reflected in historiography. During that time a part of the
Moldavian Principality - Bukovina - was joined to Austria (1774) and the territory
between the Pruth and Dniester, given the name Bessarabia, entered into the Russian
Empire (1812). A significant part of the population of Moldavia beyond the Pruth
protested against unity into a single state with Wallachia. On April 3, 1866 a peaceful
demonstration of the inhabitants of Yassy, lead by Kalnik Miklesku was fired upon
by a Wallachian regiment. Despite this, protest against unification continued.
Sergei Petrov. The Boundaries of Russian Civilization at the beginning of the
21th Century. The fluidity of the boundaries of Russian civilization during the last
20 years is a typical picture of disintegrating empires. Several grey areas, which we
could earlier relate to the spheres of influence of Russia, more definitely tie themselves
with the West (Western Ukraine, although ecclesiastically belonging to the Moscow
Patriarchate; Orthodox Moldova; Georgia). On the other hand, the obvious
process of the manipulative weakening of Russia is finished, which means that in
the future such a quick shifting of the boundaries of civilization will not be noticed.
A serious influence on the course of history, it is true, may be caused by ethnic
processes, however they may manifest themselves only after 2 to 3 decades. The
territories of Russian civilization may be conditionally broken into several groups:
territories with an orientation exclusively with Russia (Crimea, Pridnestovye, and
Southern Ossetia), stable territories (Belarus and Eastern Ukraine), territories of
Russian civilization for which the problem of self-identification is a priority (Abkhasia
and the Carpathian region of the Ukraine).
* Annotations of the material published in the rubrics "History of the Rusins",
"Subcarpathian Rus and Russian Civilization" and "Famous Rusins".
189
Summary
Archpriest Dimitrii Sidor. Sub-Carpathian Rus - the fruit of the state-evolving
Rusin Nation. The Subcarpathian Rusins formulated as an ethnos while within the
Austro-Hungarian Empire. In December 1918 Sub-Carpathian Rus, located within
Hungary, received autonomy. In 1919 this territory, called Subcarpathian Rus, joined
Czechoslovakia, becoming a third section of the federation. Having occupied
Subcarpathia in March 1939, Hungary preserved the autonomy of given territory. In
November 1944 autonomous Subcarpathian Rus became a typical region of the
Ukr. Soviet Socialist republic, the Transcarpathian Oblast. Despite the results of the
referendum of 1991, official Kiev does not wish to grant the region autonomy. The
Ukr. authorities refuse the Rusins the right to maintain their ethnicity.
Aleksandr Maiorov. From the History of Russo-Byzantine Dynasty Relations:
the Daughter of Emperor Isaac II in Galician-Volynian Rus. In literature a
significant development has arisen concerning the version of the Byzantine ancestry
of Roman Mstislavichs second wife. At one time, N. A. Baumgarten put forth an
idea that the future wife of Roman and the mother of his sons Daniil and Vasilko
should be researched among the daughters of the first marriage of the Byzantine
Emperor Isaac II, that is prior to his coming to authority. However, the historian later
rejected the idea, apparently not having found among the daughters the suitable
candidate. New findings similarly allow for the assumption that for 4 centuries the
fate of the Byzantine monastic, the Empress Evfrosinia, the daughter of Constantine
VI and the wife of Michael II, surprisingly was that of the daughter of Emperor Isaac
II, who was also named Evfrosinia. Having been placed in childhood in a monastery
by her father, after several years she returned to civil life to become the wife of the
Galician-Volynian Prince Roman Mstislavich, the chief military ally of the new Emperor
Alexis III. After several years, Evfrosinia again returned to monastic life, having
being widowed after the loss of Roman.
Denis Alimov. On the Ethno-political Situation in the Upper Tisza Region in the
IX Century: the Carpathian Rusin Place of Development and Post-Avar Area.
The paper deals with the problem of the ethno-political situation in the Upper Tisza
region which includes the territory of historical Subcarpathian Rus (the present-
day Transcarpathian Ukraine) in the IX century, after the fall of the Avar Kaganate
and before the arrival of the Hungarians. The problem is examined in the broader
context of the ethno-political situation in the eastern part of the post-Avar area. The
conclusion is made that notwithstanding the emergence of new policies there were
no stable ethno-political communities in this area before the arrival of the Hungarians.
It is also relevant that this is the territory where the ethnic group of the Carpathian
Rusins was later formed.
Sergei Suleak. The Rusin and Ukrainian Questions on the Eve of WWI. On the
eve of WWI, at the beginning of 1914, occurred events which may be viewed in the
light of the confrontation of 2 projects: the creation of a great Russian nation and
the Ukrainian, which excludes a common Russian identity. On the one hand, the
Second Maramarosh-Sighet and Lvovian Trials, the search of the editorial office of
the newspaper Russian Truth in Czernowitz and the arrest of the publisher and
190
2009, N 2 (16)
editor (Austria-Hungary) and the events, which took place in Russia on the 100th
anniversary of the birth of Shevchenko, a celebration used in anti-government
demonstrations, on the other. In 1914 the words of the Deputy of the Russian State
Duma A. I. Savchenko, were prophetic: if a wedge is driven into the same body of
the Russian people, then it will split it into two parts and throw one against the
other, so that in the end a terrible occurance will occur and there will be a real threat
to the integrity of the Empire. In 1997 this thought with regard to the Ukraine was
expressed by the well known American political scientist Z. Brzezinski in his The
Great Chessboard: the renunciation of the nearly 300-year old Russian imperialistic
history would signify the potential loss of the large industrial and agricultural
economy and 52 million people who are ethnically and spiritually tied closely and
largely to the Great Russians and who are capable of transforming Russia in actuality
into a strong and confident imperial state.
Andrei Marchukov. The Russian Question, Russian Patriotism and the Ukraine.
The history of the national development of the Subcarpathian Rusins and also the
Rusin movement in Galicia, Bukovina and Subcarpathia has a large scholarly as well
as practical interest and importance. It is well known how Ukrainian historiography
strives to distort and silence the given subjects and from that point of view - in
contrast to that ideology - it is necessary to raise and discuss the given themes.
Today the Western Ukrainian region (mainly Galicia and Western Volynia) are lost to
the Russian world. Ukrainian identity (in a very radical form) has completely
established itself on a massive level. The common Russian, pro-Russian and even
Soviet-Ukrainian consciousness in the Ukraine is in a state of self defence. Meanwhile
Ukrainian nationalism is actively on the offensive with state support. The solution
of the Ukrainian and Rusin questions is not in the Ukraine but in Russia. The
breaking of the politics of national nihilism with regard to the Russian people in
Russia, the rejection of the view of the Russian people as the source of human
resources and nondescript cement is only needed so that once having opened
into Russianism, will unite the other peoples of the Russian Federation automatically
and change the situation in the Ukraine.
Zoran Miloshevich. Rusins in Serbia. Concerning the Study of Rusin Politics
in Serbia. During the existence of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy both Rusins
and Serbs belonged to the same church - to the Serbian Orthodox. After 1948 Rusins
returned into the structure of the Russian Orthodox Church. Meanwhile, the tie
between the Rusins of Transcarpathia and the Rusins of Serbian Voivodina was
disrupted because of political reasons - the remainder of the uniatized Rusins in
Serbia was torn from the main masse of their Orthodox brothers. The Vatican, having
lost its position in Galicia, strived to move the center for its proliferation from Galicia
to Serbian Voivodina. The Rusins of Serbian Voivodina are an instrument by which
not only Catholic proselytism but the propagating of the idea of European integration
and the stepping into the NATO block are becoming a reality. Thus, during the
Serbian elections the majority of Rusins voted for pro-European parties, wishing to
push through a new law according to which the deputies, nominated from the
minorities, would dominate the right to veto in the region of Voivodina.
191
Summary
Iurii Danilets. Concerning the History of the Orthodox Church in
Transcarpathia. The process of the development of the Orthodox Church in
Transcarpathia is studied in the article. The role of the Orthodox hierarchs in the
educational work among the population is shown. In the second part of the article
are two documents which are published for the first time. The first is from 1912 - it is
the epistle of the uniat bishop Anthony Papp about the disruption of the Orthodox
movement. The second introduces the readers to 1941 and the idea of the creation
of educational institutions in Debrecen for the Orthodox population.
Vasilii Mishchanin. New Documents about Collectivization in Transcarpathia
in 1946 - 1950. Collectivization in Transcarpathia went through several periods.
The first 1944 - 1945 was the basic reform, 1946 - 1950 was direct collectivization. In
Transcarpathia there arose only two collective farms in 1946 but by April 1950 there
were 546. The characteristics of the period are given in the article and important
documents of the period of collectivization are published.
Ivan Bachynski. Enlightners of the Perechin Region. Among the population of
the Perechin region of the Transcarpathian Oblast were no small number of known
enlighteners and activists in the XVIII to the beginning of the XX centuries. Among
them were Ivan Pastelii, Ivan Churhovich, Alexander Sholtis, Ivan Silvai, Sion Silvai,
Alexander Mitrak, Evgenii Fentsik. They contributed a significant contribution into
the spiritual, educational, and socio-economic development of Hungarian Rus.
MEYHAPOHLH HCTOPHHECKHH YPHAA

2 0 0 9 , 2 ( 16 )
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Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx ,
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