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3 (17), 2009

9 771857 268509



,
,
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Omecrnennax acconnannx Pyct, 2009
Association "Rus'", 2009
HAVuHOE H3AHHE
Peaxnnonnan xonnernn:
oormop ucmopuu C. Cv.r (Mo.oaeu),
e.aeui peoarmop
oormop ucmopuu H. Lopuuroe (Mo.oaeu),
sa+ecmume.i e.aeuoeo peoarmopa
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr P. auu.e (Vrpauua),
sa+ecmume.i e.aeuoeo peoarmopa
M. A.+auu (Vrpauua)
M. Iopur (Cepou)
oormop ucmopu:ecrux uavr M. Ivooe.o (Poccu)
M. pouoe (Poccu)
rauouoam ucmopu:ecrux uavr B. Meprv.oe (Poccu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr B. Haor (Vrpauua)
oormop qu.ocoquu A. H.uuroea (C.oearu)
rauouoam qu.o.oeu:ecrux uavr . Hon (Vrpauua)
oormop .uueeucmu:ecrux uavr npoqeccop P. Pa+a: (Cepou)
oormop xaou.umam ucmopuu H. Pvccee (Mo.oaeu)
M. Cu.aou (Cepou)
oormop ucmopuu H. Te.iuoe (Mo.oaeu)
npomouepe o.Huro.a 4.opuucru (Mo.oaeu)
P. Lanra (Kauaoa)
Apec peaxnnn: Pecnynnxa Monona, MD 2001, r. Knmnnen,
yn. M. Kor+nnnuany, 24, xn. 1 A. Pecnynnxancxax omecrnennax acconnannx
Pyct.
Ten.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, ]axc: 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Editor's address: Association "Rus'". M. Kogalniceanu Street, 24, ap. 1A,
Kishinev, MD 2001, Moldova.
Tel.: (+373 22) 27-02-84, fax 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
COEPAHHE / CONTENTS
HPHKAPHATCKAR PYCL H PYCCKAR HHBHAH3AHHR /
CARPATHIAN RUS AND RUSSIAN CIVILIZATION
Hnxonan PYCCEB
Kapnarcxn xpa omecnanxncxoe rneso ........................................................... 6-20
Nikolai Russev
The Carpathian Land - a Common Slavic Nest
Maxcnu HX
O xpononornn xpncrnannsannn npnxapnarcxnx cnanxn ........................................... 21-31
Maksim Zhikh
The Chronology of the Christianization of the Carpathian Slavs
Mnxann HECHH
Iannnxoe neue n cotrnxx 1187-1188 rr. .................................................................. 32-46
Mikhail Nesin
The Galician Assembly in the events of 1187-118
HCTOPHR PYCHHOB / HISTORY OF THE RUSINS
Hropt BYPKYT
Hcropnuecxax cyta rannnxoro n yxonnncxoro pycnncrna. unnan ...................... 47-60
Igor Burkut
The Historical Fate of the Galician and Bukovinian Rusins
Cepren CYARK
Pycnnt: npomnoe, nacroxmee, yymee .................................................................. 61-70
Sergei Suleak
Rusins: the past, the present, the future
Mnxanno mEHCA
uopmn n meron yxpannsann pycnanox / pycnnox y Cepn n x opaxenc na craryc
pycxoro xsnxa ............................................................................................................. 71-78
Mikhailo Feisa
The forms and methods of the Ukrainianization of the Rusnaks/Rusins in Serbia and its
influence on the status of the Rusin language
Kpin AHHAEHL
Hapnc icropi cena Komentono Xycrctxoro paony 3axapnarctxo onacri ............ 79-89
Iurii Danilets
An Essay on the History of the Village of Koshelovo in the District of Khust of the
Transcarpathian Region
Bix1op KIHEPA
Kyntrypno-ocnirnx ixntnicrt monaxin Myxauinctxoro monacrnpx na 3axapnarri .... 90-95
Viktor Kichera
The cultural-educational activity of the Monks of the Monastery of Mukachevo in
Transcarpathia
3HAMEHHTLE PYCHHL / FAMOUS RUSINS
Enncxon Hon (CMAKOY3)
Hepxonnoe cnyxenne nepnoro ctna Iannnxo Pycn apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona (Py-
txa). K 50-nernm yupexennx 3monroncxo-Kanacxo enapxnn Mocxoncxoro
narpnapxara ....................................................................................................................... 96-119
Bishop Iov (Smakouz)
The Service to the Church of the dedicated son of Galician Rus Archbishop Panteleimon
Rudyk (on the 50th Anniversary of the Establishment of the Edmonton-Canadian Diocese of
the Moscow Patriarchate
un1po AHHAKK
Biomn yuenn-cnanicr M. Hyuxa (1789-1843) .............................................. 120-125
Dmytro Danyliuk
The well-known Scholar-Slavist M. Luchkai 1789-1843
Anpin CBITAHHEHL
Xnrrx ra ixntnicrt cxnapximanpnra Bixenrix (Opoca) .................................. 126-142
Andrii Svitlynets
The life and work of Schi-archimandrite Vikentii Oros
PYCHHCKAR BHBAHOIPAmHR / RUSIN BIBLIOGRAPHY
Kpnn AHHAEH
Hcropnx Myxauencxo enapxnn apxnmanpnra Bacnnnx (Hponnna) .............. 143-146
Iurii Danilets
History of the Diocese of Mukachevo by Archimandrite Vasilii (Pronin)
Maxcnu HX
K nponeme Pyccxoro xaranara: pennxx Pyct n ee crennte cocen ........... 147-157
Maksim Zhikh
Concerning the Problem of the Russian Kaganate: Medieval Rus and its Neighbors of
the Steppe
HO3PABAREM! / CONGRATULATIONS!
He1p mOPHHKOB
Xpannrent monancxo rpannnn .......................................................................... 158-167
Piotr Shornikov
The Guardian of Moldavian Tradition
APXHB / ARCHIVES
He1p PAIAHOB
Hapoonacenenne Feccapann (sanncxn paranona). Pyccxoe nacenenne Feccapann,
xopennoe n npnmnoe ............................................................................................... 168-174
Piotr Draganov
The Population of Bessarabia (Draganovs Notes). II. The Russian population of Bessarabia,
the Native and Immigrant
HEKPOAOI / NECROLOGY
Anexcanp HOBEAHXHH
O nononpecrannennom nporonepee Mnxanne Bynape (+26.09.2009) ................. 175-183
Aleksandr Povelikhin
About the newly-reposed Archpriest Mikhail Shuvar (+26.09.2009)
Honncxa na ueaynaponmn nc1opnuecxnn aypnan Pycnn ................. 184-186
Subscription to the International Historical Journal Rusin
Hpannna nynnxannn n aypnane Pycnn ................................................................ 187
Rules of Publication in the Journal Rusin
Cneennn o an1opax ............................................................................................ 188-189
Information about the Authors
Summary .................................................................................................................. 190-191
Vnaxaemte unrarenn!
B +rom nomepe xypnana mt npoonxaem nynnxannm marepnanon
mexynapono nayuno-npaxrnuecxo xon]epennnn Hpnxapnarcxax
Pyct n Pyccxax nnnnnnsannx, onnm ns nnnnnaropon xoropo ntcrynnn
nam xypnan.
Taxxe n Pycnne pasmement marepnant rpannnonntx pypnx xyp-
nana Hcropnx pycnnon, 3namennrte pycnnt, Pycnncxax nnno-
rpa]nx, Apxnn.
Kax n npexe, mt roront npeocrannxrt crpannnt namero nsannx
nccneonarenxm, sannmammnmcx nsyuennem ncropnn Kapnaro-necr-
poncxoro pernona n npoxnnammnx sect +rnocon.
Pasymeercx, rouxa spennx unenon pexonnernn na re nnn nnte non-
poct moxer ornnuartcx or nosnnnn anropa. Onaxo mt xnnem n e-
moxparnuecxne npemena, xora xaxt ns nac nnpane nmert n ntcxa-
stnart cnom nayuno oocnonannym rouxy spennx. Mt cunraem, uro
nosmoxnoe neconnaenne rouex spenn ne moxer nomemart corpynn-
uecrny nccneonarene. A xoppexrnax nayunax nonemnxa nomoxer nt-
xcnennm ncrnnt (n nosmoxnomy cnnxennm nosnnn).
Heanno nam xypnan tn nxnmuen n Poccncxn nnexc nayunoro
nnrnponannx. 3ro yer cnococrnonart onee mnpoxo ocrynnocrn
marepnanon namero xypnana.
Cepren CYARK,
rnannt peaxrop
mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn
6
2009, N 3 (17)
Hnxonan PYCCEB
KAPHATCKHH KPAH
OBmECAABRHCKOE IHE3O
B nponore x oneenno o 1273 r. Bennxonontcxo xponnxe yrnepx-
aercx, uro Hannonnn nnnne1cn ua1eptm n npapon1entnnnen
ncex cnannncxnx napoon. Ho nepecxasanno anropom reneanorn-
uecxo nerene, o1 +1nx nannonnen ponnnct 1pn pa1a, cmno-
ntn Hana, nnamxn nannonnen, ns xo1opmx nepnenen nuen nun
Aex, n1opon Pyc, 1pe1nn Hex. 31n 1poe, yunoaact n poe,
nnaenn 1peun xoponenc1naun: nexn1on, pyccxnx n uexon, na-
smnaeumx 1axae oreunaun, n n nac1onmee npeun nnaem1 n n
yymeu yy1 nnae1t, xax onro +1o ye1 yrono oaec1nen-
non none. Hpnx x mecry c nectma nnoopono nouno, nsonnym-
memy pto n nxnmn snepxmn, Hex ocnonan cnom cronnny Inesno.
Hpn +rom on xxot saxnnn: Byeu nn1t rneso (Bennxax xponnxa
1987: http://www.newchron.narod.ru/texts/p1.html).
Cnycrx nexa, ouennno, ne es ornxxn n na +ror ]ontxnopnt cm-
xer, B.O. Knmuencxn cenan snamenarentnoe saxnmuenne: Kapna-
mi oi.u oouec.aeucru+ euesoo+, us romopoeo enoc.eocmeuu c.a-
eue pasou.uci e pasuie cmopoui. Bennxn yuent cunran, uro
pyccxax ncropnx nauanact n VI n. ua ceeepo-eocmo:uix cr.ouax u
npeoeopix Kapnam, cranmnx npomexyrouno, xorx n onro croxn-
xo nocrountx cnanxn n nx nnxennn na nenp, xoropoe ycnnnnoct no
nropo uerneprn VII n. n cnxsn c anapcxnm namecrnnem. Hcropnorpa]
ormernn, uro nxrnue Honecrt npemenntx ner ntnonr o1 nnxon,
xorx onrann onn na Oxe (Knmuencxn 1987: 122-125).
Cnoeopasnt ]enomen xapnarcxo ncropnn, necomnenno, sacnyxn-
naer paccmorpennx ne crontxo n cnere nnont naxonnennoro ]axrnuec-
xoro marepnana, cxontxo n nny nocrenenno menxmmnxcx noxoon x
nonnmannm ponn npnpontx ocoennocre pernona. Henpemenntmn
crpyxrypamn noncenennocrn cnanxncxoro nacenennx n sect tnn pexn,
nyra, nonx, neca, no rax nnn nnaue conpxxennte c ycnonnxmn neprn-
xantno noxcnocrn rop. Hmenno ropnt nanma]r cosanan nx mecr-
noro nacenennx ]arantnym n +noxy cpenenexontx ocranonxy cyme-
crnonannx.
Ha nporxxennn mnornx cronern xo ncropnn pasnopaunnancx rax,
uro pernon pas sa pasom oxastnancx nepn]epnntm no ornomennm x
raxnm xyntrypntm n connantno-nonnrnuecxnm omnocrxm, xax:
7
,
1) enpasncxax crennax (xouenax);
2) cpeneynacxax, nnn nenrpantnoenponecxax;
3) nnxneynacxax, nnn anxano-ynacxax;
4) nnnnnnsannonno-oxymennuecxax (Rxnte Fanxant n Manax
Asnx);
5) cenepo-nocrounax necocrennax n necnax.
Bsanmoecrnne nenoxoxnx mnpon crano nocroxnno ecrnymmnm
]axropom, oycnonnnmnm neonoxparnym cmeny omnnanr xyntrypno-
ncropnuecxo opnenrannn pernona, a raxxe uepecnonocnoe pasnnrne
nponeccon nnrerpannn n esnnrerpannn (cm. Gukin Manzura, Rabinovich,
Tkaciuk 1995: 9-18).
B cpenne nexa, no mentme mepe, rpn ns nxrn nasnanntx mnpon (2,
3, 5) na rom nnn nnom +rane npnoperann xpxo ntpaxennt cnanxncxn
onnx. Cnanxne, cran ono ns nanonee momntx cnn Enpont, oxnnn
omnpnte npocrpancrna or noepextx Fanrncxoro mopx na cenepe o
Henononneca na mre, or accena 3ntt na sanae o 3anonxtx na
nocroxe. Cnanxncxoe nauano crano cocranno uacrtm mnornx omnx
nponeccon enponecxo ncropnn (ueopon 1960; Pa]anonnu 1972; Ttn-
xona-3anmona 1991: 38; Ceon 1995: 3-6). Bmecre c rem, n cnanxncxnx
omecrnax nponcxonnn rnyoxne nnyrpennne nsmenennx onn mnn no
nyrn cosannx cocrnenntx rocyapcrn, ]opmnponann orentnte xst-
xn n napnanrt marepnantno xyntrypt. Ooconxnnct rpn nernn cna-
nxncrna nocrounax, sananax n mxnax.
Pasymeercx, ntcoxo crenentm npnponoro pasnoopasnx Hpnxap-
narcxoro apeana oxcnxercx ero npnrxrarentnocrt nx mnornx napo-
on c mano cxontmn cnocoamn aanrannn x ecrecrnenno cpee. He
cnyuano nnnsn Kapnarcxoro xpera onraemoro npocrpancrna uacro
ne xnarano. Ho +ro npnunne xpa mnoroxparno cranonnncx apeno xpo-
nonponnrntx cronxnonenn. Bnpouem, noenrenxm nnxora ne yana-
noct ocnonrt sanoenannte semnn nennxom. B connantnom ornomennn
Hpnxapnarte ocrananoct cront xe mnoronnxnm, xax n ero npnpoa.
Ecnn ronopnrt o rocyapcrnenno rpann pernonantnoro nsanmoe-
crnnx, nentsx nporn mnmo nxnaa Pycn, Bnsanrnn, Fonrapnn, Benrpnn,
Hontmn, 3onoro Opt, Hnrnt, Monannn 3naunrentna pont n mec-
rno ncropnn cnanxn, nonoxon, nenrpon, nonxxon, nnronnen, rmpox, ue-
xon, apmxn, nemnen, enpeen n p. Bennxa pennrnosnax necrpora nme,
crpemnnmnxcx oocnonartcx n +rnx semnxx. Homnmo xpncrnan necxont-
xnx xon]eccn, ncrounnxn nastnamr cpen onrarene xpax mycynt-
man, nyancron, xstunnxon.
Conpemennte nccneonarenn nornepxamr mtcnt o rom, uro Hpn-
xapnarte xnnxercx penneme onacrtm +rnorenesa cnanxncxnx na-
poon. B uacrnocrn, +ro xopomo noxasano na npnmepe xopnaron, nne-
8
2009, N 3 (17)
mennoe opasonanne xoroptx ]opmnponanoct n pernone yxe c xonna IV
n. Co npemenem Bennxax Xopnarnx snaunrentno pacmnpnna cnon nna-
ennx na cenepe n cenepo-sanae. o 80-x rr. IX n. c1pany pycon
nocrounte anropt pasmemann na cenepe Bocrouno Enpont, a semnn
Cpenero Honenpontx n Hpnxapnartx nmenonann c1panon cnannn.
3ect naxonnnct na rnanntx cnanxncxnx ropoa. Onn ns nnx conoc-
rannxercx c Knenom, a pyro c nenrpom xopnar, n xoropom npetnan
nx napt (Honocentnen 1965: 372-408; noponee cm. Maopon 2006).
3arem nonxrne Pyccxan seunn crano coornocnrtcx co cpannn-
rentno neontmo reppnropne mexy Knenom, uepnnronom n Hepexc-
nannem, npenparnnmecx n norunny xnencxnx xnxse (Tonouxo 1975: 5),
a nect ocranmncx nocrounocnanxncxn apean naxonncx sa ee npee-
namn. 3ro tno nsnecrno Koncranrnny Farpxnoponomy (944-959), nn-
canmemy o rom, uro n exerontx noxoax poccon na Koncranrnnonont
yuacrnonann comsnnxn poccon nx nax1no1m, n npoune Cnann-
nnn (Koncranrnn Farpxnopont 1991: 45). Menee uem uepes rpn e-
cxrnnernx nocne roro xax Honecrt npemenntx ner ormernna noxnne-
nne crpant, xoropax nauana nposmna1tcn Pyccxan seunn, n 885 r.
xnxst Oner noenan c nnemenamn ynnue n rnnepnen, xoropte xnnn n
Honecrponte, oxox o uepnoro mopx n ynax, a n nepxontxx Hpyra
n necrpa nx semnn cmtxannct c nnaennxmn xopnaron. B 907 r. rnnep-
nt n xopnart npnnnmann yuacrne n noxoe xnencxoro xnxsx na Kon-
cranrnnonont, n xoropom unoro sna cenann pyccxne rpexau
(HBH 1950: 14-16; HCPH 1962: cr. 10, 12, 16, 17, 21). K xonny npanne-
nnx Hropx (912-945) n rnnepnt, n ynnun nounnnnnct nnacrn Knena n
nomnn n cocran nacenennx pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna (PC 2002: 58 n
p.). Onaxo nepn]epnnoe nonoxenne sanantx n mro-sanantx pyc-
cxnx nnaenn n xaxo-ro mepe oycnonnno nenosmoxnocrt ocrnxe-
nnx nx nonno noxopnocrn.
Hocne naennx no yapamn nenrpon Bennxo Mopannn (906 r.) sa-
nanax uacrt Xopnarnn nomna n uemcxoe rocyapcrno, a sarem ee sax-
narnn sannmanmn neonro, n 1003-1004 rr., npaxcxn rpon nontcxn
xnxst Fonecnan Xpapt (992-1025). Bocrounym uacrt xpax y Bepxne-
ro necrpa sanoenan Bnanmnp Cnxrocnannu, a mxnoxapnarcxne sem-
nn xopnaron nounnnn Cre]an I Cnxro (997-1038). B 1001-1003 rr. nep-
nt nenrepcxn xopont npncoennnn Hornccxym nnsmennocrt, re tn
cosan norpannunt oxpyr Pyccxan Mapxa, xoropo ynpannxn na-
cnennx rpona. Hpnnn Hmpe norn n 1031 r., no Mapxa, nosmoxno, cy-
mecrnonana n nosnee. Hpn +rom n 3axapnarte norpannute Knencxo
Pycn, Hontmn n Benrpnn cocrannxna necncrax ropnax onacrt, xoropax
nnnort o XIII n. nmenonanact nnuennon seunen (Hon 2006: 34; cp.
Ipymenctxn 1992: 488).
9
,
Ocroxrentcrna ro +noxn n onnctnaer counnenne apacxoro reo-
rpa]a an-Hpncn (1154 r.). On coomaer, uro C1pana ap-Pycnna na
sanae rpannunr c Hontme, a na mre c ynacxo Fonrapne (seu-
nn ypaan), uepntm mopem n Kymanne, r.e. nononenxnmn nnaenn-
xmn. Cornacno onncannm, +1o ontman c1pana, no ropoa [ee] ne-
nennxn, a nosenannme seunn uepeym1cn c neopao1annmun.
Pacc1onnnn ueay ropoaun ontmne, a onac1n nsonnponanm
ona o1 pyron]. Tau [ney1cn] noc1onnnme nonnm n yconnm.
Ona ns nsnecrntx anropy onacre Iannnxan seunn. On nast-
naer ropoa +ro nanonee oranenno Pycn, xoropte oroxecrnnx-
mrcx c uepnenom, Hepemtmnem, 3nennropoom n Iannuem. na nan-
menonannx Caxnaxn n Bapuynnu, nomemennte mexy Kapna-
ramn n necrpom, c pasno crenentm nepoxrnocrn cnxstnamrcx c npe-
mecrnennnxamn ropoon cpenenexono Monannn Cyuant n Hxrpa-
Hxmn (Kononanona 1999: 124, 133-143; Kononanona, Hepxanxo 2000: 163-
170).
o cepennt XII n. xnencxnx npannrene snann na 3anae xax xo-
ponen. Onaxo n ono ns repmancxnx xponnx no 1165 r. nnepnte
ncrpeuaercx coomenne o pyccxnx xopontxax. Kax onycxamr ne-
xoropte nccneonarenn, peut ner o xnxstxx ns sananopyccxnx se-
ment (Bymapnn 1965: 424-430).
Ooconenne Iannnxo semnn cnxstnaercx c xnxstxmn-nsroxmn pa-
rtxmn Pmpnxom, Bonoapem n Bacnntxo Pocrncnannuamn, xoropte no-
xnnnnct n Hpnxapnarte n 1084 r. Hocne cmeprn Pmpnxa (1094 r.) nnae-
nnx tnn pasenent Bonoapm ocrannct Hepemtmnt n 3nennro-
po, a Bacnntxo Tepeonnt n Iannu. B npornnocroxnne y sanantx
npeenon Pycn nrxrnnannct n uyxesemnt nonxxn, nenrpt, nononnt.
Hepnoe nanaenne nenrepcxn xopont Hacno I (1077-1095) conepmnn
yxe n 1092 r. B 1099 r. Pocrncnannun c nomomtm nononnen pasnnn
npnneennoe nx npornnnnxom pocnanom nocxo xoponx Konomana (1095-
1116). urot sapyunrtcx noepxxo Bnsanrnn, n 1104 r. Bonoapt or-
an out samyx sa nmneparopa Anexcex Komnnna (1081-1118), raxxe
npaxonanmero c Benrpne (HCPH 1962: cr. 230-231, 245-248, 256;
HB 1971: 142; Kpnn`xxennu 1984: 68-70). Bnanmnpxo Bonoapennu (1124-
1152) cenan n 1141 r. Iannu cronnne. On tcrpo osanencx mnpoxn-
mn mexynapontmn cnxsxmn naroapx ntnosy conn. Hsnecrnt ]axr:
xora n 1096 r. xynnt ne nmenn nosmoxnocrn ocrannrt n Knen cont ns
Hpnxapnartx, ee ocrpt neocrarox ncntrana ncx Pyct (Hcaennu 1973:
94).
Tora xe n ornomennn Iannnnn onapyxnnnct sanoenarentnte na-
mepennx Benrpnn. Bropxennx nenrpon ormeuent n 1139, 1144, 1148, no
na pasa n 1150 n 1151, 1152 rr. Tontxo Fena III (1172-1196) noctnan
10
2009, N 3 (17)
nocxo na Pyct uertpext: n 1188, 1189, 1190, 1202 rr. (Kpnn`xxennu
1984: 72-76; HB 1971: 142). B 1188 r. on xnnncx n Iannu xxot nx nomo-
mn ecnyrnomy, mano noxonnmemy na orna Bnanmnpy pocnannuy n
ne nocan n neu Bononuepa, no ae nect napn rannuanau n
nocan n neu cmna cnoero Anpen (HCPH 1962: cr. 661), a cex
yocronn rnrynom xopont Iannua (HB 1971: 143). B cnoxneme
ocranonxe noxopxn omnpnoe xnxxecrno Poman Mcrncnannu, sanoe-
nanmn rannnxne nnaennx rontxo n xonne xnsnn 1199-1205 rr. (Kpn-
n`xxennu 1984: 83-87). Hocne rnenn Pomana xecroxax opta sa ra-
nnnxoe nacnecrno npoonxanact eme rpert cronernx. Ha rpone cme-
nnnoct 11 xnxse. Hpaxrnuecxn ne npexpamannct nmemarentcrna ns-
nne. Pyccxne xnxstx mnoroxparno camn npnnonnn cma nononnen n
1202, 1208, 1213, 1217, 1219, 1226, 1228, 1235 rr. 3axnarnnuecxne nrop-
xennx ns Benrpnn n rannnxne semnn nmenn mecro n 1205, 1206, 1208,
1211, 1212, 1213, 1214, 1216, 1220 rr. He ocrananact n cropone n Hontma.
B 1214 r. nenrepcxne n nontcxne npanxmne xpyrn saxnmunnn corname-
nne o pasene crpant. B 1215 r. uacrt mecrnoro oxpcrna axe npnsna-
na nenrepcxoro npnnna Kantmana xoponeu Iannua. B nocroxnno me-
nxnmecx rxxeno ocranonxe saxonnomy nacnennxy annne Pomano-
nnuy (1202-1264) c pannero ercrna n o spenoro nospacra necxontxo
pas onenoct sannmart npecron n 1205-1206, 1211-1212, 1230-1232,
1233-1234 rr. Oxonuarentno on cmor yrnepnrtcx n Iannnnn naxanyne
namecrnnx monronon, rontxo c 1238 r. (HB 1971: 143; Hnernena 1975:
296-297. Pnc. 7; Boronnu 1996: 61).
Tecnte nnunte ornomennx nepxymxn omecrna sa rpannne, rax nnn
nnaue crponnmnecx nocpecrnom paxon, eme ona ornnunrentnax
uepra rannnxo-nontncxo ncropnn. Mecrntm xnxxnuam n oxpcxnm
ctnontxm ropaso uame, uem n pyrnx uacrxx Pycn, notcxnnann xen
ns nnnnnnsannonno uyxtx npeenon. Ieneanornx Pomana Mcrncnann-
ua (1152-2005) n ero noromxon necrpnr nmenamn npecrannrentnnn npa-
nxmnx cemecrn uexnn, Hontmn, Benrpnn, Ancrpnn, Bnsanrnn, Hnrnt,
Hononenxoro nonx. B cnom ouepet xnxxnt +roro poa nepexo crano-
nnnnct cynpyramn npannrene rex xe crpan (cm. Boronnu 1996: ran.
17). Taxne npounte n onrne cemente xonraxrt, onapyxnnammne
xnnt xpen n cropony 3anaa, npnnenn x noxnnennm na Pycn cnauana
xoponencxoro rnryna, a sarem npannrenx-xaronnxa. H ecnn nenrepcxo-
my npnnny saxpennrtcx n Iannue ne yanoct, ro +ro n 1324 r. cmor nerxo
cenart nontcxn crannennnx Fonecnan-Rpn, nnocnecrnnn oxasan-
mncx rneptm croponnnxom npanocnannx (Kpnn`xxennu 1984: 111-113).
Hoxasarentno nanonnennoe repmnnamn pocrna n noponocrxmn
xpononponnrno optt onncanne Bennxonontcxo xponnxo ono no-
nnrnuecxo xaptept Pomana Mcrncnannua, xoropt n e1c1ne noc-
11
,
nn1mnancn y cnoero ea Kasnmnpa, a npannrenem Iannnnn cran na-
roapx nomomn nomponoro para. Cornacno ncrounnxy, on ymonxn
Hemxa, u1om 1o1 npnnnsan ero x cee neunon cnyaon n na-
snaunn [nyc1t] ne xnnseu rannnxnu, no cnonu npoxypa1opou.
Onaxo, nonyunn nnacrt, Poman nponen xecroxne penpeccnn sna1nen-
mnx rannnxnx canonnnxon. Onncan n camtx uepntx xpacxax ex-
nnx rnpana, anrop cenan xareropnuecxoe saxnmuenne, uro xnxst xn-
nxncx nn cnonx rpaaan onee uyonnmnmu nparou, ueu nn
nenpnn1enen (Bennxax xponnxa 1987: http://www.newchron.narod.ru/
texts/p1.html). Bnsanrncxn ncropnx Hnxnra Xonnar nornepxaer, uro
nx naneennx nopxxa xnxsm npnmnoct oarpnrt meu n xponn cnonx
connemennnxon (IHFH 1983: 65-66).
Koneuno, cmastnanne +rnnuecxo n pennrnosno nenrnunocrn, npo-
xnnnmeecx n XII-XIV nn. xax y ornptcxon nontncxo nernn Pmpnxonn-
ue, rax n y mecrno snarn noome nponecc nocrenennt n npornno-
peunnt. B ocrptx cnryannxx nocrnennocrt camocosnannx nensexno
crannna xonxperntx nme nepe neoxonmocrtm ntopa, nepexo
esopnenrnponanmero nente cnon nacenennx. He noxnanmne Iannn-
xym Pyct n oxpecrnte paont neypxnnt nanonee naryno cxastna-
nnct na centcxnx xnrenxx. Cnacenne or e mornn art rontxo nec n
ropt, xya n yxonnn nmn. Bne ocnoenntx rocyapcrnamn reppnropn,
xoropte, noxoxe, connaann c npeenamn son xpononponnrntx cronx-
nonenn, xnsnt tna esonacnee. 3ro ooconxno n xoncepnnponano
connantnte ycron nentx maccnnon nacenennx, ntxonnmero ns-no nna-
crn amnnncrparnnno-nonnrnuecxnx nenrpon.
Ona raxax omnocrt nsnecrna no nmenem nmronnen rannnxnx,
o xoroptx nanncano mnoro, no ocrarouno xcnocrn o cnx nop ner (cp.
Hamyro 1950: 144; PC 2002: 203-209). B ornnune or pyrnx orpxon
nmronnm npntnn n pacnonoxenne pyccxo-nononenxoro nocxa na-
xanyne nrnt na Kanxe necno 1223 r. na rtcxue nae, uem cmyrnnn
mnornx xnxse, nxnmuax annny Pomanonnua. O crpannom nocxe cxa-
stnann, uro ero cocrannxmr npoc1me nmn, nyme nononnen. Ho-
cxontxy neotunax necrponcxax ]nornnnx nasnana onnnn pyc-
xmx, na nnx, no nce nnnmocrn, naxonnnct pyccxoxstunte xoman-
t. Hmontrno, uro npecrannrenn Pycn, n rom uncne rannuane n no-
ntnnt, npntnn xnao co cnonun xnnstun, a naxonnmnecx npn
nmronnax Rprn omamepnu n epxnxpa Bononcnannu raxont-
mn ne xnnxnnct (HCPH 1962: cr. 742). Btmemax ns paona rannnxnx
nnaenn, no xnno ne nonnacrnax nx xnxsm narara n macce pyccxnx
nonnon ntrnxena +xsornuecxn.
Bosmoxno, uro n nmronnax rannnxnx cneyer nnert rpynny
nacenennx Hpnxapnartx, pasnnnmymcx na ocnone cnanxno-pomancxoro
cnnresa. 3anxrne no npenmymecrny orronntm onnenocrnom (cm. Ho-
12
2009, N 3 (17)
neno 1980: 44-62), namex na xoropoe xax yro t coepxnrcx n ca-
mom nanmenonannn nmronnm, ntenxno nx ns macct xnrene Kap-
narcxoro pernona. Cunraercx, uro sacenenne xopenntx sement yy-
me Monannn nponcxonno nmenno n pesyntrare nponnxennx nonoxon
n pycnnon rnanntm opasom ns-sa rop n n mentme mepe ns Iannnxnx
sement (Honeno 1979: 32, 109-112; 1985: 16-17, 64, 86 n p.). Kax nona-
ramr, nmenno nonoxn ntcrynnnn xonxypen1aun pycnnon n no mno-
rnx mecrax nx nornornnn (cm. Ipymenctxn 1994: 226). Onaxo +ror
nponecc tn nocrenenntm, npxmo cnxsanntm c nosmoxnocrxmn pac-
mnpennx xnsnennoro npocrpancrna n nsmenennx rnna xosxcrna. B Mon-
annn raxne ycnonnx tnn, no+romy sect npaxrnuecxn nensnecrnt
cnyuan cronxnonennx nonoxon n pycnnon (Cynxx 2004: 72-74). Ho coo-
mennm monancxo neronncn, npn ncrpeue n paone yyme Cyuant
naceunnx-pycnn Enxo ronopnr paromy n ero cnyrnnxam ns Mapamype-
ma, uro x nocroxy or Kapnar uec1noc1t nyc1mnnan npoc1npa-
e1cn nnns, o ynan, a nnepx o nec1pa, re rpannun1 c 3eunen
Anmcxon (Ipnrope Vpexe 1971: 65). Heoxnrte omnpnte n naro-
npnxrnte nx onrannx reppnropnn crann naxno npenoctnxo mnp-
noro cocymecrnonannx nonomcxnx n pycnncxnx omnn, onroe nsanmo-
ecrnne xoroptx npn yuacrnn pxa pyrnx +rnocon n nrore c]opmnpo-
nano monanan.
Ouennno, eno ne rontxo n rom, uro na nporxxennn nexon n Hpnxap-
narte cocymecrnonann mnorne napot, nepecexannct noroxn mnrpann
n cranxnnannct nnrepect npaxentx nonnrnuecxnx cnn. Fonee nax-
no npecrannxercx cnoconocrt xpax cnnresnponart ns mecrno +rno-
xyntrypno mosanxn nonte connantnte ]enoment. B uacrnocrn, po-
om orcma opnrnnantnte rpynnt nacenennx, xoropte cxnatnannct
ns nyx n onee xomnonenron, no n coornercrnnn c nenennem npemenn
emoncrpnponann ror ns nnx, xoropt onee pyrnx oecneunnan nm
xnsnecroxocrt. Taxontmn tnn rnnepnt, ynnun, epnannxn, ponn-
xn, rannnxne ntronnt, y xoroptx cnanxncrno xnnxnoct nnmt onnm ns
onnxon +rnnuecxo cymnocrn.
Vxe nnrnponannt nontcxn xponncr XIII n. ynepxer, uro cnanxnc-
xne napot, xnnmne nnnsn Kapnar, nonnuam1 pyr pyra, a nenr-
pt n caun nnnnm1cn cnannnaun (Bennxax xponnxa 1987: http://
www.newchron.narod.ru/texts/p1.html). 3ro nosmoxno npecrannrt, ront-
xo ecnn nmert n nny, uro na crann ope1ennn ponnm nenrpamn
nyxstune crano nx uacrn mecrntx cnanxn nannonnen cnoco-
om nocrenennoro nxnnannx n nonym connantnym peantnocrt.
ecrnnrentno, no anntm Honecrn npemenntx ner, n 898 r., npn-
x ns-sa Kapnar n Hannonnm, nenrpt nacnenma seunm 1y, n ceo-
ma c cnonenm, noxopnnme n no cn. Tem camtm nosnnx n cna-
13
,
nnncxnn uoc1nx na nocrox, oxcnxmmn n nenrepcxne nperensnn
na rocnocrno n Iannnxo semne. oannm x +romy, uro sa nxrt crone-
rn or Antma o ueopa Kopnaronnua nacunrtnamr uertpe snaun-
rentnte nonnt pycnncxoro paccenennx, npntnmne no nnaennx Benr-
pnn c nocroxa. Orpaxennem +roro cnoeopasnoro nanora xnnnnct no-
nte nanmenonannx Kapnar. Pyccxne crann ynorpenxrt nonxrne Yrop-
cxne ropm, y nenrpon noxnnnoct cnonocoueranne Py1encxne ropm
(HBH 1950: 21; Ipymenctxn 1994: 221-224; Bymapnn 1965: 433).
Horpannute nensexno nopoxano nme ocooro cxnaa. Tnnnu-
ntm npecrannrenem cnoonoro nacenennx mro-sanano oxpannt
penne Pycn moxer cunrartcx nontnmn opmn uonoen y-
na Hnanonnu, mecrom nmesa xoroporo nastnamr Bontnt (Hponn,
Hyrnnon 1958: LVI). B ornnune or tnnnno rponnt Anemn Hono-
nnua, optnn Hnxnrnua, Hntn Mypomna, +ry prvm u mpvouvm o.
nouu+auu quevpv pvccroeo onoca (Maunncxn 1981: 149) naponax
namxrt nnxax ne cnxstnaer c nepno cnyxo xnencxomy xnxsm. Cam o
cee orartpt ronopnr:
R xonn-rynnn a ns opm n opy,
Hs opm n opy a ns seunn n seunm,
R npnmen, ynan, x xoponm n An1ny.
3a rot uyxesemno cnyxt on ne cenan necrxme xaptept, ne
pasoraren, no cymen rano cornct c xoponencxo oueptm. Bo npemx
onoro ns nnpon npn nope, xya nosnmnennax npocnna ynammxy ne
xonrt, saxmenenmn repo onpomerunno noxnacran npannrenm: Cnnm
co ymentxon c Hac1actmmxon c xoponennunon. Or nepno no-
rnenn ero yny ronony cnacna Hacractx, raxxe oporo nonnarnnmax-
cx sa cno nocrynox:
O1nyc1nna ynan na cnom nonm,
Caua yexana a no unc1o none (Ftnnnt-1 1958: 286-288).
Ho pyro +nnuecxo necne yna, naxonnmncx n xnencxo remnn-
ne Bnanmnpa, nsxncx otrt n xopopon An1ne nenecry nx xnx-
sx. Em crana Onpaxca-xoponennuna mnamax cecrpa ero necuacrno
nosnmnenno Hacractn. Btnonnnn saanne, na oparnom nyrn yna
nnuno yenncx, uro ero norepxnmaxcx sasnoa nce nonnxye1. Ie-
po noenn n unc1ou none ocrananmymcx o nocnenero momen-
ra neysnanno orartpmy-Hacractm. Hx cnata n Knene oepnynact
cmeprtm epemenno monoo n camoro ynax (Ftnnnt-1 1958: 283-
284, 298-304).
Hpecrannxercx, uro c ynaem n Hacracte cneyer cnxstnart oco-
t opas xnsnn, oecneunnanmn nesanncnmocrt orartpe. Kax-
t ns nnx xnner n marpe cpen uncroro nonx n nonnxye1 cpaxa-
ercx c pasntmn npornnnnxamn (cp. c onee nosnnm nonxrnem xasa-
xona1t). Tax nmn, ymemne ns-no uyxo nm nnacrn, crannnn cex
14
2009, N 3 (17)
xax t nne saxona n no+romy pncxonann mnornm, yyun no cymecrny
nsroxmn (Konecon 1986: 62-63, 117, 174). Pasymeercx, nx nonoxennm
onnosnnnn cno uyxo raxxe tna cnocrnenna nocrnennocrt.
He cnyuano n tnnnnom ynae nnenn pyccxoro, ne ncxnmuax ntxo-
na ns ponnxon nnn onrapcxoro orartpx c ynacxnx eperon (Pt-
axon 1963: C. 62-68).
C Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pyctm cnxstnaercx nponcxoxenne n nexoro-
ptx pyrnx tnnn, sanncanntx anexo or mecr +nnuecxnx cotrn,
nanpnmep, na pyccxom Cenepe, a raxxe meenp pennepyccxo nnrepa-
rypt Cnono o nonxy Hropene (Hcaennu 1973: 99, 101). C pyro cro-
pont, n XIX n. na Iannunne sanncant naponte necnn, n xoroptx npo-
cnannxmrcx nonnt, ornpannxmmnecx na uennax na 1nxnn ynan.
Hpocntman o xnnymem re-ro n nanpannennn x Hapt-ropoy opou
nane, onn nannmamrcx na cnyay uonoenxym sa mepym nnary
no 100 uepnonntx, xonm, caentxe, xa]rany, manxe n xpacnon e-
nnne n ro (Cononten 1988: 257-258, 322-323). 3ect ncnomnnaercx n
neronncnoe coomenne o rom, uro na rom xe nanpannennn Bacnntxo
xo1en nepen1t onrapm ynancxmn n nocan1n n n cee (HCPH
1962: cr. 240). 3rn namepennx xnxsx ]nxcnpymr otunte nen n npax-
rnxy cpenenexontx npannrene. C ono cropont, nenacenennte rep-
pnropnn Hpnxapnartx ne nnrepeconann semnennaentnen, a ocrpax nyx-
a n sanncnmom centcxom nme na pyexe XI-XII nn. cymecrnonana.
Onaxo y ne xenanmnx paccranartcx c pennnmn cnooamn omnnnn-
xon n ycnonnxx necranntnocrn cymecrnonannx ocrananact nosmox-
nocrt yrn n rpynoocrynnte ropnte mecra nno axe sa npeent
pernona.
Hpenonaraercx, uro xnnyuecrt opasa ynax n mn]onornn n opx-
ax xstuecxoro nponcxoxennx xnnxercx xonnexrnnno peaxnne pyc-
cxoro napoa na xpncrnannsannm (Maunncxn 1981: 170-171). Hocne
xpemennx Bnanmnpa crapte repon n orn orcrynnnn na yxpannt,
re nx eme onro npoonxann nounrart. B +rom nnane ne xnnxercx nc-
xnmuennem mro-sana Pycn, re na rope Fornr y pexn 3pyu orpomnoe
omennemennoe cnxrnnnme co snamennrtm nonom npoonxano e-
crnonart o XI n. (Ptaxon 1988: 236-251; 755). Conpemennte nccne-
onannx apxeonoron nornepxamr pennrnosnt cnnxpernsm nacene-
nnx Bocrounoro Hpnxapnartx, ne ono cronerne nocne npnnxrnx xpnc-
rnancrna coxpanxnmero +nemenrt xstuecrna n pasnnuntx c]epax cno-
e xnsnn. Ecnn xstuecxne xpamt n cnxrnnnma ]ynxnnonnponann y cna-
nxn Fyxonnnt, no xpane mepe, eme n XI-XIII nn., ro nemano oxpncrn-
ancxnx opxon oxnno o nonoro npemenn (Hnnonapon 2006: 215-242;
Bosnn 2009-2: 379-404).
Hmenno n Iannnxo-Bontncxo semne oxymenrantno sa]nxcnpona-
nt cosnarentnte cnyuan npenepexnrentnoro ornomennx x xpncrnan-
15
,
crny co cropont ntcme snarn. Tax, n xonne 1152 r. xnxst Bnanmnpxo
ne rontxo napymnn xpecrnym npncxry, no n conepmnn oroxyntcrno, na-
cmexaxct na naxnemnm cnmnonom xpncrnan. Bo mnorom xstuecxne
npant camoro Iannua ncxptnaer n ncropnx c nesaxonno cynpyro ero
ctna, no nce nepoxrnocrn, nponcxonnme ns nononenxoro poa. poc-
nan Bnanmnponnu (1153-1187) orxptro xnn c ne, a ctna or nee xoren
cenart cnonm nacnennxom. Iannuane npecexnn +ro npecrynnenne:
pocrnennnxon Hac1actxn nepennn, naxname ornt coxroma m,
ctna ornpannnn n sarouenne, a xnnsn nonnmee xo xpec1y, nxo
euy nue1n xnnrnnm nt npany. Tax tn npeoonen nnyrpnnonnrn-
uecxn xpnsnc, n xoe xoroporo mecrnoe omecrno pacxononoct, cxopee
ncero, no pennrnosnomy npnsnaxy. Heronnct ormeuaer, uro nst Iann-
ua ns Anxn exana saxonnax xena xnxsx Ontra co cnonm ctnom n
unosn onpe c nem mma 1auo (HCPH 1962: cr. 461-463, 564; cp.
Ipymenctxn 1992: 432, 442-447; Kpnn`xxennu 1984: 76-79; xonenxo 2006:
99). Ha ]one ycnnnnanmerocx xaronnuecxoro nacrynnennx (Cniepct-
xn 1983) n nosnpara xstuecrna e rurecro-oopcrux rpveax npe-
crannxercx xcntm, nouemy necnoonoe or oxpncrnancxnx pemnnnc-
nennn Cnono o nonxy Hropene (Ptaxon 1988: 774-775) cnanocnonnr
rannnxoro Ocuoumcna Rpocnana n uerxo ntpaxennom crnne +noxn
nenoro rocnocrna Hepyna (cm. Cnono 1985: 30). Hannune n ome-
crnennom cosnannn mnoxecrna yxonntx opnenrnpon xnnxnoct ono
ns npnunn orcyrcrnnx y nacenennx Rro-3anano Pycn rnepo nept.
O ocoennocrxx raxoro poa pennrnosnocrn yxe n nnroncxo-
nontcxn nepno coxpannnoct cnnerentcrno 1573 r.: C 980 roa nce
pyccxne npnnnnn xpnc1nanc1no, xo1n n no rpeuecxouy opny,
xo1opoe ontmnnc1no ns nnx ncnonemnam1 n nonmne, xax nn
c1apam1cn onn cxpmna1t +1o. Onaxo ae onn mnn opamenm n
xa1onnuecxym nepy eme co npeuenn Kasnunpa Bennxoro, xo1o-
pmn nepnmn yupenn enncxoncxym xaqepy no Atnone n 1361
roy. Kpome roro, an1enn Pycn no nce npeuena mnn cnntno
npeanm uarnn, xononc1ny n pyrnu yaacnmu uapoenc1nau,
oannxer anrop. On paccxastnaer xax n 1431 r. pyccxne, ocaxen-
nte Bnancnanom rano n Hynxe, npnnecnn n xeprny monooro nonx-
xa. Hpn +rom nce rnannme noan nnnn no rno1xy ropnuen xpo-
nn necuacrnoro nnennoro. 3arem onn npoonxnnn opx oxypnnann
xpenocrt, nonoxnn nny1pennoc1n n cepne xeprnt n ontmym
aaponnm, nanonnennym ropnmnun yrontnun. Ho cnonam cocra-
nnrenx sanncox, pyccxne mnn yeaenm, u1o npn nouomn +1nx
nonmec1n ocnoon1cn o1 ocam (Fnes e Bnxenep 1890: 65-66).
Horpannunoe nonoxenne pernona npenarano nacenennm nent cnexrp
pennrnosntx oxrpnn, a n pxe cnyuaen enano ry nnn nnym ]opmy npn-
16
2009, N 3 (17)
omennx x nnm ycnonnem cymecrnonannx. 3romy cnococrnonano co-
cecrno c xaronnxamn n xstunnxamn nononnamn, nnronnamn, monro-
namn. 3naxomt c mntx ner c xaronnuecxnm nepoyuennem annna Ia-
nnnxn ne rontxo cmnpenno npnnxn xopony or nocnannnxa nant, no n
panee ntnyxen tn ncntrart uec1t 1a1apcxym n yuacrnonart n
uyxo emy pennrnosno nepemonnn n cranxe monrontcxoro xana (Kpn-
n`xxennu 1984: 97-104 n p.). Ero npannyx-xaronnx Fonecnan, urot
sanxrt rannnxn rpon, nepemen n npanocnanne no nmenem Rpnx, a xe-
nar on tn na xstunnne O]xe, cranme nocne xpemennx En]nmne
(Boronnu 1996: ran. 17). Macconax nononnsannx Iannunnt n Hoo-
ntx, napanmax remnt yxe n XV n., oxnarnna semnennaentnen n ropo-
xan, n ropaso mentme crenenn xocnynmnct npocronmnnon (Ipexon
1946: 258, 387; xonenxo 2006: 115). Hpanocnanne c nspxno npnmectm
xstuecxnx neponann coxpanxnoct, npexe ncero, n cenax Hpnxapna-
rtx.
Bnpouem, ne nce pyccxne nmn mornn onrart n pontx mecrax ns
noxonennx n noxonenne. Ho coomennm na nyroma, nsrnannte nonx-
xamn xnrenn Iannnxo Pycn n Hoontx, yrne1ennme nnme1on n
yoaec1nou, nnanume o1uannneu, yerann x 1a1apau (Ipexon
1946: 257; Honeno 1979: 38). B neocnoenno n rocyapcrnennom orno-
mennn necocrenn n pannom nonoxennn oxastnannct ntpomennte ne-
nsroamn pycnnt n optnnt. Hx onontno nnrentnoe nsanmoecrnne
n ocranonxe ntxnnannx npnneno x cnoxennm y rpannn crenn xasaue-
crna. Ha eme ono nnuennon seune mexy Hnrno n Opo
mxnee uepxacc n Kanena xasaxn necxontxo pas ynomnnamrcx yxe n
nocnene rpern XV n. Opamamr na cex nnnmanne xasaxn-xpncrna-
ne rax nastnaemte xnnne n uepxacnm. Omax nanpannennocrt
ncropnn Bocrouno Enpont roro npemenn oycnonnna cnanxncrno n npa-
nocnanne +roro nacenennx n yymem. Hocrenenno xasaxn-rarapt cnn-
nnct c macco xasaxon-pycnnon. 3ro nnno, nanpnmep, no xasautnm
nmenam n nposnnmam rmpxcxoro nponcxoxennx (cm. xonenxo 2006:
178-179).
Tem ne menee, optncxax cocrannxmmax xasauecrna pocanact n
rnasa axe nmxm 3anaa. Tax, anrnnuannn xnnc uneruep eme n xon-
ne XVI n. ornocnn uepxecon, xnnmnx y mro-sanantx rpannn Poc-
cnn co c1oponm An1nm, x uncny rarap. Hpn +rom on nouepxnnan,
uro onn ropaso opasonannee npounx 1a1ap, coon nectua xpa-
cnnm n naroponm n opamennn, cneyn n +1ou omuanu
nontcxnu. Hexo1opme ns nnx nounnnnnct xoponnu nontcxnu
n ncnoneym1 xpnc1nancxym nepy (uneruep 1991: 97).
Ony ns npnunn cpannnrentno esonesnenno accnmnnxnnn optn-
nen, xaxercx, ncxptnn nccneonannx orpomnoro mornntnnxa Mama-
17
,
Cypxa, pacxonannoro na nenom epery Kaxoncxoro nooxpannnnma (3a-
nopoxcxax onacrt Vxpannt). Bemn ns conepmenntx ne panee nocne-
ne rpern XIV n. norpeenn, ocoenno yxpamennx, rnnnunt nx ma-
repnantno xyntrypt 3onoro Opt. B ro xe npemx cornn nme saxo-
ponent xax xpncrnane n ntrxnyrom nonoxennn ronono na sana. 3ror
npnsnax norpeantnoro opxa coueraercx c naxoxamn n mornnax na-
rentntx xpecrnxon n onomxon rnnnxno nocyt c nponapananntmn na
nnx xpecramn. Kpannonornuecxn ananns noxasan neonoponocrt na-
cenennx npn ero nnsocrn x nocrountm cnanxnam n anano-onrapam.
3rn nmn, onaanmne concem nesnaunrentntmn monrononntmn uep-
ramn, conocrannxmrcx c neronncntmn ponnxaun (cm. Entnnxon
2001; 2006), xax nsnecrno, nmenmnmn annne cnxsn c npnxapnarcxnmn
semnxmn. Ecnn annte onpeenennx nepnt, ro recnte xonraxrt mn-
mnx 1a1ap (ntpaxenne ns nrantxncxoro ncrounnxa xonna XIV n.) c
pycnnamn sapanee nporpammnponann +rnnuecxn n pennrnosnt onnx
nx omnx noromxon xasaxon.
Onaxo nnxenne nacenennx cnxstnano Hpnxapnarte ne rontxo co
crentm. Ha mro-sanae n cenepo-nocroxe pyccxnx sement nsnecren
]enomen ropoon-resox: Bnanmnp, 3nennropo, Iannu, pocnannt,
Hepexcnannt, Hepemtmnt n p. Onn noxnnxnnct n nponecce pacnaa
Knencxo Pycn n, ouennno, naxonnnct n renernuecxnx cnxsxx pyr c
pyrom. Hpana, xapaxrep +rnx ornomenn rouno ne ycranonnen. Hopa-
snrentno cxocrno namxrnnxon epenxnno n xamenno apxnrexrypt
nyx pernonon nexoropte opasnt rannnxoro nponcxoxennx xonnpo-
nannct no Bnanmnpo-Cysantcxo Pycn n eranxx. Hoxasarentno, uro
xyntrypnte nnnxnnx c mro-sanaa nmenn mecro ne rontxo n omonront-
cxym +noxy, no n nosnee, yxe n XIV n. (cm. Hcaennu 1973: 102-105;
Cynxx 2004: 50-51). Hao nomnnrt, uro nocne namecrnnx nocx xana
Fary uncnennocrt nacenennx Iannnxo semnn ne ymentmnnact, a sa-
merno ynennunnact sa cuer exennen ns pasopenntx monronamn pyc-
cxnx xnxxecrn. 3ro nornepnnn n apxeonornuecxne nccneonannx na
reppnropnn Fyxonnnt (Ipexon 1946: 255; Honeno 1979: 28-29). 3arem
tnmne nepecenennt nnn, noxany, nx noromxn, cmemanmnct c mecr-
ntmn xnrenxmn, nnont neepoopasno pacxonnnct no Pycn n pyrnm
cnanxncxnm semnxm.
Paccmarpnnaemax rema nepecexaercx c ntstnamme o cnx nop
ocrpte ncxyccnn nponemo nacnenx Knencxo Pycn. B ncropnuec-
xo nayxe cnoxnnnct ne rouxn spennx, xoropte ycnonno moxno cun-
rart pyccxo n yxpanncxo. Cornacno nepno, nosnnxme eme no
nropo nononnne XV nauane XVI n., xnencxax rocyapcrnennocrt co-
nepmenno ecrecrnenntm opasom nepemer.a no Bnanmnp-na-Knxst-
me, a orrya n Mocxny. Vxpanncxoe nonnmanne nonpoca, o]opmnnmeecx
18
2009, N 3 (17)
oxonuarentno rontxo n nepno nononnne XX n., npenoxnno pyrym nn-
nnm nacneonannx xnencxnx rpannn cnauana nx npeemnnxom ntc-
rynnna Iannnxo-Bontncxax semnx, a sarem uepes Hnrny onn nnont nos-
nparnnnct n Knen (xonenxo 2006: 109-110). Bnpouem, nex o saxonnom
nepexoe ponn emopoeo Kueea x Iannuy n Xonmy nnonne cosnarent-
no npononnact n xnsnt yxe neonoramn annnt Pomanonnua (Hcae-
nnu 1973: 99-100).
Ho na camom ene axe ernt osop ncrounnxon noxastnaer, uro
pont Hpnxapnartx n ncropnn cnanxn (n ne rontxo nocrountx) tna ro-
paso onee snaunrentno. nx menx ouennno: Iannunna xax nano-
nee xpxoe n nonnoe onnnernopenne conoxynntx ocoennocre pernona
nrpana camocroxrentnym pont n cyte mnoroxparno ontme ncropn-
uecxo onacrn, npocrnpammecx n Bocrounym, a raxxe Rro-Bocrou-
nym n Henrpantnym Enpony.
Kapnarcxn xpa conepmenno nornuno naenxrt raxnmn rpyno co-
nmecrnmtmn uepramn, xax ooconennocrt n npoxonmocrt, nonep-
xennocrt nnnxnnxm npn conpornnnennn n npoxennom xoncepnarnsme
(cm. Hponnn 2005: 56). Opasno ronopx, omecnanxncxoe rneso oc-
rananoct xnntm na nporxxennn mnornx cronern rontxo noromy, uro
orcma c sannno perynxpnocrtm ntnerann cranmne na xptno nren-
nt n cma mornn nosnpamartcx nrnnt ns yxe satrtx ntnoxon. n-
namnuecxax cnoconocrt nacenennx xpax coxpanxrt n repxrt, npnnn-
mart n oranart, ononnxrt n ononnxrtcx, na mo nsrnx, noponna
]enomen pycnncrna. ymaercx, ero cymecrnonanne orpnnart eccmtc-
nenno; ero nao nsyuart n, xoneuno xe, epeut.
AHTEPATYPA
B.es oe Bureuep 1890. Hsnneuennx ns sanncox Fnesa e Bnxenep (1573) //
Memyapt, ornocxmnecx x ncropnn Rxno Pycn. Btn. I (XVI cr.). Knen. C. 59-88.
Ftnnnt 1958. Ftnnnt n nyx romax. T. 1. M.
Bennxax xponnxa 1987. Bennxax xponnxa o Hontme, Pycn n nx cocexx XI-
XIII nn. M. (http://www.newchron.narod.ru/texts/p1.html).
Bosuu I.H. 2009. Icropnxo-xyntrypnn posnnrox nacenennx mexnpiuux Bepx-
ntoro Cipera ra Cepentoro nicrpa n X-XIV cr. u. 1-2. Knn; uepninni.
Bomoeu: H. 1996. Vintni xnxsincrna Pmpnxonnuin i Ieeminonnuin y XII-
XVI cr. Htnin.
IHFH 1983. Ipnxn nsnopn sa nrapcxara ncropnx. T. XI. Co]nx.
Iperoe B.. 1946. Kpecrtxne na Pycn c pennemnx npemen o XVII nexa.
M.; H.
Ipueope Vpere 1971. Heronncenyn H+pn Monone. Knmnn+y.
Ipvueeciru M. 1992. Icropix Vxpann-Pycn. T. II: XI-XIII nix. Knin.
19
,
Ipvueeciru M. 1994. Icropix Vxpann-Pycn. T. I: o nouarxy XI nixa. Knin.
E.iuuroe M.B. 2001. Cpenenexont mornntnnx Mama-Cypxa (no marepna-
nam nccneonann 1989-1992 rr.). T. I. 3anopoxte.
E.iuuroe M.B. 2006. Cpenenexont mornntnnx Mama-Cypxa (no marepna-
nam nccneonann 1993-1994 rr.). T. II. 3anopoxte.
HB 1971. Hcropnx Benrpnn. T. I. M.
Hcaeeu: B.. 1973. Kyntrypa Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pycn // Bonpoct ncropnn.
N 1. C. 92-107.
Ko.ecoe B.B. 1986. Mnp uenonexa n cnone penne Pycn. H.
Kouoea.oea H.I. 1999. Bocrounax Enpona n counnennn an-Hpncn. M.
Kouoea.oea H.I., Hepxaero B.B. 2000. pennxx Pyct n Hnxnee Hoynante. M.
Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. 1991. O ynpannennn nmnepne. M.
K.m:eecru B.O. 1987. Counnennx. B 9-rn r. T. I. Kypc pyccxo ncropnn.
uacrt I. M.
Kpunreeu: I.H. 1984. Iannntxo-Bonnnctxe xnxsincrno. Knn.
Maopoe A.B. 2006. Bennxax Xopnarnx: +rnorenes n pannxx ncropnx cnanxn
Hpnxapnarcxoro pernona. CH.
Ma:uucru .A. 1981. yna pyccxoro ]ontxnopa na ]one nocrounocna-
nxncxo ncropnn n mn]onornn // Pyccxn Cenep. Hponemt +rnorpa]nn n ]ont-
xnopa. H.
Hoeoce.iee A.H. 1965. Bocrounte ncrounnxn o nocrountx cnanxnax n Pycn
VI-IX nn. // pennepyccxoe rocyapcrno n ero mexynaponoe snauenne. M.
C. 355-419.
Hauvmo B.T. 1950. Ouepxn no ncropnn Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pycn. M.
HBH 1950. Honecrt npemenntx ner. uacrt I. M.; H.
Hueoeapoe C.B. 2006. Cepentoniune nacenennx mexnpiuux Bepxntoro Hpyry
ra Cepentoro nicrpa (XI nepma nononnna XIII cr.). uepninni.
H.emueea C.A.1975. Hononenxax semnx // pennepyccxne xnxxecrna X-XIII nn.
M. C. 260-300.
Ho.eeo H.H. 1979. Ouepxn ncropnuecxo reorpa]nn Monannn XIII-XV nn.
Knmnnen.
Ho.eeo H.H. 1980. O xosxcrnenno-xyntrypnom rnne nonoxon // Connantno-
+xonomnuecxax n nonnrnuecxax ncropnx Rro-Bocrouno Enpont (o cepennt
XIX n.). Knmnnen. C. 44-62.
Ho.eeo H.H. 1985. Panne]eoantnax Monannx. Knmnnen.
Hon H. 2006. 3nnnxnonenx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn. Vxropo.
Hpouuu B. 2005. Hcropnx npanocnanno nepxnn na 3axapnarte. Myxaueno.
Hponn B.B., Hvmu.oe B.H. 1958. 3nnuecxax no+snx pyccxoro napoa // Ftnn-
nt n nyx romax. T. 1. M.
HCPH 1962. Honnoe copanne pyccxnx neronnce. T. 2: Hnartencxax nero-
nnct. M.
Paqa.oeu: H.A. 1972. Cnanxne VI-IX nexon n Monannn. Knmnnen.
PC 2002. Tentnon H.H., Crenanon B.H., Pyccen H.H., Pannonnu P.A. H pa-
somnnct cnanxne no semne. Hs ncropnn Kapnaro-necrponcxnx sement VI-
XIII nn. Knmnnen.
Pioaroe B.A. 1963. pennxx Pyct. Cxasannx. Ftnnnt. Heronncn. M.
20
2009, N 3 (17)
Pioaroe B.A. 1988. stuecrno penne Pycn. M.
Ceioepciru P.P. 1983. Foporta Hinenno-3axino Pyci npornn xaronnnt-
xo excnanci n XIII-XIV cr. Knn.
Ceooe B.B. 1995. Cnanxne n pannem cpenenexonte. M.
Cnono 1985. Cnono o nonxy Hropene. H.
Co.oeiee C.M. 1988. Counnennx. Kn. II. M.
Cv.r C.I. 2004. Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnnuecxo ncropnn pycnaxon
Monannn. Knmnnen.
To.o:ro H.H. 1975. Knencxax semnx // pennepyccxne xnxxecrna. M. C. 5-56.
Tinroea-3au+oea B. 1991. Rxnte cnanxne, nporoonrapt n Bnsanrnx. Hpo-
nemt rocyapcrnennoro n +rnnuecxoro pasnnrnx Fonrapnn n VIIIX nn. // Panne-
]eoantnte rocyapcrna n naponocrn (mxnte n sanante cnanxne VIXV nn.).
M.
4eoopoe I.B. 1960. Hacenenne Hpyrcxo-necrponcxoro mexypeutx n I rtcx-
uenernn n.+. // Marepnant n nccneonannx no apxeonornn CCCP. N 89. M.; H.
4.em:ep r. 1991. O rocyapcrne Pyccxom // Hpoesxax no Mocxonnn (Poc-
cnx XVIXVII nexon rnasamn nnnomaron). M. C. 25-138.
Lvuapuu B.H. 1965. pennepyccxoe rocyapcrno n sanano- n nocrounoenpo-
necxnx cpenenexontx namxrnnxax // pennepyccxoe rocyapcrno n ero mexy-
naponoe snauenne. M. C. 420-452.
Broeeuro H. 2006. Hapnc icropii cepentoniunoi ra panntomoepnoi Vxpainn.
Knin.
Gukin V., Manzura I., Rabinovich R., Tkaciuk M. 1995. Nonarchaelogycal theory
and problem of cultural Heritage // World Archeological Bulletin. N 8. P. 9-18.
ypnan xoncepna1nnnon umcnn
"3ono1on Aen":
www.zlev.ru
21
,
Maxcnu HX
O XPOHOAOIHH XPHCTHAHH3AHHH
HPHKAPHATCKHX CAABRH
C cepennt I rtc. n. +. n nnnort o pennepyccxnx npemen ocnonntm
nacenennem Hpnxapnartx tnn xopnart
1
. O +rom mt snaem xax ns
Honecrn npemenntx ner
2
, ]nxcnpymme xopnaron X n. n Hpnxapna-
rte, rax n ns paccxasa n counnennn nnsanrncxoro nmneparopa Koncran-
rnna Farpxnoponoro (945-959) O ynpannennn nmnepne (948-952), n
xoropom onontno nopono onncano paccenenne xopnaron
3
. B cepen-
ne VI n. xopnart cosann snaunrentnt +rnononnrnuecxn coms, xoro-
pt Koncranrnn Farpxnopont nastnaer Bennxax Xopnarnx
4
. 3rn ero
annte n ncropnorpa]nn neonoxparno noneprannct xpnrnxe
5
, xoro-
pax, onaxo, nnmena xaxnx t ro nn tno ceptesntx ocnonann
6
. B
cepenne VI n. n pesyntrare anapcxoro namecrnnx
7
Bennxax Xopnarnx
pacnanact. uacrt xopnaron mnrpnpyer n anmannm, re cosaer nnoc-
necrnnn rocyapcrno Xopnarnx, pyrax uacrt n Hontmy n uexnm
8
,
re xopnart ne cmornn coxpannrt cnoe +rnoxyntrypnoe enncrno n nomnn
co npemenem n cocran penneuemcxo n pennenontcxo naponocre,
a rpertx uacrt ocraercx na mecre, n Hpnxapnarte, re cmorna coxpa-
nnrt cnoe omnnnponanne nnnort o xonna I rtc. n. +.
9
Kax crano nsnecrno naroapx apxeonornuecxnm pacxonxam, n Hpn-
xapnarte cymecrnonan xpynnt xstuecxn cnanxncxn pennrnosnt
nenrp c roponmamn-cnxrnnnmamn Fornr, 3nennropo n Iona
10
, c xo-
roptm ecrt ocnonannx
11
cnxstnart snamennrt paccxas an-Macyn o
cnanxncxnx xstuecxnx xpamax:
Onncanne xpauon, noun1aeumx ac-caxanna.
Hepnmn xpau. B cmpauax ac-cara.uoa oi.u xpa+i, romopie ouu
no:uma.u. Hs uux oi. oouu xpa+ ua eope, o romopo qu.ocoqi
eoeopu.u, :mo oua c:umaemc oouo us eicorux eop +upa. H ecmi
vno+uuauu o cucme+e cmpoeuu omoeo xpa+a, u cucme+e pacno-
.oreuu euooe eeo ra+ue, u pas.u:uix eeo eemax, u uoo.ax, coe-
.auuix o. omoeo xpa+a (e ue+ ua eicome, u euoui omu coe.auuie
uoo.i c eocxooa co.ua), u :mo ecmi e ue+ us opaeoeuuocme u
uapucoeauuix c.eooe e ue+, romopie vrasieamm ua uovuue cvue-
cmea, u omu opaeoeuuocmu cu+eo.usupoea.u npeocrasauu rarux-
mo cooimu oo ux ceepueuu. A c eicomi eeo c.iua.u nocemume-
.u sevru, u :mo c uu+u c.v:a.oci eo epe+ npoc.vuueauu omoeo.
22
2009, N 3 (17)
B1opon xpau. H xpa+, romopi nocmpou.u ueromopie ux apu
ua :epuo eope, romopvm orpvraem voueume.iua eooa, oo.aoam-
ua pasui+u eema+u u ervco+, npuuocuu+ no.isv. H oi. v uux
oepo+ui uoo., usooparamuu (cmoueeo) nper.oueuuoeo :e.o-
eera, u ou cmapur, u e pvre eeo na.ra, romopo ou oeueaem rocmu
+epmeix us epoouu. H noo npaeo uoeo eeo usoopareuu pas-
.u:uix +vpaeiee, a noo emopo :epuie eopoui, noxorue ua ev-
oaq (pasuoeuouocmi eopouoe, noxora ua op.a), u opveue, u vou-
eume.iuoe usoopareuue pas.u:uix euooe ueepoe (Axaouu u
3vuor).
Tpe1nn xpau. H opveo xpa+ ua eope v uux, orpvreuuo sa.ueo+
+op. Ou nocmpoeu us ra+ue rpacuoeo re+:vea u us ra+ue se.e-
uoeo usv+pvoa. B eeo eumpe oepo+ui rvo, noo romopi+ oepo+-
ui uoo., u eeo me.o nocmpoeuo us :emipex opaeoeuuocme: se-
.eui usv+pvo, rpacui rvm, xa.eoou re.mi u oe.oe cmer.o.
H eeo eo.oea us rpacuoeo so.oma. H poo+ c uu+ opveo uoo., usoo-
paramuu paoium. H .mou npuuocu.u e+v repmei u rvpu.u oi+.
H omom xpa+ omuocm r oouo+v +vopo+v :e.oeerv, romopi v uux
oi. e opeeuocmu. H +i vno+uv.u eeo u :mo c uu+ c.v:u.oci e
se+.e ac-cara.uoa, u :mo v uux coe.a. us usoopemeuu u qorvcoe u
ceepxecmecmeeuuix eeue, c no+ouim romopix ou npue.era. ux
cepoa, u e.aoe. ux ovua+u, u eocnoocmeoea. uao ux v+a+u, xom
ac-cara.uoa oi.u useecmui+u recmoru+ noeeoeuue+ u nepe+eu-
:ueocmim uacmpoeuu, rar +i vno+uv.u oo omo+ e uauux ruu-
eax
12
.
Hepnt +ran nponnxnonennx n pernon xpncrnancrna cnxsan c Bennxo
Mopanne, nnnxnne xoropo pacnpocrpanxnoct na sananym uacrt Hpn-
xapnartx. B ncropnorpa]nn pacnpocrpanena rouxa spennx, ocnonannax
na pycnncxo rpannnn
13
, cornacno xoropo xpncrnancrno tno npnne-
ceno cma cnxrtm Me]onem
14
, nx uero, onaxo, ner ocrarountx
ocnonann, rax xax nn n ero xnrnn, nn n xaxnx-nno pyrnx ayrenrnu-
ntx ncrounnxax cneenn o +rom ner
15
. Ho, rem ne menee, apxeonornx
cnnerentcrnyer o rom, uro nepnt +ran nponnxnonennx xpncrnancrna
n Hpnxapnarte cnxsan nmenno c mopancxnm nnnxnnem no nropo no-
nonnne IX n. sect noxnnxmrcx xpncrnancxne norpeennx, ananornu-
nte mopancxnm
16
. 3ro, nnnmo, n oxcnxer ormeuennym ntme rpan-
nnm, cnxstnanmym xpncrnannsannm Hpnxapnartx c exrentnocrtm
cnxroro Me]onx, npononeonanmero n Mopannn. Bosmoxno, ero yue-
nnxn n npnnecnn cma xpncrnancrno.
B +ro cnxsn npnnnexaer x cee nnnmanne arnpyemax 967 r. ynna
pnmcxoro nant Hoanna XIII o yrnepxennn npaxcxoro enncxoncrna
npn nepxnn cn. Bnra n monacrtpx enenxrnnox npn nepxnn cn. Ieop-
23
,
rnx, n xoropo coepxnrcx yxasanne na ro, uro orocnyxenne nn n xoem
cnyuae ne onxno ocymecrnnxrtcx no opxy onrapcxoro napoa, nno
pyccxoro nnn na cnanxncxom xstxe, no n coornercrnnn c nancxnmn yc-
ranonnennxmn n pacnopxxennxmn xnnpnxom, xopomo oyuenntm n
narnncxom xstxe
17
. Ho mnennm F.. Pamma, n +rnx cnonax namna
orpaxenne npaxenax Fonrapnn n Pycn nonnrnxa pnmcxo xypnn. Co-
sanne npaxcxoro enncxoncrna n nacaxenne monacrtpe c narnncxnm
yxonencrnom nonnmanoct n Pnme xax naxnt mar n opte sa yrnep-
xenne nancrna n cnanxncxnx crpanax n oxonuarentnoe ynnuroxenne
mecrntx ocoennocre orocnyxennx, coxpannnmnxcx or npemen xn-
pnnno-me]onencxo rpannnn. Bmecre c rem +ra ynna cnyxnr n npx-
mtm cnnerentcrnom cymecrnonannx xpncrnancrna na Pycn n oro-
cnyxennx na pyccxom xstxe sa 20 ner o o]nnnantnoro npnnxrnx xpnc-
rnancrna npn Bnanmnpe. 3ro ocroxrentcrno nnmnn pas nornepx-
aer, uro pacnpocrpanenne xpncrnancrna na Pycn xnnxnoct nnrent-
ntm nponeccom
18
. M.K. Rpacon, pasnnnax +rn nanmennx F.. Pam-
ma, nonaraer, uro ecnn npnsnart nonnnnocrt paccmarpnnaemo yn-
nt, ro xommenrapn F.. Pamma n nenom nepen, onaxo ncropnx ne o-
parnn nnnmannx na onn naxnt momenr: pnmcxn nana onacancx oro-
cnyxennx no pyccxomy opxy n Hpare (!). To, uro ono yxe cymecrno-
nano n Knene, npx nn morno ecnoxonrt Hoanna XIII, nocxontxy yxon-
no nnacrn na mareptm ropoon pyccxnx y nero ne tno. Hnxaxoro
nonnrnuecxoro nnnxnnx Pycn na uexnm n ro npemx raxxe ne tno, a
cama nepxonnax nnacrt n Knene, sa ncxnmuennem neontmoro xpyra
nocneonarene xnxrnnn Ontrn, ocrananact xstuecxo. Ho+romy crpa-
xn Hoanna XIII no nonoy pacnpocrpanennx n uexnn orocnyxennx no
pyccxomy opxy ntrnxxr no mentme mepe crpanntmn n nenonxrnt-
mn
19
. anee yuent ntcxastnaer npenonoxenne, cornacno xoropomy
nce +ro paccennaercx, ecnn npenonoxnrt, uro onacnocrt nx narn-
nxn n annom cnyuae ncxonna ne ns Knena, a or npexon conpemenntx
pycnnon, xoropte tnn xpement cn. Me]onem nnn ero yuennxamn n
ycnenn x cepenne X n. paspaorart cocrnennt opx orocnyxennx
na ponom xstxe. Homnmo roro, uro onn npoxnnann nnyrpn xapnarcxo-
ro accena n nenocpecrnenno cocecrnonann c uexamn, nx ocnonno
apean paccenennx n nepno exrentnocrn cn. Me]onx naxonncx n
sanncnmocrn or Bennxomopancxo epxant
20
. Ho, xax nepno nome-
uaer ncropnx, n raxom cnyuae nao npnsnart ror ]axr, uro n na +ro
nacenenne (uace.euue Hpurapnami M..) pacnpocrpanxnoct na-
snanne "Pyct"
21
. On crapaercx n antnemem oocnonart raxo nt-
no
22
. Bonpoc o npemenn pacnpocrpanennx na +ror pernon nmenn Pyct
ouent cnoxen. C ono cropont, Xopnarnx, o xoropo nnxe y nac eme
noer peut, rontxo n xonne X n. nonaaer no nnacrt Knena, no+romy
24
2009, N 3 (17)
tno t nornuntm nonarart, uro nmenno c +roro npemenn na nero n
pacnpocrpannnoct nmx Pyct, rem onee, uro nce ncrounnxn, onnct-
nammne +ror pernon n IX X nn., nnxaxo Pycn sect ne snamr n nast-
namr ero nacenenne xopnaramn. Tem ne menee, xocnennte annte, no-
snonxmmne npenonarart onee panee nponnxnonenne +roro nmenn n
pernon, cymecrnymr. Peut ner o orxptrtx A.B. Hasapenxo n nemen-
xnx ncrounnxax cnxsanntx c Pyctm rononnmon, nnuntx nmen n ynomn-
nann Pycn, noxannsyemtx na reppnropnn Ancrpnn n Fanapnn, camtm
pannnm ns xoroptx xnnxercx ynomnnanne n 863 r. rononnma Ruzaramarcha
(Pyccxax mapxa) n rpamore nocrouno]panxcxoro xoponx Hmonnxa He-
menxoro
23
. B ncropnorpa]nn tno npenoxeno rpn oxcnennx +rnm
]axram. Ho mnennm camoro A.B. Hasapenxo, onn cnxsant c xynnamn ns
Pycn, axrnnno ropronanmnmn c Fanapne. Hnoe oxcnenne npenoxnn
B.B. Ceon. Vuent cunraer, uro nce +rn nasnannx cnxsant co cnanxn-
cxnm nnemenem pycon, xnnmem n Cpenem Honenponte (cam +rno-
nnm pyct B.B. Ceon cunraer npancxnm no nponcxoxennm n orno-
cnr ero nocnpnxrne cnanxnamn x npemenam cnanxno-npancxoro cnmno-
sa n pamxax uepnxxoncxo xyntrypt II-IV nn.), uacrt xoroporo n xoe
anapcxoro namecrnnx nepemecrnnact na sana (xax xopnart n yne-
t)
24
. Haxonen, no mnennm A.I. Kystmnna, nce +rn pyccxne nasnannx
cnxsant c nmenem nexora npoxnnanmnx n pernone pyron
25
, uacrt ns
xoroptx nocne naennx rynncxo epxant ymna, no mnennm yuenoro, n
Cpenee Honenponte
26
. Kaxoe ns +rnx oxcnenn coornercrnyer nc-
rnne nonpoc noxa orxptrt, onaxo, uro naxno nx name remt, nce
onn npexpacno oxcnxmr nponnxnonenne +rnonnma Pyct n Hpnxap-
narte o ero nounnennx Kneny, rax xax n nyrt pyccxnx xynnon n Fana-
pnm nexan uepes +ror pernon, n nyrn nepoxrntx mnrpann anrcxnx
pycon n pyron. 3rn nonpoct nyxamrcx n antnemem ceptesnemem
nsyuennn.
Hrax, notroxnnax cxasannoe, moxno ynepenno yrnepxart, uro nep-
nax nonna nponnxnonennx n Hpnxapnarte xpncrnancrna cnxsana c nnnx-
nnem Bennxo Mopannn. Onaxo ona nocnna orpannuennt n xparxon-
pemennt xapaxrep n ne npnnena x panxantno cmene pennrnosnoro
nnna pernona
27
.
B 992 r. Xopnarnx tna sanoenana xnxsem Bnanmnpom
28
. Bontnt n
Xopnarnx crann nocnennmn xpynntmn nocrounocnanxncxnmn pernona-
mn, nonanmnmn no nnacrt Knena. Bepoxrno, nepnoe npemx nocne sano-
enannx onn tnn amnnncrparnnno oennent no nnacrtm ocnonan-
noro xnxsem ropoa Bnanmnpa-Bontncxoro
29
. O nocnenem cotrnn
npxmoe nsnecrne ecrt nnmt n Hcropnn Poccncxo B.H. Tarnmena,
onnctnammero noxo Bnanmnpa na Bontnt n n Xopnarnm c pxom
ynnxantntx noponocre, orcyrcrnymmnx n pyrnx ncrounnxax: Bna-
25
,
nmnp xonn no necrpy co nymx enncxont, mnoro nme nayuax, xpe-
crn, n nocrponn n semne uepnencxo rpa no nmx cnoe Bnanmnpt n
nepxont npecnxrtx Foroponnt cosa, ocranx ry enncxona Crenana n
nosnparncx c paocrnm
30
. O nocrannennn n 6500 (992) r. xnencxnm
mnrpononnrom Heonrom no Bnanmnp-Bontncxn enncxona Cre]ana
ronopnrcx n n Hnxononcxo neronncn
31
. B Honecrn npemenntx ner
+ror ropo nnepnte ynomnnaercx n paccxase o naenennn Bnanmnpom
cnonx ctnone xnxxennxmn, re ronopnrcx o rom, uro n nauane XI n.
32
xnxst nocann n +rom ropoe ctna Bcenonoa, no nn o ocnonannn ro-
poa Bnanmnpom, nn o cosannn ram enncxoncrna ona nnuero ne rono-
pnr. uaxr ocnonannx Bnanmnpa-Bontncxoro xnxsem Bnanmnpom no-
rnepxaercx xax camnm nasnannem ropoa
33
, rax n apxeonornuecxnmn
marepnanamn, cnnerentcrnymmnmn o ero nosnnxnonennn nmenno n xonne
X n.
34
Ero ocnonanne npexpacno nnnctnaercx n rpannnonnym nonnrn-
xy xnencxnx xnxse, co npemen Ontrn cosananmnx n noxopenntx noc-
rounocnanxncxnx semnxx cnon onopnte nynxrt n npornnonec pennnm
mecrntm nenrpam
35
. Ananornuna tna cnryannx n c Bnanmnpom, co-
sanntm xax onopnt nynxr nnacrn Knena n nnxy mecrnomy nonnrn-
uecxomy nenrpy ropoy Bontnn.
B +ry xe nonnrnxy npexpacno nnnctnaercx n cosanne n +rom ropoe
enncxoncrna. Konen X n. +ro npemx, rpannnonno nastnaemoe nepno-
om Kpemennx Pycn. O nonnrnuecxnx npnunnax npnnxrnx Bnanmnpom
nono pennrnn tno cxasano nemano. B conercxo ncropnorpa]nn roc-
nocrnonano npecrannenne, cornacno xoropomy ero ocnonno npnun-
no tno ypnoe pasnnrne ]eoannsma, rpeonanmee nnepennx nono
neonornn, ocnxmamme nonoe omecrnennoe ycrpocrno, xaxono n
crano xpncrnancrno
36
. Hocne roro, xax n paorax H.. upoxnona n ero
yuennxon nsrnx na pennmm Pyct xax na ]eoantnoe omecrno, o]op-
mnennoe n nne ]eoantnoro rocyapcrna, tn onponeprnyr
37
, crana
nenosmoxno n raxax rpaxronxa ocnonno npnunnt Kpemennx Pycn
38
.
H.. upoxnon nsrnxnyn na eno nnaue n npenonoxnn, uro npnnxrne
Bnanmnpom xpncrnancrna naxonnoct n xonrexcre npononmo nm
nenrpannsaropcxo nonnrnxn. nx roro urot onrtcx npounoro no-
nnrnuecxoro enncrna Pycn, nao tno oecneunrt ee pennrnosnoe
enncrno, nx uero tno neoxonmo cosanne nenrpannsonanno nep-
xonno oprannsannn. Hmenno n +rom n cocroxna rnannax nonnrnuecxax
nent npnnxrnx xpncrnancrna onrtcx ontme nenrpannsannn Pycn
n noannrt pernonantnt cenaparnsm orentntx cnannnn
39
. B +rom
nnane cosanne n rontxo uro noxopenntx semnxx enncxoncrna
40
ntrnx-
nr nnonne nornuntm
41
.
B ncropnorpa]nn nepexo xpncrnannsaropcxax exrentnocrt Bnan-
mnpa onnctnaercx xax neuro rpannosnoe n oxnartnammee coo ncm
26
2009, N 3 (17)
Pyct, npnnemee x panxantno rpanc]opmannn ee pennrnosno-xynt-
rypnoro nnna
42
, nx uero, onaxo, ner ocrarountx ocnonann. V Bna-
nmnpa ne tno nn ocrarounoro xonnuecrna yxonencrna (Bnsanrnx
ne morna oecneunrt nm ncm Pyct, a na nororonxy cocrnennoro y-
xonencrna n nooammem xonnuecrne tno neoxonmo mnoro npeme-
nn), nn rexnnuecxnx nosmoxnocre nx +roro. Bepoxrno, npn Bnanmn-
pe tna xpemena nnmt connantno-nonnrnuecxax nepxymxa Pycn nnmc
nacenenne xpynnemnx ropoon (npn +rom nao ormernrt, uro n +ro
cpee xpncrnancrno nauano pacnpocrpanxrtcx saonro o Bnanmnpa)
43
.
Hponecc xpncrnannsannn pyccxnx sement (ocoenno centcxnx paonon)
pacrxnyncx na cronernx, o uem ronopxr xax nnctmennte ncrounnxn (n
nepnym ouepet, pasnoopasnte noyuennx npornn xstuecrna), rax n
apxeonornuecxne marepnant, nosnonxmmne yrnepxart, uro nnnort o
XIII-XIV nn. nente onacrn penne Pycn tnn sacenent xstunnxa-
mn
44
. Ananornuna tna cnryannx n n Hpnxapnarte. Hecmorpx na ro,
uro, cyx no noxnnennm n xonne X n. n pernone ecxypranntx norpee-
nn
45
moxno ronopnrt o nauane pacnpocrpanennx sect xpncrnancrna
46
,
xstuecrno raxxe npoonxano nrpart naxnym pont n pennrnosno xns-
nn Hpnxapnartx. Te cnanxncxne xstuecxne xpamt, o xoroptx ronopn-
noct ntme, nonnonenno cymecrnonann nnnort o XIII n.
47
n npexparnnn
cnom xnsnt nnmt nocne monrontcxoro namecrnnx. Taxnm opasom, pac-
npocrpanenne xpncrnancrna n Hpnxapnarte tno nponeccom nnrent-
ntm, xax n no mnornx pernonax penne Pycn, pacrxnynmnmcx na cro-
nernx.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. O nponcxoxennn xopnaron n nx panne ncropnn cm.: Bomoeu: H.B.
1) Knxsincrna xapnarctxnx xopnarin // Ernorenes ra pannx icropix cnon'xn: noni
nayxoni xonnenni na snami rncxuonirt. Mar-nn Mixnap. nayx. apxeonoriu. xon]-
ni. Htnin, 30 31 epesnx 2001 p. Htnin, 2001; 2) Kapnarctxi xopnarn n ernononi-
rnunomy posnnrxy Henrpantno-Cxino Cnponn panntoro cepentoniuux // Vx-
pana n Henrpantno-Cxini Cnponi (s naannimnx uacin o XVIII cr.). Knn, 2004.
Bnn. 4; 3) Kapnarcxne xopnart // Becrnnx CHIV. Cep. 2. 2005. Btn. 1; 4) Bocrou-
noe Hpnxapnarte no nropo nononnne I rtc. n. +. Hauantnte +rant ]opmnpona-
nnx rocyapcrnennocrn // Rossica antiqua: Hccneonannx n marepnant. 2006 /
Orn. pe. A.R. nopnnuenxo, A. B. Maopon. CH., 2006; Maopoe A.B. 1) Kon-
cranrnn Farpxnopont o nponcxoxennn n panne ncropnn xopnaron: Bennxax
Xopnarnx n ente xopnart // Rossica antiqua: Hccneonannx n marepnant. 2006;
2) Bennxax Xopnarnx: 3rnorenes n pannxx ncropnx cnanxn Hpnxapnarcxoro pern-
ona / Orn. pe. A.R. nopnnuenxo. CH., 2006; ux M.H. K nponeme panne
ncropnn cnanxn Hpnxapnarcxoro pernona (cepenna nropax nononnna
27
,
I rtc. n. +.) // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2009.
N 1 (15).
2. Honecrt npemenntx ner. Hororonxa rexcra, nepeno, crartn n xommenrapnn
.C. Hnxauena / Ho peaxnne B.H. Apnanono-Hepern. 3-e ns. / Hororonxa
nsannx n ononnennx M F. Cnepnona. CH., 2007. C. 16, 54.
3. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne. M., 1989. C. 131,
135-136.
4. Tam xe. C. 141.
5. Cm.: Racki Fr. Biela Hrvatska i biela Srbija // Rad Jugoslovenske Akademije
Znatnosti i Umjetnosti. Zagreb, 1880. T. 52; Jagic V. Ein Kapitel aus der Geschichte
der sdslawichen Sprachen // Archiv fr slavische Philologie. Bd. XVII. Berlin, 1895.
S. 47-48; Brckner A. Wzory etymologii i krytyki zrdlowej // Slavia. Praha. T. 3.
1924-1925. S. 209-211; Ceooe B.B. 1) Cnanxne n pannem cpenenexonte. M., 1995. C.
326; 2) Cnanxne. Hcropnxo-apxeonornuecxoe nccneonanne // Ceon B. B. Hspan-
nte rpyt. M., 2005 . C. 488-490.
6. Huoep.e H. Cnanxncxne pennocrn. M., 2000. C. 77-78; Maopoe A B. 1) Kon-
cranrnn Farpxnopont; 2) Bennxax Xopnarnx C. 11-48; ux M.H. K npone-
me panne ncropnn C. 26-30.
7. Otuno namecrnne anapon na Bennxym Xopnarnm arnpyercx npemenem ox.
560 r.: Bomoeu: H.B. Bocrounoe Hpnxapnarte C. 22.
8. O ne cm.: 4.op B.H. uopmnponanne uemcxo panne]eoantno rocyap-
crnennocrn n cytt camocosnannx cnanxncxnx nnemen uemcxo onnnt // uop-
mnponanne panne]eoantntx cnanxncxnx naponocre. M., 1981.
9. Bo nropo nononnne X n., cnacaxct or narncxa neueneron, n Bepxnee Honec-
rponte, npnnanexanmee xopnaram, nepecenxercx uacrt ynnue n rnnepnen (Ce-
ooe B.B. Bocrounte cnanxne n VI-XIII nn. M., 1982. C. 128). Xopnart nmecre c
+rnmn nepecenennamn n cranyr ocnono nacenennx ]opmnpymmecx Iannnxo
semnn.
10. Pvcauoea H.H., Tu+ouvr B.A. stuecxne cnxrnnnma pennnx cnanxn. M.,
2007.
11 An-Macyn onnctnan n cnoem cnanxncxom paccxase npenmymecrnenno
Henrpantno-Bocrounym Enpony (ux M.H. O npetcropnn Bontncxo semnn
(VI nauano X nexa) // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmn-
nen]. 2008. N 3-4 (13-14). C. 38-41) n nnuero ne snan o anrncxom noepexte.
Ho+romy cnxstnart +ror paccxas c xpamamn anrncxnx cnanxn ner ocrarountx
ocnonann. Iopaso nornunee cnxsart ero co cnanxncxnm xstuecxnm nenrpom
Hpnxapnartx.
12. nontsymct ero neonynnxonanntm eme nepenoom, ntnonnenntm . n. n.
npo]eccopom xa]ept ncropnn ]axyntrera connonornn, +xonomnxn n npana
Mocxoncxoro nearornuecxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera Eneno Cepre-
enno Ianxnno, xoropax nmesno mne ero npeocrannna eme o nynnxannn.
Hontsyxct cnyuaem, ntpaxam e sa +ro cnom rnyouamym naroapnocrt.
13. O ne cm.: Kvsi+uu A.I. Cnopnoe n eccnopnoe n xpemennn Pycn // Mono-
ext, pennrnx, arensm. M., 1986. C. 207-208; Panoe O.M. Pyccxax nepxont n IX
nepno rpern XII n. Hpnnxrne xpncrnancrna. M., 1988. C. 115-116; Ppacoe M.K.
Honte annte o xpemennn npexon pycnnon cn. Me]onem nnn ero yuennxamn
28
2009, N 3 (17)
// Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2005. N 2 (2).
C. 47.
14. Ppacoe M.K. Honte annte o xpemennn C. 46-47.
15. Tam xe. C. 47. Xorx nao ormernrt, uro, necmorpx na ro, uro xnrne Me]onx
ne coepxnr anntx o ero nenocpecrnenno mnccnonepcxo exrentnocrn n
Hpnxapnarte, n nem ormeueno, uro ncx reppnropnx, nonnacrnax Cnxrononxy
Mopancxomy, nxonna n c]epy ero mnccnonepcxo exrentnocrn: H xora
npnxn ero (Meqoou M. .) xnxst Cnxrononx co ncemn mopananamn, nopyunn
emy nce nepxnn n yxonntx no ncex rpaax. C +roro xe nx nauano cnntno pacrn
yuenne Foxne, a xstunnxn nepnrt n ncrnnnoro Fora, orpexaxct or cnonx sa-
nyxenn. Tem onee n mopancxax crpana nauana pacmnpxrt cnon rpannnt no
nce cropont n noexart cnonx nparon, ne repnx neyau ronopnrcx n X
rnane Xnrnx (4.op B.H. Cxasannx o nauane cnanxncxo nnctmennocrn. M.,
1981. C. 99).
16. arnponannax X n. porona n Hepemtmne raxxe nmeer xnnte ueprt mopan-
cxoro nnnxnnx. 3a yxasanne na +rn ocroxrentcrna ntpaxam orpomnym ncxpen-
nmm naroapnocrt x.n.n. onenry ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera Hpnxapnarcxoro
nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera nmenn Bacnnx Cre]antxa (r. Hnano-upanxoncx)
Mnpocnany Mnxanonnuy Bonomyxy.
17. Pa++ B.B. Hancrno n Pyct n X-XV nn. M.; H., 1959. C. 21 (veruntatem non
secundum ritus aut sectam Bulgariae gentis vel Ruzie aut Slavonice lingue, sed
magis sequens institute et decreta apostolica, unum potiorem tocius ecclesie ad
placitum eligas in hoc opus clericum latinis dprime litteris eruditum: Monumenta
Germaniae Historica. Scriptores. Nova series. T. II. Berlin, 1955. P. 44).
18. Tam xe. C. 21. Hpnmeu. 32.
19. Ppacoe M.K. Honte annte o xpemennn C. 48.
20. Tam xe. C. 48-49.
21. Tam xe. C. 49.
22. Tam xe. C. 49-52.
23. Hasapeuro A.B. 1) O Pyccxo mapxe n cpenenexono Benrpnn // Bocrou-
nax Enpona n pennocrn n cpenenexonte. M., 1978; 2) O nmenn Pyct n nemen-
xnx ncrounnxax IX-X nn. // Bonpoct xstxosnannx. 1980. N 5; 3) Hmx Pyct n ero
nponsnonte n nemenxnx cpenenexontx axrax (IX-XIV nn.) // pennemne rocy-
apcrna na reppnropnn CCCP. 1982. M., 1984; 4) Pyct n Iepmannx n IX-X nn. //
pennemne rocyapcrna Bocrouno Enpont. 1991. M., 1994; 5) pennxx Pyct na
mexynapontx nyrxx: mexncnnnnnnapnte ouepxn xyntrypntx, roprontx, no-
nnrnuecxnx cnxse. M., 2001. C. 11-50.
24. Ceooe B.B. Cnanxne n pannem cpenenexonte. C. 124-125.
25. Kvsi+uu A.I. Pyrn n pyct na ynae // Cpenenexonax n nonax Poccnx. Cop-
nnx nayuntx crare x 60-nernm npo]eccopa Hropx xonnennua upoxnona / Orn.
pe. B.M. Bopoten, A. R. nopnnuenxo. CH., 1996.
26. Tam xe. C. 133-134.
27. He ncxnmueno, nnpouem, uro nponnxnonenne n Hpnxapnarte mopancxoro
xpncrnancrna cnxsano ne rontxo c ee nnnxnnem na pernon, no n c nonno nepece-
nennen orrya, noxnnynmnx cnon oma n cnxsn c namecrnnem nenrpon. uacrt ns
nnx opanact o Cpenero Honenpontx, re apxeonoramn ntxnnent nx cnet
29
,
(Lupuucru C.C. Apxeonornuecxne napannenn x ncropnn xpncrnancrna na Pycn
n n Bennxo Mopannn // pennxx Pyct n cnanxne. M., 1987).
28. Honecrt npemenntx ner. C. 54. nx 907 r. mt nmeem n Honecrn npemenntx
ner yxasanne na yuacrne xopnaron n noxoe Onera na Koncranrnnonont (HBH. C.
16). Hcxox ns +roro, F.A. Tnmomyx (Tu+ouvr B.A. anntopyctxa Fyxonnna.
Knin, 1982) nonaraer, uro xopnart yxe n +ro npemx nxonnn n cocran Knencxo
Pycn (norom, npana, no mnennm yuenoro, onn noccranonnnn cnom nesanncn-
mocrt n tnn nnont sanoenant Bnanmnpom). Taxo ntno npecrannxercx xorx
n samanunntm, no cnnmxom npxmonnnentm: no-nepntx, cam cnncox nocrou-
nocnanxncxnx nnemen, yuacrnonanmnx n noxoe, moxer trt n neocronepen, a
no-nroptx, camo no cee yuacrne n noxoe ne ronopnr o sanncnmocrn Xopnarnn
or Knena xopnart nnonne mornn npnnnmart yuacrne n ntronom noxoe xax
comsnnxn Pycn, paccunrtnax na uacrt oraro otun. C ynepennocrtm moxno
ronopnrt o nounnennn xopnaron Pycn rontxo nocne noxoa Bnanmnpa n 992 r.
29. Ipvueecru M.C. Icropnx Vxpannn-Pycn. Htnin, 1905. Bn. 2. T II. C. 362, 363,
390; Cmeqauoeu: H.C. Ornomennx xnxsx n snarn n Iannnxom n Bontncxom xnx-
xecrnax o xonna XII n. // Cpenenexonax Pyct. Btn. 7 // Orn. pe. A.A. Iopcxn.
M., 2007. C. 121-122.
30. Tamuuee B.H. Hcropnx Poccncxax. T. II. M.; H., 1963. C. 64.
31. HCPH. T. IX. C. 65.
32. Hocne cmeprn xnxxnnmero n Honropoe Btmecnana, xoropax n Hcropnn
Poccncxo B.H. Tarnmena arnpyercx 1110 r. (T. II. C. 70).
33. Bnanmnp nmnn nastnart ocnonannte nm ropoa cnonm nmenem. Bcnom-
nnm ocnonannte nm Bnanmnp n Pocrono-Cysantcxo semne n nasnannt no
ero xpncrnancxomy nmenn Bacnnen.
34. Kv:uuro M.M. 1) Cpenenexonte ropoa Hoyxtx n cnere neronncntx n
apxeonornuecxnx ncrounnxon // Conercxoe cnanxnoneenne. 1978. N 4. C. 23; 2)
pennn ropo Bnanmnp na Bontnn // pennepyccxn ropo. Marepnant nce-
comsno apxeonornuecxo xon]epennnn, nocnxmenno 1500-nernm ropoa Kne-
na. Knen, 1984. C. 68.
35. ux M.H. 1) O nexoroptx acnexrax nepenoca pennepyccxnx ropoon //
Hont nsrnx. Haoparopnx connantno ncropnn Tamoncxoro rocyapcrnen-
noro ynnnepcnrera nm. I.P. epxannna. Mexynapont copnnx paor mono-
tx ncropnxon. T. 1 / Peaxnnonnt coner: P.F. Konuaxon (npecearent) n p.
Tamon, 2007; 2) K nponeme nponcxoxennx pennepyccxnx ropoon // Hpo-
mnoe Honropoa n Honropocxo semnn: marepnant nayuntx xon]epennn 2006-
2007 roon / Cocrannrent B.u. Anpeen; HonIV nm. pocnana Myporo. Bennxn
Honropo, 2007.
36. Panoe O.M. Pyccxax nepxont C. 42-58; 4pouoe H.B. O ncropnuecxom
snauennn xpemennx Pycn // 4pouoe H. B. Hauana pyccxo ncropnn. Hspan-
noe. M., 2001. C. 764-769.
37. 4pouoe H.B. 1) Knencxax Pyct: Ouepxn connantno-+xonomnuecxo ncro-
pnn. H., 1974; 2) Knencxax Pyct: Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn. H.,
1980; 3) Mxrexnt Honropo: Ouepxn ncropnn rocyapcrnennocrn, connantno
n nonnrnuecxo optt xonna IX nauana XIII cronernx. CH., 1992; 4) pennxx
Pyct: Ontr nccneonannx ncropnn connantno n nonnrnuecxo optt. M.;
30
2009, N 3 (17)
CH., 1995; 5) Pacrno n annnuecrno y nocrountx cnanxn. VI-IX nn. CH., 1996; 6)
Knencxax Pyct. Inannte ueprt connantno-+xonomnuecxoro crpox. CH., 1999;
4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. H., 1988;
eopuu:euro A.P. Pyccxne semnn Bennxoro xnxxecrna Hnroncxoro: Ouepxn nc-
ropnn omnnt, cocnonn, rocyapcrnennocrn (o nauana XVI n.). CH., 1993;
Hvsauoe B.B. 1) Knxxecxoe n rocyapcrnennoe xosxcrno na Pycn X-XII nn. n
oreuecrnenno ncropnorpa]nn XVIII nauana XX n. Hxencx, 1995; 2) penne-
pyccxax rocyapcrnennocrt: renesnc, +rnoxyntrypnax cpea, neonornuecxne
xoncrpyxrt. Hxencx, 2007; Kpueoueee P.B. Pyct n monront: Hccneonanne no
ncropnn Cenepo-Bocrouno Pycn XIIXIV nn. CH., 2003; Maopoe A.B. Iannn-
xo-Bontncxax Pyct: ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxnx ornomenn n omonront-
cxn nepno. Knxst, oxpe n ropocxax omnna. CH., 2001; Muxa.oea H.B.
Cnyxnnte nmn Cenepo-Bocrouno Pycn n XIV nepno nononnne XVI nexa:
Ouepxn connantno ncropnn. CH., 2003; Hempoe A.B. Or xstuecrna x Cnxro
Pycn. Honropocxne yconnt (x nsyuennm pennepyccxoro neuenoro yxnaa).
CH., 2003.
38. Hauvmo B.T. Ho nonoy xnnrn H.. upoxnona Knencxax Pyct: Ouepxn
connantno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn // Cpenenexonax n nonax Poccnx (nnepnte
crartx ntmna: Bonpoct ncropnn. 1982. N 9). C. 768.
39. 4pouoe H.B. 1) O ncropnuecxom snauennn C. 784-788; 2) Hauano xpncrn-
ancrna na Pycn. Hxencx, 2003; eopuu:euro A.P. pennepyccxoe omecrno n
nepxont. H., 1988.
40. B ero cocran nepnonauantno, nepoxrno, nxonnn xax Bontnt, rax n Xopnarnx,
cocrannxnmne, xax tno ormeueno ntme, na pyexe X-XI nn. ennoe amnnncr-
parnnnoe nenoe.
41. Honemne nontrxn noxasart nonnym neocronepnocrt ncex opnrnnantntx
nsnecrn Hcropnn Poccncxo (To.o:ro A.H. Hcropnx Poccncxax Bacnnnx
Tarnmena: ncrounnxn n nsnecrnx. M.; Knen, 2005; Ceepo.oe M.B. Bacnnn Hnxn-
rnu Tarnmen anrop n peaxrop Hcropnn Poccncxo. CH., 2009) ntrnxxr,
na nam nsrnx, neyenrentntmn: vpaee.i A.B. Hont Iepocrpar, nnn V ncro-
xon moepno ncropnn // Copnnx Pyccxoro ncropnuecxoro omecrna. T. 10
(158). M., 2006; Cmeqauoeu: H.C. Hcropnx Poccncxax B.H. Tarnmena: cnopt
npoonxamrcx // Oreuecrnennax ncropnx. 2007. N 3.
42. Hpn +rom, n sanncnmocrn or mnponosspennx roro nnn nnoro anropa, xpncrn-
annsannx onnctnaercx or camtx nosnrnntx ronon (nanpnmep, K. C. Axcaxon
nncan n cnoe npemx: Kora ncnomnnaemt, xax xpecrnncx pyccxn napo, nenont-
no ymnnxemtcx ymom. Pyccxn napo xpecrnncx nerxo n es optt, xax mna-
enen (nnr. no: Hposopoe H.P. Pyct xstuecxax. Cymepxn pyccxnx oron. M.,
2009. C. 22)) o camtx nerarnnntx (cm. nanpnmep: Hposopoe H.P. Pyct xstuec-
xax. C. 338-411).
43. Cp.: 4pouoe H.B. O ncropnuecxom snauennn C. 785.
44. Ia.iroecru H.M. Fopta xpncrnancrna c ocrarxamn xstuecrna n penne
Pycn. T. I. Xaptxon, 1916. T. II. M., 1913; Auu:roe E.B. stuecrno n pennxx Pyct.
CH., 1914. C. 306; Panoe O.M. Pyccxax nepxont; Iopoueuro H.C. Kpemenne
Pycn: ]axrt npornn neren n mn]on. Honemnuecxne samerxn. H., 1984;
Pioaroe B.A. stuecrno penne Pycn. M., 1987; 4pouoe H.B. 1) O ncropn-
31
,
uecxom snauennn C. 786-788; 2) Hauano xpncrnancrna na Pycn; Pvcauoea H.H.,
Tu+ouvr B.A. stuecxne cnxrnnnma C. 171-173; Hposopoe H.P. Pyct stuec-
xax. C. 338-501 n p.
45. Ceooe B.B. Bocrounte cnanxne. C. 126-128.
46. Panoe O.M. Pyccxax nepxont C. 365-366.
47. Pvcauoea H.H., Tu+ouvr B.A. stuecxne cnxrnnnma C. 98-113, 159-177.


nn1epne1-uarasnn
Knnrn n nannunn:
- Vntxnon H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cenaparnsma
- Pyccxax Iannnnx n "masennnnt"
- Cnopenxo C. Vxpanna - roxe Poccnx
- uyen C. Vxpanncxn Hernon
- Ieponcxn I. stx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Apncron u. Hnreparypnoe pasnnrne Hoxapnarcxo
Pycn
- Hon H. 3nnnxnonenx Hoxapnarcxo Pycn
- Xypnan Pycnn n mnoroe pyroe...
Conmecrnt npoexr caron Ennax Pyct (www.edrus.org),
Vxpanncxne crpannnt (www.ukrstor.com) n Manopyccxo
napono ncropnuecxo nnnoreuxn (mnib.malorus.org).
Apec marasnna n Hnrepnere: http://magazin.malorus.org
e_mail: magazin@malorus.org Ten.: +7 (903) 53 44 218
Apec: Poccnx 109028 Mocxna. o nocrpeonannx.
Hpexnnrenm O3H 5 IN 1196995
Hepnt remarnuecxn
xnnxnt marasnn no
yxpanncxomy nonpocy.
Btctnaem xaranor no
noure n nomoxem c
n p n o p e r e n n e m
menxoonrontx naprn xnnr.
32
2009, N 3 (17)
Mnxann HECHH
IAAHHKOE BEHE B COBLTHRX
1187-1188 rr.
Hecmorpx na ornocnrentnym nsyuennocrt anntx o connantno-no-
nnrnuecxom crpoe Iannnxo semnn
1
, mnorne n rom uncne n xnmuente
nponemt ocramrcx cnopntmn. Ho+romy, opamaxct x nponeme ra-
nnnxoro neua n cotrnxx 1187-1188 rr. cronr cenart necxontxo npe-
napnrentntx oronopox o rom, uro coo npecrannxno ramomnee neue
xorx t no cnoemy ]opmantnomy cocrany.
Ho mnennm ontmnncrna yuentx, n rannnxom neue yuacrnonann nce
cnoonte cnercxne cnon ropocxoro nacenennx
2
. Htne npnnnnnnant-
noe ncxnmuenne cocrannxmr nnmt nosnnnn c ono cropont T.H. Bnn-
xyn, a c pyro H.. upoxnona n A.R. nopnnuenxo. Cornacno
T.H. Bnnxyn, neue no nce Pycn, a crano trt, n n Iannue, yxe n XI n.
npecrannxno coo conemanne necxontxnx coren npecrannrene o-
mecrnenno +nnrt. Hpn +rom T. H. Bnnxyn n xauecrne axcnomt npnno-
nr resnc o noncemecrno recnore ropocxnx neuentx nnomae
3
. Hao
ymart, ona nmeer n nny ony ns cymecrnymmnx n ncropnorpa]nn xon-
nennn ronorpa]nn nonropocxo nopnmencxo neueno nnoman, re
yro t nomemannct nnmt 300-500 mecrntx oxp
4
, xorx nao same-
rnrt, uro cam anrop +ro xonnennnn B.H. nnn cnpanennno npnsnanan
]opmantnoe yuacrne n neuentx copannxx ncex cnoontx nonropo-
nen nnnort o uepntx nme: necmorpx na ncxnmunrentnym, no mne-
nnm yuenoro, pont nonropocxoro oxpcrna, neoxpcxn nm ]opmant-
no yuacrnonan n ynpannennn rocyapcrnom, onocx nonm c npenapn-
rentntx paonntx copann orentntx xonnon
5
. Konuancxax xe cnc-
rema tna pacnpocrpanena no nce Pycn
6
, rax uro xaxax t ro nn tno
ronorpa]nx ropocxo neueno nnoman onpeenenno ne onxna xn-
nxrtcx esycnonno npnunno orcexannx nsnecrn o connantno axrnn-
nocrn nesnarntx cnoen nacenennx pennepyccxnx ropoon. Hsnecrnx
xe o yuacrnn n omecrnenno xnsnn npocrtx ropoxan T.H. Bnnxyn
oxnnxer nexnmn xnnxntmn xoncrpyxramn
7
. Fesocnonarentnocrt n
nnyrpennmm npornnopeunnocrt +rnx nocrpoenn yenrentno noxasan
H.B. Hyxnn
8
. Taxnm opasom, nne sanncnmocrn or peantnoro xapaxrepa
nnacrn n omonrontcxom Iannue, ner ocnonann orpnnart ]opmantno-
ro yuacrnx n rocyapcrnennom ynpannennn n neoxpcxnx cnoontx
cnoen rannuan.
33
,
pyrym xpanocrt xnnxer coo nosnnnx H.. upoxnona n A.R nop-
nnuenxo
9
o omenonocrnom xapaxrepe nnacrn n omonrontcxo Pycn n
nenom n n Rro-3anano (Iannnxo-Bontncxo) Pycn n uacrnocrn, npn
xoropom camn neronncnte rannuaneneunnxn xxot npecrannxnn
coo ne rontxo ropoxan, no n cenxn - ncm Iannuxym semnm. B xaue-
crne aprymenra ncropnxn npnnenn nsnecrne Hnartencxo neronncn o
nrne na Kanxe 1227 r., n xoropo yuacrnonann rannuane n nontnnt
xnxo co cnonmn xnxstmn
10
. Hpn +rom nontnnen ncropnxn counn
npecrannrenxmn nce Bontnn (a ne rontxo camoro ropoa Bnanmn-
pa-Bontncxoro), anromarnuecxn npnnncan omenonocrnoe coepxanne
n nonxrnm rannuane
11
, xorx camn n ro xe paore oxasann narponar
Bnanmnpa na ero npnropoamn eme n XI n.
12
uro x, no-nnnmomy,
sect nonntnnt n nnpany oroxecrnnxnnct c Bontntm (n nntx cny-
uaxx n neronncxx onn snauarcx xax nnamnpnn
13
). Ho nocxontxy no-
ntnnt ynomxnyrt n xonrexcre ocrporo noennoro cronxnonennx, ro raxoe
oroxecrnnenne cronr nonnmart cxopee ne n connantnom cmtcne, a n
xauecrne ntenennx Bontnn ornocnrentno npounx roramnnx rocyap-
crnenntx opasonann penne Pycn. Kpome roro, xax noxasan
H.B. Hyxnn, neue n omonrontcxo Pycn tno no xapaxrepy nnacrn ro-
pocxnm, a nonce ne omenonocrntm opranom, oennennem nme
rpacxnx, uro namno orpaxenne n n xapaxrepe semcxoro ononuennx,
npenmymecrnenno ropocxoro no cnoemy cocrany
14
. Taxnm opasom, ra-
nnnxoe neue cneyer npnsnart cocroxnmnm ns ncex cnercxnx cnoo-
ntx cnoen rannuan, a nonxrne rannuane nnrepnpernponart xax ropo-
xane xnrenn Iannua. Baxno yuecrt, uro neunnxamn na Pycn xnnx-
nnct rontxo myxn rnant ceme, n npornnonec erxm, nouac
nnonne nspocntm n oecnocontm, no mnamnm myxunnam cemtn, ne
ocrnrmnm eme rpaxancxoro nonnonpannx
15
. Vunrtnax +ro, nepeem
x paccmorpennm cocrnenno nnrepecymmnx nac cotrn.
B 6695 (1187) r., cornacno Hnartencxo neronncn, ymnpammn rannn-
xn xnxst pocnan Ocmomtcn csna myxa cnox n ncm Iannuxym sem-
nm, nosna xe n copt ncx (oe.oe ovxoeeucmeo M.H.) n monacrtpx, n
nnmax, n cnnntx, n xytx n raxo rnaronxme, nnauacx, xo ncemt, "ornn, n
partx n ctnone! Ce yxe orxoxm or cnera cero cyertnoro n ny x
rnopum cnoemy. A crpemnx naue ncnx, xxoxe nn nnxro ne crpemn,
ornn n partx, npocrnre n oranrn!" H raxo nnaxamertcx no rpn nn
nepeo ncnmn copt n nepeo ncnmn nmmn n nonene pasanarn nme-
nne monacrtpemt n nnmnm... H ce monnxmert myxamt cnonmt "Ce
as, ennom xyom cnoem rononom xox, yepxan ncm Iannuxym sem-
nm. A ce npnxastnam mecro cnoe Onronn, ctnonn cnoemy menmemy, a
Bononmnpy am Hepemtmnt". H ypxnn m, n npnnon Bononmepa
xo xpecry, n myxn rannuxtx na cem, xxo emy ne ncxart no parom
Iannua
16
.
34
2009, N 3 (17)
Vuente neonoxparno ormeuann nernnnunt cocran +roro copa-
nnx, npnuem n ontmnncrne cnoem xnno paccmarpnnann ero xax ennoe
neue
17
. Onaxo rexcr neronncn, na nam nsrnx, cxnonxer x npanore
A.B. Maopona, nnenmero sect nyxcrynenuarym onepannm n o-
mem, otunym nx pyccxnx xnxse roro npemenn pasauy nmennx mo-
nacrtpemt n nnmnmt
18
n nocneymmee nernrnmnoe neuenoe copa-
nne cnercxnx rannuan, na xoropom, cocrnenno, yrnepxanact cyta
xnxxecxoro crona. Hpnrom, rannnxne myxn neunnxn, no cnpanenn-
nomy sameuannm yuenoro, anexo ne rontxo oxpe
19
. Cnono myx n
cpenenexono Pycn oosnauano rnany cnercxo cnoono cemtn
20
. py-
roe eno, uro ne cronr rannnxnx myxeneunnxon oroxecrnnxrt c
xnxxtmn myxamn
21
(nmontrno, uro cam A.B. Maopon n rex xe pao-
rax nouepxnnaer pasnnny mexy semcxnmn myxamn n xnxxtnmn
22
).
Paccxastnax o cotrnxx 6662 (1154) r., ra xe Hnartencxax neronnct
npxmo pasenxer cnxsanntx c onnm n rem xe ropoom xnxxtnx n ro-
pocxnx neuentx nme xax pasnte connantno-nonnrnuecxne xare-
ropnn, a eme nx pyccxoro xnnxnnxa XI n. tno ecrecrnenno pasenxrt
pyccxnx semcxnx oxp n xnxxnx pyxnnnnxon npn onncannn xnxxtero
nnpa 6594 (996) r.
23
a n n nnrepecymmnx nac cotrnxx 1187 r. rannn-
xne xnxxtn nmn n neunnxn, cornacno npxmomy yxasannm neronncn, roxe
ncnonnxmr pasnte ]ynxnnn: xnxxtnm nmxm pocnan Ocmomtcn ns-
naraer cnoe pemenne o nepeaue ctnontxm Iannua n Hepemtmnx, ra-
nnnxne myxnneunnxn nenymr xpecr xnxsm, cornamaxct c ero peme-
nnem nepeart rannnxn cron ctny Onery
24
. Taxnm opasom, rannnxne
neunnxn n ro npemx npouno cunrannct cnocontmn nnnxrt na cyty
xnxxecxoro crona xax orentnax cnna
25
. 3ro nx xauecrno cronr orme-
rnrt ocoo. B +rom nnane ne ynnnrenen ror ]axr, uro n 6734 (1226) n
6748 (1240) rr. nmenno semcxne oxpe rannucrnn, a ne xnxxtn myxn,
yyr onpeenxrt cyty xnxxecxoro crona
26
. Knxxtn xe myxn n co-
trnxx 1187 r. roxe nrpann naxnym pont, ntcrynax n xauecrne nocpe-
nnxon mexy xnxsem n myxamn rannnxnmn: yxe ypxnn c nnmn non-
poc nepeaun crona noromcrny, xnxst ncrynaer n cornamenne c myxa-
mn rannnxnmn
27
. Hoxasarentno n +rom nnane ntnnnyroe nocnennmn
ro cnycrx onnnenne cnoemy nonomy xnxsm Bnanmnpy pocnannuy,
uro ror ymt (coeemi M.H.
28
) ne nmxmer c myxamn cnonmn
29
.
Ho cnpanennnomy mnennm nccneonarene, +ro tno onnm ns ocnon-
ntx xpnrepnen ne oporo cocymecrnonannx xnxsx n neuentx my-
xe rannuxnx
30
. Hpana, nonce ne oxsarentno nnert n xnxxtnx my-
xax semcxnx oxp-ymnen, xax +ro otuno enaercx
31
. Knxxtn myxn,
n ornnune or myxe rannuxnx, n sect xnxxtn nmn. Hpocro nenm-
ont xnxsx coneronartcx c nnmn xax c nocpennxamn mexy nnm n sem-
crnom anromarnuecxn osnauana n rpyoe npenepexenne x neuy. Hpn-
35
,
uem noonax saxonomepnocrt cpaartnana ne rontxo n Iannue. B
annom xonrexcre A. B. Maopon cnpanennno npnnen n npnmep xnn-
mero eme n XI n. xnencxoro xnxsx Bcenonoa pocnannua
32
. Hsnecrno,
uro no crapocrt +ror xnxst npeneperan crapme pyxnno n nonm-
nn cmtcn mname, n cnny uero semcxnm nmem ne oxonrn
xnxxe npant
33
. B +ro cnxsn ne ynnnrentno crpemnenne rannnxnx
neunnxon coxpannrt conert xnxsx c ero npnnnxenntmn n xauecrne
neoxonmoro nncrpymenra nx conmennx neueno saxonnocrn
34
.
Cront xe neoxonmtm +nemenrom, no-nnnmomy, tn n cam xnxst.
Fopxct c xonxperntmn xnxstxmn, rannuane nnxora ne crannnn nonpoc
o ynpasnennn camoro xnxxecxoro crona
35
. Baxno n ro, uro cyty
xnxxennx n 1187 r. pemamr nmenno neunnxn n xnxxtn nmn, a ne nono-
crnte npecrannrenn nce semnn Iannnxo (nocnenne npncyrcrno-
nann nnmt npn pasaue xnxxtero opa nnmnm n nepxnn
36
). Hx ]axrn-
uecxoe ecnpanne nornepxaercx n rem, xax x nnm oparnncx ymnpa-
mmn xnxst. Hmenno o nnx n o nnmnx xnxst ronopnn ctnone
37
(ynor-
penennoe ryr xe xnxsem cnono partx, no nepnomy nanmennm
A.B. Maopona, na Pycn npnmenxnoct nmenno x ropoxanam-neunnxam
38
),
ornn xe, pasymeercx, - tnmne sect xe npecrannrenn ncero eno-
ro n uepnoro yxonencrna Iannnxo semnn, nxnmuax, ecrecrnenno, n
ntcmnx nepxonntx nepapxon
39
. Hpnuem ctnone nonomane n nnmne
- nnmt nnnmann xnxsm: axe npomenne sa cnon rpexn xax npannrenx on
npocnn rontxo y parten ropoxan n ornon npecrannrene y-
xonencrna
40
. Hpn +rom nenocpecrnenno nonpoc o cyte xnxxecxoro
crona pemann nmenno cnercxne ropocxne xareropnn: eme n 1096 r. pyc-
cxnmn xnxstxmn cunranoct ecrecrnenntm yrnepxartcx na xnxxenne
nmenno c cornacnx rpacxnx neunnxon
41
, a ne nonoman, pyccxoe xe
yxonencrno, cyx no ncemy, noome ne cunranoct neueno xareropne
n nnnxno na nonnrnxy nocpecrnom nneneuentx nepxonntx coopon
42
.
Baxno raxxe ormernrt, uro n 1187 r. rannnxne neunnxn ne npecran-
nxnn coo onopono connantno-nonnrnuecxo macct. Beymym pont
na neue nrpann semcxne oxpe-neunnxn, yxe n nepno nononnne XIII n.
]axrnuecxn camocroxrentno pacnopxxanmnecx mecrntm xnxxecxnm
cronom. Tax, n 6748 (1240) r., cornacno nenycmtcnennomy
43
nsnecrnm
Hnartencxo neronncn, oope re ea.u:icmuu auu.a ruse+i cooe
uasieaxv a caue ncm seunm epaaxy
44
. Pasymeercx, nonnnnoro
napoonpancrna n raxom ropoe trt ne morno. Eme n 6734 (1226) r.
ysxococnonnoe nexenanne mecrntx oxp noxnxxennx n Iannue Mcrnc-
nana Vanoro
45
cunranoct saxonntm rocyapcrnenntm pemennem. Hpan-
a, no mnennm H.. upoxnona, A.R. nopnnuenxo, a raxxe A.B. Xypa-
nenx, na rannnxoe oxpcrno ocoo nnnxna nnemnenonnrnuecxax necra-
nntnocrt, enanmax mecrntx omnnntx nnepon ornocnrentno nesa-
36
2009, N 3 (17)
nncnmtmn or mecrnoro omecrna (ne n npnmep xxot onee emoxpa-
rnuntm Honropocxo n Pocrono-Cysantcxo semnxm)
46
.
Hocnenn resnc, na nam nsrnx, rpeyer nexoroporo yrounennx.
Bnemnenonnrnuecxax necranntnocrt ne morna ne cxastnartcx na yn-
pouennn nonoxennx mecrno snarn. Ho nnemnenonnrnuecxne ornome-
nnx Honropoa n Cenepo-Bocrouno Pycn c nnocrpanntmn rocyapcrna-
mn roxe ne xnnxnnct mnpno nnnnne. Kpome roro, n ocnone connant-
noro paccnoennx ropocxnx neunnxon nexann ecrecrnennte nponecct
omecrnennoro pasnnrnx, cxastnanmnecx no nce Pycn, n rom uncne n
n Bonro-Oxcxom mexypeute, n n Hpnnntmente
47
.
Eme n 6684 (1176) r. camo nonxrne menmne/nmne mesnnnn cny-
xnno n Cenepo-Bocrouno Pycn npxmtm cnnonnmom nonnrnuecxoro
ecnpannx. Tax, no 1176 r. npornnocroxmne nonnrnxe craptx ropo-
on Pocrona n Cysanx nnanmnpnt ]nrypnpymr n Hanpenrtencxo
neronncn xax nmne mesnnnn
48
. Kax noxasan R.A. Hnmonon, +ror
+nnrer n annom cnyuae nxnmuan nect ropo, mesnnn ornocnrentno
craptx ropoon n pernone
49
. Heapom neronncen npnnen xcnym ana-
nornm c nounnenntm nonoxennem npnropoon no ornomennm x rnan-
ntm ropoam, a cam Bnanmnp ycramn pocronnen n cysantnen nasnan
npnropoom
50
. Kax ncex ropoxan, nxnmuax oxp, nopo ostnann
nnornnxamn, cmepamn, a ro n nonce xononamn-xamenmnxamn
51
,
rax n sect cnono mesnnnn nopasymenano ecnpanne ncero ropoa,
nxnmuax oxp. Hoxasarentno, uro neoxpcxne cnon ropoxanneunnxon
yxe rora tnn cnmnonom nonnrnuecxoro ecnpannx
52
.
He mentme rocnocrnonano na mecrnom neue n oxpcrno Honropo-
a. Eme mexpaonnax opta 6623-6626 (1115-1118) rr. mexy Hmn-
ntm n Hepencxnm xonnamn n Toprono cropono ontm nonom nsnec-
rna xax mexpaonnax nnmt no epecrxntm rpamoram. a n n nnx na-
snanne ropocxnx paonon ant es manemero namexa na nx nonnrn-
uecxoe nnnxnne n mexoxpcxo opte
53
. B o]nnnantno xe HIH +rn
cotrnx no 6626 (1118) r. nepconn]nnnponant n nnne nonropocxnx
oxp. Xapaxrepno n ro, uro pasnpanmn +ro eno Bnanmnp Monomax
ntsnan n Knen nmenno nce oxpcrno
54
. 3a ocyxennt xnxsem Hmnn
xonen nceneno nonecnn naxasanne xonuancxne oxpe xax ]axrnuecxn
nce pemanmne
55
.Taxnm opasom, connantnax neonoponocrt penne-
pyccxoro omecrna cymecrnenno nnnxna na connantnym oprannsannm
neua ne rontxo n Iannue, no n no nce Pycn. Crano trt, n rannnxoe
oxpcrno ner nyxt n +rom nnane cunrart ncxnmuennem, rem onee
uro orxponennoe nnepcrno rannnxnx semcxnx oxp na neue npocnexn-
naercx n n XII n., necmorpx na ]opmantnoe yuacrne n omecrnenno
xnsnn ncero cnoonoro cnercxoro nacenennx Iannua
56
. eno ryr ne n
ncxnmunrentnom nnnxnnn nnemne yrpost nnn ocoo oxpcxo
37
,
yme
57
, npocro connantnax neonoponocrt omecrna cxastnanact n
na neueno exrentnocrn. Cneonarentno, n n 1187 r. semcxne rannnxne
oxpe axrnnno nosrnannxnn neue, npomanmee ymnpammemy xnxsm ero
nonnrnuecxne rpexn n cornamanmeecx na noxnxxenne n Iannue ero
ctna Onera pocnannua. B cotrnxx 1187-1188 rr. rannnxoe neue npe-
craer n xauecrne ocoo connantno-nonnrnuecxo cnnt, c onontno
uerxnmn rpannnxmn n onpeenenntm camocosnannem. B ro xe npemx,
axe n cnyuae axrnnntx xon]nnxron c xonxperntmn xnxstxmn neunnxn
ne mtcnnnn cex nne nntx opranon rannnxo nnacrn. Hannune y neua
cocrnenntx nnrepecon (nopo nectma uerxnx) eme ne rpanc]opmnpo-
nanoct n crpemnenne xopennoro nepeycrpocrna omecrna.
Baxno raxxe ormernrt, uro ocoym connantnym ]ynxnnm nrpan co-
ner xnxsx c ero myxamn. Hpn +rom xnxxtnx myxe ner nyxt cme-
mnnart nn c semcxnm oxpcrnom, nn c rannnxnmn neuentmn myxamn n
nenom. Baxno n ro, nneneuente ymt xnxxtnx nme c xnxsem xn-
nxnnct neoxonmtm cnocoom conmennx neueno saxonnocrn. Pac-
cmorpennte namn cotrnx pente]nee ntxnnnn ropocxo n cnercxn
xapaxrep rannnxoro neua. B 1187 r. nonomane n yxonencrno axe tnn
npxmo orcrpanent or nenocpecrnennoro pacnopxxennx xnxxecxnm
cronom.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Hyumn nonemn ncropnorpa]nuecxn osop anno remarnxn npe-
crannen n monorpa]nn A.B. Mapona: Maopoe A.B. Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct:
Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxnx ornomenn n omonrontcxn nepno. Knxst,
oxpe n ropocxax omnna. CH., 2001. C. 46-89. B xauecrne nanonee nonnoro
ncropnorpa]nuecxoro osopa no anno nponemarnxe ero ormernn n npnnnn-
nnantnt npornnnnx pasenxemo A.B. Maopontm omnnno-neueno reo-
pnn H.C. Cre]anonnu (Cmeqauoeu: H.C. Ornomennx xnxsx n snarn n Iannnxom
n Bontncxom xnxxecrnax o xonna XII n. // Cpenenexonax Pyct / Orn. pe.
A.A. Iopcxn (oa.ee CP). Btn. 7. M., 2007. C. 124).
2. Cm., nanp.: C+upuoe M.H. Cytt uepnonno nnn Iannnxo Pycn o coen-
nennx ee c Hontme (1387). CHF., 1860. C. 117-119; aureeu: H.H. Knxxenne
annnna Iannnxoro no pyccxnm n nnocrpanntm nsnecrnx. Knen, 1873. C. 18, 25-
26; Maepoouu B.B. O naponom nnxennn n Iannnxo-Bontncxom xnxxecrne n
XII-XIII nexax // Vuente sanncxn Hen. Ioc yn-ra. N 48. B. 5. H., 1939; Iomie P.B.
Hcropnuecxne cytt 3anano Vxpannt n 3anano Fenopyccnn // Hcr. xypn.
1940. N 1. C. 95-96; Hauvmo B.T. Ouepxn no ncropnn Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pycn.
M., 1950. C. 11-12, 14, 175-178 n p.; Coqpoueuro K.A. Omecrnenno-nonnrnuec-
xn crpo Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pycn XII-XIII nn. M., 1955; Kom.p H.4. 1) uop-
mnponanne reppnropnn n nosnnxnonenne ropoon Iannnxo-Bontncxo Pycn IX-
XIII nn. Knen, 1985. C. 92, 123, 136-137; 2) Knxst, oxpe n neue n Iannnxo-Bontnc-
38
2009, N 3 (17)
xo Pycn // pennemne rocyapcrna Bocrouno Enpont (anee IBE). 2004. 3)
Honnrnuecxne nncrnryrt penne Pycn. M. 2006; Maopoe A.B. Iannnxo-Bo-
ntncxax Pyct: Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxnx ornomenn n omonrontcxn
nepno. Knxst, oxpe n ropocxax omnna. CH., 2001 n p.
3. Bu.rv. T.H. 1) Biue n anni Pyci y pyri nononnni XI-XIII cr. 2001. Anro-
pe]. nc. xan. icr. nayx. HAH Vxpann. In-r icropi Vxpann. Knen, 2001. C. 10; 2)
Hmte n xnxst n xoncrpyxnnxx neronncnen XI-XIII nn. Knen, 2007. C. 221.
4. Buuu B.H. Tanncrnennt XIV nex // 3nanne cnna. 1969. N 7. B nacroxmee
npemx +ra rouxa spennx ne enncrnennax. Cm., nanp.: Auopeee B.4. O connant-
nom cocrane Honropocxoro neua // Ienesnc n pasnnrne ]eoannsma n Poccnn.
Hponemt ncropnn ropoa. Mexnys. c. / Ho pe. H.. upoxnona. H., 1988.
Mnorne aprymenrt B.u. Anpeena roxe neeccnopnt, na uro yxastnamr n re
anropt, xoropte cxono onennnamr cocran nonropocxoro ropocxoro neua (Hv-
ruu H.B. 3auem Hsxcnan nsronn ropr na ropy? K nonpocy o mecre nponee-
nnx neuentx copann n cpenenexonom Knene // CP Btn. 7. C. 51). Kpome roro,
pocnanon nnn xnxxn nop, nonpexn B. u. Anpeeny, npocrnpancx ne rontxo
mexy rorcxnm n nemenxnm nopamn, no n x sanay or xpama Cnxroro Hnxonax
(Cnxroro Hnxont), re B. H. nnn noxannsonan neuenym nnomat (cm., nanpn-
mep, nsnecrne Heronncn Anpaamxn o cnyunnmemcx n 6970 (1462) r. noxape na
xnxxtem nope y coopa Cnxroro Hnxonax na epery: HCPH. T. 16. M., 2000.
Cr. 206. Pasymeercx, ryr nmeercx n nny nmenno eper Bonxona, pacnonoxen-
nt x sanay or coopa). Ouennno, nmenno nopnmencxn yuacrox epera Bon-
xona ynomxnyr n Honropocxo Hepno neronncn xax xnxxantcxtn eper
(Honropocxax Hepnax neronnct crapmero n mnamero nsnoon (oa.ee HIH).
M., 2000. C. 397-398) n xoe onncannx noxapa 6911 (1403) r. Tem onee, uro, cyx
no xonrexcry nsnecrnx, +ror paon cocecrnonan c rorcxnm nopom, nmecre c
xoroptm uyom ne rope n oxnarnnmem snaunrentnym uacrt Toprono cropo-
nt cnntnom noxape. Taxnm opasom, nstcxannx B.u. Anpeena roxe ne saxpt-
namr nponemy, no n ntnot B.H. nnna noxa pano cunrart oxonuarentntmn
(a eme n anpnopn nepenonmtmn n paspx omepyccxnx peann), ne yunrtnax
npn +rom xonrpaprymenrt ero onnonenron.
5. Buuu B.H. Pacxonxn n Honropoe // Cpenenexont Honropo. M., 2004. C.
80. O ]opmantno omeropocxom xapaxrepe neua cm. ero xe: K xpononornn Hon-
ropocxnx axron Bacnnnx Temnoro // Apxeorpa]nuecxn exeronnx. M., 1981.
Cocrnenno, nonropocxoe neue axe o]nnnantno cunranoct ne rontxo oen-
nennem ncex neunnxon, no n ]eepanne nxrn xonnen: Hempoe A.B. Or xstue-
crna x Cnxro Pycn. Honropocxne yconnt (x nsyuennm pennepyccxoro neue-
noro yxnaa). CH., 2003. C. 37.
6. Apuxoecru A.B. Iopocxne xonnt n penne Pycn // Hcropnuecxne sa-
nncxn (oa.ee H3). M., 1945. T. 16. K +romy cxnonxer n cam xonrexcr nsnecrn o
pyccxnx xonnax (Hempoe A.B. Or xstuecrna x Cnxro Pycn... C. 34-36).
7. Bu.rv. T.H. 1) Biue n anni Pyci...; Heronncnte oxpe n uepnt na
neue (XII-XIII nn.) // CP. Btn. 5. M., 2004; 2) Hmte n xnxst...
8. Hvruu H.B. exoncrpyxnnx exoncrpyxnnn. O xnnre T. H. Bnnxyn no ncro-
pnn pennepyccxoro neua [Pavel V. Lukin, Deconstruction of Deconstruction.
About the Book by Tatyana L. Vilkul on the History of the Old Rus Veche (Political
39
,
Assembly)] // Scrinium. T. 4: Patrologia Pacifica and Other Patristic Studies / Edited
by V. Baranov and B. Lourie. CH. Axioma, 2008.
9. B paorax A.B. Maopona rannnxoe neue nce xe n nenom npecraer no xapax-
repy nnacrn ne omenonocrntm, a ropocxnm opranom: Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe
n ropocxax omnna n Rro-3anano Pycn n cotrnxx 1187-1190 rr. (x nponeme
nnyrpnomnnntx ornomenn n omonrontcxn nepno) // Cpenenexonax n Ho-
nax Poccnx. C. crare x 60-nernm npo]eccopa H.. upoxnona / Orn. pe.
B.M. Bopoten, A.R. nopnnuenxo. CH., 1996; 2) O cocrane yuacrnnxon penne-
pyccxoro neua (no marepnanam Honropoa n pyrnx pernonon penne Pycn) //
Herepyprcxne urennx96. CH., 1996; 3) Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct... C. 36. Ta-
xoe pasnnrne nsrnxon na pyccxoe neue xapaxrepno n nx pyrnx npecrannrene
mxont H. . upoxnona: Kpueoueee P.B. Pyct n monront. Hccneonanne no
ncropnn Cenepo-Bocrouno Pycn XII-XIV nn. CH., 2003; Hempoe A.B. Or xstue-
crna x Cnxro Pycn... Baxno npn +rom yuecrt, uro nx A.B. Herpona neue n ropoe
+ro, npexe ncero, cornamenne cocrnenno ropocxnx xonnon. Konuancxym
cncremy yuent paccmarpnnaer xax omepyccxym (ram xe. C. 34-36). He concem,
npana, xcna nosnnnx nccneonarene Rro-3anano Pycn C.C. Hamnna n
T.B. Fennxono (uro oxcnnmo ocoennocrxmn nspanno nmn remt), no, cyx
no crartxm +rnx yuentx, n onn neue n nenom nocnpnnnmamr xax opran nnacrn
ropoa, a ne nce nonocrn (Hauuu C.C. Iannnxoe oxpcrno XII XIII nn. // Becrn.
HIV. Cep. 2. 1985. Btn. 4; Be.uroea T.B. Knxxecxax nnacrt n Iannue npemen
pocnana Ocmomtcna // Becrn. HIV. Cep. 2. 1990. Btn. 3).
10. 4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. H.,
1988. C. 154-155. HCPH. T. 2. M. 2000. Cr. 741.
11. 4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. C.
154.
12. Tam xe. C. 121.
13. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 239, 245, 717, 719. Cocrnenno, cnono nontnnt ynomx-
nyro n neronncn nnmt onn pas, ontme oomammnx nanmenonann xnrenx
Bontnn neronnct ne npnnonr.
14. Hvruu H.B. 1) pennepyccxne non n nauantnom neronncannn // pennxx
Pyct. Btn. 5. M., 2005; 2) Beue, nnemennte copannx n nmn rpacxne n
nauantnom pyccxom neronncannn // CP. Btn. 4. M., 2004; 3) O rax nastnaemo
mnorosnaunocrn nonxrnx neue n pyccxnx neronncxx. omonrontcxoe npemx //
Hencuepnaemocrt ncrounnxa. K 70-nernm B.A. Kyuxnna. M., 2005; 4) O connant-
nom cocrane nonropocxoro neua XII-XIII nn. no neronncntm anntm // IBE.
2004 r. M., 2006; Beue: connantnt cocran // Iopcru A.A., Kv:ruu B.A., Hvruu
H.B., Cmeqauoeu: H.C. pennxx Pyct: ouepxn nonnrnuecxoro n connantnoro
crpox. M., 2008.
15. Maopoe A.B. 1) O cocrane yuacrnnxon pennepyccxoro neua...; 2) Iannnxo-
Bontncxax Pyct... C. 271-274.
16. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 656-657.
17. Hcropnorpa]nm annoro nonpoca cm.: Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe n ropoc-
xax omnna... C. 227; 2) Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct... C. 265. Ocoo xpxoe ntpaxe-
nne ntmeyxasannoe mnenne namno n paorax B.T. Hamyro. Cm., nanp.:
Hauvmo B.T. 1) ueprt nonnrnuecxoro crpox penne Pycn // Honocentnen A.H.,
40
2009, N 3 (17)
Hamyro B.T., uepennnn H.B. n p. 2) pennepyccxoe rocyapcrno n ero mexyna-
ponoe snauenne. M., 1965. C. 11-14.
18. O nponcxoxennn n npoxnnennn n pyrnx pennepyccxnx semnxx noo-
no rpannnn cm.: 4pouoe H. B. Knencxax Pyct. Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuec-
xo ncropnn. H., 1980. C. 137-148. B ro xe npemx nectma naxno samernrt, uro npn
nce cnoe apxanunocrn annax rpannnx n nsnecrno crenenn coxpanxnact n
mnoro cor ner cnycrx, xora yxe ne morno trt peun o xaxo-nno omnnnocrn
es nepnotrnocrn: Hauvmo B.T. Orstn o monorpa]nn H.. upoxnona Knen-
cxax Pyct. Ouepxn Oreuecrnenno ncropnorpa]nn // Cpenenexonax n Honax
Poccnx. C. 769 (nnepnte +ra penensnx tna onynnxonana n N 9 xypnana Bon-
poct ncropnn sa 1982 r.). B +ro cnxsn ne ynnnrentno, uro yxe n XII n., npoxn-
nxx pennee nnmenmne n pasanax cpecrna na nomnn ymn, xnxst ntcrynaer
ornmt ne xax nepnt cpen panntx n oxpyxennn nnmnx n yxonencrna (axe
nocnenee ne tno onymeno x pemennm camoro nonpoca o nepeaue rannnxoro
xnxxennx).
19. Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe n ropocxax omnna... C. 227; 2) Iannnxo-Bontn-
cxax Pyct... C. 269. Cxono cnono myx rpaxryer n H.C. Cre]anonnu:
Cmeqauoeu: H.C. Ornomennx xnxsx n snarn... C. 143.
20. Hcropnorpa]nm annoro nonpoca cm.: 4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P.
Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. C. 140. Taxoe snauenne nonxrne myx nme-
no no nce Pycn. B nonropocxom neronncannn no 6736 (1228) r. nsnecren myx
mnrnnx (ncxyccnm o connantnom craryce Mnxn]opa-Bnrnnxa cm.:
Hvruu H.B. O connantnom cocrane... C. 185-186). B +rom nnane ena nn npan
H.u. Kornxp, n xopne npornnonocrannxmmn semcxoe rannnxoe oxpcrno neuy n
naoopor (Kom.p H.4. Knxst, oxpe n neue).
21. Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe n ropocxax omnna... C. 227; 2) Iannnxo-Bontnc-
xax Pyct... C. 269. Cmemnnaer xnxxnx n semcxnx myxe n annom cnyuae n
H.C. Cre]anonnu (Cmeqauoeu: H.C. Ornomennx... C. 205).
22. Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe n ropocxax omnna... C. 227; 2) Iannnxo-Bontnc-
xax Pyct... C. 269.
23. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 474. B annom xonrexcre +ro nsnecrne tno ormeueno eme
H.. Fenxentm: Be.ee H.. 3emcxn crpo na Pycn. CH., 2004. C. 52. O snaue-
nnn cnona nmn cm.: Horpoecru C.A. Omecrnennt crpo pennepyccxoro
rocyapcrna // Tpyt Bcecomsn. saou. mpn. nn-ra. M., 1970. T. 14 C. 61. O cot-
rnxx 996 r. cm.: HCPH. T. 1. M., 2000. Cr. 126. O arnponxe annoro nsnecrnx cm.:
Kv:ruu B.A. Pannne cnnerentcrna o corcxnx n cornxx //pennxx Pyct: Bonpoct
menenncrnxn, 2006, N 1 (23). C. 10.
24. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 656-657.
25. Hpana, n annom cnyuae moxer noxasartcx, uro pocnan npnnynn rann-
uan npnnxrt neyronoe nm pemenne (xorx cam ]axr npnneennx nx x xpecry yxe
ronopnr o rom, uro xnxst nnen n nnx cnny, cnoconym pacnopxxartcx mecrntm
xnxxennem). Vxe ncxope, no cmeprn craporo xnxsx, rannnxne myxnneunnxn
ntrnann ns Iannua Onera pocnannua, a nmecro nero nocannn y cex na xnxxe-
nne ero para Bnanmnpa, c xoroptm y nnx na ce cuer tna ocoax oronopen-
nocrt. Hpn +rom neronncen ocoo nouepxnnaer, uro rannuane c Bnanmnpom
rem camtm napymnnn neannee xpecronenonanne (HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 657). Ho ena
41
,
nn nx rax sacrannna nocrynnrt nnmt cama cmeprt pocnana. B ro xe neronncn
unraem, uro nepe nsrnannem Onera tcrt mxrext nennx n Iannueon semnn
(ram xe). Taxnm opasom, Oner, nosmoxno, ]axrnuecxn ynpannxnmn semne
eme n nocnenne nn xnsnn cnoero ymnpammero orna, ycnen ntsnart rnen ne
rontxo ropoxan, no n nonoman. Hpn +rom, xax cnpanennno ormernn A.B. Mao-
pon, neronncen xnno rpaxronan nsrnanne Onera nmenno xax pesyntrar peaxnnn
ropoxan na omenonocrnoe neonontcrno ero nonnrnxo (Maopoe A.B. 1) Fox-
pe... C. 228; 2) Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct... C. 276). eno ryr ne n napoonmnn
ropoxan. Hsnecrno, uro eme n 6684 (1176) r. na Pycn xasanoct ecrecrnenntm, uro
na uro xe crapenmne [ropoa] cymamrt, na rom xe npnropon cranyrt.
Hpnuem yxe rora +ra rpannnx cunranact nyme ena nn ne ns nauana (HCPH.
T. 1. Cr. 378). Ho+romy nponsnontnoe nmemarentcrno xnxsx n ynpannenne sem-
ne n ntsnano rnen rannnxnx neunnxon, ne xenanmnx camnm repxrt nnacrt na
nonocrtm, rouno rax xe, xax ne nmenne xnxsem nonropocxnx cmepon eme
n mae 6644 (1136) r. pasosnnno nonroponen, crpemnnmnxcx camnm ynpannxrt
cnoe semne (HIH. C. 24, 209. A.erceee P.I. uepnte nmn Honropoa n Hcxo-
na (x nonpocy o connantno +nonmnnn pennepyccxo ropocxo omnnt) //
H3. M., 1979. T. 103. C. 260). Hpana, H.C. Cre]anonnu nouemy-ro oxnnn neue-
noe nsrnanne Onera pocnanonnua ne neuentm, a pyxnnntm
(Cmeqauoeu: H.C. Ornomennx xnxsx n snarn... C. 206). Ho, xax mt yxe ormeuann
ntme, raxne nonxrnx, xax xnxxtn myxn n rannuane, ne xnnxnnct cnnonnma-
mn. Hpn +rom nsrnanne Onera tno, xax nsnecrno, anexo ne enncrnenntm cny-
uaem pacnopxxennx rannuanamnneunnxamn cnonm xnxxecxnm cronom. B o-
monrontcxn nepno npanom nsrnannx n npnsnannx xnxse, a raxxe yuacrnx n
ocyxennn nonpocon npecrononacnenx onaann neua ncex pyccxnx ropoon
(To.o:ro H.H. pennn Knen. Knen, 1983; Hu+ouoe P.A. Bnanmnpo-Cysantc-
xax Pyct. Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn. H., 1987). Hexoropte anro-
pt axe cunramr, uro neue n omonrontcxo Pycn tno ntcmnm opranom nnac-
rn (4pouoe H.B. Knencxax Pyct. Ouepxn connantno-nonnrnuecxo ncropnn;
4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn;
Maopoe A.B. Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct). Ho +ra nosnnnx n snaunrentno mepe
ocnonana na nsnecrnxx o ]opmantnom coyuacrnn neua n rocyapcrnennom yn-
pannennn, uro camo no cee ne oxsarentno ronopnr o ero peantnom ncecnnnn, a
raxxe onosnauno rpaxronxe connantno axrnnnocrn noen, xorx, xax noxast-
naer nnnmarentnt ananns ncrounnxon, nocnenne anexo ne ncera cocrannxnn
nnmt neuenoe ononuenne, no nxnmuann raxxe n pyxnny (Hvruu H.B. penne-
pyccxne non...). Cymecrnyer raxxe mnenne o cnoeopasnom pannonecnn xnx-
xecxo n neueno nnacre n omonrontcxo Pycn, c nepnoamn ornocnrentnoro
ycnnennx ro xnxxecxo, ro neueno nosnnnn (To.o:ro H.H. pennn Knen; Hu-
+ouoe P.A. Bnanmnpo-Cysantcxax Pyct. Hs paor no Iannnxo semne cm.,
nanp.: Kom.p H.4. Knxst, oxpe n neue). Eme A.E. Hpecnxxon pesonno nncan,
uro ecnn npant ncropnxn npana, uro neue, a ne xnxst onxno trt npnsnano
nocnrenem nepxonno nnacrn pennepyccxo nonnrnn-nonocrn, ro, c pyro cro-
pont, +nemenrapnte nnrn pennepyccxo nonocrno amnnncrpannn cxonnnct
n pyxax xnxsx, a ne neue nnn xaxnx-nno ero opranon. B +rom opnrnnantnax uepra
pennepyccxo rocyapcrnennocrn... nnna xax n sanncnmocrt xnxsx or neue, rax
42
2009, N 3 (17)
n manax eecnoconocrt neue es xnxsx... Hsnecrnte nam npoxnnennx cnnt n
snauennx neue nocxr nceneno xapaxrep ntcrynnenn ero n upesntuantx cnyua-
xx. Bnacrno nmemnnaercx ono cnonmn rpeonannxmn n nporecramn n xnxxoe
ynpannenne, no ne eper ero n cnon pyxn (Hpecuroe A.E. Knxxoe npano n
penne Pycn. M., 1993. C. 399).
26. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 747, 789.
27. Tam xe. Cr. 657.
28. Cnonapt pennepyccxoro xstxa. T. III. M., 1990. C. 98-99.
29. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 659-660.
30.Hcropnorpa]nm annoro nonpoca cm.: Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe n ropocxax
omnna C. 229, 240 (npnmeu. N 24); 2) Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct... C. 276. Htne
+ro xe mnenne ntcxasan H.H. Tonouxo (To.o:ro H.H. O xpamone esoxntx
oxp rannucxnx // Knin Pyct. Btpani rnopn 1198-2008 pp. Knn., 2008. C. 339).
31. Hcropnorpa]nm annoro nonpoca cm.: Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe n ropocxax
omnna C. 229, 240 (npnmeu. N 25); 2) Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct... C. 276. Co-
crnenno, na noonom noxoe x ncrounnxam ocnonana n rnnoresa camoro
A.B. Maopona o nexo ocoo oxpcxo yme n Iannue (Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe
n ropocxax omnna; 2) Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct...). Bnpouem, ncxyccrnen-
nocrt nocnene yenrentno noxasan A.B. Xypanent (vpaee.i A.B. O mxone
H.. upoxnona (pasmtmnennx o yymem) // http://www.hrono.ru/statii/2003/
shkola.html). Mexy rem, n pennepyccxnx ncrounnxax ormeuent cnyuan nnene-
uentx conemann xnxsx co cnonmn myxamn pyxnnnnxamn, no nmenno c
nnmn, a nonce ne c orentno rpynno semcxnx oxp. Hoxasarentno nposnyuan-
mee n 1154 r. rpeonanne xnxxecxnx npnnnxenntx, urot xnxst, nepe rem xax
cen na xnxxenne, yrnepnncx n ropoe c neuentmn nmtmn. Hpnuem n py-
xnnnnxn, n ropocxne neunnxn ncex cnoen n annom xonrexcre nmenn ornome-
nne nce x romy xe ropoy, no tnn pasenent xax pasnte connantno-nonnrnuec-
xne xareropnn (Be.ee H.. 3emcxn crpo C. 52). Orentno nernrnmno no-
croxnno ymt semcxnx oxp n xnxsx ne nsnecrno n n pyrnx pyccxnx semnxx. B
rom xe Honropoe neue nce-raxn cunranoct enntm, n npocrte nmn, axe ecnn
onn n nnpany ntcrynann rontxo c xonnon, nmenn ]opmantno ornomenne n x
ropocxnm nopnmencxnm nocranonnennxm rocyapcrnenno snaunmocrn
(Buuu B.H. K xpononornn...; Auopeee B.4. O connantnom cocrane... C. 74).
32. Maopoe A.B. Foxpe n ropocxax omnna... C. 240 (npnmeu. N 28). O snaue-
nnn cnona nmn cm.: Horpoecru C.A. Omecrnennt crpo pennepyccxoro
rocyapcrna // Tpyt Bcecomsn. saou. mpn. nn-ra. M., 1970. T. 14 C. 61.
33. HCPH. T. 1. Cr. 209-210.
34. Hpana, nexoropte yuente orxastnamr pennepyccxomy neuy n npane
cunrartcx nonnrnxo-mpnnuecxnm nncrnryrom n oxnnxmr ero nexnm crn-
xnntm npoxnnennem connantno axrnnnocrn nacenennx. Peut, npexe ncero,
ner o paorax H. B. Hyxnna, re +ra mtcnt nonyunna nanontmee oocnonanne:
Hvruu H.B. 1) Beue, nnemennte copannx n nmn rpacxne; 2) O rax nast-
naemo mnorosnaunocrn...; 3) O connantnom cocrane...; 4) Beue: connantnt
cocran... B ro xe npemx, xax nocroxnno ormeuaer cam H.B. Hyxnn, pennepyccxoe
neue npn +rom nmeno uerxn nocroxnnt connantnt cocran rnant ncex cno-
ontx cnercxnx ropocxnx ceme nmn rpacxne, uro yxe tno panee oo-
43
,
cnonano n paorax A.B. Maopona (cm. npnmeu. N 9), xoroporo H.B. Hyxnn,
onaxo, oxnnn aenrom omenonocrnoro napoonpancrna (Hvruu H.B. O conn-
antnom cocrane... C. 166). Hpn +rom yuacrne nme rpacxnx neunnxon n
ynpannennn rocyapcrnom npnsnaercx H.B. Hyxnntm nnonne nernrnmntm
(Hvruu H.B. Beue, nnemennte copannx... C. 130). 3ro yxe npornnopeunr resn-
cy roro xe anropa o nenernrnmnocrn neueno exrentnocrn. Kpome roro, y neua
tnn nnonne uerxne ]ynxnnn nsnauana ynpannxrt npnropoamn. B +rom
nnane nsnecrnoe coomenne Hanpenrtencxo neronncn no 1176 r. ncropnx pac-
cmarpnnaer rpannnonno (Hvruu H.B. O rax nastnaemo mnorosnaunocrn... C.
47-50). Taxnm opasom, ns ero paor ntxonr, uro pennepyccxoe neue, nepoxrno,
ne tno nncrnryrom, rem onee n conpemennom snauennn, no tno nernrnm-
ntm opranom nnacrn n nocnpnnnmanoct raxontm conpemennnxamn. Tpyno co-
rnacnrtcx n c R. Ipaneprom, uro pennepyccxoe neue noome (a snaunr, nao
ymart, n rannnxoe n uacrnocrn) axe ]opmantno ne cunranoct nonnrnuecxo
cnno (Ipauoepe P. Beue n pennepyccxnx nnctmenntx ncrounnxax: ]ynxnnn n
repmnnonornx // IBE. 2004 r.). Bnpouem, R. Ipanepr cosnarentno onnpancx
nnmt na re nsnecrnx, re npxmo nanncano camo cnono neue, npnuem axe n
+rnx cnyuaxx sannmancx nnmt +rnm cnonom, ne npnanax ocrarounoro snauennx
peantno connantno axrnnnocrn camnx ropoxan neunnxon (o meroonornn
ero rpya noponee cm.: Hvruu H.B. Tepmnnonornuecxn ananns: nnmct n mn-
nyct (no nonoy monorpa]nn Rnaca Ipanepra o pennepyccxom neue) // CP.
Btn. 8. M., 2009).
35. 4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn.
C. 154. Fes xnxsx ropo [Iannu] n semnx xnrt ne mornn, - saxnmuaer n
H.H. Tonouxo (To.o:ro H.H. O xpamone... C. 340). Htne ntcxastnamrcx mtcnn
o rom, uro xnxst xnnxncx xnsnenno neoxonmtm +nemenrom axe n nontno n
xnxstxx Honropocxo pecnynnxe. Hpnuem +ror resnc ntnnramr ne rontxo re
yuente, xoropte nacrannamr na orcyrcrnnn n omonrontcxo Pycn cnntntx xnac-
contx npornnopeun (cm. nanpnmep: Buuu B. H. Honropocxne nocannxn. M.,
2003. C. 7). B snaunrentnom cmtcne +ro nepexnnxaercx c ntnoamn A.E. Hpecnx-
xona o rom, uro nnno, xax n sanncnmocrt xnxsx or neua, rax n manax eecnoco-
nocrt neua es xnxsx... Hsnecrnte nam npoxnnennx cnnt n snauennx neua nocxr
nceneno xapaxrep ntcrynnenn ero n upesntuantx cnyuaxx. Bnacrno nmemnna-
ercx ono cnonmn rpeonannxmn n nporecramn n xnxxoe ynpannenne, no ne eper
ero n cnon pyxn (Hpecuroe A.E. Knxxoe npano... C. 399).
36. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 656-657.
37. Tam xe. Cr. 656.
38. Maopoe A.B. Foxpe n ropocxax omnna... C. 227.
39. Hepxont na Pycn nmena uerxym nnyrpennmm nepapxnm, uro npoxnnxnoct
n n pacnopxxennn xnxxennxmn. Eme n 1096 r. xasanoct ecrecrnenntm, urot
pyccxn xnxst yrnepxancx na xnxxenne c narocnonennx ntcmnx nepxonntx
nepapxon (Buouroe M.B. Pyct n Bnsanrnx: ncrpeua xyntryp. (Osop noneme
oreuecrnenno ncropnorpa]nn) // Pyct mexy Bocroxom n 3anaom: xyntrypa n
omecrno X-XVII nn. M., 1991. u. III. C. 23). Tax uro pyccxym nepxont 1187 r. nonce
ne nao cunrart yxnantno emoxparne ncnx cnxmennocnyxnrene.
40. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 656.
44
2009, N 3 (17)
41. Buouroe M.B. Pyct n Bnsanrnx C. 23. 3ro npnmennmo xo ncem pernonam
Pycn. B Honropoe, nanpnmep, cornacno neronncxm, nonocrnte npecrannrenn
noxnnxnnct nnmt n rex cnyuaxx, xora nonropont npnstnann x cnnonomy paspe-
mennm xon]nnxra c xnxsem nnn nntm rocyapcrnom. Hpana, yxe n cocrannen-
no 28 xnnapx 1323 r. oronopno rpamore Honropoa c Hnnoncxnm openom o
noennom comse ynomxnyrt raxxe noannte/underdanen (nem.) nonropo-
nen (Ipamort Bennxoro Honropoa n Hcxona. M.;H., 1949. N 37. C. 65. Hepeno
cm.: ram xe). Ho ne xcno, xro +rn noannte nonomane nnn oecnoconte
ern rpacxnx myxe nonropocxnx. H xaxona nx pont xax ]opmantno
ocoo, no xnno nonnacrno ropoy nonnrnuecxo cnnt nnn nnmt oentx no-
connxon ropoxanneunnxon. Eme no 6684 (1176) r. ncrpeuaem raxoe noxasanne
pyccxoro conpemennnxa: Honroponn o nsnauana, n cmonxne, n xtxne n nono-
uane n ncx nnacrn xaxo na omy, na neua cxoxrcx, na uro xe crapenmnn [ropoa]
cymamrt, na rom xe npnropon cranyrt (HCPH. T. 1. Cr. 370-378). 3ro nonce
ne cnnerentcrno ]opmantnoro yuacrnx nonoman n ynpannennn nce semne
npn nnepcrne ropoa (4pouoe H.B. Knencxax Pyct... C. 158; Hvruu H.B. O rax
nastnaemo mnorosnaunocrn... C. 50). B neronncxx nsnecrnt cnyuan +nnson-
uecxoro npncyrcrnnx nonocrntx enerann n nexoroptx ropoax Pycn npn nepe-
aue xnxxennx no nacnecrny. Hocrenennoe nx saryxanne npenonaraer nnert n
nnx ]axrnuecxn nsxnrte nnemennte nepexnrxn, no+romy onn mornn mtcnnrt-
cx nymnmn nsnauana. Ho n annom cnyuae cama xoncrpyxnnx ]past cxnonx-
er x nanonee xcnomy napnanry ee npourennx. Oa ee xomnonenra nornuecxn
ononnxmr pyr pyra. Heronncen nonce ne paccyxan, mon, ]opmantno na Pycn
omenonocrno crpo, no peantno npannr ropo. Hcrounnx uerxo rnacnr xax o
annocrn npoxonnmnx nne rnannoro ropoa nonocrntx cxoon mecrno snaun-
mocrn, rax n o annem rocnocrne rnannoro ropoa na semne: Maopoe A.B.
Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct... C. 36.
42. Lanoe B.H. Iocyapcrno n nepxont penne Pycn X-XIII nn. M., 1989. C.
124. B Honropoe, nanpnmep, nmx ropoa onosnauno nocnnn nnmt cnercxne
xareropnn (cm. nanpnmep: mnoro raanme nocannx n rtcxuxon n nect Hon-
rpa, nrymenn n nonone // HIH. C. 179).
43. annax oxpcxax naxxanannx omenpnsnana: 4pouoe H.B., eopuu-
:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. C. 153.
44. HCPH. T. 2. Cr. 789.
45.. Tam xe. Cr. 747.
46. 4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn.
C. 154. vpaee.i A.B. Or rocyapcrna x nonocrn (http://www.hrono.info/statii/
2003/volost.html ). Hpn +rom A.B. Xypanent ne cctnaercx na cnonx npeme-
crnennnxon, a nnmt xparxo oxnnxer n nauane paort: Hpecrannennt sect
nsrnx, connaax n ocnonntx ueprax c xonnennne H.. upoxnona, ne no ncem c
ne cornacyercx, rax xax yunrtnaer n mon cocrnennte nstcxannx n pennepyc-
cxo ncropnn. B uacrnocrn, nmenno no+romy npecrannennte sect pennepyc-
cxne arnponxn n pxe cnyuaen ornnuamrcx or rpannnonntx. (Tam xe. Hpn-
meu. 1). Bnpouem, +ro no mnorom oxcnnmo ocoennocrxmn xanpa crartn,
o]opmnenno ne rontxo xax nayunt rpy no pennepyccxo ncropnn, no n xax
nonnrnuecxax nynnnncrnxa.
45
,
47. Cocrnenno, reopnx o npnnnnnnantno ocoom nnnxnnn nnemne yrpost
na ycnnenne nonnomoun oxp Rro-3anano Pycn ne ocnonana na nsyuennn
camoro +roro nnnxnnx (4pouoe H.B., eopuu:euro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna
penne Pycn. C. 154; vpaee.i A.B. Or rocyapcrna x nonocrn). 3ro tna nnmt
nontrxa oxcnnrt momt rannnxnx oxp n nepno rpern XIII n. Xorx ananns
xonxperntx ]axron rannnxo xnsnn yenn rex xe H.. upoxnona n A.R. nop-
nnuenxo n npnnnnnnantno cxoxecrn yponnx omecrnennoro pasnnrnx ropoon
Rro-3anano Pycn c npounmn Pyccxnmn semnxmn (4pouoe H.B.,
eopuu:uro A.P. Iopoa-rocyapcrna penne Pycn. C 103-156. O +rom mo-
menre n nx xonnennnn cm. raxxe: Maopoe A.B. Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct... C. 84-
85). Ha cxoxecrt mnornx snaunmtx xnnenn neueno xnsnn Iannua n pyrnx
ropoon Pycn nocroxnno yxastnaer n A.B. Maopon (Maopoe A.B. 1) Foxpe n
omnna; 2) O cocrane yuacrnnxon; 3) Iannnxo-Bontncxax Pyct). O rom,
uro ror xe Honropo ne orcranan or Iannua n connantnom pasnnrnn, ronopnr n
conocrannenne npncyrcrnnx ramomnnx nonocrntx enerann npn ynpannennn
rocyapcrnom (cm. npnmeu. 41).
48. HCPH. T. 1. Cr. 378.
49. Hu+ouoe P.A. Bnanmnpo-Cysantcxax Pyct. C.135-138.
50. HCPH. T. 1. C. 377-378. Hemnoro nnaue rpaxryer +ro nsnecrne H.B. Hyxnn.
Ho ero mnennm, neronncen onpantnan nmenno nnanmnpnen, nonce ne cunrax
npn +rom Bnanmnp ecnpanntm npnropoom. Ho+romy xxot neapom Poc-
ron c Cysanem oxasannct ne nxnmuent n nepeuent ropoon crapemnx (Hv-
ruu H.B. O rax nastnaemo mnorosnaunocrn... C. 50). a, esycnonno, xnnax cnm-
narnx nnanmnpcxoro cnounxa XII n. tna nmenno na cropone ponoro ropoa.
ocrarouno cxasart, uro npane Pocrona n Cysanx on npornnonocrannn npan-
y Foxtm nnanmnpnen (HCPH. T. 1. Cr. 378). Ho orxastnart Pocrony n Cysa-
nm n craryce crapemnx ropoon npn +rom ne cronr. Bet rpannnn roro npe-
menn na npnmepe pyrnx crapemnx ropoon Pycn (Honropoa, Knena, Cmo-
nencxa n Hononxa) n annom cnyuae tnn ynomxnyrt nmenno n xauecrne noxc-
nennx x npnrxsannxm craptx ropoon Pocrona n Cysanx na rocnocrno na
npnropoamn. Kax n nntx pyccxnx semnxx na uro xe crapenmnn [ropoa]
cymamrt, na rom xe npnropon n cranyrt, rax n sect pocronnt n cysantnt
xorenn camn pacnopxxartcx n cnoe semne. pyroe eno, uro, no mnennm nero-
nncna, n annom xonxpernom cnyuae raxax rpannnx npoxnnnact xnno ne x mecry,
cxontnax npany Foxtm nonoro ropoa Bnanmnpa. K cxontm nanme-
nnxm npnmen eme B. T. Hamyro (Hauvmo B.T. ueprt nonnrnuecxoro crpox...
C. 45).
51. Hu+ouoe P.A. Bnanmnpo-Cysantcxax Pyct. C.136-138.
52. Hpana, ]opmantno cenepo-nocrounte neoxpcxne ropoxaneneunnxn
npoonxann yuacrnonart n omecrnenno xnsnn n nocne namecrnnx Fartx.
B 6801 (1293) r. rnepcxne uepnte nmn n oxpe ]opmantno xnxnnct pyr pyry ne
canart monronam pono ropo (HCPH. T. 18. M., 2007. C. 82). Ena nn +ro cronr
npnnnmart sa npoxnnennx nonnnntx oronopntx ornomenn mexy +nnro n
nnecom (Tuxo+upoe M.H. Cpenenexonax Mocxna. M., 1957. C. 93;
Kpueoueee P.B. O cpenenexono pyccxo rocyapcrnennocrn (x nocranonxe
nonpoca). CH., 1995. C. 45). Honecrnyx o cotrnxx 6797 (1289) r., ra xe neronnct
coomaer o yuacrnn n nspannn rnepcxoro enncxona nnmt mecrno xnxxecxo
46
2009, N 3 (17)
uert, oxpcrna n yxonencrna (HCPH. T. 18. C. 82). Bonx neoxpcxnx cnoen neunn-
xon ne tna yurena axe ]opmantno. Hoonax xaprnna n ro npemx ne tna
ynnxantno. Cm. cxonym no cnoe connantno cymnocrn npeamyny rpamort
Pnxcxoro apxnenncxona Cmonencxy 1281-1297 rr.: Iu.ioeopauo I. Hemenxax xon-
ropa n Hononxe // Copnnx marepnanon n crare no ncropnn Hpnanrncxoro
xpax. T. II. Pnra. 1879. C. 45.
53. Buuu B.H. Fepecrxnax noura 2005 r. // Becrnnx Poccncxo Axaemnn nayx.
T. 76. N 3. 2006.
54. HIH. C. 21, 205.
55. HIH. C. 21, 205. O yuacrnn ncex cnoen ropoxan n +rom nosrnannxemom
oxpcrnom mexpaonnom xon]nnxre nncan neanno A.B. Herpon: Hempoe A.B.
Or xstuecrna... C. 113.
56. Cm., nanp.: Maopoe A.B. Foxpe n ropocxax omnna... Hpana, npn +rom
yuent ronopnr o snaunrentno ponn pxontx neunnxon, cctnaxct na ro, uro
pacnpana na neyrontmn oxpamn ocymecrnnxercx ne rontxo ocrantntmn o-
xpamn, no n neuem n nenom. Ho +ro nonce ne osnauaer nonnnno neoxpcxo
nontnnnt. uame ncero neronnct ]nxcnpyer xoneunym npnnnnnnantnym conn-
apnocrt ontmnncrna, uro nonce ne ncxnmuaer connantnoro nepanencrna npn
nororonxe sa]nxcnponanntx n ncrounnxe xoneuntx pemenn. Kpome roro, ne-
oxonmo yuecrt, uro mt nmeem eno c +noxo nonnrnuecxo pasponennocrn
c ecrecrnenno ntrexammnm omymennem ornocnrentnoro nnyrpennero menrant-
noro enncrna cnoero ropoa n cncreme pyrnx pyccxnx sement (n +rom nnane n
xnrenn uyxnx ropoon roxe mtcnnnnct ornocnrentno enno macco).
57. Kpome ntmeyxasanno reopnn A.B. Maopona o ocoo oxpcxo yme
(cm. npnmeu. 31), nao yuecrt raxxe mnenne roro xe yuenoro o orcyrcrnnn n
Iannue neuentx naprn (nnyrpnneuenax opta, no mnennm anropa, no cyrn
ena cnonnact x npornnocroxnnm omeropocxoro ontmnncrna c orentntmn
oxpamn pacxontnnxamn). Ho omnounocrt annoro nsrnxa yenrentno
noxasan A.B. Xypanent (vpaee.i A.B. O mxone H. upoxnona...).
47

Hropt BYPKYT
HCTOPHHECKAR CYLBA IAAHHKOIO
H BYKOBHHCKOIO PYCHHCTBA.
mHHAA.
B nocnenne rot nospacraer nnrepec nccneonarene x ncropnuec-
xo cyte pycnncxoro nacenennx Iannnnn n Fyxonnnt. Crapnnnt +r-
nonnm pycnn, xoropt ncnontsonancx na nporxxennn cronern, ncues
ns o]nnnantntx oxymenron n noncenennoro naponoro xstxa sa cun-
rannte ecxrnnernx. Emy na cmeny npnmen pyro ayro+rnonnm yx-
pannnm. Btrecnnrt npnntunoe camonasnanne ns naponoro cosnannx
nmtm mpnnuecxnm axrom nenosmoxno: ocrarouno ncnomnnrt no-
nonsnonennx rypenxnx nnacre nnmnrt xypon nx ncropnuecxoro camo-
nasnannx. Hontrxn nsmennrt +rnonannonantnoe camocosnanne ncxnm-
unrentno c nomomtm nnemnero annennx, xax npannno, npononnpymr
nce nospacrammee conpornnnenne n, n xoneunom nrore, nnmt crnmynn-
pymr sapoxenne xpannx ]opm nannonannsma cpen xeprn +roro an-
nennx. Ho+romy nexoppexrno paccmarpnnart maccont orxas rannuan
n yxonnnnen or craporo camonasnannx rontxo xax pesyntrar nnemne
nnrpnrn (ancrpncxo nnn nontcxo, crnmynnponanno Barnxanom). Ta-
xo xpane ynpomennt noxo ne nosnonxer c onxno rnynno one-
nnrt cnoxnte +rnnuecxne nponecct, nponcxonnmne n peantno xns-
nn. Hrnopnponanne nnyrpennnx ]axropon +rnx nponeccon nemnnyemo
sanonr nccneonarenx n rynnx.
Kora nponcxonr xonconnannx nannn, ro na cmeny craptm +rnonn-
mam nepexo npnxonr nont. ocrarouno ncnomnnrt, uro n nauane
XX n. n o]nnnantntx oxymenrax Poccncxo nmnepnn ynorpenxnnct
nasnannx oaruucrue mvpru, mamapi, mmpru nx npecrannrene pas-
enennoro mexy Poccne n Hepcne +rnoca, xoropt cex nasnan asep-
oaoraua.i.ap n n nepno pacnaa nmnepnn 28 max 1918 r. nponosr-
nacnn cosanne nesanncnmo Asepaxancxo Pecnynnxn. Paspo-
nennocrt yrypcxoro +rnoca, ouyrnnmerocx no nnacrtm pasnnuntx sa-
noenarene, ntsnano noxnnenne +rnonnmon raueap.ir, xomau.ir, ma-
pau:u n p. Hnmt oennenne yrypon oxonuarentno yrnepnno n nx
cpee omn ayro+rnonnm. Hoonax cyta tna n y +rnonnma vrpa-
uui, npnmemero na cmeny rpannnonnomy camonasnannm pvcuui.
Pasnnrne n yxpennenne cnxse mexy pasnnuntmn uacrxmn +roro +r-
noca, n nepnym ouepet, ero nnrennexryantno +nnro, cnococrnonano
ycxopennm nannorenesa conpemenno yxpanncxo nannn.
48
2009, N 3 (17)
C name rouxn spennx, ocot nayunt nnrepec npecrannxer ]n-
nantnt +ran ncropnn pycnncrna Iannnnn n Fyxonnnt, cnxsannt c rpa-
rnuecxnmn cotrnxmn nyx mnpontx non. Hmenno x cepenne XX n.
nocrenenno ncuesamr ns noncenennoro ynorpenennx panee npnntu-
nte nx rannuan n yxonnnnen repmnntpvcuu, pvcuar, pvciru .moi.
Onaxo onn coxpannnnct n semnxx, panee naxonnmnxcx no nnacrtm
xopont cnxroro Hmrnana: +rnnuecxne nponecct n Tpancnerannn sa-
merno ornnuannct or rex, uro nponcxonnn n Hncnerannn. Ho+romy
cyta pycnncrna conpemenntx 3axapnartx, Hpxmenmnnt, Mapamy-
pema, Fauxn, Cpema n Cnanonnn n nacroxme crarte ne paccmarpnna-
ercx.
Bnepenne nonoro ayro+rnonnma vrpauui nauanoct na nocroxe
Ancrpo-Benrpnn nnmt n xonne XIX nauane XX n., no nponecc +ror
npoxonn menenno n nonauany oxnartnan rontxo opasonannte cnon
nacenennx nearoron, mpncron, unnonnnxon, nnxenepon n npaue, a
raxxe cryenron, cemnnapncron, uacrt rpexo-xaronnuecxnx n npano-
cnanntx cnxmennnxon n ocoenno rnmnasncron n mxontnnxon noome.
Hocrenenno nepexonnn na nero ropocxne ropronnt, npenpnnnmare-
nn, pemecnennnxn n paoune. Ocnonnax xe uacrt xpecrtxncrna ynor-
penxna npnntunoe camonasnanne. A na Fyxonnne nanonee narpnap-
xantnax cpea o xonna XIX n. axe coxpanxna pennee camonasnanne
nonoxn, ncnontsyemoe ne rontxo monananamn, no n uacrtm cnanxn.
urot yxcnnrt cyrt +roro napaoxcantnoro xnnennx, neoxonmt
nexoropte noxcnennx. B yxonno xnsnn Monancxoro xnxxecrna, no
nnacrtm xoroporo o 1774 r. naxonnact Fyxonnna, rocnocrnymmne
nosnnnn npnnanexann npanocnannm. A n cocene Iannnnn, xoropax
o 1772 r. npetnana n cocrane Peun Hocnonnro, npn axrnnno no-
epxxe nnacre yxopenxnact Fpecrcxax ynnx 1596 r., ncnecrnne uero
xaronnuecrno nocrounoro opxa ntrecnnno npanocnanne nourn non-
nocrtm. Hexoropax uacrt rannuan ncxana cnacennx or necrepnnmoro
nancxoro rnera n cocenem Monancxom xnxxecrne, re nonoxenne
xpecrtxn tno samerno nyumnm. Hepecenxxct na Fyxonnny, rannnxne
pycnnt coxpanxnn nepnocrt rpexo-xaronnuecrny, xoropoe yxonnnnt
nastnann pycnncxo nepo: n ornnune or cnonx yxonnncxnx parten
rannuane uerxo ocosnanann cnoe pycnncxoe nponcxoxenne. Mnorne
yxonnnnt tnn ntxonamn ns +rnocmemanntx ceme n nnaenn, xax
mnnnmym, nymx xstxamn nx nannonantnoe camocosnanne ornnua-
noct onpeenenno pasmtrocrtm, neuerxocrtm. Ha nnm, xax n n cpe-
nenexonte, omnnnponano xon]eccnonantnoe cosnanne. A omee nx
nocrounocnanxncxoro n nocrounopomancxoro nacenennx Fyxonnnt npa-
nocnanne rpannnonno nastnanoct sect nonomcxo nepo. Orcma
n camonasnanne nonoxn, coepxamee ne crontxo +rnnuecxn, cxontxo
49

xon]eccnonantnt cmtcn. Ero ptxno noepxnnann cnxmennnxn-py-
mtnt, xoroptx nasnauann n +rnocmemannte cena c nentm pymtnnsa-
nnn cnanxn.
Hnmt n nepno ycxopenno moepnnsannn omecrna, nacrynnnmn
nocne penonmnnn 1848-1849 rr., +rnonannonantnte nponemt oxastna-
mrcx n nenrpe nnnmannx yxonnncxo omecrnennocrn. Bocrounopo-
mancxoe nacenenne xpax, npexe ncero ero +nnrapnte cnon, nmenmne
recnte cnxsn c Tpancnntnanne n rontxo uro nonyunnme nesanncn-
mocrt Pymtnne, yxe no nropo nononnne XIX n. nepemno na ayro+rno-
nnm pymtnt. A n cpee nocrounocnanxncxoro nacenennx noxpyr non-
poca o nannonantno camonenrn]nxannn napacran rnyoxn xon]nnxr.
Fopta mexy opnenrnponanmnmncx na Poccnm pyco]nnamn (nnn moc-
xno]nnamn, xax nx nastnann nonnrnuecxne npornnnnxn) n napoonna-
mn croponnnxamn enncrna nocrountx n sanantx yxpannnen x naua-
ny XX n. ocrnrna anorex. B ne yxe omnnnponana nonnrnuecxax co-
crannxmmax, orrecnxx xstxono-xyntrypnte acnexrt na nropo nnan.
Oxnartnax narpnapxantntx nonoxon Fyxonnnt, +ra opta ycnnnna-
na +rnon]]epennnpymmne nponecct n nx cpee, ycxopxna nepexo
pvcu-
ui, a sarem n vrpauui.
Hapoonnt nouepxnnann: xnnymne n Poccncxo nmnepnn yxpann-
nt (xoropte eme n XVII n. nastnann cex pycnnamn, norom n o]nnn-
antno repmnnonornn npenparnnmnecx n manopoccon, a n xnnom na-
ponom xstxe n yxpannnen) n npoxnnammne n monapxnn Iacyp-
ron pycnnt npecrannxmr coo ennt napo. Bor xaxne aprymenrt
n nornepxenne +ro mtcnn npnnen anonnmnt anrop nsanno n uep-
nonnax n nauane XX n. xnnre Pycnnt n "nonomcxax nepa": Cnyunrcx
namemy uenonexy ns Fyxonnnt nnn Iannunnt nonacrt na Vxpanny n
Poccnn, n ropoa Knen, Oeccy nnn eme antme o Xaptxona; n ram on
ncrpernr cnonx nme, xoropte saronopxr c nnm pontm cnonom, sano-
mr raxne xe meponxn, xonxxn n pyrne necnn, uro n mt, xoropte rax
xe nponoxr cnatt, xpecrnnt, noxopont; n nce ocrantnte otuan y
nnx raxne, xax n n name pono cropone [1. C. 5-6]. H anee: nast-
naemcx mt, pycnnt, raxxe yxpannnamn [C. 8].
Pyco]nnt xe yrnepxann nnoe: nennxopocct, manopocct n enopy-
ct xnnxmrcx enntm pvccru+ uapooo+ or Kapnar o Tnxoro oxea-
na. Bo nropo nononnne XIX n. nx nen tnn nectma nonynxpnt cpen
rannnxnx n yxonnncxnx xpecrtxn, saannenntx nenocnntntm nanoro-
ntm rnerom n nonepranmnxcx nacnntcrnenno accnmnnxnnn. Mory-
mecrnennym Poccncxym nmnepnm snaunrentnax uacrt xpecrtxncrna
Iannunnt n Fyxonnnt nocnpnnnmana xax cnom norennnantnym samnr-
nnny or nponsnona ancrpncxnx nnacre. Onn ns axrnnntx exrene
50
2009, N 3 (17)
napooncxoro nnxennx Honrnn Herentcxn nncan: Connantno ocno-
no mocxno]nntcrna cpen napontx macc tna naexa myxnxa na
enoro napx, xoropt nor-nor npner n Iannunny, npoyunr nanon-
nxxon n nnxnox-xnon, ormennr nanorn n pasennr nomemnutm sem-
nm cpen myxnxon [2. C. 392].
Opnenrannx pyco]nnon na Poccnm yrpoxana reppnropnantnomy enn-
crny Ancrpo-Benrpnn, no+romy nencxne nnacrn noepxann napoon-
nen. Ancrpo]nntcxne nacrpoennx tnn pacnpocrpanent cpen rex cnoen
nacenennx, xoropte nrxrnnannct n ptnounte ornomennx n ymenn sa-
mnmart cnon npana npn nomomn nncrnryron rpaxancxoro omecrna n
npenmymecrn napnamenrapnsma. Ha nnx n onnpannct napoonnt ne-
onorn yxpanncrna n monapxnn Iacypron. O]nnnantnax Bena paccun-
rtnana ncnontsonart yxpannnen n cnonx saxnarnnuecxnx nnanax na cny-
ua nont c Poccne, a Canxr-Herepypr, n cnom ouepet, naexncx na
noepxxy pycnncxoro nacenennx uepnonno Pycn npn ncrynnennn
cnonx nocx na reppnropnm Iannnnn, Fyxonnnt n 3axapnartx. Pyco-
]nntcxne oprannsannn nonyuann snaunrentnym nomomt or Poccnn, n
rom uncne n marepnantnym.
Hepnax mnponax nona crana rxxxnm ncntrannem nx pyco]nnon. A
ee nauano npecrannrenn +roro omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxoro nnxennx
nocnpnnxnn xax cnom noey. B nauanmecx 5 anrycra 1914 r. nrne sa
Iannnnm nmneparopcxo-xoponencxax apmnx Ancrpo-Benrpnn norepne-
na coxpymnrentnoe nopaxenne, n uacrn Poccncxo nmneparopcxo ap-
mnn onnaenn Htnonom n uepnonnamn.
Toramnxx pyccxax npecca tna sanonnena penopraxamn o paocr-
no ncrpeue pyccxnx conar pycnncxnm nacenennem. Onnpaxct na +rn
marepnant, nam conpemennnx Anexcanp Kapennn nnmer: Mecrnte
xnrenn ncxuecxn coecrnonann pyccxo apmnn, nn]opmnponann ee o
nepememennn npornnnnxa, npn neoxonmocrn cnyxnnn npononnxamn
pyccxnx uacre, re mornn, nonpexann ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnnnn cnx-
sn. Hacnntcrnenno monnnsonannte n ancrpo-nenrepcxym apmnm ra-
nnuane npn nepno nosmoxnocrn canannct n nnen. Bce +ro cnoco-
crnonano pasrpomy ancrpo-nenrpon n tcrpomy nponnxennm pyccxnx
nocx. Hacenenne ropxecrnenno ncrpeuano ocnoonrene. Bo mnornx
cenax nancrpeuy nm ntxonnn xpecrtxncxne enyrannn c xneom-co-
ntm. Hpn ncrynnennn no Htnon orpomnax ronna sapactnana conar
nneramn. 3naunrentnoe uncno xnrene Iannnnn ncrynnno oponont-
namn n pyccxym apmnm [3].
Ananns nntx ncrounnxon nosnonxer nsannrtcx or nsnnmne ono-
snaunocrn n onncannn rex cotrn. B nnen canannct ne rontxo pycn-
nt: pasrpomnennte n npnrpannunom cpaxennn nonxn ancrpo-nenrepc-
xo apmnn orcrynann, nepexo n ecnopxxe, nemano noennocnyxamnx
51

pasnnuntx nannonantnocre n oruaxnnn pocano opyxne. Pycnnt cny-
xnnn n 26 nexorntx n crpenxontx nonxax, a raxxe n 15 xananepncxnx
ns nmenmnxcx n perynxpno apmnn Ancrpo-Benrpnn 102-x nonxon nn-
]anrepnn n 44-x nonxon xananepnn. Hs 37 nexorntx nonxon nanmrypma
(reppnropnantno oopont) n 11 raxxe cnyxnno mnoro pycnnon, xax n n
3-x xananepncxnx nonxax nanmrypma ns 16 nmenmnxcx. Ftnn onn n
aprnnnepnn, rexnnuecxnx uacrxx n r.. Bmecre c pycnnamn cnyxnnn
nonxxn, enpen, pymtnt, nenrpt n npecrannrenn nntx nannonantno-
cre Iannnnn, Fyxonnnt n 3axapnartx. Onn roxe, oxasanmnct n esnt-
xono cnryannn, uacro canannct n pyccxn nnen. Bcero n Iannnnc-
xo nrne nmneparopcxo-xoponencxax apmnx norepxna cntme 300 rtc.
uen., ns nnx onee 100 rtc. nnenntmn [4. C. 99]. Cnaocrt ancrpo-
nenrepcxo apmnn tna cnecrnnem cnaocrn camo nocxyrno mo-
napxnn Iacypron.
ynacxax monapxnx nocne nopaxennx n none 1866 r. c Hpyccne
yrparnna craryc nennxo epxant, ee paseann nsnyrpn mexnanno-
nantnte npornnopeunx, ornmt ne npeoonennte cncremo yannsma.
Henn nauanmecx nont tnn nenonynxpnt cpen mnornx npecrann-
rene yrnerenntx nannonantnocre, ne xenanmnx nponnnart xpont sa
nmneparopa upanna Hocn]a. Ho nexoropte omecrnenno-nonnrnuec-
xne nnxennx ntrannct ncnontsonart nony nx peannsannn cnonx nna-
non: nanpnmep, nontcxne n yxpanncxne nannonanncrt. Onn npncrynnnn
x ]opmnponannm oponontuecxnx uacre n cocrane ancrpo-nenrepc-
xo apmnn rax nastnaemtx nernonon. B anrycre 1914 r. oxono 28
rtc. oponontnen n Iannnnn crpemnnnct ncrynnrt n yxpanncxne uac-
rn, onaxo n Hernon ceuentx crpentnon sauncnnnn rontxo 2,5 rtc. uen.
[5. C. 18]. B rtny pyccxnx nocx n pasropenmecx n Kapnarax naprn-
sancxo none axrnnno yuacrnonann rynynt-oponontnt, oennen-
nte n rynyntcxo-yxonnncxn nernon (oxono 1,5 rtc. uen.) [6. C.41].
Pycnnt-noennonnennte cpaxannct n no pyrym cropony ]ponra, o-
ponontno ncrynax n pyccxne uacrn (cpen nnx nsnecrnt axrnnncr
pyco]nntcxoro nnxennx B.P. Banpnx (1889-1970)) nnn xe n cnennant-
no cosannte ns nepeexunxon n noennonnenntx coennennx. Hs nnx
tna, nanpnmep, c]opmnponana Kapnaropyccxax nnnsnx n cocrane
Orentnoro uexocnonanxoro xopnyca n Poccnn. A nemenxoe n ancrpo-
nenrepcxoe xomanonanne c]opmnponano ns noennonnenntx yxpannnen
noanntx Poccncxo nmnepnn ne nexornte nnnsnn (Cnnmm n
Cepym), eme ona npetnana n crann ]opmnponannx. Hpn +rom nce
cropont rpyo napymann mexynaponoe npano: nonoxenne IV Iaarc-
xo xonnennnn o saxonax n otuaxx cyxonyrno nont or 18 oxrxpx
1907 r. sanpemaer noonte ]opmnponannx ns noennonnenntx.
uro xacaercx onncanno pyccxnmn xypnanncramn paocrno ncrpe-
un ocnoonrene, ro cotrnx nera 1914 r. neoxonmo paccmarpnnart
52
2009, N 3 (17)
ne nsonnponanno, a n xonrexcre nce ncropnn Iannnnn XX n. Touno rax
xe rannuane ncrpernnn Kpacnym Apmnm n cenrxpe 1939 r. n nocxa
Bepmaxra n nmne-nmne 1941 r.: no ncex +rnx cnyuaxx mecrnoe nacene-
nne naexnoct na snaunrentnoe ynyumenne cnoero nonoxennx npn no-
no nnacrn. H xaxt pas ncxope ncntrtnano rnyoxoe pasouapona-
nne.
Bnepnte rannuane pasouaponannct n 1914-1915 rr. B sanxrtx no
npany nont Iannnnn n Fyxonnne ycranannnnanact poccncxax oxxy-
nannonnax amnnncrpannx (+ror repmnn ynorpenxncx o]nnnantno n
ee oxymenrax). Ftno cosano npemennoe Iannnncxoe noennoe rene-
pan-ryepnaropcrno, n cocran xoroporo nxnmuanact n rontxo uro co-
sannax Fyxonnncxax ryepnnx. Hnxaxoro nocnanennx nanoronoro rne-
ra nx xpecrtxn ne nocneonano npexnne, ycranonnennte ancrpnc-
xo nnacrtm nanorn coxpanxnnct no ncem nx oeme. O pasene nome-
mnute semnn cpen xpecrtxn n peun ne morno trt. K romy xe mec-
rnoe nacenenne crpaano or uacroro nstmannx xone, cxora, npoo-
nontcrnnx n pyroro nmymecrna, xoroptm conponoxannct nnxennx
]ponron. Horpxcnn nacenenne npxmo rpaex n nacnnne, n xoroptx
ornnuannct oncxne xasaxn n xonnnxn nxo nnnsnn (ueuennt,
nnrymn, arecrannt, asepaxannt n p.).
Kpanee nosmymenne yxonnnnen ntsnann npoxnnennx nanannsma
ocnoonrene: pasrpanenne uepnonnnxoro ynnnepcnrera [7. C. 73],
pasrpom Knnmancxo yxpanncxo-nemenxo rnmnasnn c ynnuroxennem
mcra T. Benuenxo (paort cxyntnropa Ianpnnxo) n oopyonannx xa-
nneron, ynnuroxenne nenno nnnorexn 1- uepnonnnxo nemenxo
rnmnasnn n r.n. Box ncntrann yxonnnnt, nnepnte cronxnynmnct c
pyccxnmn conaramn. Hncarent n nearor Hnan Faxancxn (1863-1933),
paoranmn n noennte rot n yxonnncxom ropoxe Bamxonnt, sann-
can n cnoem nennnxe or 24 exapx 1914 r.: Tenept nacran nx Bam-
xonnen crpamnt uac. uro ne ynnuroxnnn nymeunte mocxoncxne cna-
pxt, ro ynnuroxnnn n orpannn camn mocxann. Kax nanonenne, nna-
nnnnct onn n ropo, rpax n pasnnax nce n omax n rnymxct na xen-
mnnamn n enymxamn [8. C. 38]. Kcrarn, nocne erantnoro snaxom-
crna c noneennem conar pyrnx nommmnx apmn (ero om ouncrnnn
comsnnxn-nemnt), H. Faxancxn sanncan 3 exapx 1917 r.: Vmemr
xopomo xpacrt n nemnt, ne xyxe mocxane.
A n uepnonnnxo xponnxe, xoropym n rot nont nen rpexo-xaro-
nnuecxn cnxmennnx, omecrnennt exrent n nnreparop Koncranrnn
Fannnxn (1880-1936), ecrt raxax sannct. Paccxastnax o noneennn
xasaxon, anrop coomaer: B Knnmane tn cnyua, xora o]nnep yxpan
y xasaxa xpaenym nemt, a ror cnona yxpan y o]nnepa. Ho+romy naua-
nact paxa. O]nnep nn naraxo xasaxa, sacrannxx orart, no esyc-
53

nemno, no xasax, necmorpx nn na uro, ne an. Hpn ncem +rom onn
ouent amopantnt. Hacnnonart nem, axe npnnmno +ro y nnx y-
nnunax nemt [9. C. 574].
Honcenennte +xcnecct raxoro poa npnnenn x samerno cmene o-
mecrnenntx nacrpoenn. Mnorne npocrte xpecrtxne-pycnnt yen-
nnct n nnnmsopnocrn cnonx naex na ocnooxenne or nnosemnoro
rnera n ynyumenne xnsnn no nnacrtm enoro napx. Hpnmnoct nc-
ntrart pasouaponanne n nemanomy uncny axrnnncron pyco]nntcxnx
oprannsann.
Hx opasonannax uacrt paccunrtnana nonyunrt xnmuente nocrt n
nono amnnncrpannn, no onn npocunranact: ynpannennamn n ocnonnom
crann npnesxne poccncxne unnonnnxn. Xnrenxm Iannnnn n Fyxonnnt
npnmnoct paccunrtnart nnmt na camte nesnaunrentnte onxnocrn,
sa ouent pexnmn ncxnmuennxmn. Hanpnmep, onn nnora cranonnnnct
xoncyntranramn npn ryepnarope xax Anexce Rnnanonnu Ieponc-
xn (1883-1972), xoropt sanxn onxnocrt crapmero unnonnnxa no oco-
tm nopyuennxm npn poccncxom ryepnarope Fyxonnnt xonnexcxom
conernnxe C. Enpennone.
Bmecre co cnonm parom Ieoprnem (1886-1959) Anexce panee yunncx
n 1- uepnonnnxo nemenxo rnmnasnn, co npemenem tn apecronan
ancrpncxnmn nnacrxmn no onnnennm n mnnonaxe n nontsy Poccnn, no
exan, noxynnn rmpemnoro unnonnnxa. Bepnynmnct c pyccxnmn noc-
xamn n ropo, xoropt onn npexpacno snann, partx Ieponcxne oxasann
neonennmym nomomt unnam poccncxnx cnencnyx. Ho nx onocam n
xpae npoxarnnact nonna apecron axrnnntx exrene yxpanncxnx opra-
nnsann, npexe ncero yunrene [10. C. 86]. B Haptmcxn xpa tn, n
uacrnocrn, enoprnponan Hnxona Cnnnyn (1867-1928), enyrar ancr-
pncxoro napnamenra n nectma nonynxpnt yxonnncxn nearor. Ha-
uannct enpecxne norpomt (panee nensnecrnte n xpae) n xasnn mecr-
ntx xnrene.
Cpen xasnenntx na Fyxonnne sa mnnonax n nontsy ancrpnnen npe-
onaann yxpannnt, enpen n nonxxn. Ho onocy mecrntx mocxno]nnon
tnn paccrpenxnt rpoe xnrene yxpanncxoro cena Knnnonn, xpome
roro, n Knnmancxom yese paccrpenxnn 9 enpeen, nonecnnn nyx enpeen
n no onomy nonxxy n yxpannny [11. C. 54]. Axrnnncrt pyco]nntcxnx
oprannsann nepexo coomann pyccxnm nnacrxm o cnonx nonnrnuec-
xnx npornnnnxax xax o saxnxrtx nparax Poccnn. Fpartx Ieponcxne ryr
tnn nne xonxypennnn. Ha Fyxonnne ntne npoxnnaer nemano noromxon
rex, xro nocrpaan or nx naymnnuecrna, n neopax namxrt o raxo
exrentnocrn n uepnonnax eme coxpanxercx. Ho nx crapmero para
Pomana n cecrpy Kcennm, anexnx or nonnrnxn, uepnonnnxne crapoxn-
nt o cnx nop ncnomnnamr c rennoro.
54
2009, N 3 (17)
Honax amnnncrpannx nanocnna yap no yxpanncxnm omecrnenntm
n nonnrnuecxnm oprannsannxm (rax nastnaemtm masennnnam), no
yxpanncxo cncreme opasonannx. Fopta c yxpanncxnm xstxom, xoro-
pt nacnntno samenxncx pyccxnm nnreparypntm (manononxrntm oc-
nonno macce xpecrtxncrna), ntsnana nenpnxrne mnornx rannuan n y-
xonnnnen. B +rn nponnnnnn nasnauannct manoopasonannte unnonnnxn,
yponent xoppymnnponannocrn xoroptx npentman axe ror, uro panee
emoncrpnponano npoaxnoe ancrpncxoe unnonnnuecrno. Oexrnn-
nym onenxy nx exrentnocrn ana conpemennax mocxoncxax nccneo-
narentnnna A.R. Faxrypnna: Hanontmne n onontno cnpanennnte
napexannx ntsnana exrentnocrt mecrno amnnncrpannn, opasona-
rentnt yponent n merot paort xoropo ocrannxnn xenart nyume-
ro. 3roro (n couerannn c mymntmn exnapannxmn poccncxnx nnacre
o npncoennennn Bocrouno Iannnnn x Poccncxo nmnepnn xax ncxon-
no pyccxo onacrn, pxom pacnopxxenn no pe]opmnponannm opaso-
nannx n neponcnoneannx) oxasanoct ocrarouno, urot ntsnart nera-
rnnnym peaxnnm na nonnrnxy poccncxnx noenntx n rpaxancxnx nna-
cre n Bocrouno Iannnnn xax co cropont rannnncxoro nacenennx,
poccncxnx nnepanon, rax n sa pyexom [12. C. 228].
Hemano rannnxnx n yxonnncxnx pyco]nnon n couyncrnymmnx nm
nepexnno rnyoxoe pasouaponanne ns-sa nectnmnxcx naex. Hx npe-
xnxx ynepennocrt n roxecrnennocrn pyccxnx n pycnnon tna noxo-
nenena nnuntm snaxomcrnom c unnonnnxamn n noenntmn, npntnmn-
mn ns Poccnn, nenoopyxenntm rnasom tna nnna nemanax pasnnna
ne rontxo n xstxe, no n n menrannrere, trono xyntrype n r.n. A npe-
cneyemte poccncxnmn nnacrxmn npecrannrenn yxpanncxo nnren-
nnrennnn n rnasax mecrnoro nacenennx yocronnnct myuennuecxoro
opeona. Onaxo eme ontmne myxn xann nx nonnrnuecxnx npornnnn-
xon-pyco]nnon, xora ncnecrnne noenntx neyau Poccncxax nmnepa-
ropcxax apmnx tna ntnyxena orcrynnrt.
B Iannnnm n Fyxonnny npn noepxxe comsno xaseponcxo apmnn
nosnpamannct ancrpo-nenrepcxne nocxa. O]nnnantnax Bena nnena
ocnonnym npnunny cnonx neyau n nauantnt nepno nont n nsmene
pycnnon, nocemy pycnncxoe nacenenne Iannnnn n Fyxonnnt na cee
nouyncrnonano ncm rxxecrt maccontx penpeccn co cropont ancr-
pncxnx nnacre.
Boenno-nonente cyt ntnocnnn cmeprnte npnronopt ne rontxo rem,
xro ecrnnrentno nomoran pyccxnm nocxam, no n aconmrno nennn-
ntm nmxm, xoropte cranonnnnct xeprnamn naneron. Cpen onocun-
xon tnn nonxxn, enpen, nemnt, pymtnt n p. Ho ocoo sanomnnnnct
nocrpaanmnm naymnnxn-yxpannnt, nx xe partx. Fpomennt mocx-
no]nnamn ymepanr nepnyncx x nnm camnm, npnuem yapnn c mnoro-
55

xparno nospocme cnno. Hepexo cnonnnct nnunte cuert, ncne-
crnne uero nocrpaann rtcxun nme. Vncrna nennnonntx n snaun-
rentno mepe noopnann ancrpo]nntcxne nacrpoennx cpen mecrnoro
yxpanncxoro nacenennx. 3auacrym xasnnnn nnmt nx ycrpamennx, a ne
sa xonxpernte ecrnnx. H xasnnnn es cya no pemennm o]nnepa
nnn ynrep-o]nnepa.
Hanpnmep, n oxrxpe 1914 r. n yxonnncxom cene Fontmo Kyuypon
ancrpncxn xanapm Horann pemep (nosxe npnsnannt ncnxnuecxn
ontntm) nocne uyonnmntx nsenarentcrn nonecnn nxrnanarnner-
nero Koncranrnna Cropomyxa no naymannomy onnnennm n mnnona-
xe. 29 cenrxpx 1914 r. no npnxasy oep-nerenanra upanna Tpoex
tno coxxeno rannnncxoe ceno Vropont n nonemeno necxontxo ero
xnrene: mon, omnna cena xnnxercx pyco]nntcxo [13. C. 643-645].
Fontmoe xonnuecrno oxymenron o npecrynnennxx ancrpncxnx xapa-
rene anno onynnxonano. ocrarouno nasnart uertpe roma Tanep-
ro]cxoro antmanaxa, re npnnoxrcx cnnerentcrna o maccontx xas-
nxx, enoprannxx, ]nsnuecxnx n mopantntx ntrxax nennnntx nme.
Omee uncno xasnenntx no npnronopy noenno-nonentx cyon, yn-
rtx no npemx xecroxnx nnecyentx pacnpan, nornmnx npn ntctnxe
n xonnnarepx Tanepro], Tepesnn n p., a raxxe ymepmnx or +nnemn n
rxxentx ycnonn npetnannx n narepxx nenosmoxno nocunrart c o-
crarouno rounocrtm. Kax npannno, nccneonarenn onpeenxmr ero n
60 rtc. uen. Cpen nornmnx tno nemano axrnnntx exrene pyco-
]nntcxoro nnxennx, xorx mnorne pyco]nnt cmornn ntxnrt, necmor-
px na macconte penpeccnn ancrpncxnx nnacre. Bpx nn n +ro cnxsn
moxno cornacnrtcx c oxropom ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccopom, axa-
emnxom Axaemnn npanontx nayx Vxpannt, 3acnyxenntm exrenem
nayxn n rexnnxn Vxpannt mnrpnem Taaunnxom. On yrnepxan, uro n
rot Hepno mnpono nont noannxmmee ontmnncrno mocxno-
]nntcxo nnrennnrennnn, yunrene, cnxmennocnyxnrene, cnmnarnsn-
pymmnx nm xpecrtxn tno no saxonam noennoro npemenn paccrpenx-
no, nonemeno, samyueno [14. C. 323]. Ecnn pacnntnuaroe onpeenenne
noannxmmee ontmnncrno nepenecrn na xstx xonxperntx nn]p, ro
nter, uro 60 rtc. nornmnx cocrannxer oxono 1,5 % or nourn 4 mnn.
pycnnon Iannnnn, Fyxonnnt n 3axapnartx. Hntmn cnonamn, no +ro
nornxe 98,5 % pycnnon ne ornocnnoct nn x axrnnntm mocxno]nnam,
nn x cnmnarnsnpymmnm nm xpecrtxnam. oxymenrt xe cnnerentcrny-
mr, uro noepxxa pyco]nnon n Iannnnn n Fyxonnne o mnpoxomacm-
rantx ancrpncxnx penpeccn npornn pycnnon-nsmennnxon tna
samerno mnpe.
Onaxo maccont reppop ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre ecrnnrent-
no nanec cmeprentnt yap pyco]nntcxomy nnxennm. Mnorne pyco-
]nnt nornnn, eme ontme ntnyxent tnn ororn c pyccxnmn noc-
56
2009, N 3 (17)
xamn uacrt ns nnx rax n ne nepnynact na ponny. Crpax nepe penpec-
cnxmn orronxnyn or +roro nnxennx axe rex, xro mor crart ero no-
rennnantntmn croponnnxamn. A ontmnncrno pycnnon oxonuarentno
yennoct, uro yymero n Ancrpo-Benrpnn y nnx ner. Kax ne nmemr
yymero pycnnt n n Poccncxo nmnepnn, re nx cunramr nesnaun-
rentno uacrtm ennoro pyccxoro napoa n nocnpnnnmamr nnmt xax
nncrpymenr cocrnenno nonnrnxn. A snaxomcrno c pyccxnmn unnon-
nnxamn n conaramn noxasano pycnnam, uro onn raxo uacrtm ne xnnx-
mrcx pasnnunx cnnmxom rnyoxn. Ocrananact enncrnennax antrep-
narnna: oxonuarentnt nepexo na nont +rnonnm yxpannnt n conmec-
rnax opta c nonnrnuecxn axrnnntmn yxpannnamn Hanenpxnmnnt
sa cosanne cocrnennoro oennennoro rocyapcrna.
B ycnonnxx pacnaa Poccncxo nmnepnn nosnnxna Vxpanncxax Ha-
ponax Pecnynnxa, a sarem, xora pacnaanact Ancrpo-Benrpnx, ne-
sanncnmocrt nponosrnacnna 3ananoyxpanncxax Haponax Pecnynn-
xa. B camom nauane 1919 r. onn oennnnnct, n n nonom rocyapcrne
+rnonnm pvcuu nonnocrtm yrparnn npexnee snauenne. Xorx ncropnx
+roro rocyapcrna tna xoporxo, no nx yrnepxennx nonoro nanno-
nantnoro camocosnannx ona oxasanact onpeenxmme. Hocne oxonua-
rentno noet ontmennxon Vxpanna crana conercxo connanncrn-
uecxo pecnynnxo, n xoropo yrnepnncx +rnonnm vrpauui n yxe
ne ynorpenxncx repmnn manopocct, rem onee ne npononeonanact
reopnx ennoro pyccxoro napoa. Ecnn openonmnnonnax Poccnx no-
epxnnana pyco]nnon n Ancrpo-Benrepcxo monapxnn, ro n CCCP nt-
nnrancx resnc o noccoennennn ncex yxpanncxnx sement n cocrane
Vxpanncxo CCP. Mocxno]nntcrno yrparnno nnemnmm noepxxy, a
nnyrpennnx cnn nx ntxnnannx emy ne xnarano. Kpacnax Mocxna ce-
nana cranxy ne na pyco]nnon-monapxncron, a na unenon ocnonanno n
]enpane 1919 r. Kommynncrnuecxo naprnn 3anano Vxpannt n nos-
nnxme n noxpe 1918 r. Kommynncrnuecxo naprnn Fyxonnnt. Ho rem
npnmnoct ecrnonart n nenerxnx ycnonnxx nnocrpannoro rocnocrna,
nocroxnntx npecneonann n reppopa nnacre.
Iannnnx, no Pnxcxomy mnpnomy oronopy 1921 r., nepeananact
Hontme, Fyxonnna xe eme n noxpe 1918 r. tna sanxra pymtncxnmn
nocxamn. Hepno 20-40-x rr. XX n. cran nocnennm n ncropnuecxo
cyte pycnncrna +rnx sement. Hontcxne monnnncrt unnonnnxn n
npocrte otnarenn sauacrym ne cxptnann nenanncrn x +rnonnmy
vrpauue, nmecro nero ynorpenxx cnono rusin, xoropoe otuno npo-
nsnocnnoct c necxptnaemtm npespennem. B ormecrxy rannuane napo-
nponann nontcxym nannonantnym necnm, ncrannxx n nee rnymnnnte
cnona Jeszcze Polak Rusinowi czyscic bdzie buci (Eme nonxx pycnny
yer uncrnrt ornnxn). Cex xe rannnxax monoext nouepxnyro
57

nastnana rontxo yxpannnamn. Ayro+rnonnm pycnnt maccono coxpanxn-
cx nnmt na Hemxonmnne n n peun noxnntx nme. H ro on nocnpnnn-
mancx cxopee xax ant ncropnn, nocrenenno yxox n npomnoe. Fypnte
cotrnx 40-x rr. ycxopnnn ero nonnoe ncuesnonenne.
Onaxo o Bropo mnpono nont n Iannnnn npoonxann ecrno-
nart oprannsannn pyco]nnon, eme ntxonnn nx nepnonuecxne nsannx
n xnnrn, no nx nnnnnarnne n pxe nacenenntx nynxron coopyxannct na-
mxrnnxn xeprnam ancrpo-nenrepcxnx penpeccn 1915-1918 rr. Hs raxnx
oennenn nanonee nsnecrntmn tnn Pyccxax naponax oprannsa-
nnx no ]axrnuecxnm pyxonocrnom B.. Tpyma (1869-1931) n Iannn-
xo-pyccxax marnna, xoropym nosrnannxn npo]eccop orocnonnx Tnr
Mnmxoncxn (1861-1939). C]epa exrentnocrn pyco]nnon n +ror nepn-
o tna nectma ysxo, mnorne ern axrnnncron +roro nnxennx crano-
nnnnct axrnnntmn exrenxmn yxpanncxnx oprannsann. Cpen nnx tnn
xax xommynncrt (nanpnmep, xpxn nynnnncr pocnan Ianan (1902-1949),
ctn ysnnxa Tanepro]a), rax n axrnnncrt Oprannsannn yxpanncxnx na-
nnonanncron (OVH).
Anropy anno crartn npnxonnoct cntmart onpeenenne mn, pyctxi
nmn axe n 1950-e rr., no rontxo ns ycr 70-80-nernnx rannuan. H ro
onn, xax npannno, oannxnn: mn c pyctxi, a ne mocxani. Hocne nepe-
cenennx onee 500 rtc. nemxon ns Hontmn n CCCP n nx cpee roxe
noexaer +rnonnm vrpauui. Hspexa n ycrno peun nnn na nnctme
ynorpenxercx camonasnanne .e+ru. Tax, Bceyxpanncxax nepennct
nacenennx 2001 r. sa]nxcnponana 672 npecrannrenx +ro +rnorpa]n-
uecxo rpynnt, ns nnx pontm xstxom nasnann yxpanncxn 95,4 % [cm.:
15. C. 169].
Ha Fyxonnne n 1918-1940 rr. pymtncxne nnacrn npononnn nonnrnxy
pacxona nocrounocnanxncxoro nacenennx xpax c nentm ero ycxopenno
accnmnnxnnn. He cnyuano n o]nnnantntx nepenncxx nacenennx cyme-
crnonann rpa]t yxpannen, pycnn, rynyn n p. Fyxapecr npnep-
xnnancx rouxn spennx, xoropym uerxo c]opmynnponan uepnonnnxn nc-
ropnx n nonnrnx Hon Hncrop: na Fyxonnne ner nn anroxronntx yxpann-
nen, nn pycnnon, a ecrt rontxo pymtnt, xoropte no nnnxnnem rannn-
xnx nepecenennen satnn pono xstx cnonx npexon [16. C. 274]. K
1927 r. n xpae ne ocranoct nn ono yxpanncxo mxont [17. C. 230].
Onaxo nacnntcrnennax pymtnnsannx naranxnnanact na pacrymee co-
npornnnenne, n xoropom nce onee axrnnnym pont nrpana nonontnax
OVH. Hpornn rpyoro napymennx npan nannonantntx mentmnncrn o]n-
nnantntm Fyxapecrom oponnct raxxe nonontmnxn-xommynncrt,
ntcrynann npornn raxo nonnrnxn n unent nerantno Vxpanncxo na-
nnonantno naprnn, pxa yxpanncxnx omecrnenntx oprannsann. Bos-
rnannxnn +ry opty ne nnept comemero c ncropnuecxo apent py-
58
2009, N 3 (17)
co]nntcxoro nnxennx, a nonnrnuecxn axrnnnte yxpannnt. Peantnax
yrposa enannonannsannn ntnynna nrn na corpynnuecrno c yxpann-
cxnmn oprannsannxmn n mnpoxo nsnecrntx exrene nexora nnnxrent-
noro pyco]nntcrna.
B +rom xonrexcre neoxonmo ncnomnnrt nporonepex Kaccnana mnr-
pnennua Forartpna (1868-1960), xoropt n nepno mexy mnpontmn
nonamn tn narounnntm necrpxncxoro oxpyra n Knnmane n nemano
cenan nx roro, urot samnrnrt or nacnntcrnenno pymtnnsannn cnom
nacrny. Btcoxoopasonannt n cment uenonex, on nocneonarentno
samnman cnon pyco]nntcxne nsrnxt na Bropom Bencxom nponecce
1916-1917 rr. n myxecrnenno npnnxn cmeprnt npnronop ancrpncxoro
cya. Homnnonannt nmneparopom Kapnom I, Kaccnan Forartpen co
npemenem cmor nepnyrtcx na Fyxonnny. O nem c ynaxennem o cnx nop
ncnomnnamr nmn pasnnuntx nonnrnuecxnx nsrnxon [18. C. 275-280].
Hocne ocnooxennx xpax or rnrneponcxnx oxxynanron K.. Forart-
pen 1 anrycra 1944 r. cocrnennopyuno sanonnnn anxery n cnxsn c pern-
crpanne ero n Conere no enam PHH npn uepnonnnxom onncnonxome
n xauecrne nacroxrenx Hnxonaencxoro coopa n uepnonnax. Tam n rpa-
]e nannonantnocrt yxasan: Vxpannen. 3ror oxymenr, ntne xpanx-
mncx n apxnne Vxpanncxoro Haponoro oma n uepnonnax [19. H. 4],
neanno tn onynnxonan n nepenoe na yxpanncxn xstx camy anxe-
ry cnxmennnx sanonnnn na nnreparypnom pyccxom xstxe [20. C. 606-
607].
Taxnm opasom, samena rpannnonnoro +rnonnma pvcuu na nonoe ca-
monasnanne vrpauue nponcxonna nocrenenno, nont repmnn no an-
nennem ocroxrentcrn nauann npnsnanart axe yexennte pyco]n-
nt. Kcrarn, n n enonponsnocrne Ancrpo-Benrpnn cmena +rnx +rnonn-
mon ocymecrnnxnact samenenntmn remnamn: yxas npo o]nnnantnym
sameny +rnnuecxnx nasnann Ruthenen, ruthenisch na Ukrainer,
ukrainisch Mnnncrepcrno xpaeno oopont onynnxonano nnmt 13 an-
penx 1918 r. [21. C. 124]. Cotrnx Bropo mnpono nont oxonuarent-
no ntrecnnnn ns onxoa rannuan n yxonnnnen crapoe camonasnanne
no ncex ero napnannxx. Crannncxne penpeccnn nocne npncoennennx x
CCCP Bocrouno Iannnnn n cenrxpe 1939 r. n cenepno uacrn Fyxonn-
nt n nmne 1940 r. nocrannnn xpecr na npexnnx pyco]nntcxnx cnmnarn-
xx mecrnoro nacenennx. Xeprnamn reppopa crann unent nonnrnuecxnx
naprn n axrnnncrt mnornx omecrnenntx oprannsann, n rom uncne n
pyco]nntcxnx. Tax, oprant HKB saxnarnnn nonnte cnncxn unenon mo-
noexno oprannsannn pyco]nnon pyr, nocne uero ]nsnuecxn ynnu-
roxnnn +rnx monotx nme [22. C. 5].
Conpemennte rannuane n yxonnnnt, cunrax cex yxpannnamn, ne
satnamr n o cnonx pycnncxnx xopnxx. Htnoncxne n uepnonnnxne ncro-
pnxn crpemxrcx oexrnnno onennrt npomnoe pycnncrna, nenpeyex-
59

enno paccmorpert sapoxenne n pasnnrne npornnoopcrnymmnx ne-
no-nonnrnuecxnx nnxenn n ero cpee [23]. B +ro npomnoe nepexo
yxoxr xopnxmn nponemt ceronxmnero nx, n es ero erantnoro
nsyuennx nenosmoxno narn pemenne raxo xapnnantno nponemt
conpemenno Vxpannt, xax ]opmnponanne conpemenno yxpanncxo
nonnrnuecxo nannn.
AHTEPATYPA
1. Pycnnn a nonoctxa nipa. Bn. 2-e, on. uepninni: Pyctxa Paa, 1911.
2. Heee.iciru H. 3 ancrpictxo Vxpann. Iannntxe mocxno]intcrno n oc-
ranni oro ]asi // Hireparypno-nayxonn nicnnx. T. L. Htnin, 1910.
3. Kapeeuu A. Houemy pyco]onx na 3anano Vxpanne nocnpnnnmaercx xax
narpnornsm / http://www.edrus.org.
4. Lau..o B. Hepnax mnponax nona 1914-1918. uaxrt. oxymenrt. M.;
OHMA-HPECC, 2003.
5. Vxpanctxi ciuoni crpintni, 1914-1920. Penpnnrne nirnopennx s nnannx
1935 p. Htnin: Cnono, 1991.
6. Bpuiru H.H., ooprauciru O.B. Fyxonnnni na nnnomarnuni cnyxi
VHP ra 3VHP. uepninni: 3onori nnranpn, 2007.
7. 3ano.oeciru B. uepninentxa upannicxo Hose]ina (poxn ninn 1914-1918)
// Mini-xocmoc Fyxonnnn. Kyntrypni soyrxn periony. Marepiann Mixnapono
nayxono xon]epenni, npncnxueno 130-piuum uepninentxoro yninepcnrery.
uepninni: 3enena Fyxonnna, 2006.
8. Barauciru I.M. Bina: Boennnx-xponixa yxonnnctxoro nearora ra nnct-
mennnxa (Bamxinni; 31.8.1914 29.11.1917). uepninni: 3enena Fyxonnna, 2006.
9. Ba.uiru K. uepninentxa xponixa 1914 poxy // ooprauciru O.B., Cma-
pur B.H. Faxacmo o Vxpann! Oeca: Maxx, 2008.
10. vroeciru A. Icropix Fyxonnnn. u. 2. uepninni: uac, 1993.
11. 3ano.oeciru B.M. Fyxonnna n ocranni nini Ancrpo-Vropmnnn 1914-
1918. uepninni: 3onori nnranpn, 2003.
12. Baxmvpuua A.P. Honnrnxa Poccncxo nmnepnn n Bocrouno Iannnnn n
rot Hepno mnpono nont. M.: AHPO-XX, 2000.
13. Kapov.uiru I. Mo cnomnnn [ypnnox npo xanapmctxn repop n 1914-
1918 pp.] // ooprauciru O.B., Cmapur B.H. Vxas. cou.
14. Kpm:roe I.K., Taoa:uur .B. uamnsm n Vxpanne: yrposa nnn peantnocrt?
Xaptxon: uonno, 2008.
15. Mann ernononirnunn cnonnnx. K.: MAVH, 2005.
16. Cm.: Hapncn s icropi Hinniuno Fyxonnnn. K.: Hayxona ymxa, 1980; Nistor I.
1) Der nationale Kampf in der Bukowina. Bukarest, 1918; 2) Istoria Bucovinei.
Bucuresti: Humanitas, 1991.
17. Fyxonnna: icropnunn napnc. uepninni: 3enena Fyxonnna, 1998.
18. Bpe+:vr C. Xnrrcnn mnxx npanocnannoro cnxmennxa Kacciana Forarnp-
nx // Hnrannx icropi Vxpann: 3ipnnx nayxonnx crare. uepninni: 3enena Fyxonn-
na, 2003. T. 6.
60
2009, N 3 (17)
19. Apxin VHu: u. K. Forarnpnx. On. 1. Cnp. 1. Apx. 4.
20. Boeamupei K. Anxera ra anroiorpa]ix // opxanctxn O.B.,
Crapnx B.H. Vxas. cou.
21. Honur C. Vxpanni n Ancrpi 1914-1918. Ancrpictxa nonirnxa n yxpanctxo-
my nnranni nepioy Bennxo ninn. Knn-uepninni: 3onori nnranpn, 1999.
22. Cnoonoe cnono Kapnarcxo Pycn. 1966. N 9-10.
23. Marap:vr C.A. Mocxno]intcrno: nnroxn ra enonmnix ie (cepenna XIX cr.
1914 p.) // Bicnnx Htninctxoro yninepcnrery. Cepix icropnuna. Bnn. 32. Htnin:
HHV im. I.upanxa, 1997; Tvpi O. Iannntxi pycnnn mix mocxno]intcrnom i yxpa-
ncrnom (o nnrannx npo rax snane crapopycnncrno) // Tperi mixnaponn
xonrpec yxpanicrin (Xapxin, 26-29 cepnnx 1996 p.). Icropix. u. 1. Xapxin, 1996;
Aprvua O., Mvopu M. Pyco]intcrno n Iannunni n cepenni XIX na nouarxy
XX cr.: renesa, erann posnnrxy, cnirornx // Bicnnx Htninctxoro yninepcnrery. Ce-
pix icropnuna. Bnn. 34. Htnin: HHV im. I.upanxa, 1999; ooprauciru O. Hanio-
nantnn pyx yxpannin Fyxonnnn pyro nononnnn XIX nouarxy XX cr. uepninni:
3onori nnranpn, 1999; Crapnx B. Bi Capacna o Hapnxa. Fyxonnnctxn Interregnum
1914-1921. uepninni: Hpyr, 2009 n p.
61

Cepren CYARK
PYCHHL:
HPOmAOE, HACTORmEE, BYYmEE
B cepenne oxrxpx 2009 r. no npemx ncrpeun npemtep-mnnncrpa
Pecnynnxn Monona c rnanamn pecnynnxancxnx +rnoxyntrypntx opra-
nnsann pyxononrent ono manouncnenno yxpanncxo omnnt, nt-
xoen c cenepa Monannn, saxnnn, uro tnn nontrxn cosart xaxnx-ro
ram pycnnon (pycnaxon), xoropte onn, unent omnnt, pemnrentno npe-
cexnn. Hocne +roro on nce ocranmeecx npemx cnen, nacynnnmnct, c
xpacntm nnnom. Hpncyrcrnymmne raxrnuno npomonuann. Crpanno tno
cntmart noonoe ns ycr uenonexa, xoropt onxen tn nomnnrt, uro
xaxnmn-ro ram pycnnamn (pycnaxamn)
1
tnn ero npexn: oren, e,
npae B cnoe xnnre Tanax ncropnx Vxpannt-Pycn nsnecrnt
yxpanncxn nynnnncr O. Fysnna ormernn +ror ]enomen: C1pamnan
nce-1axn nemt no1epn nc1opnuecxon naun1n. Ecnn nt cnpocnre
ntnemnero rannuannna o crannncxnx penpeccnxx, on paocrno saxnna-
er ronono, no nnuero ne ncnomnnr o Tanepro]e. Tax, cnonno ero n ne
tno
2
.
Crartx uepnonnnxoro nccneonarenx H.I. Fypxyra Hcropnuecxax
cyta rannnxoro n yxonnncxoro pycnncrna. unnan ntenxercx na ]one
+roro nceomero sanennx. Hexoropte ntcxastnannx anropa na-
crontxo cosnyunt monm, uro x roron no nnmn n cam nonncartcx.
B uacrnocrn, x pasenxm mnenne anropa n cneymmem:
- no nropo nononnne XIX n. omepyccxne nen tnn nectma nony-
nxpnt cpen rannnxnx n yxonnncxnx xpecrtxn, saannenntx nenocnnt-
ntm nanorontm rnerom n nonepranmnxcx nacnntcrnenno accnmnnx-
nnn;
- n maccontx penpeccnxx ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre npornn pycn-
non nocnennm nomorann naymnnxn-yxpannnm
3
;
- pymtncxne nnacrn npononnn nonnrnxy pacxona nocrounocnanxnc-
xoro nacenennx c nentm ero ycxopenno accnmnnxnnn. Xorx, no moemy
mnennm, nannune n rpa]e nepenncn 1930 r. nasnannx pyrent-yxpann-
nt (ruteni-ucrainieni) (n xstxa pyrencxn n yxpanncxn (rutean si
ucrainean)), x xoroptm pymtnt npnuncnnnn ncex, xro nasnan cex py-
renamn, yxpannnamn, manopycamn, pycnaxamn, n ornnune or pyccxnx
(nennxopoccon), xoroptx onn nastnann rus (muscal)
4
, cnnerentcrny-
er ne rontxo o nanpannennocrn nannonantno nonnrnxn Pymtnnn, no n o
nauanmeucn nocne 1917 r. pasum1nn +1nnuecxoro cosnannn ca-
62
2009, N 3 (17)
moro pycnncxoro nacenennn Mapamypema, Fyxonnnt n pycnncxoro
n uanopyccxoro nacenennn Feccapann;
- rannuane noxnnoro nospacra axe n 1950-e rr. ronopnnn: Mn, pyctxi
nmn, xax npannno, oannxx: Mn c pyctxi, a ne mocxani. ecrnn-
rentno, cunrax cex pyccxnmn, rannuane-pycnnt n ro xe npemx nonn-
mann, uro n +rnoxyntrypnom nnane onn necxontxo ornnuamrcx or nenn-
xopoccon (mocxane), xax, nnpouem, n or manopoccon n enopycon;
- nocne oxonuarentno noet ontmennxon Vxpanna crana conerc-
xo connanncrnuecxo pecnynnxo, n xoropo yrnepnncx +rnonnm yx-
pannnt n yxe ne ynorpenxncx repmnn manopocct, rem onee, ne
npononeonanact reopnx ennoro pyccxoro napoa.
Hmnonnpyer saxnmunrentnax uacrt marepnana, n uacrnocrn, ro, uro
ntnoncxne n uepnonnnxne ncropnxn crpemxrcx osex1nnno onennrt
npomnoe pycnncrna, nenpeyeanno paccmorpert sapoxenne n pas-
nnrne npornnoopcrnymmnx neno-nonnrnuecxnx nnxenn n ero cpe-
e. Vnt, noxa +ro yaercx n pexnx cnyuaxx.
B ro xe npemx nexoropte cyxennx anropa, n uacrnocrn, o rax nast-
naemo snaunrentno nomomn or Poccnn, oxastnaemo pyco]nntc-
xnm oprannsannxm, o moxe, xoropt ncntrann yxonnnnt, nnepnte
cronxnynmnct c pyccxnmn conaramn, yxpannnax, xasnenntx na Fy-
xonnne sa mnnonax n nontsy ancrpnnen, o nerarnnno peaxnnn na-
cenennx na exrentnocrt pyccxo amnnncrpannn n noenntx n r.., ne-
ocrarouno aprymenrnponant. Px nonoxenn anrop ntraercx noart
xax omensnecrnte ncrnnt, uro, x coxanennm, ne coornercrnyer e-
crnnrentnocrn. uacrt npnnonmtx aprymenron coepxnrcx n ero cra-
rte Pycnnt Fyxonnnt: ncropnuecxax cyta +rnonnma, naneuaran-
no n 2004 r. n xnmnnencxom xypnane Mtcnt
5
. B +rom xe nomepe
xypnana onynnxonano moe mnenne no annomy marepnany: 3amena
+rnonnma npenmnx +rnoxyntrypno rpanc]opmannn
6
. 3ra crartx
pasmemena n Hnrepnere, ocrynna xaxomy, no+romy, urot ne nonro-
pxrtcx, nosnonm cee sarponyrt rontxo nexoropte nonpoct, nonnma-
emte yxonnncxnm nccneonarenem.
Btpaxaer neoymenne nontrxa anropa nocrannrt n onn px xxot
nponeennte pyccxo amnnncrpanne penpeccnn npornn axrnnntx e-
xrene yxpanncxnx oprannsann, xasnn sa mnnonax n nontsy ancrpn-
nen, npoxnnennx "nanannsma" ocnoonrene c renonnom pycnnon
co cropont ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nnacre. Hccneonarent nouepxnnaer,
uro pycnncxoe nacenenne Iannnnn n Fyxonnnt na cee nouyncrnonano
ncm rxxecrt maccontx penpeccn co cropont ancrpncxnx nnacre
nocne orcrynnennx orrya pyccxnx nocx. Onaxo on ymanunnaer, uro
n Ancrpo-Benrpnn mnnonomannx xax +]]exrnnnoe cpecrno noan-
nennx pycnncxoro nnxennx crana nanpart cnny eme o nont (x npn-
mepy, c 1909 r. naunnaercx nonna apecron n ancrpncxo uacrn Fyxonn-
63

nt, a n mae 1910 r. c noaun yxpanncxoro nannonanncra, pymtna no npo-
ncxoxennm, H. Bacnntxo tno saxptro ontmnncrno pycnncxnx opra-
nnsann Fyxonnnt, croxnmnx na omepyccxnx nosnnnxx), a camn mac-
conte penpeccnn nauannct c nepntx ne nont. Ho sapanee saroron-
nenntm cnncxam tna apecronana nanonee naccnonapnax uacrt pycn-
non, npnepxnnanmnxcx omepyccxo opnenrannn. Bepoxrno, n +rom n
xpoercx npnunna xomnnexronannx amnnncrpannn Iannnxoro noennoro
renepan-ryepnaropcrna n ocnonnom npnesxnmn unnonnnxamn ns Poc-
cnn.
Axrnnnym nomomt ancrpo-nenrepcxnm nnacrxm n ntxnnennn mocx-
no]nnon oxastnann axrnnncrt yxpanncxnx oprannsann. Tmptmt tnn
nepenonnent. K 28 anrycra 1914 r. rontxo no Htnone tno 2000 ysnn-
xon. Hmenno n Ancrpo-Benrpnn nosnnxnn nepnte n Enpone xonnnarepx,
cpen nnx nanonee nsnecrnt Tanepro] n Tepesnn, cosannte cnenn-
antno nx pycnnon. Hepnax naprnx saxnmuenntx tna npnrnana n Ta-
nepro] 4 cenrxpx. Hemano rpaxancxoro nacenennx tno ynnuroxe-
no es cya n cnecrnnx. K npnmepy, omensnecren cnyua yncrna
ronneamn 44 rpaxancxnx nnn n Hepemtmne 15 cenrxpx 1914 r.
7
Ho-
+romy cnona o nexoem ymepanre, xoropt nosnparnncx x mocxno-
]nnam nocne orcrynnennx pyccxnx nocx, n anno cnryannn npx nn
npnmennmt. B ro xe npemx nentsx ne cornacnrtcx, uro omee uncno
xasnenntx no npnronopy noenno-nonentx cyon, ynrtx no npemx xec-
roxnx nnecyentx pacnpan, nornmnx npn ntctnxe n xonnnarepx Ta-
nepro], Tepesnn n p., a raxxe ymepmnx or +nnemn n rxxentx ycno-
nn npetnannx n narepxx nenosmoxno nocunrart c ocrarouno rou-
nocrtm. uaxron o snepcrnax ancrpo-nenrepcxo noenmnnt nmeercx
ocrarouno, n onponeprnyrt nx nenosmoxno.
B ro xe npemx npnneennte H.I. Fypxyrom cnnerentcrna o ec-
unncrnax pyccxo apmnn ontme noxoxn na opasnt ancrpncxo npo-
narant npemen Hepno mnpono nont. K npnmepy, ntstnamr comne-
nnx npnneennte annte o paccrpenax no onocam mocxno]nnon. Xo-
renoct t osnaxomnrtcx c ncrounnxom, no n monorpa]nn uepnonnnxoro
ncropnxa B. 3anononcxoro, orxya nsxra +ra nn]opmannx, nnxaxnx cct-
nox na ncrounnxn ner
8
. Kcrarn, n crarte Pycnnt Fyxonnnt: ncropn-
uecxax cyta +rnonnma npnnonrcx nnctmo nexoero anonnmnoro pyc-
cxoro conara, cnyxnnmero nensnecrno na xaxom yuacrxe ]ponra n nn-
mymero o nacnnnxx na nexnmn ancrpncxnmn xenmnnamn, xoropoe
nsxro c ro xe crpannnt ntmeynomxnyro monorpa]nn
9
. Oxastnaer-
cx, ncropnx npnnonr rexcr nnctma, xxot ne nponymennoro poccnc-
xo noenno nensypo, nsxrt c Hnrepner-cara, xoroporo n nacroxmee
npemx ne cymecrnyer. Bor rax ntrnxnr cctnxa: 353 a. Hmnrt no-
pyccxn: (Hmont n cexc na nonxx Hepno mnpono nont cxnost npn-
smy noenno nensypt) / Pasnnna no npemenn //www.svoboda.org/programs/
64
2009, N 3 (17)
TD.030100.shtml
10
Ha ceronxmnn ent +ro cctnxn ne cymecrnyer
11
.
Cornacnrect, nectma crpannax cctnxa nx ceptesno nayuno paort.
3ro eme pas nouepxnnaer neoxonmocrt nnnmarentnoro noxoa x
ntopy nnrnpyemtx ncrounnxon. Cnnerentcrna ouennnen roxe
ntstnamr comnennx: cnnmxom nnna onpeenennax nonnrnuecxax opn-
enrannx nx anropon, a camo onncanne cotrn xnno ns onacrn enner-
pncrnxn.
Hecxontxo cnon o moxe, xoropt xxot ncntrann yxonnnnt npn
ncrpeue c pyccxnmn conaramn: o Hepno mnpono nont yxonnnnt
maccono npnxonnn na sapaorxn n Feccapacxym ryepnnm, uacrt ns
nnx ocrananact sect, nepecenxxct na nonoe mecro cemtxmn. Ho+romy
c poccncxnmn unnonnnxamn, noenntmn n r.. yxonnncxne pycnnt
ncrpeuannct n o nont. Kpome roro, n pxax pyccxo apmnn, ocnoox-
anme Fyxonnny n Iannnnm or ancrpo-nenrpon, tno nemano pycnnon
n manopoccon. Boenan sa Iannnnm n mo e Ieoprn. A mo npanpa-
e npnmen n Feccapanm ns Ancrpncxo Fyxonnnt. B cenax Fecca-
pann, re npoxnnann pycnnt, ntxont ns Fyxonnnt n Iannnnn, naxa-
nyne nont ocrananoct nemano nnn, coxpannnmnx ancrpo-nenrepcxoe
noancrno. Ho nnxaxnx penpeccn npornn nnx n rot nont ne tno.
Pycnnt o]nnnantno npnsnanannct uacrtm pyccxoro napoa, n, xax yxa-
stnanoct n nepnom (n nocnenem) saneennom n 1867 r. xannenxpne
ryepnaropa ene O ancrpncxonoanntx, npntnammnx n Fecca-
pacxym onacrt n ontmom xonnuecrne, no nacroxmee npemx ne
nocrynano nnxaxnx onecenn, nopnnammnx ocronncrno npoxnnammnx
n Feccapann nnn ancrpncxoro noancrna nnn ammnx npano saxnm-
unrt o nx nenaronaexnocrn
12
.
Cnopno n yrnepxenne, uro nmenno reppop ancrpo-nenrepcxnx nna-
cre ecrnnrentno nanec cmeprentnt yap pyco]nntcxomy nnxe-
nnm. Bet, xax yxastnaer nccneonarent, nocne nont, necmorpx na
nontcxn nannonanncrnuecxn rner, n Iannnnn nosponnnct pycnncxne
oprannsannn, ntxonnn nepnonuecxne nsannx, xnnrn. Bo npemx nepe-
nncn, nponeenno n Hontme n 1931 r., 1 196 855 rannuan onpeennnn
cnom nannonantnym npnnanexnocrt xax pyccxne
13
. anee n cam
anrop saxnmuaer, uro nmenno crannncxne penpeccnn nocne npncoen-
nennx Cenepno Fyxonnnt n Bocrouno Iannnnn x CCCP nocrannnn
xpecr na npexnnx pyco]nntcxnx cnmnarnxx mecrnoro nacenennx,
a xeprnamn reppopa crann unent nonnrnuecxnx naprn n axrnnncrt
mnornx omecrnenntx oprannsann, n rom uncne n pyco]nntcxnx.
A panee xpacnax Mocxna cenana cranxy ne na pyco]nnon-monapxnc-
ron, a na unenon ocnonanno n ]enpane 1919 r. Kommynncrnuecxo naprnn
3anano Vxpannt n nosnnxme n noxpe 1918 r. Kommynncrnuecxo
naprnn Fyxonnnt.
65

Onaxo n nocne Bropo mnpono nont pyccxne rannuane (mep+u-
uo.oeu H.M. Hauaeeo - C.C.) npoonxann necrn nayunym n npaxrn-
uecxym paory. Onn crann cxpomntmn conercxnmn cnyxamnmn. Cpen
nnx B.P. Banpnx, P.. Mnponnu, C.R Fenacmx, K.M. Ianpnmxon n py-
rne. K coxanennm, o cnx nop nx exrentnocrt neocrarouno nccneo-
nana
14
.
Vnomxnem raxxe o noenntx ]opmnponannxx ns noennonnenntx: ue-
xocnonanxom xopnyce (n ero cocrane noenana Kapnaropyccxax nnnsnx)
n nyx nnnsnxx, c]opmnponanntx nemnamn ns noennonnenntx-mano-
poccon. 3ect npeocrannm cnono renepan-nonxonnnxy 3. Hmenop]y,
xoropt n 1916-1918 rr. pyxononn ncemn noopyxenntmn cnnamn Iep-
mannn n xoroporo rpyno sanoospnrt n pyco]nntcrne. Onnctnax rep-
mano-ancrpo-nenrepcxoe nacrynnenne na Vxpanne n nauane 1918 r., on
nnmer: Fontmenncrcxne nocxa oxastnann nnmt nesnaunrentnoe co-
npornnnenne, uexocnonanxne nocxa, cocrannennte ns ancrpo-nenrepc-
xnx noennonnenntx, pannct mnoro nyume, n c nnmn eno oxonno o
oxecrouenntx oen. Hacrynnenne n on npoonxannct axe eme n mae.
Inannoxomanymmn Bocrouno sono nemenenno npncrynnn x ]op-
mnponannm n Iepmannn nyx nnnsn ns nnenntx conar yxpannc-
xoro nponcxoxennx, xoropte tnn oropant noenntmn mnnncrepcrna-
mn. Ho onn oxasannct ne na rpeyemo ntcore: npntn n Vxpanny, +rn
conart roruac tnn oxnauent panxantntm nonnrnuecxnm reuenn-
em, n n pesyntrare +rn nnnsnn npnmnoct pac]opmnponart. 3ro tno
ouent neuantno. Anranra ymena ncnontsonart cnonx noennonnenntx, n
x naexncx, uro na +ror pas ctnontx ocnooxenno namn or ontme-
nncrcxo nnacrn semnn necxontxo oneruar nam saauy
15
.
Hentsx ne cornacnrtcx c mnennem A.B. Mapuyxona, uro x 1917 r.
nponecct crponrentcrna yxpanncxo nannn tnn anexn or sanepme-
nnx, yxpanncxax nenrnunocrt n yxpanncxoe cosnanne rontxo nauann
nponnxart n macct, necmorpx na ro, uro nmecre c pacnaom Poccnc-
xo nmnepnn comen na ner npoexr cosannx omepyccxo nannn
16
.
Onn ns narnxntx npnmepon +romy - oeno nyrt Iannnxo apmnn.
B nmne 1919 r. Iannnxax apmnx orcrynnna na reppnropnm tnme Poc-
cncxo nmnepnn. 3ect ona tna ntnyxena npnnxrt yuacrne n rpax-
ancxo none. B ror nepno, no cnnerentcrny O. Cyrentnoro, cpen
ncex apmn, noenanmnx na Vxpanne, Iannnxax apmnx, nacunrtnanmax
oxono 50 rtc. onon, tna nanonee ncnnnnnnnponanno n oecno-
cono no cpannennm c pyrnmn apmnxmn, noenanmnmn na reppnropnn
Manopoccnn
17
. Hecmorpx na nepexo VIA n npesnenra (nxraropa)
3VHP E. Herpymennua na reppnropnm Manopoccnn, nonnoro oen-
nennx c npexropne ne nponsomno (xorx eme n xnnape tna nponosr-
namena Bennxax coopnax Vxpanna). H. Hononcxax-Bacnnenxo nona-
raer, uro oennenne nyx npannrentcrn tno nenosmoxno no neo-
66
2009, N 3 (17)
nornuecxnm n nnuntm npnunnam. Pyxonocrno VHP rorono tno npn-
nxrt nporpammy ontmennxon n ncrynnrt n coms c Conercxo nnacrtm.
Hpannrentcrno 3VHP tno ecnaprnntm n anrnconnanncrnuecxnm.
Ono rorono tno saxnmunrt cornamenne c ennxnntm. Hemanym pont
nrpann n nnunte nsanmoornomennx mexy Hernmpo n Herpymenn-
uem
18
. O. Cyrentnt, nmecre c nonnrnuecxnmn pacxoxennxmn, rax-
xe yxastnaer rnyoxne xyntrypnte n ncnxonornuecxne pasnnunx
19
.
3rn npornnopeunx ocoenno npoxnnnnct n anrycre 1919 r. 30 anrycra
ontmennxn es ox ocrannnn Knen. 31 anrycra oxono nonynx n ropo
nomnn rpn xopnyca no xomanonannem rannnxoro renepana A. Kpanca
(1- n 2- Iannnxne xopnyca n Hanenpxncxax rpynna sanopoxnen).
Hnannponanoct nponecrn napa. Onaxo n +ro xe npemx x Kneny noo-
mna nexornax pnraa BCRP no xomanonannem renepan-maopa a-
pona Maxcnmnnnana Braxentepra. Ero pnraa nxonna n rpynny re-
nepan-nerenanra H.3. Fpeona. Xorx ennxnnnen tno ncero rpn non-
xa npornn rpex xopnycon A. Kpanca, on ncrynnn n neperonopt or nmenn
rpynnt rannnxnx nocx c renepanom H. Fpeontm n nonncan oronop
o orxoe cnoe rpynnt nocx or Knena. Kax yxastnana H. Hononcxax-
Bacnnenxo, romy, uro cnyunnoct n Knene 31 anrycra, ner o cnx nop
oexrnnnoro onncannx
20
. Ha mo nsrnx, pyxonocrno Iannnxo apmnn
paccmarpnnano xomanonanne Boopyxenntx cnn Rra Poccnn xax npe-
crannrene pyccxo saxonno nnacrn. Taxoro xe mnennx npnepxnna-
ercx n A.F. Iopxnnn
21
. Hpnuem H. Fpeon orxasancx necrn neperonopt
c nernmponcxnmn renepanamn, paccmarpnnax nx xax npearene. On
saxnnn, uro ecnn na neperonopt npeyer M.B. Omentxnonnu-Hannen-
xo, tnmn nonxonnnx napcxo apmnn, ro on yer paccrpenen
22
.
uepes necxontxo ne Hernmpa nce xe yronopnn rannuan ncrynnrt n
o c ennxnnnamn. Xorx o +roro rannnxoe npannrentcrno saxnnxno o
orcyrcrnnn xaxoro-nno xon]nnxra mexy nnm n ennxnntm. Ho cno-
nam O. Cyrentnoro, yxpanncxne apmnn, oosnennte ona na pyrym
n nrxnyrte n nexenarentnt xon]nnxr c entmn, oromnn na sana. Ha
+rom, n cymnocrn, saxonunnact opta sa yxpanncxym rocyapcrnen-
nocrt. antme men yxe sanyrannt n rparnuecxn +nnnor
23
.
A.H. ennxnn no npemx oentx ecrnn c nernmponnamn yxasan cno-
nm nocxam na neoxonmocrt pyxenmnoro ornomennx x rannua-
nam, c nentm nsnneut nx ns nounnennx Hernmpe. Ecnn xe +roro oc-
rnrnyro ne yer, ro cunrart n nx npaxeno cropono. C anrycra no
noxpt n oxx npornn nernmponnen yuacrnonano 8-10 rtcxu onon,
npenmymecrnenno mecrnoro yxomnnexronannx (m.e. e ocuoeuo+ +a-
.opoccoe C.C.), npnuem npemenamn onontno snaunrentnax uacrt
nocx ornnexanact nx optt c Maxno n pyrnmn noncrannamn. K
xonny oxrxpx n pesyntrare nyxneentntx oen conpornnnenne ner-
nmponnen tno cnomneno, n onn ntnyxent tnn orcrynnrt, necx
67

orpomnte norepn. 3 noxpx 1919 r. Iannnxax apmnx nepemna na cropo-
ny BCRP. Apmnx tna orneena n rtn. Ho cnncxam, eoxon n ne
uncnnnoct 50 rtc. Kax cnnerentcrnyer A. ennxnn, Iannnxax ap-
mnx coxpannna o xonna ncnnnnnny n nonnym noxntnocrt. Ho norpx-
cennax mopantno, nsmoxennax ]nsnuecxn, crpamno nyxammaxcx,
nmenmax o 10 rtc. ontntx ctnntm rn]om, n ror xparxn cpox, xoro-
pt npeocrannen pasneprtnammnmncx cotrnxmn, apmnx ne morna
nepnyrt cnoe oecnoconocrn
24
. O rom, uro omepyccxne nnrepect
nx rannuan oxasannct ntme yxpanncxnx, ynomnnaer A. Iopxnnn. On
ormeuaer, uro Iannnxax apmnx npncoennnnact x ennxnny n rpy-
nte nn noxpx, xora yxe nauanoct ee orcrynnenne or Opna n Bopone-
xa
25
. Hoxntnocrt rpannnonno poccncxo rocyapcrnennocrn rann-
uane coxpannnn n n antnemem. He cnyuano n cnonx memyapax H.H.
Bpanrent ynomxnyn, uro rannnxoe npannrentcrno E. Herpymennua npo-
nosrnacnno ennenne c Poccne
26
.
B nauane 1920 r. coennennx Iannnxo apmnn nepemnn na cropony
Kpacno apmnn, tnn nxnmuent n cocran 12- n 14- apmn n npnnxnn
yuacrne n none c Hontme
27
. Fontmennxn cosnanann, uro n +rnoxynt-
rypnom nnane pycnnt ornnuannct or manopoccon, a yxpanncxax nex n
ro npemx tna nenonynxpna cpen nacenennx. Ho+romy, nocne ncrynne-
nnx Kpacno apmnn nerom 1920 r. na reppnropnm Bocrouno Iannnnn,
8 nmnx tn cosan Iannnxn penonmnnonnt xomnrer, xoropt 15 nmnx
nponosrnacnn cosanne Iannnxo Conercxo Connanncrnuecxo Pecny-
nnxn. Hauanoct ]opmnponanne Iannnxo Kpacno apmnn. B cenrxpe
Hontma cnona oxxynnponana Bocrounym Iannnnm, n ICCP nepecrana
cymecrnonart
28
.
B cenrxpe 1939 r. Bocrounax Iannnnx nomna n cocran CCCP, Ce-
nepnax Fyxonnna n Feccapanx tnn npncoennent x CCCP n nmne
1940 r. B 1940 r. n pycnncxnx cenax ocnooxenno or pymtn Feccapa-
nn nce tnn sanncant pyccxnmn. A nocne Bropo mnpono nont, n
1949 r., nx yxe sanncann yxpannnamn
29
. B crannncxne npemena ne morno
nrn n peun o cnoonom ntope nannonantno npnnanexnocrn. B +rnx
pernonax, no mnennm conercxnx nnacre, pyccxnmn mornn trt rontxo
enornapent. Ho+romy cranonnrcx nonxrntm, nouemy n 1944 r.
K.. Forartpen, nnep pycnncxoro nnxennx Fyxonnnt, ocyxennt
sa cnon yexennx ancrpncxnm cyom, n anxere yxasan cnom nanno-
nantnocrt xax yxpannen. B conercxne npemena, ormeuaer H. Hamae-
na, nannonantnocrt pyccxn n yxpannen nocnpnnnmannct xax nen-
rnunte nonxrnx. Ona xe yxastnaer, uro pyccxne rannuane nocnpnnxnn
npncoennenne Bocrouno Iannnnn x CCCP xax nonnomenne naex
na pyccxoe rocyapcrno "or Kapnar o Kamuarxn " n conmann non-
nym noxntnocrt conercxo nnacrn
30
. B ro xe npemx sanonnenne
68
2009, N 3 (17)
K. Forartpnem anxert na nnreparypnom pyccxom xstxe noxastnaer,
uro or cnonx yexenn on ne orpexcx.
To ocroxrentcrno, uro uacrt noromxon pycnnon o cnx nop npoon-
xaer onpeenxrt cnom nannonantnym npnnanexnocrt xax pycnn
(nno +rnoc, nno cy+rnoc), ntpaxaer crpemnenne xpannrt sane1m
npexoncxon ansnn
31
. K coxanennm, no npemena npannennx
H.. Kyumt n 1996 r. tn npnnxr anrnemoxparnuecxn Hnan mepon-
pnxrn no pemennm nponem yxpannnen-pycnnon, xoropt nepenen +r-
noxyntrypnt nonpoc n nonnrnuecxym nnocxocrt n onycxan ne rontxo
cnnonoe noannenne +rnoxyntrypno camotrnocrn pycnnon n nx no-
romxon, no n nepenocnn ecrnne nnana na cocenne crpant. B cnoe
xnnre Vxpanna ne Poccnx H. Kyuma rax ntpasnncx n ornomennn
cocene crpant: Xorx Cnonaxnx nnxax ne noepxnnaer pycnncxoe
nnxenne, ono nce panno nnocnr ncconanc n yxpanncxo-cnonanxne or-
nomennx
32
.
Kax noxasano npemx, noonte ontmenncrcxne merot pemennx
nponemt (+rnoxyntrypnoe noannenne c npnnneuennem cnnontx crpyx-
ryp, npoxyparypt, mecrno amnnncrpannn, nnemnenonnrnuecxoro ne-
omcrna n r..) rontxo cnpononnponann +rnononnrnuecxn xon]nnxr n
nanecnn ymep mexynaponomy npecrnxy Vxpannt. Pycnncxn non-
poc, saxnmuammncx n saxonnom npane pycnnon coxpanxrt cnom ca-
motrnocrt, nontm nnacrxm Vxpannt nce panno npnercx pemart,
npnuem emoxparnuecxnm nyrem. Xouercx naexrtcx, uro onnm ns
nepntx maron x yperynnponannm rax nastnaemoro pycnncxoro nonpo-
ca (ontme uacrtm naymannoro n nsnnmne nonnrnsnponannoro) cra-
ner ormena ecrnnx npecnonyroro Hnana meponpnxrn. O]nnnant-
nomy Kneny npnercx npnsnart, uro n emoxparnuecxom omecrne xax-
t rpaxannn nnpane cnoono pemart nonpoc o nannonantno npn-
nanexnocrn.
Hmex omnx npexon, noromxn pycnnon ceronx ornocxr cex x yx-
pannnam, pyccxnm, pycnnam (xax x orentnomy nocrounocnanxncxomy
napoy), pymtnam, monananam, cnonaxam, nenrpam, nonxxam, amepn-
xannam, xananam, cepam Ho, nesanncnmo or roro, xem mt, norom-
xn pycnnon, cunraem cex ceronx, mt ne nmeem npana satnart o
cnoem nponcxoxennn n onxnt urnrt namxrt npexon. Cnom nenry n
+ro nnocnr nsanaemt namn mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan
Pycnn.
HPHMEHAHHE
1. Pycnn camonasnanne nacenennx penne Pycn. Cam +rnonnm pycnn -
nponsnonoe or cnona Pyct. Vnomnnaercx n nnreparypntx namxrnnxax c X n. (r
69

npu+epv, e mercmax ooeoeopoe c epera+u rus O.eea (912 e.) ce+i pas, rus
Heop (945 e.) - uecmi, e Pvccro npaeoe. C+.: Haepeumieecra .emonuci.
Bin. 1. Hoeecmi epe+euuix .em. HCPH. T. 1. H., 1926. Cmo. 34-35, 50-52; Hna-
mieecra .emonuci. HCPH. T. 2. CHo., 1908. Cmo. 25-26, 38, 40; Hoeeopoocra
nepea .emonuci cmapueeo u +.aoueeo useoooe. M.-H., 1950. C. 176). onroe
npemx annt +rnonnm coxpanxncx na nce reppnropnn, nxonnme n cocran
pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna: Manopoccnn, Fenopyccnn, Bennxopoccnn, Kap-
narcxo Pycn. Tnepcxo xynen A]anacn Hnxnrnn nncan n Xoxennn sa rpn
mopx (XV n.): A n rom n umnepe xan y menx nsxn xepena, a ynean, uro xs ne
ecepmenxnnn pycnn (Hurumuu Aqauacu. Xoroeuue sa mpu +op // Hcmo-
pu ome:ecmea e po+auax, noeecmx, oorv+eumax. Ber XV-XVI. M., 1987. C.
451.). K cepenne XIX n. +rnonnm pycnn ocranancx mnpoxo pacnpocrpanen-
ntm n xauecrne camonasnannx nacenennx Kapnarcxo Pycn (Iannunna, Fyxonn-
na, Vropcxax Pyct), utn semnn naxonnnct no nnaennem Ancrpo-Benrpnn, a
raxxe nacenennx cenepa Feccapann n Xonmmnnt. Bropo +rnonnm nacenennx
Kapnarcxo Pycn pycnax. 3ror nnemnn +rnonnm nosnnx xax npornnonoc-
rannenne +rnonnmy nonxx n npocnexnnaercx, no xpane mepe, c nauana XV n.
Pycnnt nopasenxnnct na px +rnoxyntrypntx rpynn: oxn, nemxn, noonxne,
rynynt, noxyrxne, nepxonnnnt, onnnxne n pyrne. Ancrpo-nenrepcxne nnacrn
nastnann cnonx pyccxnx noanntx pycnnt, pyrent (nem. Russinen, Rutnenen),
n ornnune or pyccxnx - poccncxnx noanntx.
2. Bvsuua O.A. Tanax ncropnx Vxpannt-Pycn. K.: Hsarentcrno onipa,
2006. C. 289.
3. He nao satnart, uro n ro npemx repmnn yxpannen nocnn ne +rnnuecxn,
a, xax oocnonanno cunraer H.M. Hamaena, cxopee nannonantno-nonnrnuec-
xn xapaxrep (Hauaeea H.M. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne
XIX- XX nn. M.: Hsarentcrno Hmnepcxax rpannnx, 2007. C. 8). 3ro tno
anrnpyccxoe mentmnncrno (V.iuoe H.H. Hponcxoxenne yxpanncxoro cena-
parnsma. M.: Hsarentcrno Hnpnx, 1996. C. 213).
4. Cv.r C.I. Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. Ouepxn +rnnuecxo ncropnn pycnaxon
Monannn. Knmnnen: Hsarentcxn om Tartxna, 2004. C. 119-120.
5. Bvprvm H.I. Pycnnt Fyxonnnt: ncropnuecxax cyta +rnonnma // Mtcnt.
Teopnx. Hpaxrnxa. Hynnnncrnxa. Omecrnenno-nonnrnuecxn xypnan Haprnn
xommynncron Pecnynnxn Monona. [Knmnnen]. N 2 (24). Ma. 2004. 65-71.
6. Cv.r C.I. 3amena +rnonnma npenmnx +rnoxyntrypno rpanc]opmannn.
Mtcnt. C. 72-75.
7. Hoponee cm.: Cv.r C.I. Tanepro] n Tepesnn: satrt renonn // Mex-
ynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2008. N 3-4 (13-
14). C. 69-75.
8. 3ano.oeciru B.M. Fyxonnna n ocranni nini Ancrpo-Vropmnnn 1914-1918.
uepninni: 3onori nnranpn, 2003. C. 54
9. Bvprvm H.I. Pycnnt Fyxonnnt: ncropnuecxax cyta +rnonnma. C. 70.
3ano.oeciru B.M. Tam xe.
10. 3ano.oeciru B.M. Tam xe. C. 221.
11. Ecnn npocro napart www.svoboda.org, ro anromarnuecxn ocymecrnnxer-
cx nepexo na car Pano Cnooa: http://www.svobodanews.ru/
12. HAPM. u. 2. On. 1. . 7945. H. 100.
70
2009, N 3 (17)
13. uru A. Hensnpamennax ncropnx Vxpannt-Pycn. C pennemnx npemen
o nauana XIX n. Mocxna: Camorexa, 2007. C. 68.
14. Hauaeea H.M. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX-
XX nn. C. 132-133. B.P. Banpnx npoonxnn, n uacrnocrn, nccneonannx no renonn-
y pycnnon n rot Hepno mnpono nont. Cm., nanpnmep: Baepur B.P. Tepe-
snn n Tanepro] // Ienonn xapnaropyccxnx mocxno]nnon samonuannax rpare-
nx XX n. M.: uIVH Hsarentcrno Hsnecrnx, 2007. C. 68 - 111. 3ect xe nome-
mena Fnnnorpa]nx Tanepro]a P.. Mnponnua. C. 111 - 144. Bcero 355 nsa-
nn. 3nexrponnax nepcnx xnnrn cm. http://www.ukrstor.com
15. Hmoeuoopq J. Mon nocnomnnannx o none 1914-1918 rr.. M.: Acr, Mn:
Xapnecr, 2005. C. 572.
16. Map:vroe A.B. Vxpanncxoe nannonantnoe nnxenne: VCCP. 1920-1930-e
rot: nenn, merot, pesyntrart. M.: Hayxa, 2006. C. 29.
17. Cvome.iuu O. Vxpana: icropix. Knn: Hnit, 1993. C. 459.
18. Ho.oucira-Bacu.euro H. Icropix Vxpann ni cepennn XVII cronirrx o
1923 poxy. T. 2. Knn, Hnit, 2002. C. 529.
19. Cvome.iui. O. Vxpana. Icropix. C. 460.
20. Ho.oucra-Bacu.euro H. Icropix Vxpann ni cepennn XVII cronirrx o
1923 poxy. T. 2. C. 531-532.
21. Iopuuu A.B. Mn]t o Poccnn. M.: Pentagrafic. Ltd, 2001. C. 192-193.
22. Ho.oucra-Bacu.euro H. Icropix Vxpann ni cepennn XVII cronirrx o
1923 poxy. T. 2. C. 532.
23. Cvome.iui O. Vxpana. Icropix. C. 460.
24. euuruu A.H. Ouepxn pyccxo cmyrt: Boopyxennte cnnt mra Poccnn.
3axnmunrentnt nepno optt. nnapt 1919 mapr 1920. Mn.: Xapnecr, 2002.
C. 289-290.
25. Iopuuu A.B. Mn]t o Poccnn. C. 193.
26. Bpauee.i H.H. Bocnomnnannx. Rxnt ]ponr (noxpt 1916 r. noxpt
1920 r.) u. 2. M.: Teppa, 1992. C. 345.
27. Karvpuu H.E. Kax cpaxanact penonmnnx. T. 2. 1919-1920 rr. M.: Honnrnsar,
1990. C. 201.
28. Cv.r C.I. Pycnnt n nepno Hepno mnpono nont n pyccxo cmyrt //
Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2006. N 1 (3).
C. 60-61.
29. Cv.r C.I. Ocxonxn Cnxro Pycn. C. 129.
30. Hauaeea H.M. Ouepxn ncropnn pyccxoro nnxennx n Iannunne XIX-
XX nn. C. 133-134.
31. Kocmo+apoe H.H. 3aaun yxpanno]nntcrna // Becrnnx Enpont. T I. uen-
pant. 1882. C. 898. Honnocrtm ]pasa snyunr rax: Manopyc nepen cnoemy napm,
ncem ymom npean rocyapcrny; ero narpnornuecxoe uyncrno orstnunno n pa-
ocrtm n cxoptm x cnane n x norepxm pyccxo epxant nn na nonoc ne menee
nennxopyca, no n cnoe omamne xnsnn, n cnoem cene nnn xyrope on cnxro
xpannr sanert npexoncxo xnsnn, nce ee otuan n npnemt - n ncxxoe nocxra-
rentcrno na +ry omamnmm cnxrtnm yer nx nero rxxentm nesacnyxenntm
ocxopnennem. Cnona, cxasannte n cnoe npemx H. Kocromapontm n ornomennn
manopoccon, ceronx nnonne moxno npnmennrt x pycnnam n nx noromxam.
32. Kv:+a H.. Vxpanna ne Poccnx. M.: Hsarentcxn om Bpemx, 2003. C. 54.
71

Mnxanno mEHCA
mOPMH H METOH YKPAHH3AHH
PYCHAHOX / PYCHHOX Y CEPBH H
X OPAEHC HA CTATYC
PYCKOIO R3HKA
*
Xe nm npesenronan ]opmn n meron yxpannsann Pycnanox / Pycn-
nox y Cepn/Bononnn nnrnpam cnona p Rnnxna Tamama, yxpancxo-
ro axaemnxa n nomnrenx opena sa xonconnonanc yxpancrna y Cep-
n/Bononnn, xropn n cnonarent n y nox manarox npecnarent
Comsa Pycnanox n Vxpannox (rax nanonanoro 1990. poxy na camnm cno-
nanm, y nepme ]asn oescnnomonanx Pycnanox, xe n ncanno, npe
nap poxamn, xe macxn e]nnnrnnno cnann, Coms npemencn nasny na
Coms PycnanoxVxpannox, es onosnoro n) y sopnxy nomnenenomy
250-pounnn npncencnx Pycnanox, unm peaxrypy npncnocn
1
, nnme no
anrnncxn (rou ncrn xsnx an nc sna no crynent xe n me na nm nnpaxo-
nan y nncane ]opmn, a, ry romy, na came Kon]epennn nnrnpane an nc
unran an nc cnomnnan): In my opinion, Ruthenians are part of the Ukrainian
nation, with their regional cultural and national identity. Here I make distinction
between ethnical and political Ruthenianism. I think that prof. Magocsi`s
conception is political but not scientific one, and that his ideas have failed to
explain (to solve) the question of the Ruthenian language. I`m deeply covinced
that it is not possible to create, to make Ruthenian national literary language
on ground of (artificial) meta-languages and it is even less possible to do it in
somebody`s study-room or by somebody`s pure intention. If it would be
possible, Slav-Serbian (slavjano- serbski), then Iliric languages (old Balkan
languages) or Karpatho-Russian languages would be today still living and
spoken languages. But we know that they are dead languages of many
literary monuments. At last, why nobody writes poetry in Esperanto in spite
of the fact that many writers translate literary works into it. V ]ynamen-
rox comsamcxe nnar]opmn ncnocmncnono yyonane xe Pycnann ncm
uacn yxpancxe nann n xe ncr mancn xe n pycxn/pycnncxn xsnx sa-
xnn, a xro me ry raxomy auomy namara non yx y crapry nu nnme anc
cenaparncra
2
.
* or.ao oi. sa:umau 19 oeraop 2008 e. ua +erovuapoouo uav:uo-npar-
mu:ecro rouqepeuuu Ieuouo u rv.imvpui omuouo pvcuuoe Kapnamc-
ro Pvcu (roue XIX - ua:a.o XX ee.), e. Pocmoe-ua-ouv.
72
2009, N 3 (17)
Comsamcxa nonnrnxa y ocnonn ]opmynonana emn xonnom 1960-nx
poxox, xe xono crorxn n non ocon nonncann xe n me pycxn xsnx
samencn sos yxpancxnm n xe n me xapn sa roro nonxne mxononann y
Vxpann. Hanexmn ycnnx Comsa npane y rnm xe my me nocnnmeno
onecn xono 60 mnanx nmsox crynpan o Vxpann (o xropnx snaune
uncno morno crynpan pycxn xsnx na unnoso]cxnm ]axynrery y Honnm
Case), oenymnn nm omncosonanc o ynncnnn sa crpannox n poory
y Cepn / Bononnn no saxonuenm crynox, npananm n, enenryanno,
nocrpn]nxonanm. Tnnnunn npnxna npnxosenc Fopnca Baprn na mecro
peaxropa cnnoro uaconncy sa mnanx no pycxn MAK, xropn o uaco-
nnca sa mnanx nanpanen xynrypno-nonnrnunn uaconnc. uaconnc no oro
npnxo ymoponann n cryenrn Karepn sa pycxn xsnx n nnreparypy,
ncmxa Osencnx sa pycnnncrnxy. Fopnc Bapra yx anno nc mnan, anc
xx oporo oonnxa Comsa, onaposena ynpana HBV Pvcre c.oeo
rpnma ro xx ncsamennnoro. Cryenrn Osencnx sa pycnnncrnxy nc ncm
xe nc moxy ocn o ymoponanx cnnoro uaconnca namencnoro mna-
nm Pycnanom, anc an nc moxy ocn o poorn y nayxn na Osencnm
sa pycnnncrnxy na xropnm crynpann, no, nnpoxrno yx n npenocranxne,
moxy xapn mxononann nper Comsa PycnanoxVxpannox. Ha ror cno-
co oesnpesyc me n ]axonocn npo]ecopox, nonenmm me nnnomona-
nn npo]ecope pycxoro xsnxa n nnreparypn n sncnnpmm me ouexonanx
ponuox.
Pox 1996. npecranx nonn momenr snaunn sa smonntonanc yxpannsa-
nn Pycnanox. To pox, xe Kanner mnnncrpox Vxpann ncnocmncnono
nanoxen sarpanunnm oprannsannom (y Cepn - Comsy) xe n sanpo-
nasenn Hnan mnpox sa pnmonanc nponema Vxpannox-Pycnnox, no xro-
pnm mnnxn namaranx sa ouynantom pycxe/pycnncxe cnnomocnn rpe-
a snmnn. Hpn rnm onymene n ]ancn]nxonan ncropnm n npaxrnxonan
ncoxony roranncrnuny nponarany. Tax me, nanpnxna, sxnena mono-
rpa]nx Bepaca, y xrope me rnepsn xe me npe 250 poxamn o Bep-
acy n Konypa npncencnn Vxpannn. Anrop rnx mopnxox oprannsonan n
xnny rpnnny n nanncan pe]epar, y xropnm me raxcarnnno nanosa ]an-
cn]nxarn n marepnxnnn rpnmxn spoenn y Monorpa]n. Hpo]ecop p
Mnxano ueca cno pe]epar an o Leem.ocu Mnxonn Hana (nn-
max cnooro xyma), xropn ncrn no ncmxa ynpexocno onna oxnnn.
Mnxona Han ncmxa, ncno sos cnom monrpom Mnxonom Banrom, rnx
comsamcxnm xapom, nncrannpann na nasnauncmn nnanarentnn no-
snnn mesn Pycnanamn noome nepmn cnomnyrn na nosnnnm rnanno-
ro peaxropa Leem.ocu, cnnoro uaconnca sa nnreparypy, xsnx,
xynrypy, nayxy n pyxrnenn nnranx, a pyrn cnomnyrn na nosnnnm rnan-
noro peaxropa y Bnanarentnnm osencnm HBVPvcre c.oeo. Bonn
nome, no nanory cnoc nenrpann, sonepam nc ncm nynnxonanc ]axono-
73

ro ornxnyna na npoonanc ]ancn]nxonanx ncropn, no xropnm me o
Konypa n Bepacy npe 250 poxamn npncencnn Vxpannn, a nc Pycnann,
anc n pyrn cenaparncrnunn remn anropox pycxe cnnomocnn, xx no
nanp. Mnxano Iopnxx, Mnxona Kamennxn, Fopnc Xonomnx, Hoaxnm
Xonomnx, Mnxano ueca n pyrn, xropn mam n snam no nonecn. Ho,
apmo, xe ro ncncroymnxom nc no cmaxy.
Tax nanp. Comsono xapn y HBV Pvcre c.oeo onnn norpnman
penpesenrarnnnn, rpnromnn npocxr npo]. p Mnxana uecn Pvcuuu/
Pvcuau/Ruthenians (1745-2005)
3
, nopymann s naron 260-pounnn npn-
cencnx Pycnanox na rorn npocropn, anc saro mepo norpnmann nene-
romnn npocxr Vxpannn y Focnn.
Hcropnuap p nxo Pamau nanp. cnom ncanno oxneny oxropcxy
nceprannm (xropy rouno npe cny enennm na yxpancxnm xsnxy pancn
y Vxropose y uame nnaconanx nn]amnoro Hnana), xropa ma sa remy
xnnor Pycnanox no 1918. pox, nounna yx y nepmnm nnpeuenm sos ]noc-
xyny xe me Pycnann y oro xnxxn rpernpam xx uacn yxpancxoro napo-
y, xx xe n ro yn narmornn xropn xnnor Pycnanox nnpasno xapaxre-
pnsonan nepmn nnx n non na rnx npocropox. A rory nnmax nepmy xnxxy
y posnouare ennn nonncyc Bonoxncxa axaemnx nayxox n ymer-
nocnox, un npecnarent (un ro n rpea narnamonan?) y ror uac yn
Rnnxn Tamam, a o xrope me ouexyc xe n nayxono a]npmonana
cnenn]nunocnn Bononnn, ra n Pycnanox, xropn npnnosnarn xx raxn n
y Bononnn
4
n y Cepn, ra n y mnnxnx xemox mnera, oxpem y marnu-
ne xemn R. Tamama n . Pamaua.
Hnrepecanrne, nanpnxna, n xx me R. Tamam y noncre ynorn
(npecnarenx BAHV n me]a Osencnx sa pycnnncrnxy) onomn ry
pycnnncrnunnm npocxrom. Horo npocxrn, posymn me, npexosa es npo-
nemox, a ncoro npexosa rax ncro xx n y HBV Pvcre c.oeo. Ha
nnmory xe n BAHV norpnman penpesenrarnnny rpnromny nynnxa-
nnm, rnannn peaxrop, anrop rnx mopnxox ocran mnymne xparxe xe
osa xparme onnanc corpynnrna an nc morno yn: Predsednitvo
VANU je zakljucilo da predlog dr Fejse sa Katedre za rusinistiku o podrki
VANU pripremi knjige o Rusinima sada ne moe da prihvati. Tacnost
overava predsednik VANU akademik Julijan Tama (18. oktobar 2005).
Ha Osencnm sa pycnnncrnxy unnoso]cxoro ]axynrera no ncmxa
nnnomonann 32 npo]ecope pycxoro xsnxa n nnreparypn, anc an cen,
narnamycm au coeu s ux nc yn ocrarounn xanannrer xe n ocran
poory y nayxn na Osencnm sa pycnnncrnxy unnoso]cxoro ]axynre-
ra? Onnr, posymn me, ncxn y cnnm pyrnm ]axry, xropn rnamn: me]
Osencnx nann ror nepno (s many npepny o nap poxn, xe roncm na
nanepy yn me] npo]. p Rnnxn Pamau) yx cnomnnann npo]ecop Ta-
mam. V cxnay sos nn]amnnm Hnanom mnpox, Vxpana npoyxyc n o-
74
2009, N 3 (17)
pesene uncno axaemnxox sa rpanny, xropn sexymnn re rnrynn, oc-
ranam nasnauncmn mecra n myma opoonan ncry. V Cnonanxe
pacrnunn npnxna sa rory ]opmy yxpannsann Mnxona Mymnnxa. O-
sencnc sa pycnnncrnxy, nnnarpa, cnne y mnene, xrope cymecrnyc rpn
enenn n nc yxnmueno nxoro sos cnox cryenrox o nayxono-nnrnco-
nanxe poorn. Honpn rnm, npo]ecop ueca, nnnarpa, cen s pnxnx
npo]ecopox y axaemcxnx xpyrox, xropomy oncmoxnnene xe n man
ynnn na nnop cnooro acncrenra / corpynxa y nacrann. Hpnunna? Hc
npero xe ncr mesn 32 cryenramn an cen, xropn n man ncoxonn
norennnxn sa poory y nayxonnm opoxy pycxoro xsnxa, anc npero xe
rnacanxe mamnnepn na Osencnm xcne xe n ornunn yn na xonx-
ox cranonncxa xe Pycnann - Pycnann, xe cy nc cyernoc yxpancxe
nann, xe pycxn xsnx nc nxnexr yxpancxoro ...
3os nyroxoro cnncxa xonxpernnx cnyuaox yxpannsann cnomncm nanp.
n ]axr xe, me axrnnncrn Comsa y HBV Pvcre c.oeo nc ynmam an
o ornopennx ynpeox n xnenerox, ra rax npo]. p Mnxano ueca s
uacy na uac npernamonann n sa uxonnna, n sa cenaparncry, n sa ]amn-
cry, n sa ononenra ncspanoro posyma, n sa uxonnna ..., a ncromy onx-
re npano ax n na pearonanc, nonnanc, emanrn n noone. To oauen n
axenmn nonnnap Pycxoro cnona, Ianpnn Konccap, xropn repas xnc y
Kanan, ra, nonexe my y HBV Pvcre c.oeo onnn oxnnn nncmo, y
xropnm crana na mo ox n ocysyc x ncxopexrny xamnanm nponnn mnc
- nperaprnyn s nma antme corpynnrno. Hrnopanrcxn nocrynxn re
]arn yxasym xe comsamcxn xapn ymam xe cy ncornxnnn. Brnpn
pas com me nonoconan n noxpancxomy omycmanonn, ra mn npane re-
nto pas n xym oxnen no cny ]axony poory y x npnnarnsonane Bner-
nocnn. na poxn no ocrarnm nonoconanm - snona nu. An y Kanenape,
xropn cnomnnann monrpone nnnemepno menym s arpnyrom pycxn, a o
ntro nnxopnopnpam n yxpancxn npnnorn.
Hnnemepcrno xapaxrepncrnxa n npexropa Bnanmnpa Hananuann-
na, xropn xnno npnnonea xe c ornopenn sa mnnxnx, n rnanne peaxrop-
xn, xropa nanp. nc npenymyc an cny axrnnnocn cnooro Comsa (nnyc
xe ncrn npenmensnonyc), a nporpamn Kynrypno-npocnnrnoro pyxrna
OK, xropn me c nc naua npero xe uynam pycxocn, n nonpn rnm xe
nopxnc ocrana snnrn o camoro npecnarenx OK-a (xropn ncroua-
cono n nonnnap), cnocranno nrnopyc, ao, enenryanno, mnnnmnsyc. Hpo-
]ecoponn p Mnxanonn ueconn ax yraprnyra n uncro ]axona, npano-
nncna xonymna. H ro es napona.
Pas me y Pvcru+ c.oee sxnen nannc xe o Peaxnn npnmnn rpn
nncma sos Konypa y ocrarnx mrnpox memanox, a ncm mn sos KH OK
- Konyp y nepnoy o mrnpn memann nopxno nocnname xono semen
nn]opmann, snnrn, pearonanx, xomenrapn n noone! sexymnn nnrep-
75

nery o rnm nopxnc nonn]opmonann xono nesemar ocon. Ax an xnnn
xonxypcn OK-a, Epamo ua Kovpo+ n Kovpcra :vmra, nc moxy yn
oxnenn npe nensypy yxpannsaropcxnx xapox. Ax an mena naypearox
no rnx xonxypcox! Ke n ro axxnm xonnom ynn xonxypcn x Comsa,
ynn n oxnonann n na nene sanon. A nnrepnmn s x naypearamn n
y Pycxnm cnone ynn nanoounn. Hoono rax xx no me n an KV
Xarnn (un npecnarent Cnnnecrep opoxxasn, monononncrnunn snn-
roanen sa Pvcre c.oeo sos Konypa, no noxann rapronen, xropn y
cnoc norpa]n nc ma an cen pox mxononanx na pycxnm xsnxy) ax na
nene sanon n naxnonan n onnconan.
Axrnnncrn Comsa me nc ynmam an o ornopennx nnrancrnox. x
cen npnxna moxe nocnyxnn nnnu-nam]ner cnomnyroro C. opoxxa-
snx, xropn nnaconan nnrancrno nponnn Cnanxn Fecepmnn (npecna-
rentxn MO Pycxe marxn Konyp) n Kcenn Mecmn (npexropxn OB
Fparcrno cnncrno y Konype) xe nonn nn nc cnenn an oro spyxenm
rpaxanox opeseny cymy nencxox. x pyrn npnxna moxe nocny-
xnn n nnrancrno, no xropnm anrop rnx mopnxox nanan Mnxony Hana
(rnannoro peaxropa Leem.ocu n cnooro xyma) sa rancp, no npe-
cranx ncm nn]apnxonann nono xe n me npnmencna mnoncxo-crannn-
crnuna mnpa sapantonanx npo]ecoponn p Mnxanonn ueconn yxo-
snn ry cnom corpynxom o npocropnox HBV Pvcre c.oeo. Vxpa-
nnsaropcxa rapnnrypa y HBVPvcre c.oeo, mesnrnm, y opann cnox
nosnnnox, s cnoro oxy, npenyxena s uac na uac nannn, ouapntonan
n xneneran nanpoyxrnnncmoro nayxonna pycxe cnnomocnn, a, s py-
roro oxy, oncmoxnnonan nynnxonanc uncnennx pearonantox n eman-
rnox. Iou npo]ecop ueca nc ncm nayxonen, anc n npann nonnnap (sa
posnnxy o y HBV Pvcre c.oeo nporexnpanoro C. .-a). 3na yxpa-
nnsaropcxa rapnnrypa xe npo]ecoponn ueconn sa nnop o nopxnoro
npo]ecopa ncoxonn nayxono pe]epennn ra, nmenxx, n ro npnunna npe-
no nm aps naxne nc oxnonan mn nayxono-]axono poorn. Ho npo]. p
Mnxano ueca ma xnnntxono nene pycnnncrnunn npocxrn o xaxoro
sos sanxrnx na Osencnm sa pycnnncrnxy. Koe]nnncnr nayxonocnn npo].
p uecn s ornxom na yuacrnonanc na mesnnaponnx nayxonnx cxoox
n na oxnenn nayxono poorn y nnoxemcrne npocro sannnn. Fes ornxy
xe monrpone sos Leem.ocu n Bnanarentnoro osencnx HBV
Pvcre c.oeo onnam oxnonan xnxxn npo]ecopa uecn, non, sam
ncm, ro pon, ornunnm na ranty, a cepcxomy nnanarentonn Hpome-
reonn na uecn. Hpenocranxm xe y re xnnntxn an xyc nc ncrxo axo-
my, xro cxopo na enenn n mec mepxnm mesn Pycnanamn n rapronn
sos Pycnanamn ncm xe n yn nncoxo xornpann n ope nnanenn, xe
ounrnxne xe romy n raxomy npecro pannnn na - npocro na xomnn-
repnoncxe mmenncxo ncropn.
76
2009, N 3 (17)
Hancne mnpoxn cnexrep ]opmox n cpecrnox yxpannsann. Axrnnnc-
rn Comsa nanp. npnnosenn n nonnnnm o npocropnox KH Kapna-
mu y Bepame xe n anropa rnx mopnxox sonapnn o nonoconanx Ha-
nnonannomy connry Pycnanox, no, nnmax, nnmaran ax n noxpancxn om-
ycman ry xropomy com me na mrnpn sanon opanan.
Axrnnncrn Comsa, xropn ma n Cexnnm npannxox mxononannx na xo-
mnnrepnoncxnx nauanox, naram Pycnanox pycxe cnnomocnn n no cy-
ox. Tax nanp. anrop rnx mopnxox ma pox ycnonne xapn o me nn
npecranxn ]anmnno, a, ry romy, yxpancxn axaemnx Mnxona Mymnnxa
sos Cnonanxe, nnmax yepna necn Pycnnox-Vxpannox, ryxn me xe com
ro xxom aps ynpesen npero xe com ro y cnnm rexcry o ncnamencxnm
rpomenm cpecrnox xonypcxoro camoonpnnoca cnomnyn xx crannncry,
xropn Pycnanox nc npnnosnana xx Pycnanox, a x xsnx nc npnnosnana sa
xsnx anc sa nxnexr yxpancxoro xsnxa.
Hpes ncropnm oaunne n pnxnopone nxnexrnsonanc pycxoro xsnxa
nonoxncxnx Pycnanox. Fyno nx nene y 20. nnxy, rax xe pycxn xsnx
yn n saxonoyxpancxn nxnexr, n nocrounocnonanxn nxnexr, n mnma-
nna nocrounocnonanxnx n saxonoyxpancxnx nxnexrox ... Fynn Pycna-
nn npn rnm n Vxpannn, n Pycnnn-Vxpannn, n PycnnnVxpannn (es cmyx-
xn), n Cnonann, n Pycn, n ... Ho rnx n raxnx nayxonnx anannsox na-
menc ynn roro no cy nper 260 poxn na repnropn Fauxe / Bononnn
/ Cepn / exc Rrocnann (y nene napnxnrox, yx xx me nona nanononana
npn acxenx rpenc]opmannox cnoc nasnn) / Ancrpo-Vropcxe ... V
napose, mesn cnoma, mesnrnm, ynn ncm Pycnann / Pycnnn n eme-
onann no pvcru / pvcuucru. Hc ann me snnuann Pycnann onn o
cnoc xpnnonocnn, an xe cnono o napone nasnn, an xe cnono o
menonanm cnoc emen / xsnxa. Hpane rax xx no snnuann Cepn, a,
nepa, an Pycnann ncno s nma, nc npnnanenn nayxono rpynronany nasny
cepocroeopeamcru sur, ra npenyxonann emeonan no cepocru. Fes
ornxy xe nayxonnn, s pyroro oxy, nponaronann ntonononnrnuny e-
]nnnnnm. Ha nouarxy 21. nnxy n nayxonnn me npanenn na xpnnony, y
napose nra an nc menxny nasny.
senocnn s npnxnntnxox rpynonanx pycxoro xsnxa xx saxonoyxpan-
cxoro nxnexra, nanp. Bononmnp Inarmx, Ianpnn Kocrentnnx, Hanno
uyuxa, xx n yxpancxn axaemcxn rpaxanc n axaemnxone, mesn xro-
pnma nnnmno arnnnn Mnxona Mymnnxa. Hpnxnntnxn rpynonanx pycxo-
ro xsnxa xx nocrounocnonanxoro nxnexra nanp. upanrnmex Tnxn, Eyren
Haynnnn, Hose] Bronn n pyrn. Cranonncxo xe emea aunancxo-
cpnmcxnx Pycnnox / Pycnanox, cranapnsonana emea mesn noc-
rounocnonanxy n saxonoyxpancxy sacrynann Camo Hamen, 3sncnan
Brnep, Herep Knpa, xx n Anexcanep ynnuenxo, Enrennx Fapnu n
pyrn.
77

Ha nouarxy 21. nnxy pycxn xsnx emn ncm cnopanuno ernxeronann xx
nxnexr yxpancxoro. Hc ysem s re naron nanosnn nnnrnncrnunn
]axrn xropn com na rpn sanon nynnxonan
5
, anc an pas y cnne pyc-
xe, nannonanne nnanarentne xnxn. H ro rnx, xe xe nc nse ncmxa,
anc nose namrpe na ranty sanponasonauom nonnrnunoro n nonnrn-
xancxoro Hnana sos 1996. poxy.
Hocranx me nnranc xe xen ro npecranc? H ry oxosnme no remy
ncmxame Mesnnapone nayxono-npaxrnune xon]epennn Ienonn
n xynrypnn ernonn Pycnnox Kapnarcxe Pycn (xoncn XIX - nouarox
XXI nnxa). To npecranc naxasn npecranc renonn n xynrypnn ernonn
na Pycnnamn y 3axapnarcxe onacnn / Kapnarcxe Pycn. 3 pyrnma
cnonamn, naxasn Vxpana npecranc nyntxan cnox nynnnox sa xoponom,
onocno naxasn npnnosna cnox Pycnnox y 3axapnarcxe onacnn /
Hoxapnarcxe Pycn xx Pycnnox, a nc xx cno xxnm cyernoc. Hora-
mas n snepn sa nonxonanc n nnxnnonanc na Pycnanamn pycxe cnn-
omocnn y Cepnn/Bononnn yy ornopenn namexap. Horamas y-
se n rnx, xropn sa nnacne nanpeonanc n nnacnn ene]nrn yy pycxn
xsnx rncpapxnno noxnaan no yxpancxn, xx xe n pycxn xsnx o
yxpancxoro yn sanncnn, onocno xx xe n npecranxn axxn nnno s
ntoro.
Ke snseme sos nnana nonnrnxn n nonnrnxanrcrna n xe me nase-
me na nnany nnnrnncrnxn, xsnunn ]axrn nonnam anpnopnn cranonncxa.
Pycxn xsnx anroxronn cnanxncxn xsnx, xropn ma xapaxrepncrnxn n noc-
rounocnanxncxnx n saxonocnanxncxnx xsnxox. O rnm anrop nncan y
nene cnox poorox, xropn yrnannnm oxnonann y nnoxemnnx nayxo-
nnx nynnxannox, npero xe, xx yx nnsnauonane, yxpannsymne peax-
ropcrno HBV Pvcre c.oeo poxamn onna oxnonan oro poorn.
Oxpeme me ro onomn na poorn, y xropnx nonna esnn]opmann n
]ancn]nxonanx ncropn noonn re, no xrope me npe 250 poxamn o
Bepacy n Konypa nn npncencnn Vxpannn, n nonpn rnm xe semarxn
npnmapnnx ncropnnnx oxymenrox ncnocmncnono oxasym xe me y
uame Mapn Tepesn npnccnenn Pycnann/Pycnnn.
Pycnnn y Bononnn mam opasonny neprnxany, o npemxoncxe
ycranonn, nper rpox ocnonnnx mxonox n cnne rnmnasn na mnene, no
]axynrer, onocno no Osencnc sa pycnnncrnxy. Mam n Hannonannn
connr pycxe nannonanne menmnnn, Honnncxo-nnanarentny ycranony
Pvcre c.oeo (es ornxy xe nona xnnntxono oxynnpana s oxy ona-
posymnnx comsamcxnx xapox), Pycxy peaxnnm y 3anoy sa yuen-
xn n nacrannn cpecrna, 3ano sa xynrypy nonoxncxnx Pycnanox, pa-
no n TB emncn, n mnnxo ro no noxponnrentcrnom Penynnxn Cepn.
Pycnnn 3axapnarcxe onacnn Vxpann nc mam nu s roro.
78
2009, N 3 (17)
Pycnnom y Cepn aps snaune xe n xoncuno n Pycnnn y 3axapnarc-
xe onacnn ynn npnnosnarn xx Pycnnn, a nc xx cyernoc yxpancxe
nann n noone, mesn nnmnm n npero xe n ]nocxynn, xropn nnacyc
npexnrn Coms, rnna pycxn xsnx nxnexr yxpancxoro n noonn, ynn y
nononnocnn ennacnpann.
mYCHOTH
1. Ta+au P.uu. Vnora Pycnnox y enponcxe nnnnnnsann y Pycnann/Py-
cnnn: 1745-1995. Honn Ca: 3ano sa yuennxe n nacranna cpecrna, 1996. 3 ornx-
om xe ncroro poxy na rorn npocropn npnmnn n Cnonann, n Cnonann mann ncro-
ro, 1995. poxy xon]epennnm nomneneny 250-pounnn npncentonanx. 3opnx sos
xon]epennn Cnonanox ymoponana Peaxnnx cocranena sos ceem yuacnxox y
oprannsonanm xon]epennn 250 poxn xnnora Cnonanox y Bononnn, ox
sopnx sos xon]epennn Pycnanox, o yuacnxox na Kon]epennn, Peaxnnm
rnopen ncm R. Tamam.
2. x noropnn npnxna moxe nocnyxnn oxnonanc nncma npecnarenx mna-
nx Comsa, Fopnca Baprn, y xropnm npencmenn xynoapcxn cranonncxa ra n ynpe-
n o cenaparncrnunocnn n ]amnconnocnn, a nc arn xnno nnncmenn n apry-
menronann cranonncxa y Cepcxe axaemn nayxox n ymernocnox y Feorpay
npo]. p Mnxana uecn (Pycxe cnono. O 2. enempa 2006. F. 2).
3. Hpocxr npo]. p Mnxana uecn Pycnnn/Pycnann/Ruthenians (1745-2005)
no ncmxa pesynronan sos 1. romom (unnoso]cxn ]axynrer - Ocex sa pycnnncrn-
xy, HK Hpomerej, KH OK, 2007. C. 420). pyrn rom me naxosn y pyxy.
4. snx Pycnanox y Bononnn npnnosnarn ax n xx cen s nenox ypxonox
xsnxox, no con cnox sa mnnxnx Pycnnox/Pycnanox/Hemxox mnera. On. nanp. 4e-
ca Muxa.o. Pycxn xsnx y ypxone c]epn // Pycnntcxt xstx mexi noma
xonrpecamn. Hpxmin: Cniront xonrpec Pycnnin, Inmriryr pycnntcxoro xstxa i
xynrypt Hpxmincxo yninepsirt n Hpxmoni, 2008. C. 92-95.
5. Ocnonnn xapaxrepncrnxn pycxoro xsnxa y noponnanm sos pyrnma cnanxn-
cxnma xsnxamn y: Cnanxncxne nnreparypnte mnxpoxstxn n xstxonte xonraxrt,
Taprycxn ynnnepcnrer, xa]epa cnanxncxo ]nnonornn n Bnecxax Koponenc-
xax Axaemnx nnreparypt. Tapry, 2006. C. 90-100; Ocnonnn xapaxrepncrnxn pyc-
xoro xsnxa y noponnanm sos pyrnma cnanxncxnma xsnxamny: Studia Ruthenica,
11, pyxrno sa pycxn xsnx, nnreparypy n xynrypy, Honn Ca, 2006. C 169-179;
Xapaxrepncrnxn pycxoro xsnxa, y: Pycnnn/Pycnann/Ruthenians (1745-2005). T. 1.
unnoso]cxn ]axynrer - Ocex sa pycnnncrnxy, HK Hpomerej, KH OK, 2007. C.
225-234.
79

Kpin AHHAEHL
HAPHC ICTOPI CEAA KOmEALOBO
XYCTCLKOIO PAHOHY
3AKAPHATCLKO OBAACTI
Posin I. Tononiun cena Komentono
Xnreni c. Komentono ninocxrtcx o noxantno rpynn mapamopoctxi
onnnxnn, nirpynn ropinuinctxi, xyn xpim Komentona nxoxrt Iopinuo-
no, Isa, Hnnua, Hnn. Honxna, Poxocono. Ceno arare na pisni rononimn i
mixporononimn. Tononimixa ne nayxa, xxa nnnuac nasnn micnenocre,
reorpa]iuni ra rononoriuni. Vmonno moxemo x posinnrn na exintxa
rpyn: a) rononimn, xxi nnnnxnn ni nnacnnx imen, ) npnponoro noxo-
xennx, n) rocnoapctxoro noxoxennx.
Ceno, mamun nennxy repnropim, noinxcrtcx na exintxa nennxnx i
mannx npncinxin: 3anom ropncra micnenicrt s esniuum xpin, scynin ra
sanomnent rpynry, Pynx nopinnxno pinna repnropix cena, Kaminent
micnenicrt ycixna pnnamn ra xaminnxm, Konnna repnropix, e xonnct
xonann rnnny nx yinnnnrna, Iopa nasna noxonrt ni anenxrnny
ropa, Osipnn nenoanix ni nic micnnnn posramonane osepo nyn-
xaniunoro noxoxennx.
Ceno posramonane y ninixxi ripctxoro xpera Tynn, mac exintxa
nennxnx i mannx rip. Haintma s nnx Intmona, nasna xxo noxonrt ni
imeni Innx, Intxo, xxn y annnny man ram sementny inxnxy. ueprexnx
ni cnin ueprex, mexa. Horapt ropncre ninnmennx, mo xonnct
norepnino ni nornm y 1950-1960 pp. Tpoxn ani snaxonrtcx ocninann
noerom I.A. Kannnnuem Kannnnuin xamint, mo nanexan oro npexy.
Mix ropamn snaxonrtcx unmano micnenocre s nixannmn nasnamn:
Bann onorncra micnenicrt, npoxoxun uepes ne ni noramn yrno-
pmcrtcx snyx nan-nan. Hironnma nennxa ranxnnna, xyn y annnny
cenxnn nnranxnn xyoy na nirni nepio. Knnn none, mo cxonrt na
xnnn. Bennxe i Mane Fepo ni crapocnon`xnctxoro epa, epn
cxenxcra, ropncra micnenicrt. Xono sarnnnena micnenicrt y nnrnxi
nonoro xmn. Xepenx micnenicrt, e y annnny nnnacanncx i xepen-
nncx xoni. Hnnonuana posnora micnenicrt, mo nanexana nnnuanctxnm
nememam. Hnocxa nennxa, nnocxa pinnnna. Xannnnxnn ropa, mo
sapocna xponnnom, xannnom. Beptx repnropix posramonana na nep-
mnni ripctxoro nacma. Onorn pinna, ynoxncra uacrnna cena.
uepes repnropim cena nporixac exintxa piuox i araro noroxin ra
pinnx noriuxin, xxi orpnmann ni xnrenin oconnni nasnn. Haintma
80
2009, N 3 (17)
piuxa nasnnacrtcx Pixa, mo noxonrt ni anenxrnny pixa. pyra sa
nennunnom Ocana, nasnana rax romy, o na eperax pocre ocnxa.
Konnent nenennxa piuxa, mo nporixac uepes nenrpantny uacrnny cena,
sa nerenom ryr xonnct y annnny ncrynnnacx xonna nnnuanctxoro
nemema. Mnnnonnnx rax y opaxnctxn nepio nasnnanacx piuxa-
xanan, nineenn s Ocann n nenrpantny uacrnny cena nx poorn no-
xnnx mnnnin, sa onomorom nic inxenepno cnopyn npanmnano 8 mnnnin.
Hnranctxn norix epe cni nouarox y c. Hnnonent, y 50 pp. XX cr. na
oro epesi npoxnnana ponna nnran, xxi namanncx o onocentnin na
pisni poorn no rocnoapcrny i yinnnnrny. Moxanin ni roro, mo n
oro noax mounnn xononni, s xxnx nnponxnn nonorno. Cryenn ni
xonono, cryeno non.
Fararo reorpa]iunnx nasn noxoxrt ni nnacnnx imen cenxn. Hanpnx-
na: Honona xma inxnxa, xxom nonoin rpexo-xaronnntxn cnxmennx,
Mnxnrona, Mapxonnin, Iannxnnene, Mnrantxone, ueopxin, Bycrnmn-
na, Anpyceno, Hanxona xma, Mapxnin eper, Fapanin eper, Kosnuxin
eper, Mnxynxin eper, Finentroxoro eper.
Ha posopixxi cenxnn crannnn epen`xni xpecrn, micnnnn, mo snaxo-
xrtcx inx nnx, nasnnamrtcx na uecrt roro, xro syynan xpecr: Kystmin
xpecr, Porauin xpecr.
Fararo cintctxnx npisnnctx noxoxrt ni micnenocri, e npoxnnac ro
un inmn cenxnnn, ao oro sanxrrx. Cepe nnx: Myunuxa man nox-
nn mnnn, Fixam rpnman nxa, xx xxynan y nepxni, Monax xroct
is npexin yn y monacrnpi, Moxaninctxn xnn na epesi noriuxa Mo-
xanin; Hyronn, Hasonn, Feponn, Hontonn.
Posin II. Ic1opin cena n XV-XIX c1.
Ceno Komentono posramonane na npanomy epesi piuxn Pixa, y
ninixxx Intmono ropn, sa 10 xm ni micra Xycr. Ceno samac snauny
repnropim, nporxxnicrm 10 xm.
B oxymenrax opaxnctxoro nepioy nasna cena nncanacx no-pisno-
my. Hanpnxna, Keselwmezw (1450), Keselewmezew (1457),
Kesewlyomezew (1555), Keseslives (1657), Keselymezeo (1707),
Keselmeze (1715), Kesely-Mez (Koselyovo) (1816), Keselymez (1829),
Komentono (1861), Koelovo (1924).
V naponi nam`xri sepernocx xintxa neren npo noxoxennx nasnn
cena. Onn is naponnx nepexasin posnoniac npo nepmoro xnrenx nic
micnenocri Komenx. Herena cniunrt: Konnct re micne, e renep
ceno Komenene, onmynan coi onn onpnmox. Mix noma noroxamn
Konntnem i Ocanom sponn coi xnxy. Boa saropoxynana onpnm-
xa s nox oxin. Bin xnaxn ne ponn, a nepecxaxynan uepes noroxn s
nennxom rnuxom. 3nann oro Komenem. Bin npnnis coi n ry xnxy xinxy,
81

noxnnnncx y nnx irn. x nonnpocrann irn, ro cnnn nonpnnonnn n xnxy
nenicrox, o ontox npncrann sxri. Mycnnn yynarn me xnxi. Tax sac-
nynanocx Komenene [1].
Inma nerena ronopnrt npo re, mo ceno orpnmano cnom nasny ni
cnona xomnx. Axe xomnxapcrno s annix-anen mano nomnpennx n
Komentoni ra cycini Isi, xxa, o peui, yna xonnct posramonana na npa-
nomy epesi piuxn.
3a namnmn ocnixennxmn, xona s nnx neren ne mac ni coom
peantny ocnony. 3rino s nnxnnennmn oxymenramn, cnom nasny Kome-
ntono ceno orpnmano ni npisnnma oro nnacnnxa pnmo-xaronnntxo-
ro nixapix Ioanna 3ene e Kemenx (Johannes Zele de Kesel).
Icropnxn mnnyno onocrani y nnsnauenni nepmo nncemno sraxn
Komentona. 3oxpema yropctxi ocninnxn Iaop Bapai (Gabor Varady),
nom Mirani (Mihlyi Jnos), Bintmom Fnna (Blay Vilmos) nasnnamrt
ary 1450 p. [2].
uectxn icropnx Ioann ymanex (Jan Dunek), y xnnsi Xycr n Mapa-
mopomi, ninocnrt nm noim o 1447-1449 pp. pyxnna Ioanna Iynxi
Fearpnna apynana cena Komeneno, Hnnuy i Iopinueno Ioanny ra
Ieoprim Finxecnnm (is cena Finox) [3, C. 25]. Onax naneena in]opma-
nix nnxnnxac nenni saynaxennx. Cnpana n romy, mo Fearpnca ne yna
pyxnnom noma (Ioanna) Iynxi, a oro cnna Marxma. Marxm Iynxi
(Kopnin) yn xoponem Vropmnnn y 1458-1490 pp. Horo pyrom pyxn-
nom yna Fearpnca Aparonctxa, xxa orpnmana y noapynox ni uononi-
xa Xycrctxn samox y 1476 p. Taxnm unnom, Komentono morno yno
yrn noaponano Finxecnnm nnme nicnx 1476 p.
x yxe nxasynanocx, y XV cr., y ninennnx paonax 3axapnarrx px
nonoint oepxan nennxn marnar nom Iynxi. Vctoro n oro macrxy
yno 28 samxin, 57 micr i micreuox, nnstxo rncxui ocent, posxnannx no
nci Vropmnni. Marnar nncoxo ninnn nonoinnx, posramonani n 3axap-
narri, uacro npononn ryr osninnx [4, C. 60]. Tyr omy nanexann 32
cena ra na micreuxa, n romy uncni Komentono.
V 1450 p. nom Iynxi [5] nepean ceno y nnacnicrt xycrctxi pnmo-
xaronnntxi nepxni. 3a uacin npanninnx xoponx Hacno VI [6] ceno nepe-
mno y nonoinnx nnnuanctxnx xenesin (1457), onax y 1462 p. snony no-
nepnynocx ni nnay noma Iynxi. V 1462 p. nnacnnxom sraycrtcx
nixapi Ioann 3ene e Kement (Zele de Kesel).
Is spocrannxm semnenonoinnx nocnnmnanacx nnaa ne nnme nenn-
xnx ]eoanin, ane x nacanin nopxncrna, xxe necno aminicrparnnny
i nictxony cnyxy. Hporxrom XIV-XV cr. nopxncrno nememi c]op-
mynanocx xx oxpemn cran ]eoantnoro cycnintcrna. Onomy nememy
nanexano 10-15 ocent. Ha 3axapnarri yno unmano nopxn, xxi mann
rpn-n'xrt cin. nopxnctxi rpamorn uacro oepxynann monrecn, xenesi.
82
2009, N 3 (17)
Kapn Poepr [7] nepenin y cran nopxn snauny uacrnny oarionin samxin
sanexnnx ni samxin nme. He npnsneno o sintmennx xintxocri no-
pxn n 3axapnarri. 3axonom 1351 p. yci nopxnn nporonomynanncx pinnon-
pannnmn i crnopmnanncx x micneni oprann xomirarctxi sopn, na xxnx
nnpimynann px nnrant xnrrx xomirary: cy, ynpanninnx aminicrparnn-
nnmn cnpanamn, sip noarxin romo. V rpamori nopxnam xomirary Vnr
1433 p. xopont Cnrismyn [8] nirnepnn npano nopxn snparn noarxn
s cenxn, a nennxnx ]eoanin soon'xsan parn yuacrt n xomirarctxnx
sopax. He snauno ninecno pont nopxncrna y xnrri xomirarin [4, C.
61].
ueoantni pon xx yropctxoro, rax i pycnnctxoro ra monanctxoro
noxoxennx, xou i noporynann na rpynri saxonnennx macrxin, ane xonconi-
ynanncx n oporti sa nnay na cenxnamn. Hanpana ani narn cny-
xnna snart nopxncrno (nememi), pxn i xxoro nononnnnncx sa paxy-
nox monrecin. Haintm uncnennnm npomapox nopxncrna yn y Mapa-
mopomnni, soxpema n cenax Hnnua, Isa, parono, Feennx, Bintxinni,
Kpnueno, uymaneno, Vrnx, Konone, Bonirono, onre, 3onorapeno.
Innoxi coniantni sminn cranncx na ceni. xmo n XII nepmi nono-
nnni XIII cr. na cenax icnynann pisni coniantni rpynn, mo snaxonnncx n
pisnnx ]opmax sanexnocri, ro nporxrom XIV - na nouarxy XVI cr. no-
rnnnncx nponec snnxennx rpyn i ]opmynannx cnnoro xnacy ]eoant-
no sanexnoro cenxncrna oarionin (oain). o cepennn XIII cr.
oarion osnauano xpamn, ninmn nopinnxno nintny cintctxy nm-
nny, a n XIV-XV cr. oarionn nepernopnnncx n sanexnnx, crann cnno-
nimom niann, xpinax. Cnouarxy nonn me xopncrynanncx npanom
nepexoy, ane eani ]eoann omaranncx nonnoro npnxpinnennx x o
macrxy [4, C. 65].
Vropctxa xoponena Cnnsanera nporonocnna, mo oai mamrt npano
nirn ni ]eoana nnme n pasi oro sron i cnnarn ninonino cymn. 3a-
xon nepeauan noxapannx rnx ]eoanin, xxi npnmann cenxn, mo ne mann
osnony xasxna. 3axpinauennx cenxn y pyri nononnni XIV-XV cr. yxe
nocnnnnoct. Hnme nesnauna uacrnna oarionin nnpnnanacx na nonny
nonm i cranana pinnmn nememamn [4, C. 65].
V 1483 p. cenom Komentonom nonoin Antepr Marnyc (Albertus
Magnus) [9]. 3 oxymenrin nam niomo, mo nin yn xnrenem micra Xycr.
V 1389 p. y Foponxni ]ixcycrtcx Hanno Marnyc, mo, ouennno, yn npe-
xom Antepra.
V 1523 p. nnacnnxamn cena crann Marxm uoop (Matthias Fodor) ra
Ieopri Bepem (Georgius Weres) [10]. Hepmn is nnx yn pymynom, ne
nirnepxyc mnpoxe nomnpennx roro uacy npisnnma uoop y pymynct-
xnx cenax Mapamopomnnn. V 1542 p. n`xrt xpinaxin y Komentoni man
nemem Ieopri. V 1550 p. 6 xpinaxin nanexano nnxinxm is Xycra An-
83

pamy ra Marnim. V nacrynni poxn apxinni oxymenrn sraymrt imena ra
npisnnma nnacnnxin: Hnnnn uonxa, Ioanna Mare (1572 p.) [11].
V 1560 p. mnxxra cxapxnnacx na xomenanra Xycrctxoro samxy Xpn-
cro]opa Iotmami s npnnoy roro, mo nin, na npoxannx xnrenin n`xrn
xoponnnx micr, nnrnan s yonnx nicin cin Hnnua, Iopinuono, Fepesono,
Komentono 600 cnnne. Kpim roro nin xon]icxynan na xopncrt Xycrct-
xoro samxy noarox sa nnnac cnnne is cycinix xyn. V ni cnpani Ioann
Xnrmon npnnxn nacrynne pimennx: y sn`xsxy s rnm, mo mnxxra, ne-
snaxamun na nci nerounocri, onena, mo noarox sa nnnacannx cnnne is
cycinix xyn na xonyxx n mapamopomctxnx nicax npnnine, xxn, srino
s npecrannennmn xano nannnmn rpamoramn, nanexnrt nnme mnxxri,
mo y mayrntomy nixro ne cmin nopymynarn ne npannno [3, C. 40].
Ha nouarxy XVI cr. n xnrri 3axapnarrx cranncx icrorni sminn, xxi
nnsnaunnn nanpxmxn exonomiunoro, coniantnoro i nonirnunoro posnnrxy
na rpnnann nepio. V 1526 p. ni Morauem y nrni s rypxamn sasnana
nopasxn o'cnana yropctxo-uectxa apmix. He nixpnno mnxx rypxam
yrnn Vropmnnn, ncennno n nnx nnennenicrt nepemoxnnx noxoin na inmi
xpann Cnponn. V 1541 p. rypxn saxpinnnncx n Fyi, ononoinn nennxnmn
npocropamn Henrpantno Vropmnnn. Kpana posnanacx na rpn uacrnnn.
Cxini semni niimnn o Cemnrpax, na asi xxoro yno crnopeno
Tpancintnanctxe xnxsincrno na uoni s marnarom . 3anontx (1526-1540
pp.) [12], a saxini semni ynn npncnani o Ancrpi, e npn nnai snaxo-
nncx uepinan II [13] Iacypr [4, C. 82].
uacrnmn rocrxmn na 3axapnarri ynn rypxn. V 1566 p. nictxa cynra-
na Cynemana I Hnmnoro icranncx Hinniuno-Cxino Vropmnnn i nce
snnmnnn na cnocmy mnxxy. yxe norepninn roi ninenni paonn Fepest-
xoro ra Vrouanctxoro xomirarin. Typentxi nictxa ne pas s'xnnxnncx ni
crinamn Koponenctxoro ra Xycrctxoro samxin, sicnmnann pen n micra
i cena Mapamopomnnn.
He nnme rypxn, ane nictxa Iacyprin i xnxsin Tpancintnani, xxi
uacro nomnann na saxonnennx yropctxnx, soxpema saxapnarctxnx sem-
nxx, ne mann xanm ni o nacenennx, ni o micr i cin. Vropctxn icropnx
I. Auai, cnnpamunct na uncnenni xepena, nnme, mo nictxa nenn o-
porty ne rintxn nporn cnox npornnnnxin, ane s mnpnnm nacenennxm.
Conarn, uacro namanni, rpaynann cenxn i miman, cnanmnann cena i
micra, pynynann ]opreni, sanpamun nme y pacrno.
Hpopnnannct n 3axapnarrx i mnxxerctxi nictxa Hontmi, oconnno
xonn y 1576 p. xnxst Tpancintnani C. Faropi cran xoponem Hontmi. Hi
uac nanain nonxxn raxox cnanmnann micra i cena, rpaynann i nnnann
mnpnnx xnrenin, snnmynann nocinn. Bi noxoy nonxxin y 1557 p. naint-
me nocrpaxann micra Myxaueno, Feperono, Xycr, Bnmxono. Ipaix-
nnntxi noxon posopxnn napone rocnoapcrno, nnacniox nnx sarnnyno
araro nacenennx [4, C. 83].
84
2009, N 3 (17)
pyra nononnna XVI-XVII cr. nosnaunnact antmnm spocrannxm ne-
nnxoro ]eoantnoro semnenonoinnx i nepexoom oro ni narypantnoro
rocnoapmnannx o ronapnoro nnponnnrna.
3a na cronirrx intm xx yniui spocna xintxicrt nacenennx. xmo n
xinni XV cr. y 3axapnarri npoxnnano nnstxo 120 rncxu uononix, ro n
xinni XVII cr. nnstxo 300 rncxu.
B ymonax posnnrxy ronapno-rpomonnx ninocnn snauno noripmnnocx
cranonnme oain. Marnarn i nememi ne rintxn saxonnmnann x semni,
ane sintmynann xx nipoirxn, rax i annny narypom i rpomnma. Hicnx
nopasxn noncrannx 1514 p. cenxnn nrparnnn npano nepexoy, x nocryno-
no nonnicrm saxpinauynann, a nonnnnocri spocrann.
x sacniuymrt ypapiantni onncn, e nnsnauanacx xareropix semni,
rpynn cenxn i nnn x nonnnnocre, oan y pyri nononnni XVII cr.
niynann nanmnny rpn-uornpn ni na rnxent, a n oxpemnx ]eoanin
i n`xrt-micrt nin. Baxxa nanmnna noripmynanacx cnanonem ]eoanin,
xxi uacro nnmarann crintxn npanmnarn, cxintxn yno norpino. B nepio
cesonnnx poir nocinin, snpannx xnia, nepenesennx npoxam cenxnn
npanmnann na ]eoana monx. Cxapxnrnct yno nixomy, ocxintxn ]eo-
an yn i xasxnom, i cyem. Hanpnxinni XVI cr. maxe 90 nponenrin
cenxn ynn xpinocnnmn, i nnmn posnopxxanncx rintxn ]eoann. Hepixn-
mn ynn nnnaxn, xonn ]eoan ominmnan xpinaxin ao nanirt npoanan.
3intmynannct i narypantni nonnnnocri. ecxrnny s ycix nnin cintctxo-
rocnoapctxo npoyxni, nennxo i pino xyon pan ]eoan, a en'xry
uacrnny nepxna. 3pocrann i raxi oon'xsxoni nx cenxn nonnnnocri, xx
pemonr mnxxin, mocrin, ]oprent, yinnnnrno nananin nx snari romo [4,
C. 88].
Tepninn cenxnn i ni noarxonoro rniry, ]icxantnnx noopin. Hoarox
nporxrom XVI-XVII cr. spic y 2,5 3 pasn i cranonnn 900-1100 ]nopenin.
uacrnna cenxncrna nepenonnacx ]eoanamn na rpomony penry. He emo
axrnnisynano x rocnoapctxy ixntnicrt, ane nocrine spocrannx nnn-
nar npnsnonno o noripmennx cranonnma cenxn. Baxxi nonnnnocri, xx i
noarxn ra noopn, posopmnann cenxncrno. Cenxnnn smymenn yn niy-
narn nnstxo ecxrn nnin ]eoantnnx nonnnnocre i noopin i cnnauy-
narn nnstxo n'xrn nnin noarxin. Oconnno sintmynanncx nonnnnocri
n macrxax openapin, xxi nexrynann ypapixmn i nnmarann npanmnarn
crintxn, cxintxn m samanertcx.
B ymonax posnnrxy ronapno-rpomonnx ninocnn na ceni s'xnnnacx nona
xareropix cenxn xenxpn, xxi ne mann ni nainy, ni rxrnono xyon. x
cniuart nipaxynxn, no Vxropoctxomy i Mapamopoctxomy xomirarax
n xinni XVII cr. xenxpn cranonnnn nnstxo 75-80 % xnrenin ocent. He
yn nainimn npomapox cintctxoro nacenennx, xxe naintme repni-
no ni ]eoantno-xpinocnnntxoro rniry. 3a xnanrnx semni, na xxomy cro-
85

xna inentxa xara, xenxp smymenn yn npanmnarn 51 ent na nanct-
xnx nanax [4, C. 89].
Hanpnxinni XVI n XVII cr. n Komentoni sementni inxnxn mann Ioann
3emannu-Hyxau (1580 p.), Hanno Foraui, Hanno Iye, Ieopri Hipi noni
nememi (1600 p.), Ioann Benirxa [14], Herpo Hacno, Tomam Monnap,
Maprin Hecrop, Tomam Benirxa, Innx Cnmon (1605 p.) [15], Onexcanp
Ianac, Anpi Kystma, Onexci Hyxau (1673 p.) [16]. V nacrynni poxn
sraymrtcx Rpi Ioann, Hasap Kocra, Vpan Han, xo Herep, Anpi
Banop, annno Benirxa (1676 p.) [17], Cnmeon Kystma, Crenan Hy-
xau, xo Mapron (1680 p.) [18].
Biomo, mo y 1600 p. xomeninctxi cenxnn nnarnnn sa onn sementnn
nain 13 nenxsin, xoen ninca, nis cina, rpn nosn pon.
Ocxintxn nenrpanisonann nepennc nacenennx n Ancrpictxi imnepi
ne npononncx, yt-xxi peantni pospaxynxn i nnanynannx mayrnix no-
arxin nnxnnnncx nemoxnnnnmn. Tomy n 1715 p. imneparop Kapn III [19]
posnopxnncx nponecrn nepennc nacenennx monapxi.
Bo ynnxnyrn ]antcn]ixani, nepenncynaui npnsnauanncx s inmnx xo-
mirarin. Hepenncynaui snaomnnn cintctxy un mictxy rpoman s incrpyx-
nicm, pasom is npecrannnxamn micneno nnan npnmann npncxry ni
onnrynannx. V cneniantnnx xypnanax ]ixcynann peantnn rocnoapct-
xn cran xoxnoro cenxnctxoro nopy, soxpema, ropoxan, xpinaxin, xe-
nxpin. Bpaxonynanact pinnx, nnxopuynani semni, nyxn, nnnorpannxn, a
raxox npnyrxn ni xopncrynannx mnnnamn, mnnxamn, pisnnmn macrep-
nxmn. Incrpyxnix nepeauana yni]ixonany nennunny sementnnx nainin.
nx nnsnauennx pinni i nnxopuynannx sement sa ocnony pancx xonnx
(ao xeen), mo opinnmnan onomy yropctxomy ronty [20].
Hepennc y xomirarax rpnnan inx nox micxnin. Vci marepiann uepes
oprann micnenoro camonpxynannx ninpannxnn o ynpanninnx xoponi-
nctxoro namicnnxa y micro Hoxont. uepes n'xrt poxin (1720 p.) nepennc
nonropnnn. x i n nonepentomy nnnaxy, snony ne onixonynannct no-
pxnn i cnxmennocnyxnreni, a raxox uenxt ne nopxnctxoro noxoxen-
nx, xxa memxana npn nopi marnarin i xopncrynanacx pisnnmn npnninex-
mn. Ocxintxn onix nincx nonipno, o cnncxin mayrnix nnarnnxin no-
arxin ne norpannnn esomni xenxpi.
3a nepenncom 1715 p. n ceni npoxnnann nacrynni ocon: Fanax ann-
no, Fepesonnu Hancnan, Finn Hnnnn, Fopm Ipnropi, Fopm Hancnan,
Fopm Onexci, Ipnnt Ieopri, Ipnnt mnrpo, Ipnuxo xo, onx Fyma,
panxo Herpo, Kapnnnent Anpi, Kosnuxo Mnxona, Kystma Anpi,
Kymnnntxn Hnnnn, Hasyp Kapna (Iacnap), Maxcnm Inan, Mapxonni
Ieopri, Mapxonni Irnari, Mapxn Cimeon, Mari Ieopri, Menannu Ie-
opri, Mnxnra Mnxona, Mnrponxa Ioann, Moronnntnn Mar]e, Himxa
Kosnu, Hon Hancnan, Hpoxon Maxcnm, Porau annno, Posnona Hanc-
86
2009, N 3 (17)
nan, Posnona xo, Poman Hancnan, Pomxo Crenan, Pycrx Hyxau, Ca-
pa Anpi, Cnmuyx-Benirxa mnrpo, Cranxo Inan, Tannom Ioann, Ta-
nmn Ipnnt, Tanmn mnrpo, Tnmxo Ioann, Toanunu Mnxano, uanra
Ioann, uinin mnrpo, uinin Hancnan, uinin Poman, Benirxa Ioann, Be-
nirxa Mnxona, Benirxa upannncx, Rpxo Hancnan, xyent Mnxano.
V 1720 p. n ceni memxano 38 xpinaxin, xxi mann 130 xonnxin semni, 4
xpinaxn ynn essementni, 14 mann no 3 i intme xonnxin. V 1720 p.
sraymrtcx nacrynni xnreni: Finac Mnxona, Fopm Mnxano, Finn Hn-
nnn, Bacnnm Rpi, Iay Inan, Ianannu Ioann, Ianac Hancnan, Ipnro-
pnx upannncx, Ipnnt Ieopri, Ipnuxo xo, Iypxa Herpo, apnnu Ipnnt,
Inan mnrpo, Kapnnnent Cimeon, Kapnnnent upannncx, Kystma Hanc-
nan, Kynu Mnxano, Kypra Hancnan, Horoa Ioann, Mnxnra Bexna,
Mnxynxa xo, Mnrponxa Ioann, Mnrponxa Hnnnn, Mireni Herpo, Onex-
ca Rpxo, Han Herpo, Porau annno, Capa Ioann, Cranxo Onexci, Crpn-
ryntnnx Mnxona, Txau Ipnropi, uone Cimeon, Benirxa upannncx,
Bxapamnora Mar]i, Bxapamnora Mnxano, Bre]anmx annno, Rpxo
Inan, xyent Mnxano.
He moxna rouno cxasarn, un ne noni nepecenenni, mo s`xnnnncx n
ceni, un namaxn xomeninuan. xmo sicrannrn cnncxn cenxn, ro moxna
noaunrn 20 nonnx npisnnm, xorpi ne sraymrtcx n nepennci 1715 p.
V 1768 p. n ceni napaxonynanoct 70 nopin. Cenxnn cnnauynann
xycrctxi omini nacrynni noarxn: 30 nosin pon, 251 nirpin macna, 100
xype, 300 xcnt.
Hesaapom nnxnnnocx, mo i na ne pas nepenncn y arartox nnnaxax
ne ninoniann icnocri. Bnai na micnxx ne nananocx pinnomipno pos-
noinxrn rpomoni naxoxennx o xasnn. uepes ninn px o'cxrnnnnx i
cy'cxrnnnnx npnunn pocnn neomxn. 3 merom x nixniani minicrep-
crno ]inancin Ancrpi y 1770 p. nnano i posnoncmnno cepe ]icxant-
nnx opranin cneniantni rannni posnoiny noarxin. Piunn noarox ni 1
o 60 ]opnnrin noinxncx na 12 (sa xintxicrm micxnin y poni) nepinnnx
uacrnn. Bnsnaueny xintxicrt rpome snpan crapocra cena i onn pas na
micxnt sanan x xomirarctxomy xacnpy. Cymn snmonnx micxnin, xonn
cenxnnn nicnx sopy npoxam nnaxancx nnarocnpomoxnnm, xonnnanncx
y ix nox-rptox pasonoro sintmennx. Hpn raxi cncremi nnxnmuanncx
neomxn, axe onoarxynannx niynanocx na nicrani uirxo nnsnaue-
no xintxocri nnarnnxin ra x moxnnnocre [22, C.23].
epxannnm onoarxynannxm sa uacin Mapi Tepesi ninxrann 79 pisnnx
nocnyr ra o'cxrin: pinnx, naconnctxa, ynnxn pisnnx xnacin, pemanenr,
xpinax, oro pyxnna, irn romo. Hapaxynannx niynanocx ararocry-
neneno. Konrpontni nn]pn Hoxonctxomy xoponinctxomy namicnnnrny
ononnncx is Binx. Hamicnnnrno posnoinxno nennunny mayrnix no-
arxin mix xomiraramn, xomirarn - mix oxpyramn, oxpyrn - mix cenamn.
87

Oxpyxni xacnpn npn napaxynanni noarxin xoxnomy ceny xopncrynanncx
cneniantnnmn rannnxmn, rax snannmn renepantnnmn noarxonnmn
xnmuamn. B incrpyxni o rannni yci nnn noarxin y xpenepax ynn
samn]ponani nn]pamn ni 2 o 100 (no ropnsonrani). Ho neprnxani nns-
nauanacx xintxicrt nme, semni, ynnxin romo, mo ninxrann onoar-
xynannm (ni 1 o 100000). Hanpnxna, norononnn noarox ninonian
xononni s nn]pom 3, ynnox 1 xareropi - 20 romo. Hini nn]pn y rannni
osnauann xpenepn, pon rpomi [22, C.24].
V 1786 p. ni uac ronoy nomepno intme rpernnn cena.
Kpami semni Komentona ra oro oxonnnt y XIX cr. nanexann Xycrctxi
pe]opmarctxi nepxni. 3a nepenncom 1895 p. nanexano 18 471 xaac-
rapntnnx rontin yrit, nicin, naconnctx. Kpim roro, 72 rononn nennxo
poraro xyon, 8 xone, 18 cnnne, 20 onent, 8 nosin, monorapxa.
Hinni marepiann npo icropim cena snaxonmo n memarnsmax rpexo-
xaronnntxo nepxnn XIX nou. Tax y 1816 p. n Komentoni npoxnnano 1077
uon.; y 1829 p. 1164 uon.; y 1856 p. 1378 uon. Taxnm unnom cnocre-
piracrtcx sarantnn picr nacenennx cena.
B ancrpo-yropctxomy nepennci 1880 p. nxasano, mo sarantna xintxicrt
xnrenin c.Komentono cxnaana 1567 uon. [23, C. 104]. Cni sasnaunrn,
mo s nouarxy XIX cr. y ceno nouann nepecenxrncx cnpe. V 1880 p. n
ceni npoxnnano nxe 243 oci cnpectxoro nipocnoniannx.
a.i ovoe.
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHHX EPEA TA AITEPATYPH:
1. http://carpathians.org.ua/ecos/eco_444_ukrayins_ki-karpati--pro-kraj--legendi-
ta-perekazi-pro-oseli--chastina-1
2. Gabor Varady. Maramarosi emlekknyv. M. Szigeten, 1901. C. 322; Icropix micr
i cin VPCP. 3axapnarctxa onacrt. K., 1969. C. 744. Mihlyi Jnos: Mramarosi
diplomk a XIV. s XV. szzadbyl. Mramaros vrmegye trtnete I. kt. Mrama-
ros-sziget, 1900. C. 344-345; Blay Vilmos, Mramaros megye trsadalma s
nemzetisgei. Bp., 1943. C. 163-164.
3. Dusanek J. Chust v Marmarosi. Chust, 1937.
4. Hapncn icropi 3axapnarrx. Tom I (s naannimnx uacin o 1918 poxy).
Vxropo: Iocnpospaxynxonn peaxnino-nnannnun niin 3axapnarctxoro
onacnoro ynpanninnx no npeci, 1993.
5. Iynxi (Xynxi, Hunyadi) nom (nnstxo 1407 09-11.8.1456, 3imont), nictxo-
nn i epxannn ixu Vropctxoro xoponincrna. Cnn nanamcxoro oxpnna; artxo
Marxma Iynxi. 3 1430 p. nepeynan na cnyxi y xoponx Xirmona (Cnrismyna)
Hmxcemypstxoro; n 1439-1446 pp. an (npannrent) Cepen, n 1441-1444 pp.
rpancint-nancxn nocnoa i imnan (ynpannrent) Temema. Hicnx cmepri xoponx
Antpexr II Iacypra (1439) y oporti sa xoponinctxn npecron nirpnmynan
88
2009, N 3 (17)
nontctxoro xoponx Bnancnana III rennona (yropctxn xopont Vnacno I). V nrni
y Faracexa posrpomnn apmim oxp npnxnntnnxin Iacyprin. V 1441-1443 pp.
sicnnn px ycnimnnx noxoin na ninent Vropctxoro xoponincrna nporn oc-
manctxnx sanoonnnxin. V 1446-52 pp. yn perenrom Vropctxoro xoponincrna.
3anan rypentxnm nictxam nopasxy n Fenrpactxn nrni (1456 p.), mo sarpnma-
no x npocynannx n Vropmnny o 1521. Homep ni uymn // Elekes L., Hunyadi
Jnos, Bdpst, 1952.
6. Hacno VI (Hancnan Hocrym), (nar. Ladislaus Postumus, nem. Ladislaus
Postumus, uemcx. Ladislav Pohrobek, nenr. Utszltt Lszly. 3 1453 pp. xopont
Foremi, s 1440 p. xopont Vropmnnn (1- pas), s 1445 p. o 1457 p. (2- pas).
7. Kapn Poepr (yrop. Kroly Rybert; (1288 - 16 nmnx 1342), xopont Vropmnnn
s 1301 p. (1- pas), s 10 xonrnx 1307 p. (2- pas). Hoxonn is neanoniranctxo nini
Anxyctxoro oma. Orpnman npanninnx nicnx oportn s noma nperenenramn
(Bannanom III uemctxnm ra Orronom III Fanapctxnm), a raxox si nnyrpimntom
onirapxicm na uoni s Mare uaxom, Herpom Herynem i Ao Amaecm. Bomnan s
Benenicm, Banaxicm, yxnan nnacrnunn mnm cnoro cnna s neanoniranctxom
npnnnecom.
8. Cnrismyn I Hmxcemypr (nar. Sigismundus, yrop. Zsigmond, uectx. Zikmund)
(1368(1368)-1437). 3 1373 p. no 1387 p. xyp]mpcr Fpanenypra, s 20 nepecnx
1410 p. no 3 rpannx 1433 p. pnmctxn xopont, s 3 rpannx 1433 p. imneparop Cnx-
menno Pnmctxo imnepi; c 31 epesnx 1386 p. xopont Vropmnnn, s 16 cepnnx
1419 p. no 7 uepnnx 1421 p. xopont uexi. Fyn cnnom imneparopa Cnxmenno Pnmctxo
imnepi Kapna IV. V 1408 p. sacnynan pnnapctxn Open paxona nx oxoponn
Xpecra Iocnontoro ra oportn s rypxamn. Foponcx s rycnramn.
9. Statutoria. A betk a csomkat jelzik. U. o. K. 101.
10. A Leleszi Prpostsg orszgos levltra. Acta. (A sz- mok az vek szerint
csoportosntott oklevelek sorszmai. Jszy, Abj-Torna vm. 9.
11. Statutoria. A betk a csomkat jelzik. U. o. B. 432.
12. nom I, nom I 3anontx (nenr. Szapolyai Jnos, pym. Ioan Zapolya) (1487
1540), yropctxn epxannn ixu, xnxst Tpancintnani i xopont Vropmnnn, cnn
nanarnna Imrnana 3anontx. V 1510 p. npnymnn noncrannx topx oxi. Hicnx
cmepri Bnancnana II cran perenrom npn manonirntomy xoponi Hmonixy
(Haom) II. 16 xonrnx 1526 p. n Toxa yn opann xoponem, xopononann 11
nncronaa. V 1527-1528 pp. ancrpictxa apmix uepnnana nroprnacx y Benrpim,
posnna nicxa 3anontx i nnrnana oro sa mexi xpann y Hontmy. V 1528 p. .
3anontx snepnyncx sa onomorom o Ocmanctxo imnepi. 10 rpannx 1529 p. nictxa
Cynemana Hnmnoro nroprnncx y Benrpim. Typxn ninonnnn nnay 3anontx, a
nin n nnnni 1529 p. npnnxn nacanirer Typeuunnn. Homep y 1540 p.
13. uepinan II Iacypr (1578 - 1637). V 1617-1619 pp. xopont uexi (1- pas),
1620-1637 pp. (2- pas). 3 1618 p. xopont Vropmnnn, s 28 cepnnx 1618 p. pnmctxn
xopont, s 20 epesnx 1619 p. imneparop Cnxmenno Pnmctxo imnepi. Orpnman
csyrctxy ocniry. Hepecniynan nporecranrin. Bomnan s uexamn ni uac Tpnnxrn-
nirnto ninn. Homep y 1637 p.
14. A Dica ily szm fasciculusa.
15. A Rationes Salinares ily szm fasciculusa. Orszgos Levltr (ezutn O. L.)
kamarai osztlyn.
89

16. Neo-regestrata Acta. U. o. Kamarai osztly. 1685: 20.
17. Neo-regestrata Acta. U. o. Kamarai osztly. 957:33.
18. A szki grf Teleki csald levltra Gymrn. (Pest vm.) I. XX. VI. 54.
19. Kapn VI (nim. Karl) (1685-1740) - imneparop Cnxmenno Pnmctxo imnepi s 17
xnirnx 1711 p. ocranni namaox Iacyprin no npxmi uononiui nini. 3 1711 p.
xopont uexi ni imenem Kapen ra xopont Vropmnnn s imenem Kapn III. V 1703-
1710 p. nomnan sa icnanctxn npecron. 19 xnirnx 1713 p. nnan nparmarnuny
canxnim, xxa y nnnaxy nicyrnocri nperenenra na npecron no uononiui nini
nepeanana rpon xinoui nini namaxin Kapna III. Bomnan sa nontctxi semni. Ho-
mep 20 xonrnx 1740 p., sannmnnmn rpon cno 23-piuni ouni Mapi-Tepesi.
20. Iont (xont) onnnnx nnomi n Vropmnni, mo opinnmnan 0, 432 ra un
0,575 ra (xaacrponn ront).
21. Mapix Tepisix (1717-1780) - epnrepnornnx Ancrpi, xoponena Vropmnnn i
Foremi. Crapma ouxa imneparopa Cnxmenno Pnmctxo imnepi Kapna VI Iac-
ypra. npnxi o nnan 1740 p. cnpnunnnn niny sa ancrpictxy cnamnny.
Hpannna nnstxo 40 poxin, n Ancrpi nioma xx xoponena-marn. Mana 16 ire,
noc s xxnx crann n mayrntomy nicapxmn - Hocn] II (cninnpannrent Mapi
Tepesi s 1765 p.) i Heonont II. Hponena n imnepi px pe]opm, mo mann nosnrnn-
ne snauennx.
22. Hananep K., Hecyx H. Oypapiym (Hixapnarrx y XVIII cronirri). Vxropo:
Kapnarn, 2006.
23. Kzponti statisztikai hivatal. krptalja teleplseinek vallsi adatai (1880-
1941). Budapest, 2000.
90
2009, N 3 (17)
Bix1op KIHEPA
KYALTYPHO-OCBITHR IRALHICTL
MOHAXIB MYKAHIBCLKOIO
MOHACTHPR HA 3AKAPHATTI
yxe naxnnne snauennx Myxauinctxn monacrnp niirpanan y xynt-
rypno-ocnirni c]epi ocnixynanoro periony. A romy sanannxm ano
posnixn c npocnixynarn ocnonni erann xyntrypno ixntnocri uennin
sraynano onreni.
Hpncrynamun o nncnirnennx nanuantno-nnxonno ixntnocri, neoxi-
no nisnaunrn, mo nenrpantnnm micnem crapocnon`xnctxo ocnirn i y-
xonnocri yn monacrnp na uepneui ropi inx Myxauena. x rnepnrt
Mixan Hononnu, ni cnoro sacnynannx monacrnp cran nocicm xynt-
rypno cnamnnn, nocepennnrnom craponepxonnocnon`xnctxo monn,
mncrenrna, nireparypn i xyntrypn nsarani [14. C. 11]. Hepmi mxonn npn
monacrnpi nixpnnncx anno nepma sraxa c me sa uacin Ioana Ipero-
ponnua (1627-1632), cnncxona Myxauinctxoro, xxn cam yn ocnrt ocni-
uenom nmnnom i sacnonynan mxonn, e nnxonynanoct micnene nacenen-
nx [7. C. 249-250]. x ronopnrt Bacnnt Harnpx, y nnx mxonax, xxi naxa-
sano sacnonynarn, naanann nepenary nnnuennm mon [12. C. 16]. Hx mxona
sraycrtcx i npn cnncxoni Herpy Hap]enim, na npoxannx xxoro ]inancy-
nannx saxnay nsxn na cee oconcro xopont uepinanr III, raxox nio-
mo, mo y 1671 p. y monacrnpctxi mxoni yno nnstxo 20 yunin, xxi sa-
manncx n yxe cxpyrnnx ymonax. Anrycrnn Bonomnn rex srayc npo
nm mxony, xxa yna nixpnra y 1681 p. i came nona crana ocnonom
nisnimo mxonn, xxy crnopnn Manyn Ontmanctxn [1. C. 172]. Ane icny-
nannx mxonn ne nnpimynano ncix nnrant, o na micnxx ynn cnpon oxa-
ronnuennx i narnnisani, npornim xxnm sicnmnann monaxn nacnniann.
Cnpon penirinnx pe]opm cnncxona nacnniannna Inana Manaxonctxoro:
crnopennx nocrinoro noniniary (uepneuo mxonn) nx uennin, yrnopennx
ceminapi nx cnirctxoro xnipy, sacnynannx cnon`xnctxo pyxapni, napn-
rer yniarctxoro i xaronnntxoro opxin xou i ne ynn sicneni, uepes
cnpornn micneno nepxonno nnan, ane snauno nnnepexann cni uac [2.
C. 28-29]. 3 inmoro oxy, ne cniunno npo snauni yrncxn micnennx xynt-
rypno-opxonnx oconnnocre, xxi ne mornn sicnmnarncx es nino-
nino nnxonno i nnannnuo opranisani. Fararo nx ocniuenocri cnirctxnx
cnxmennnxin sponn i nnanxa Hocn] e Kamenic, xxn cneniantno nx
nnx nnpyxonynan neoxiny nireparypy n Tnpnani [9. C. 102]. x rnep-
91

nrt o. Crenan Han, cnxmennxn soynann yxonny ocniry came npn
monacrnpxx i orpnmynann nocnxuennx [13. C. 144].
Haintme monacrnpctxy mxony nnopxxynan cnncxon Manyn Ont-
manctxn, xxn na ocnoni y 1747 p. crnopnn orocnonctxy ceminapim,
e monom nanuannx yna nepxonnocnon`xnctxa [17. C. 40]. Taxi mxonn
icnynann i npn inmnx monacrnpxx. Heoxino raxox posinxrn monac-
rnpctxy mxony (noniniar), e rorynann nnxnmuno mayrnix monaxin, xxi
mann anarn oirn, ra cnirctxi mxonn, xxi nnxonynann ine yxonen-
crno, xou na pannix eranax nennxo pisnnni mix nnmn ne icnynano.
Fintm roro, ne moxna ronopnrn, mo ne unn yn nonnicrm narnnisona-
nn nnacniox npnnxrrx yni, ocxintxn exxa oxymenranix nenacx na
crapocnon`xnctxi moni, a n pyri nononnni XIX nouarxy XX cr. ncx
nepenncxa nenacx nnxnmuno na yropctxi moni, raxn nepernn y ix
maxpnsani ninnancx na cranonnmi openy, a rounime npnsnonn o
sanenay. Monacrnpctxi mxonn niirpanann nennxy pont i nx nnxonannx
mayrnix cnxmennnxin. Cnncxon Anpi Faunnctxn man nennxi npo-
nemn is cnxmennxamn, xxi ynn nnxonannxmn narnnctxnx mxin i sa ne-
snannx nepxonnocnon`xnctxo monn, nanirt nimonnxncx nncnxuynarn x.
A romy, xx cniunrt Irop 3aopoxnn, nnnycxnnxin narnnctxnx mxin
Anpi Faunnctxn nanpannxn o Myxauinctxoro monacrnpx, e nonn
mann nnnunrn ocnonni acnexrn cxinocnon`xnctxoro opxy [3. C. 20].
He me pas nirnepxyc nicromnannx rpentxnx pnc nx rpexo-xaro-
nnntxo nepxnn s oxy monacrnpin i onopy, xxy nonn cranonnnn nx cnnc-
xonctxo nnan.
Ane monacrnpi ynn ne rintxn ocepexamn yxonnocri i npocnirnnnr-
na, a npn nnx posnnnancx xnnonnc ra nayxa. x nnme Bacnni Hponin,
npn Myxauinctxomy monacrnpi ect na nouarxy XVIII cr. icnynana ixo-
nonncna mxona, ocxintxn sepernnct ninonini oxymenrn npo rexnixy
ixononncy, a ixonn Xpncra i Foromarepi s rpentxnmn nirepamn, mo snaxo-
xrtcx n monacrnpctxi nepxni, naimonipnime crnopeni n ni mxoni [15.
C. 110].
Hixano, mo ynn monaxn, xxi nonoinn rnnoxom epynnicm y crno-
penni icropnunnx ra nireparypnnx rnopin. Kpim A Konaxa (anrop pyctxo
rpamarnxn), nnarnnm ixuem xinnx XVIII nouarxy XIX cr. yn ara-
ropiunn nporoirymen unny nacnnian Hoannxi Fasnnonnu. Bin ponn
araro nx posyonn monacrnpx, npnxnaom uoro c crnopennx y
1777 p. craryry (npannn) unny na 33 cropinxax. Came oro nepy nane-
xnrt nepma cnpoa icropnuno posnixn, ne rintxn npo Myxauinctxn
monacrnp, ane 3axapnarrx n ninomy [17. C. 47-48]. Fintm roro, nin man
xonraxrn s rannntxnmn nacnnixnamn i nanirt nennn uac nepeynan ram.
V pyri nononnni XIX cr. nornnnmnanacx xpnsa openy non`xsana s
maxpnsanicm. Cepe ixuin, xxi rnepo croxnn na cxinocnon`xnctxnx
92
2009, N 3 (17)
(pyctxnx) rpannixx i ynn x nocixmn, moxna nasnarn xia mo monaxin
Anaronix Kpannntxoro ra Bononmnpa (Inonira) Tepnentxoro [17. C. 56].
3amamunct xyntrypno-ocnirntom ixntnicrm, yyun nxe icpomonaxom
Myxauinctxoro monacrnpx, Anaroni Kpannntxn nirpnmynan sn`xsxn
s inmnmn yxpanctxnmn semnxmn, soxpema, s rannntxom nepxonnom inre-
nirennicm, npo mo cniunrt nepenncxa s xonom Iononantxnm. 3n`xsxn
ni ynn neoxini, ocxintxn uenni yropctxo nponinni ne mann nnacno py-
xapni, a ncx neoxina nireparypa pyxynanacx came y Iannunni. Tax y
nncri xona Iononantxoro o Anaronix Kpannntxoro ni 24 epesnx
1858 p. oniycmoct, mo crapannxmn nepmoro y Htnoni yno napyxona-
no 400 exsemnnxpin monacrnpctxnx npannn na snnuanomy nanepi, a n`xrt
na nanepi nnmoro rarynxy. Tyr-raxn nxasycrtcx na sannmox xomrin, xxi
neoxino sannarnrn, a raxox sraycrtcx onn exsemnnxp Oxroxa
nepemnmntxoro nnannnnrna, xxn npocnn npncnarn Anaroni Kpannnt-
xn. Cniuennxm roro, mo ni sn`xsxn ynn nsacmnnmn c nncr ni 10 nnnnx
1865 p. xona Iononantxoro, xxn xxyc Anaronim Kpannntxomy sa nai-
cnani n nayxonn sipnnx Omecrna rannnxo-pyccxo Marnnt nirepa-
rypnnx rnopin i saoxouyc nacnnarn naani. 3 nncra ni 13 nmroro
1866 p. oniycmoct npo noantmy cninnpanm, ocxintxn ynn naicnani
nacrynni crarri O pennemnx Enanrenixx ra Apceni Konax,
xxi xin Iononantxn oinxc napyxynarn nannxunm uacom, a raxox
nncnarn exsemnnxpn sipnnxin. Oninxy raxo cninnpani Anaronim Kpa-
nnntxomy an cam xin Iononantxn n nncri ni 10 nepecnx 1866 p.:
Crartn Bamn amr namemy xypnany nocroxnnym nennocrt, cnepx
roro upes namn crartn nsopaxaercx coyuacrne Vropcxo Pycn n na-
me nnreparypno exrentnocrn. Ha oxas roro, mo pyxynanncx i
penirini xnnrn c nncr Kocrxnrnna Cymxennua ni 13 epesnx 1866 p.,
xxn npocnrt y Anaronix Kpannntxoro osnony pyxynarn oro monnr-
nocnon xyniminxom, monom, xxa yna yxe nannxena o cyuacno
yxpanctxo [6. C. 46]. x nnno s nnx nncrin, raxa cninnpanx yna ne
rintxn neoxinom ane yxe nninom, ocxintxn icnynann sn`xsxn mix
posinennmn xoponamn yxpanctxnmn semnxmn. Kpim roro, nonn cnpnx-
nn sepexennm annix pyctxnx nepxonnnx rpanni pyxynannx nx
yropctxnx nacnnian penirino nireparypn pyctxom monom. 3 inmoro oxy,
rannntxa inrenirennix orpnmynana in]opmanim npo yropctxnx pycnnin.
Inmnm monaxom nacnnixnnnom, xxn cran nocicm crapocnon`xnctxnx
ie, yn Inonir Tepnentxn. Haponncx nin na Bonnni y 1808 p.
V 1825 p. nanuancx na menunomy ]axyntreri Binenctxoro yninepcnre-
ry, a y 1939 p. orpnman snannx oxropa Kpaxinctxoro yninepcnrery. Ha
cnxmennxa yn noxnaenn y Pnmi (1842 p.), e nepemacrtcx npone-
mamn yni [16. C. 50]. o unny Cnxroro Bacnnix Bennxoro (uCBB) n
Vropmnni Inonir Tepnentxn ncrynnn y 1857 p., npo mo cniunrt nncr
93

cnncxona o nporoirymena, y xxomy cxasano, mo cnyxarn cnonii n My-
xauinctxi cnapxi o. Inonir smoxe nicnx cxnaannx uepneunx oirin [6.
C. 46]. Ane uepes axrnnny ixntnicrt i npnuernicrt o opxonoro pyxy
sa ononnennx cxinoro opxy ni narnnctxnx namapynant Inonira Tep-
nentxoro n 1872 p. yno nncnano sa mexi Ancrpo-Vropmnnn. Taxnm un-
nom, onna ixui, unenn Bacnnianctxoro openy, namaranncx nirpnmy-
narn cxinocnon`xnctxi pncn y penirinomy ra xyntrypno-ocnirntomy
xnrri rpexo-xaronnntxo nepxnn ra uCBB n Vropmnni.
Haintmom i naninnimom iniorexom yna myxauinctxa na uep-
neui ropi. V sniri nporoirymena sa 3 epesnx 1877 p. nxasycrtcx na icny-
nannx xaranory, xxn cxnaancx s 18 posinin. Hpnuomy xpim annix
manycxpnnrin (67 xnnr) i penirinnx rnopin, ynn xnnrn is sarantnnx nc-
nnnnin ]inoco]ix (61), icropix (122), ninrnicrnxa (93), mpncnpyennix
(52), nireparypa (80), pisni nayxn (81). 3 annix xnnr y inioreni monac-
rnpx ynn: nepxonnocnon`xnctxn Hcanrnp, xxn monosnanent Isman
Cpesnenctxn ninocnrt o XV cr.; Tpiot Hnirna (1563 p.) na maxe-
onctxo-onrapctxi moni pyxonana y na cronnni, n Maxeoni; Ocr-
pomnpone Cnanrenic (1581 p.); Vcran Cn. Bacnnix Bennxoro pyxonann
n Ocrposi y 1594 p. [6. C. 47]. Hpo Hcanrnp XV cr. niomo, mo nixpnn
oro Anaroni Kpannntxn [5. C. 210]. Bo o nacnnianctxoro ycrany, ro
oro icnynannx cniunrt npo ocnrt annc nomnpennx npannn nx mo-
naxin, a cami npannna napyxonani n Ocrposi ynn, monipno, nanncani
mnrpononnrom Hocn]om Pyrctxnm. o-peui ne naannimn napianr
npannn mnrpononnra Pyrctxoro crnopenoro nx nacnnian. V ntomy x
sniri nxasycrtcx, mo xaranor yno cxnaeno Bononmnpom Tepnentxnm
y 1872 p., ocxintxn nonepeni yn snnmenn noxexom 1862 p. [6. C.
47]. Anaroni Kpannntxn yn anropom arartox crare, xxi nin nicn-
nan, nanirt y Herepypstxi sipnnxn, xxi pyxynanncx n ocnonnomy ano-
nimno ra sannmnn nennxy xintxicrt cnox pyxonncin [10. C. 128-129]. Icnyc
araro nepci, nin nin oconcro yn snaomn s Inanom upanxom, ane
intm niporino, mo nonn ynn snaomi saouno. Hpore ocronipno nio-
mo npo oconcri xonraxrn Anaronix Kpannntxoro s Mnxanom paroma-
nonnm, xxn npnxxan na 3axapnarrx 1875 p. i ninian Myxauinctxn
monacrnp, nicnx uoro nouanact axrnnna cninnpanx nnx nox inrenexry-
anin [11. C. 6].
He menm narome snauennx y xyntrypno-ocnirni c]epi man monacrnp
y mixnocnnn nepio. Posnncom monacrnpctxnx nepxon samanncx niomi
xyoxnnxn. Hanpnxna, y 1933 p. Fepesnxnctxn monacrnp posmanmnan
xnacnx saxapnarctxo mxonn xnnonncy Hocn] Foxma, niomn anexo
sa mexamn 3axapnarrx [8. C. 13]. B. Koponin-Crapn sicnnn xnno-
nncne o]opmnennx (y xonro-naxnrnnx ronax) Imcrnuinctxoro monac-
rnpx [18. C. 328].
94
2009, N 3 (17)
ocnrt nnyuno pont uCBB y nayxonomy xyntrypnomy xnrri xpam
oxapaxrepnsynan nepmn nporoirymen nponinni o. Herpo Fynnx ni uac
nixpnrrx nacnnianctxo rimnasi n Vxropoi: ane icropix Bacnnianct-
xoro unna ne ne rintxn icropix monamecrna, ne rintxn icropix nirepa-
rypno, micino i ymnacrnpctxo npani, ane ne sapasom i icropix mxintnnn-
rna na namnx semnxx [4. C. 7-10]. V paxnctxn nepio araro ninnnx
i nanirt ynixantnnx (!) nnant ynn nrpaueni nx inirexn monacrnpx na
uepneui ropi inx Myxauena.
Orxe, xyntrypno-ocnirnx ixntnicrt monaxin nacnnixn, nanirt y uacn
naintmo xpnsn, mana uirxi crapocnonxnctxi (pyctxi) osnaxn. Tyr ne-
oxino nninnrn nacrynni momenrn: no-nepme, nacnnixnn rnepo cro-
xnn sa sepexennx nepxonnocnon`xnctxoro opxy rpexo-xaronnntxo
nepxnn na 3axapnarri; no-pyre, came is cepeonnma monaxin nacnnixn
nnxonnn nnsnauni nocrari, pinnnx xxnm n Vropctxi Pyci na ro uac ne
icnynano (Apceni Konax, Hoannxi Fasnnonnu, Anaroni Kpannntxn);
no-rperc, came nocepennnrnom monaxin nect uac nirpnmynanncx sn`xs-
xn s inmnmn yxpanctxnmn semnxmn (soxpema, Iannunnom); no-uernep-
re, npn monacrnpxx icnynann mxonn, a raxox nennxi iniorexn, y xxnx
sepiranncx ninni excnonarn crapocnon`xnctxo nncemnocri. Came romy
ororoxnennx nacnnixn is csyramn ra poscannxamn xaronnnnsmy c
aconmrno esnicrannnm. Fintm roro, moxna is nnennenicrm crnep-
xynarn npo nnnxrxone snauennx nnx monacrnpctxnx ocepexin y sepe-
xenni xyntrypn i rpanni nepxnn ra micnenoro nacenennx saranom.
AITEPATYPA
1. Bo.ouuu A. Ipexo-xaronnuecxax nepxon y Hoxapnarcxo Pycn / Bnpani
rnopn / Vnopxxynannx, ncrynna crarrx ra npnmirxn O. B. Mnmannua. Vxropo :
3axapnarrx, 2002. C. 166-188.
2. Bapau O. Hepxna na 3axapnarri n poxax 1665-1691 / Bn. Forocnoni.
T.XXXII. u. 36. Pnm, 1968. - 71 c.
3. 3aooporuu I. Cnncxon Anpi Faunnctxn n enicronxpni cnamnni.
Myxaueno: Kapnarctxa nexa, 2002. - 64 c.
4. Inanrypanina npomona nporoirymena o. Honixapna Fynnxa uCBB, n ent
nixpnrrx xnxcnuno rimnasi unna OO. Bacnnixn n Vxropoi // 3niomnennx rimnasi
unna OO. Bacnnixn n Vxropoi (s npanom npnnmnocrn) sa mxintnn pix 1937-38.
C. 7-10.
5. Icropix Myxauena: V nox romax. T. 1. 3 naannimnx uacin o 1918 poxy. / Hi
pe. Intrto M.A., Hannenxa I.B., Fanarypi E.A. Vxropo: BAT Harenr, 1988. - 284 c.
6. Ki:epa B. Kyntrypno-ocnirnx ixntnicrt monaxin-nacnnian na 3axapnarri n
yropctxn ra ancrpo-yropctxn nepio / B. Kiuepa // Hayxonn nicnnx Vxro-
poctxoro yninepcnrery : Cepix icropix. Vxropo, 2007. Bnn. 19. C. 44-48.
95

7. Hv:ra M. Icropix Kapnarctxnx pycnnin: V mecrn romax / emn]pynannx
pyxonncy nepexna yxpanctxom monom ra noxaxunxn R. M. Caxa; Pexon.:
H.O. Farna, M. M. Berem, . . annnmx, M. B. Opoc, I. M. Centxo. T. 2. Vxro-
po: 3axapnarrx, 1999. 388 c.
8. Mamero B. yxy cnxrn Vrimnrenm npnn i ncenncx n nac // Fnaronicnnx.
N8 (135). Piunnx 12. Fepesent, 2003. C. 13.
9. Hapncn icropi 3axapnarrx (s naannimnx uacin o 1918 poxy). T. 1. / Hi pe.
I. Ipanuaxa i in. Vxropo: Iocnpospaxynxonn peaxnino-nnannnun niin
3axapnarctxoro onacnoro ynpanninnx, 1993. 668 c.
10. Haor B., I.i:euro H. Kpannntxn i III rncxuonirrx // Kapnarctxn xpa.
N 1-4 (110). Ciuent-xnirent. Piunnx 5-n. Vxropo, 1995. C. 128-129.
11. Harnpx B. Mnxano paromanon i Anaroni Kpannntxn // Fnaronicnnx.
N 6 (145). Piunnx 13. Tpanent, 2004. C. 6.
12. Haeup B. Monacrnpi 3axapnarrx (1360 1939). Myxaueno: Bnannx Myxa-
uinctxo-yxropoctxo npanocnanno cnapxi, 1994. 116 c.
13. Han C. Icropix 3axapnarrx: V rptox romax. T. 2. Inano-upanxinctx: Hona
3opx, 2002. 448 c.
14. Honoeu: M. Hpo cnirne nornnme namoro mnnynoro (o 500 piuux myxaui-
nctxo cnapxi) // Hayxonn sipnnx Mysem yxpanctxo xyntrypn n Cnnnnxy.
T. 19. Hpxmin: Cnonantxe nearoriune nnannnnrno n Fparicnani: Biin yxpanct-
xo nireparypn n Hpxmeni, 1994. C. 11-25.
15. Hpouiu B. stxom nyx napcrn // Kapnarctxn xpa. N 5-8 (111). Tpanent-
cepnent. Piunnx 5-n. Vxropo, 1995. C. 109 -111.
16. 4euu: B. 3acnynannx Myxauinctxo cnapxi y XV cr.: icropiorpa]iuni mi]n
ra icropnuni peani // Carpatika Kapnarnxa- Bnnycx 32. Hayxonn sipnnx, npn-
cnxuenn cnirni nam`xri nearora i nuenoro Tomama Conxa. Vxropo: Hipa, 2005.
C. 168-184.
17. 4euu: B. Inonir (Bononmnp) Tepnentxn i 3axapnarrx // Hayxonn nicnnx
Vxropoctxoro yninepcnrery: Cepix icropix. Bnnycx 2. Vxropo, 1998. C. 50-53.
18. 4euu: B. Hanv.u: O. Manoepesnxnctxn Cnxro+ Mnxonanctxn monac-
rnp ra napnc icropi unny cn. Bacnnix Bennxoro na 3axapnarri / VxHV. Vxropo:
Bn-no B. Haxxa, 2004. 188 c.
19. Lrpaomr H. Monamn unn Ornin Bacnnixn y nanionantnomy xnrri Vxpa-
nn. Htnin: Micionep, 2005. 439 c.
20. Boennnx Hocn]a e Kamenica, myxauinctxoro cnncxona / Hyuxa M. Icro-
pix Kapnarctxnx pycnnin: V mecrn romax / emn]pynannx pyxonncy R.M. Caxa;
nepexna yxpanctxom monom A. M. Irnara; noxaxunx icropnunnx oci ra nasn
.. annnmxa; reorpa]iunn noxaxunx I. M. Centxa. T. 3. Vxropo: 3axapnar-
rx, 2002. C. 21-58.
96
2009, N 3 (17)
enncxon Hon (CMAKOY3)
HEPKOBHOE CAYEHHE BEPHOIO
CLHA IAAHHKOH PYCH
APXHEHHCKOHA HAHTEAEHMOHA
(PYLKA)
(K 50-ne1nm yupeaennn 3uon1oncxo-
Kanacxon enapxnn Mocxoncxoro na1pnapxa1a)
Apxnenncxon Hanre-
nenmon ypoxenen
noxpemno Hpnxap-
narcxo Pycn, pennocr-
nt mnccnonep n ene
noccranonnennx penne
npaeoncxo nept na
Iannunne, ycrponrent
monacrtpcxo xnsnn na
Bontnn, ocoenno mnoro
norpynnmncx na nos-
poxennem nocne paspy-
menn nepnoa Hepno
mnpono nont n peno-
nmnnonno cmyrt nnyr-
pennero n nnemnero na-
ronennx n Houaencxo
Hanpe, noccranonnrent
paspymenno esoxnem
nepxonno xnsnn n ma-
repn rpaon pyccxnx
Knene, samnrnnx enn-
crna Pyccxo nepxnn n
onnunrent nxn yxpann-
cxoro anroxe]antno-ca-
mocnxrcxoro pacxona n
1941-1943 rr. Hocne on-
rnx cxnrann no pasntm
xonrnnenram n nocnenne rot cnoe xnsnn nnatxa Hanrenenmon
rpynncx na nnne apxnnacrtpcxoro cnyxennx cpen pontx pycnnon,
Apxnenncxon 3uon1oncxnn n Kanacxnn
Han1enenuon n nocnenne rom ansnn.
Hop1pe1 ns ayn1opnn Cnn1o-Bapnapnncxoro
coopa n 3uon1one, nanncannmn npo1onepeeu
Hoannou Bopua. 1976 r.
97

cosnax nonoyupexennym enapxnm Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara n ane-
xo Kanacxo Pycn
1
.
Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon (n mnpy Herp Pytx) ponncx n ouent
naoxno xpecrtxncxo cemte 16 nmnx 1898 r. n cene Hnnonnt Hepe-
mtmnxncxoro yesa Iannnnn, nomeme nocne pasena Hontmn n co-
cran Ancrpo-Benrepcxo nmnepnn. Mantunxom Herp Pytx rano ne-
pemen ancrpncxo-pyccxym rpannny, urot crart nacentnnxom sname-
nnro Houaencxo snarornano nanpt. 3ro tn ne ennnunt cnyua n
nepno o nauana Hepno mnpono nont. B nernee npemx, nocne oxon-
uannx cesonntx xpecrtxncxnx paor, rannuane c ontmnm pncxom rpyn-
namn npoxonnn mnmo ancrpncxnx norpannuntx sacran, urot not-
mart naroarntm nosyxom npanocnannx n oroxnyrt ymo no
centm nouaencxnx cnxrtnt pennero oreuecxoro narouecrnx.
B 1912 r. uertpnanarnnernn Herp Pytx npntn n Houaencxym
nanpy n no narocnonennm ntammerocx pyccxoro apxnepex Anronnx
(Xpanonnnxoro), apxnenncxona Xnromnpcxoro n Bontncxoro, cnxmen-
noapxnmanpnra nanpt, tn npnnxr n uncno ee nocnnrannnxon c npa-
nom nomennx nopxcnnxa. On nnamenno xenan crart nnoxom ne rontxo
pan cnacennx cnoe ymn no ncnonnenne cnon Cnacnrenx: Ecnn xro
xouer nrn sa Mnom, orneprnnct cex, n nostmn xpecr cno, n cney
sa Mnom (M]. 16, 24). Hpomtcn Foxn nororannnnan ero n nx roro,
urot c reuennem npemenn on, yxonno yxpennnmnct, cmor nocnyxnrt
ponomy rannnxo-pycnncxomy napoy n ene ero nosnpamennx n nono
marepn-Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn n nonecrn xpecr apxnepecxoro
cnyxennx.
B omeopasonarentno uertpexxnaccno npnxocxo mxone npn
nanpe orpox Herp nonyunn nauantnoe opasonanne. Hpn +naxyannn pa-
rnn Houaencxo nanpt n Cnxroropcxym Vcnencxym nycrtnt Xaptxon-
cxo enapxnn (c 25.09.2004 r.- nanpa onenxo enapxnn) n cnxsn c npn-
nnxennem nnnnn ancrpo-poccncxoro ]ponra no npemx Hepno mnpo-
no nont n 1915 r. on uncnnncx yxe nocnymnnxom
2
.
B 1920 r., nocne nosnpamennx ns +naxyannn, nanarnnyxnernn no-
cnymnnx Herp no narocnonennm enncxona Kpemenenxoro nonncnx
(Banenncxoro), ynpannxmmero Bontncxo enapxne, tn nocrpnxen n
monamecrno c napeuennem nonoro nmenn Hanrenenmon n uecrt cnxro-
ro nennxomyuennxa Hanrenenmona.
B 1922 r. monax Hanrenenmon saxonunn nonnt xypc Hnouecxo-oro-
cnoncxo mxont npn Houaencxo nanpe n tn pyxononoxen no nepon-
axona. B rom xe roy, 21 nmnx, n npasnnx operennx Kasancxo nxont
Foxne Marepn, cocroxnact ero xnporonnx n can nepomonaxa. B naua-
ne 1925 r., nocne oxonuannx orocnoncxnx xnaccon Bontncxo cemnna-
pnn n Kpemenne, Hanrenenmon tn nanpannen na nonoorxptnmncx npa-
98
2009, N 3 (17)
nocnannt orocnoncxn ]axyntrer Bapmancxoro ynnnepcnrera, xoro-
pt on saxonunn n 1928 r.
3
C 1925 r. nepomonax Hanrenenmon nacroxrent Cnxro-Ieoprnencxo-
ro xpama no Htnone
4
, npnxo xoroporo nocroxnno xnnxncx rnanntm, a n
nexoropte nepnot n enncrnenntm ocrponom npanocnannx n Iannnnn
c 1787 r. Ononpemenno on tn nasnauen narounnntm necxontxnx nos-
nparnnmnxcx ns ynnn npnxoon. Hpanocnannte npnxot nosnnxnn es
xaxoro-nno annennx na Coxantmnne, n Konomte n Typxe na Crpt-
em, n pennem Iannue. nnxenne no nosnpamennm n npanocnanne rora
nonnocrtm oxnarnno nanonee oranennt paon Iannnnn - Hemxon-
mnny. Hecmorpx na rpynocrn n npaxenoe ornomenne ynnarcxo
nepapxnn n cnercxo amnnncrpannn xpax, on pennocrno npononeyer
o ncrnnnocrn npanocnannx cpen ponoro napoa n nocroxnno npncoe-
nnxer x npanocnanno nepxnn rpexo-xaronnuecxne npnxot. Orropr-
nyrte or npanocnannx nacnnnem n omanom npncoennxnnct nmontm.
Bo Htnone npn nomomn npncoennnnmerocx x npanocnanno nepxnn
pennero Cranponnrnantnoro parcrna nsaercx exemecxunt xyp-
nan Bocxpecenie, n xoropom ocnemaercx nospoxenne npanocnannx
na Iannunne. nx onee mnpoxoro pasnnrnx mnccnonepcxo exrentno-
crn on npnrnamaer x nacrtpcxomy cnyxennm n Iannnxo Pycn ecxrox
cryenron orocnoncxoro ]axyntrera n Bapmane. Hexoropte ns nnx
nepe npntrnem n Iannnnm npnnnmamr monamecxn nocrpnr n Houa-
encxo nanpe. Camtm naexntm nomomnnxom orna Hanrenenmona cran
monoo nepomonax Bennamnn (Honnnxn). Hepomonax Hanrenenmon
conmecrno c nnm ocnonan mnccnonepcxym mxony no nororonxe mecr-
ntx xapon nx npocnemennx ynnaron. Kpome roro, oren Bennamnn,
onaanmn ontmo xyntrypo nepxonnoro nennx, oprannsonan nenn-
xonennte npanocnannte xopt no Htnone n pyrnx mecrax, uro raxxe
oxasano nonoxnrentnoe nnnxnne na mecrnoe ynnarcxoe nacenenne
5
.
Honncannt n 1927 r. xonxopar mexy Hontme n xaronnuecxo
nepxontm nepean nce npnxocxoe nmymecrno ynnarcxo nepxnn nanc-
xomy Pnmy n rem camtm npnocranonnn nepexo ynnarcxnx npnxoon n
npanocnanne
6
. B cnyuae nepexoa n npanocnanne nepymmne, n ont-
mnncrne ouent ente nmn, onxnt tnn npexe ncero camn sao-
rnrtcx o ycrpocrne xpama, npnoperennn yrnapn, onauenn, a raxxe
o oecneuennn cnxmennnxa. 3ro cosano nenpeoonnmte rpynocrn
nx antneme paort mnccnn, ne pacnonaranme marepnantno-]n-
nancono aso. Bapmancxax mnrpononnx morna ornycxart nx mnccnn
ouent nesnaunrentnte cpecrna. Onaxo o saxnmuennx +roro xonxop-
ara monoo mnccnonep cymen onee rpnnarn omnn npncoennnrt
x npanocnanno nepxnn. B camo Hontme, na Hemxonmnne n n Iannnnn
n npanocnanne c 1923 no 1929 r. nepemno oxono 30 rtcxu uenonex, ne-
99

cmorpx na orcyrcrnne cnoot n cpecrn y npanocnanno nepxnn. Hs
ynnn ymno 11%
7
. 3a pennocrnte rpyt no cnany Cnxroro npanocnannx n
Iannnxo Pycn oren Hanrenenmon tn nosneen n can nrymena.
B 1929 r. nrymen Hanrenenmon no yxasy mnrpononnra Bapmancxoro n
ncex Hontmn nonncnx cranonnrcx nacroxrenem 3araenxoro cnxroro
Hoanna Mnnocrnnoro myxcxoro monacrtpx na Bontnn (ntne n Bymc-
xom paone Tepnonontcxo onacrn) c nosneennem n can apxnmanpn-
ra. On tcrpo nonxn na ntcoxn yponent yxonnym n xosxcrnennym
xnsnt rnxoro pennero manentxoro monacrtpx, ocnonannoro n nauane
XVII n. no narocnonennm npenoonoro Hona, nrymena Houaencxoro,
narouecrnno nomemnne Hpnno pmonnncxo n namxrt o yconmem
myxe Hoanne.
B 1933 r. apxnmanpnr Hanrenenmon nasnauaercx namecrnnxom Cnx-
ro-Vcnencxo Houaencxo nanpt. On nce yme oraercx ntcoxomy n
ornercrnennomy cnyxennm, xoropoe nec o 1941 r. Iot penonmnnn,
rpaxancxo n conercxo-nontcxo non paccrponnn ne rontxo orpomnoe
xosxcrno nanpt, no n ee nnyrpennmm ycrannym xnsnt. Hpexe ncero
apxnmanpnr Hanrenenmon noccranannnnaer n cnoe onrenn orocny-
xent ycran, rpannnn n pacnen Kneno-Heuepcxo nanpt. Hpn nomo-
mn ennomtmnennnxon ns yxonnoro coopa on nospoxaer exenen-
noe parcxoe neuepnee npannno. B 1934 r. on orxptnaer n nanpe oro-
cnoncxym mecrnronunym mxony nx nnoxon, neecntm noxponnrenem
xoropo nsnpaercx npn. ueoop, xnxst Ocrpoxcxn, n cxnme sarnop-
nnx Kneno-Heuepcxo nanpt ueoocn (+ox. 1483 r., namxrt 24 anryc-
ra), samnrnnx npanocnannx na Bontnn n XV n. Exenennte nyxuaco-
nte sanxrnx npononnnct mexy yxnnom n neuepnnm npannnom, rax
xax nem ncx parnx rpynnact na nocnymannxx na nepxonntx cnyx-
ax, xoropte conepmannct n nanpe nourn ecnpeptnno, nnn na xosx-
crnenno-amnnncrparnnno paore. Fnaroapx nomomn npanocnannoro
nacenennx Bontnn rananrnnnt monoo namecrnnx npononr xann-
rantnte napyxnte pemonrt Vcnencxoro coopa, parcxoro xopnyca n
pyrnx crpoenn nanpt. Apxnmanpnr Hanrenenmon npoxnnxer cex
pennocrntm croponnnxom nepxonnocnanxncxoro xstxa n orocnyxennn
n ne onycxaer na reppnropnn nanpt conepmennx na yxpanncxom xstxe
axe nannxn no xymnpy manonepxonno yxpanncxo monoexn Tapacy
Benuenxo. B 1930-e rr. on ycepno npornnocronr rax nastnaemo pe-
nnnnxannn nanpt, r.e. nepeaun ee oparno xaronnxam na ocnonannn
nnmt roro, uro ona xaxoe-ro npemx naxonnact n pyxax ynnaron. Karo-
nnxn npn +rom nyxano satnann, uro, npexe ncero, cama ynnx na-
caxanact nacnntcrnenno, uro ona tna nanxsana manopoccncxomy
napoy, uro Houaencxax onrent tna ocnonana n nauana cnoe cyme-
crnonanne xax npanocnannax. Apxnmanpnry Hanrenenmony xax namecr-
100
2009, N 3 (17)
nnxy nanpt nao tno oprannsonart mpnnuecxym samnry or 724 nc-
xontx saxnnenn xaronnxon n nontcxne cyt, oxastnax npn nomomn
mpnnuecxn-ncropnuecxnx n uncro pennrnosntx aprymenron, uro enn-
crnenntm xosxnnom nanpt, necmorpx na onee uem cronernee nnae-
nne em ynnaron, ocraercx npanocnannax nepxont
8
.
Konen myxecrnennomy npornnocroxnnm apxnmanpnra Hanrenenmona
nononnsannn n xaronnuecxo pennnnxannn no mnnocrn Foxne npn-
men nnesanno n neoxnanno. 1 cenrxpx 1939 r. nauanact Bropax mnpo-
nax nona, n 19 cenrxpx 1939 r. 3ananax Vxpanna oromna x Conercxo-
my Comsy. Hpanocnannte enapxnn 3anano Vxpannt, ocnooxenno
or nontcxoro nancxoro nnatuecrna, xoropoe nourn no ncem nonropxno
nannonantnt rner n pennrnosnt renonn npanocnannoro manopoccn-
cxoro napoa n XVII n., c naexo na mnp nosnparnnnct n cocran ronn-
mo esoxntm pexnmom cnxro Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn-myue-
nnnt.
Hocne npnxoa conercxnx nocx n 1939 r. namecrnnxy orny Hanrene-
nmony npnmnoct nepexnrt eme ony nanacrt: y nanpt nono nnacrtm
tnn ornxrt nce centcxoxosxcrnennte mamnnt, nect nnnenrapt, nect
cxor, sanact sepna, npoyxrt nnrannx n r.. Hpecrannrenn conercxo
nnacrn c nsenarentcrnamn racxann namecrnnxa no uepaxam monac-
rtpcxnx xopnycon, nponepxx, ner nn ram opyxnx. Hepecrann cymecrno-
nart ercxne npnmrt, npnxocxax mxona n noome ncx xnsnt na reppn-
ropnn monacrtpx, sa ncxnmuennem orocnyxeno. Bcex nocnymnnxon
n monotx monaxon ntrnann ns nanpt, ocrannnn rontxo noxnntx n cra-
pnxon. uncno nacentnnxon Houaencxo nanpt ymentmnnoct c 300 o 80
uenonex
9
.
28 oxrxpx 1940 r. Cnno Pyccxo nepxnn opasonan +xsapxar 3ana-
ntx Vxpannt n Fenopyccnn. Tora xe +xsapxom n apxnenncxonom Bo-
ntncxnm n Hynxnm, cnxmennoapxnmanpnrom Houaencxo nanpt tn
nasnauen ntammncx npononennx apxnenncxon Hnxona (pymennu,
1891-1961). B ]enpane 1941 r. nnatxa Hnxona c apxnnacrtpcxnm nn-
snrom nocernn Htnon. B cnoem panopre narpnapmemy mecronmcrnre-
nm mnrpononnry Ceprnm (Crparopocxomy) on oxnatnan o ncrpeue
c npecrannrenxmn npanocnannoro npnxoa no Htnone, o neoxonmoc-
rn npoonxnrt anocrontcxoe eno npncoennennx ynnaron x npanocnan-
no nepxnn n naxnocrn nx nonxrnx npecrnxa npanocnanno nepxnn n
Iannnnn nasnauennx na Htnoncxym xa]epy enncxona. Kannarom na
Htnoncxym xa]epy mnrpononnr Hnxona npenoxnn apxnmanpnra
Hanrenenmona, xoropt no npemena Hontmn onee pyrnx nocnyxnn
eny npanocnanno mnccnn n Iannunne
10
.
Cnxmennt Cnno Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn no npecearent-
crnom mecronmcrnrenx narpnapmero npecrona npnsnan namecrnnxa
101

Houaencxo nanpt apxnmanpnra Hanrenenmona ocronemnm xan-
narom na enncxoncxoe cnyxenne n nspan na pennmm n naxanrnym c
nauana XVIII n. ns-sa saxnara ynnaramn Htnoncxym xa]epy. 27 (14 no
crapomy crnnm) mapra 1941 r. n Enoxoncxom Foroxnnencxom coope
r. Mocxnt on tn xnporonncan no enncxona Htnoncxoro c ocrannennem
n onxnocrn namecrnnxa Houaencxo nanpt. Xnporonnm conepmnnn
mecronmcrnrent narpnapmero npecrona mnrpononnr Ceprn, +xsapx
sanantx onacre Vxpannt n Fenopyccnn mnrpononnr Bontncxn n
Hynxn Hnxona, +xsapx Harnnn n 3cronnn mnrpononnr Hnroncxn n
Bnnencxn Ceprn, apxnenncxon Ponencxn n Kpemenenxn Anexcn,
enncxon Kament-Kamnpcxn Anronn, apxnenncxon Ocrpoxcxn Cnmon,
apxnenncxon Opnoncxn Hnxona. B mpncnxnnm nonopyxononoxenno-
ro enncxona nomnn nce nosnparnnmnecx ns ynnn npnxot nonoopaso-
nanntx Tepnonontcxo n Htnoncxo onacre (tnme ncropnuecxo
Iannnnn). Hamecrnnxom nanpt on npotn eme oxono nyx mecxnen n 2
nmnx 1941 r. Cnnoom tn ocnooxen or +roro nocnymannx c npenn-
cannem nocroxnnoro npetnannx no Htnone, n xoropom nx nero tna
nororonnena pesnennnx
11
.
Hasnauenne nnatxn Hanrenenmona no Htnon nenrp ynnarcrna n
ero pennocrnoe axrnnnoe cnyxenne no naro npanocnannx na yxonno
nopaomenno ynnaramn Iannnnn n npemecrnymmn enncxoncxo xn-
poronnn nepno ntstnann nenanncrt n snoy y nparon npanocnanno
nepxnn. B 1941 r. ynnarcxn +xsapx Hocn] Cnnnt n npecrannennom
coopy cnoe nepxnn noponemem oruere ynnarcxnx arenron o nono-
xennn npanocnanno nepxnn n Conercxom Comse n xonne 1930-x rr., c
xommenrapnxmn orxponenno nposennrnuecxoro xapaxrepa, enncxona
Hanrenenmona (Pytxa), rannuannna no nponcxoxennm, nastnaer ra-
nnnxnm anocrarom (nepoorcrynnnxom), nonarax, uro ypoxenen Iann-
nnn onxen trt nenpemenno rpexo-xaronnxom (ynnarom)
12
. A xant,
uro y ynnarcxoro npenonrenx oxasanact raxax xoporxax ncropnuec-
xax namxrt: net o XVIII n. nce pycnnt n Hpnxapnarcxo Pycn tnn
npanocnanntmn, n nocne nacnntcrnennoro opamennx n ynnm nyumne
ns nnx ne rontxo n cnoe yme npoonxann trt npanocnanntmn, no
orxptro npncoennxnnct x Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn, yyun sa
+ro xecroxo ronnmt. H n namn nn mnorne rannuane raxxe xnnxmr
npnmep ncrnnntx ncnonennxon Cnxroro npanocnannx.
18 anrycra 1941 r., nocne nauana Bennxo Oreuecrnenno nont n
oxxynannn Vxpannt rnrneponnamn, enncxon Htnoncxn Hanrenenmon
no npnrnamennm apxnenncxona Anexcnx (Ipomacxoro; 1.11.1882
8.5.1943) npntn n Houaencxym nanpy nx yuacrnx n Enncxoncxom co-
nemannn, xoropoe ero unent npn cocrannennn npnnxrtx nocranonnenn
nasnann Coopom. Ha +rom Coope on n pyrne npanocnannte apxn-
102
2009, N 3 (17)
epen, oxasanmnecx na oxxynnponanno reppnropnn Vxpannt, ns-sa ne-
nosmoxnocrn xaxo-nno cnxsn uepes nnnnm ]ponra co cnxmennonaua-
nnem Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn n Mocxne nponosrnacnnn npemen-
noe cosanne Anronomno Vxpanncxo nepxnn. unent Coopa ocnont-
nann xanonnuecxoe nonoxenne Anronomno nepxnn n cocrane Pyccxo
no xanonnuecxnm nosrnannennem narpnapmero mecronmcrnrenx mnr-
pononnra Mocxoncxoro Ceprnx (Crparopocxoro) na pemennn Bcepoc-
cncxoro Homecrnoro Coopa 1917-1918 rr. o aponannn npanocnanno
nepxnn na Vxpanne anronomnoro craryca, norom, nnpouem, ynpasnen-
noro cnxremnm narpnapxom Tnxonom (o uem n nocranonnennn Houaen-
cxoro conemannx enncxonon ynomxnyro ne tno). Inano Anronomno
Vxpanncxo npanocnanno nepxonn tn nspan crapemn no xnporo-
nnn Bontncxn apxnenncxon Anexcn (Ipomacxn; pyxononoxen n nn-
xapnoro enncxona 3.09.1922 r.), nosneennt sarem n can mnrpononn-
ra
13
.
Xorx Anronomnax nepxont Vxpannt n ne noptnana xanonnuecxo cnxsn
c Mocxoncxnm narpnapxarom, ee anronomnt craryc rax n ne tn npn-
snan narpnapmnm mecronmcrnrenem mnrpononnrom Ceprnem n +xsap-
xom Vxpannt mnrpononnrom Knencxnm Hnxonaem (pymennuem). Ho
npn +rom ee unent ne noneprannct xanonnuecxnm npemennxm. Hocne
ocnooxennx crpant or ]amncron n nosnpamennx nepapxnuecxnx
crpyxryp Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara na Vxpanny nepapxnx n yxonen-
crno Anronomno nepxnn n cymem cane nomnn n nero
14
.
Hasnauennt narpnapmnm mecronmcrnrenem mnrpononnrom Cep-
rnem 15 nmnx na naxanrnym Knencxym xa]epy c rnrynom mnrpononnr
Knencxn n Iannnxn, +xsapx Vxpannt nnatxa Hnxona (pymennu)
ne cmor naxonrtcx n Knene no ocroxrentcrnam noennoro npemenn. B
exape 1941 r. nepapxnx npanocnanno Anronomno nepxnn nx xano-
nnuecxoro nospoxennx penne Knencxo enapxnn, nourn nonnocrtm
ynnuroxenno nonncrnenntm arensmom n pasrpomnenno nnnxonnamn-
camocnxramn, nanpannna n Knen nyumnx npecrannrene nontncxo-ra-
nnnxoro npanocnannoro yxonencrna no rnane c enncxonom Htnoncxnm
Hanrenenmonom (Pytxom).
18 exapx 1941 r. enncxon Hanrenenmon na npanax enapxnantnoro
apxnepex npntn n Knen
15
. Hpoxnnanmn na noxoe n Knene enncrnen-
nt na ncm naxonnmymcx no conercxo nnacrtm Vxpanny apxnepe
xanonnuecxoro pyxononoxennx cnnoantnoro nepnoa npecrapent cxn-
apxnenncxon Anronn nomen n xanonnuecxoe omenne c enncxonom
Hanrenenmonom
16
.
Bnatxe Hanrenenmony xax ynpannxmmemy Knencxo enapxne npe-
croxno oprannsonart enapxnantnym n npnxocxym xnsnt nourn c nynx n
cnoxnemnx ycnonnxx noennoro npemenn. Hepnonauantno repmancxne
103

oxxynannonnte nnacrn ymtmnenno onycrnnn crnxnnoe nospoxenne
nepxonno xnsnn. Onaxo n nenom repmancxax nonnrnxa no ornomennm
x npanocnannm tna nocrpoena no npnnnnny pasenx n nnacrny.
Crpemxct ocnanrt pyccxoe nnnxnne, nanncrt nsnauantno ncnontsona-
nn yxpanncxn nannonannsm n pasenenne npanocnanno nepxnn. Iep-
mancxo nnacrn tno ntrontm npornnocroxnne npanocnanno nepap-
xnn n pacxontnnuecxo. Bcem orxptrtm nepxnam tno nocranneno
ycnonne na orocnyxennxx monnrtcx sa nonym nnacrt
17
.
B Knene enncxon Hanrenenmon cpasy xe orxptn Enapxnantnoe yn-
pannenne n npemenno oocnonan cnom pesnennnm n rom xopnyce nos-
poxennoro c npnxoom nemnen Cnxro-Hoxponcxoro xencxoro monac-
rtpx, n xoropom ceuac noxon nrymennn. Hpn nomomn cnonx nomomnn-
xon nnatxa nauan ocnxmart nonoorxptrte xpamt, nasnauart n nnx
cnxmennnxon n ntanart anrnmnnct. Hepnonauantno n nnxnem xpame
Cnxro-Hnxonaencxoro monacrtpcxoro coopa, rax xax nepxnn eme ne
tn ocnooxen or xaxnx-ro ycranonnenntx esoxno nnacrtm n
30-e rr. mexannuecxnx cranxon, on nnryprncan no nosmoxnocrn exe-
nenno, conepmax naxoncxne n cnxmennnuecxne xnporonnn nx sanon-
nennx yxonencrnom ncex nonoorxptnanmnxcx n nosnpamanmnxcx ns
anroxe]antnoro pacxona xpamon Knena n Knenmnnt
18
.
nx nononnennx yxonencrna n Knene c narocnonennx enncxona Han-
renenmona tnn opasonant nponepounte xomnccnn ns nnn c orocnon-
cxnm opasonannem. Bnatxa nnora cam nonpan n +xsamenonan cran-
nennnxon nepe xnporonne. Inannoe xe nononnenne mno uepes oyue-
nne xannaron na xparxocpountx xypcax (or 1 o 6 mecxnen). Hpana,
sarem oxxynanrt sanpernnn nx, xax n oprannsannm ntcmero orocnon-
cxoro opasonannx. Tontxo ocentm 1943 r., xora conercxne nocxa yxe
npnnnxannct x ropoy, enncxony Hanrenenmony paspemnnn cosart
yxonnym cemnnapnm n Knene. Ho npemenn nx peannsannn +roro nna-
na yxe ne ocrananoct
19
.
Tpyamn enncxona Hanrenenmona n Knencxo enapxnn n 1942 r. tno
orxptro 8 monacrtpe (n camom Knene tno nospoxeno 6 onrene c
760 nacentnnxamn: 3 myxcxnx - Kneno-Heuepcxax nanpa, Hononcxn n
Mnxanoncxn n 3 xencxnx monacrtpx - Hoxponcxn, upononcxn n
Bneencxn) n 318 xpamon (n 1943 r. npnxoon tno yxe 500), ns nnx n
camom Knene 28 (ocentm 1943 r. uncno xnencxnx xpamon ocrnrno 40).
B enapxnn no omo]opom nnatxn Hanrenenmona cnyxnnn 434 cnx-
mennnxa. B 1943 r. uncno npnxoon n enapxnn ocrnrno nourn 50 %
openonmnnonnoro yponnx, a xonnuecrno cnxmennocnyxnrene - 70 %
20
.
Anronomno nepxnn tn nosnpamen Bnanmnpcxn coop, xoropt no-
rorannnnancx x ropxecrnennomy ocnxmennm nocne mepsocrn esox-
noro ocxnepnennx, roronnnnct x nepeaue Mnrpononnutn nanart n sa-
nne xoncncropnn na reppnropnn Co]nencxoro coopa.
104
2009, N 3 (17)
Onn ns nnxamnx nomomnnxon nnatxn Hanrenenmona nepomo-
nax Hpencnan nmnn paccxastnart o rom, xax onn n Knene nosnpama-
nn xpamt, sanxrte anroxe]antntm yxonencrnom. Hpn +rom on o
noponocre xnnonncno ncnomnnan, xax onaxt on c naxonom onos-
an x nauany orocnyxennx na npecrontnt npasnnx n xpam, ns xoro-
poro onn no npocte nepymmnx n narocnonennm nnatxn Hanrenen-
mona onxnt tnn ntnopnrt pacxontnnxon. Oren Hpencnan c na-
xonom ntnyxent tnn onaunrtcx n npnrnope, no npemx manoro nxo-
a, ne ntenxxct ns macct monxmnxcx, noomnn x amnony, ntxnarnnn
ns pyx nnnxoncxoro cnxmennnxa Cnxroe Enanrenne n orcnyxnnn o-
rocnyxenne na npnnecennom c coom anrnmnnce. Pacxontnnuecxoro
camocnxra npanocnannte aymxn, c nauana orocnyxennx sanonnnn-
mne xpam n c nerepnennem oxnanmne +roro momenra, es nnmnero
myma ntramnnn ns xpama n cnxnn c nero cnxmennte onauennx
21
.
Kpome cyryo enapxnantntx en, nnatxe Hanrenenmony npnxon-
noct pemart ena, xacammnecx ncero npanocnannx na Vxpanne. Knen n
rot Bennxo Oreuecrnenno nont cran nocne Bontnn nroptm mec-
rom, n xoropom pasnepnynact rxxenax opta xanonnuecxo anronom-
no nepxnn n pacxontnnuecxo-nannonanncrnuecxo oprannsannn, nast-
naemo Anroxe]antno nepxontm, cosanno npn yuacrnn Bapmancxo-
ro mnrpononnra nonncnx (Banennncxoro) pacxontnnuecxnmn ecrnn-
xmn Honnxapna (Cnxopcxoro)
22
. Ornomenne enncxona Hanrenenmona x
npeemnnxam coopnonpanno naroari mnrpononnron Bactnx Htn-
xnncxoro n Mtxont Fopenxoro, ocrarxn xoroptx saxnnnn o cee na ces-
e n Knene 29 cenrxpx 1941 r., tno ncera crporo xanonnuecxnm. Bo
npemx neperonopon co craptmn nnnxonnamn n neonnnxonnamn Honnxap-
na on nacrannan na npnnxrnn nx n omenne npn orcyrcrnnn xanonnuec-
xnx npenxrcrnn n rontxo nocne noxaxnnx n nonoro nocnxmennx.
Enncxon Hanrenenmon, xax n nce enncxont, yxonencrno n nepymmne
Anronomno nepxnn, xoroptx na Vxpanne tno aconmrnoe ontmnn-
crno, ntcrynnn npornn nexanonnuecxoro oennennx c pacxontnnxa-
mn, nonncannoro 8 oxrxpx 1942 r. n apxnepecxom ome na reppnro-
pnn Houaencxo nanpt. Tora mnrpononnr Anexcn (Ipomacxn) no
annennem n manraxom npntnmnx anroxe]antntx enncxonon Hn-
xanopa unrnpnncxoro (Apamonnua) n Mcrncnana Hepexcnancxoro
(Cxptnnnxa)
23
, ne nmex na ro nonnomoun or enncxonara Anronomno
nepxnn, nocnemno cornacnncx c npenoxenntm emy Axrom nocnan-
nx. 3ror Axr nponosrnaman cneymmee: 1. Hpnsnaem, uro ]axrn-
uecxn Vxpanncxax Anroxe]antnax npanocnannax nepxont yxe cyme-
crnyer. 2. Vxpanncxax Anroxe]antnax npanocnannax nepxont nmeer en-
nenne co ncemn npanocnanntmn nepxnamn uepes Ero Fnaxencrno Fna-
xennemero mnrpononnra nonncnx, xoropt o Bceyxpanncxoro Ho-
mecrnoro Coopa xnnxercx mecronmcrnrenem Knencxoro mnrpononn-
105

utero npecrona. 3. Btcmnm opranom ynpannennx Vxpanncxo Anroxe-
]antno npanocnanno nepxnn o Bceyxpanncxoro Homecrnoro Coopa
xnnxercx Cnxmennt Coop enncxonon Vxpannt, xoropt ynpannxer
nepxonno xnsntm Vxpannt uepes Cnxmennt Cnno. 4. Cnxmennt
Cnno cocronr ns nxrn crapmnx enncxonon Vxpannt... 7. Bce pasnnunx
xanonnuecxoro xapaxrepa, xoropte ntsnann pasennenne, namn pac-
cmorpent n ontme ne cymecrnymr
24
. Bor rax nepxonnt pacxon npe-
xpamancx nyrem nnxnnannn xanonnuecxo nepxnn n npnsnannx anroxe-
]anncron saxonntmn cnxmennocnyxnrenxmn es nx noxaxnnx c npnsna-
nnem camocnxrcxnx xnporonn! Hpnnxrt es ocyxennx n coop-
noro npnnxrnx +ror nexanonnuecxn Axr nonnexan n pacxon c nonno-
ro npanocnannx enncrnennym na mnorocrpaantno Vxpanne npano-
cnannym nepxont, xoropo xnnxnact Anronomnax nepxont n cocrane
Pyccxo. Bor raxon neuantnt pesyntrar oennennx, ocnonannoro
na nannonantno roptne, npenepexennn nepxonntmn xanonamn n ne-
nocnymannn cnxmennonauannm Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn.
Enncxon Hanrenenmon, ocynn c apxnenncxonom uepnnroncxnm Cn-
monom (Hnanoncxnm; 1.02.1888-1.02.1966) n enncxonom Honrancxnm
Bennamnnom (Honnnxnm) nexanonnuecxn oxymenr c nonnctm nep-
nonepapxa Anronomno nepxnn, xoropt pacxontnnxn ncmy npenono-
cnnn xax cnom noey, nacroxn na cpounom copannn Apxnepecxoro
Coopa. Coop cocroxncx 30 oxrxpx 1942 r. n nocranonnn pasocnart x
uaam Anronomno nepxnn pasrpomnoe Apxnnacrtpcxoe Hocnanne
npornn Axra nocnannx, cocrannennoe enncxonom Bennamnnom. B
Hocnannn tno xcno yxasano, uro yxpanncxnx nonoopasonanntx anro-
xe]anncron-nonnxapnonnen nyxno cunrart xax cexry nnnxonnen, nce
nmn pyxononoxennoe yxonencrno nyxno npnsnart nnmenntm naroa-
rn, rax xax anroxe]anncrt napymnnn npanocnannte xanont, pyxonona-
rann xenartx n cementx cnxmennnxon n enncxont n crannnn nannona-
nnsm n noome nonnrnxy ntme cocrnenno nepxonntx nnrepecon
25
.
Fnaroapx pennocrn cnonx coparten-apxnepeen n enncrny c nepy-
mmnmn mnrpononnr Anexcn, ocosnan cnom omnxy, annynnponan cnom
nonnct no nexanonnuecxnm n npearentcxnm Axrom nocnannx.
Cran na nyrt crpororo nepxonnoro npanonopxxa n conmennx xano-
non, nnatxa coxpannn cex n Anronomnym nepxont n xanonnuecxo
uncrore. B orner nannonanncrt nauann pennrnosnym nony c saxnarom
xpamon, yncrnamn nepapxon n yxonencrna. 8 max 1943 r. no opore ns
Kpemenna n yno mexy cenamn Hnxonaenxa n Cmtra ntnemnero
yencxoro paona Ponencxo onacrn mnrpononnr Anexcn (Ipoma-
cxn) tn ynr yxpanncxnmn camocrnnnxamn, nnsxnmn x Honnxap-
ny (Cnxopcxomy)
26
. Hoono anocrony Herpy, npeanmemy cnoero Ioc-
noa n noxaxnmemycx (cm. M]. 26, 69-75; Hn. 18, 25-27; 21, 15-17), mnr-
106
2009, N 3 (17)
pononnr Anexcn cnoe myuennuecxo xpontm cmtn rpex cnoe camo-
unnno xannrynxnnn
27
Anronomno nepxnn nepe narntmn nannona-
nncramn-camocnxramn.
Hontm npecroxrenem Anronomno nepxnn cran nspannt na Ap-
xnepecxom Coope n Konene 6 nmnx 1943 r. crapemn no xnporonnn
enncxon Kamenen-Hoontcxn amacxnn (Manmra; 22.10.1903-1944;
9.08.1940 xnpor. no en. Xnromnpcxoro) c nosneennem ero n can apxn-
enncxona. Enncxon Hanrenenmon ne cmor npnnxrt yuacrnx n Coope.
Ero ne ycrponno nanxsannoe nemenxnmn nnacrxmn nanmenonanne apxn-
enncxona amacxnna rontxo crapmnm enncxonom Anronomno nepx-
nn, n on nnannponan nosnpamenne rnryna nepnonepapxa na Coope, xo-
ropt onxen tn cocroxrtcx n Knene 19 cenrxpx 1943 r. n cnxsn c
ropxecrnenntm ocnxmennem Bnanmnpcxoro coopa
28
. Ho tcrpoe
npnnnxenne ]ponra n ocnooxenne yxpanncxnx sement or saxnarun-
xon nomemano xenannxm nnatxn.
Hpnnnsnrentno sa mecxn o ocnooxennx Conercxo apmne Kn-
ena enncxon Hanrenenmon nmecre co cnonm xenennxom n nnonaxonom
monaxom nmnrpnem (Bypom) no pacnopxxennm nemenxo nnacrn o
+naxyannn rpaxancxoro nacenennx tn ntnyxen +mnrpnponart na
3ana. 3ro coxpannno ero or apecron, onpocon n nosmoxno cctnxn,
rax xax nce tnmne na oxxynnponanntx nemnamn reppnropnxx conerc-
xo nnacrtm cunrannct nenaronaexntmn. Kpome roro, nnatxa Han-
renenmon no amnnncrparnnno-nepxonntm enam tn ntnyxen nmert
xonraxrt c npecrannrenxmn repmancxo nnacrn n n cnonx opamenn-
xx x nepymmnm xnannrt repmancxym nannm xax ocnoonrentnnny or
conercxoro nra.
Hocne oresa ns Knena enncxon Hanrenenmon ocranonnncx n Bap-
mane. Mnrpononnr Bapmancxn nonncn, ysnan, uro rnana Anronom-
no nepxnn apxnenncxon amacxnn conercxnmn noenntmn nnacrxmn ape-
cronan n Kamenen-Hoontcxe, ennonnuno n anpene 1944 r. nepean
rnryn nepnonepapxa Vxpanncxo Anronomno nepxnn nnatxe Hanre-
nenmony (Pytxy) c nosneennem n can apxnenncxona
29
. Tax apxnennc-
xon Hanrenenmon tn nasnauen rnano Anronomno nepxnn, xoropax x
romy npemenn saxanunnana cnoe cymecrnonanne na semnxx Vxpannt.
Taxnm opasom, on oxasancx rpertnm n nocnennm npecroxrenem An-
ronomno nepxnn na Vxpanne, cymecrnonanme n rot Bennxo Oreue-
crnenno nont. Hmemrcx apxnnnte cnnerentcrna, uro apxnenncxon
Hanrenenmon n xonne 1944 r. n Fepnnne nce xe npecrannxncx rnano
Anronomno Vxpanncxo npanocnanno nepxnn
30
.
5 anpenx 1946 r. na Apxnepecxom Coope Pyccxo npanocnanno nep-
xnn sa rpannne (PHH3) n Mmnxene no npecearentcrnom mnrpono-
nnra Anacracnx (Ipnanoncxoro) apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon (Pytx) n
107

uncne pyrnx 12 apxnepeen Anronomntx Vxpanncxo n Fenopyccxo
nepxne tn npnnxr n Pyccxym 3apyexnym nepxont n cymem cane.
Oe Anronomnte nepxnn noennoro npemenn rora npexparnnn cnoe cy-
mecrnonanne.
Pyxonocrnom 3apyexno nepxnn n 1946 r. apxnenncxon Hanrenen-
mon tn nanpannen n Cenepnym A]pnxy nx ycrpocrna orentno
enapxnn. B Tynnce emy uacro npnxonnoct cnyxnrt sa cnxmennnxa ns-
sa onesnn nacroxrenx n ocrarouno ontmo n axrnnno pyccxo xo-
nonnn. He oomnoct n Tynnce es xon]nnxron c mecrntmn rpeuecxnmn
xnnpnxamn, rax xax ero nasnauenne cocroxnoct es npenapnrentnoro
cornaconannx c Anexcanpncxnm narpnapxom, xoropomy xanonnuecxn
nounnena ncx A]pnxa. Harpnapx sanpernn cnoemy yxonencrny ome-
nne c pyccxnmn cnxmennnxamn, nomnnammnmn apxnenncxona Hanrene-
nmona. Bcxope apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona n pyccxnx exencxnx xo-
nonnxx Cenepno A]pnxn cmennn enncxon Ha]anann (Htnon; 1906-
1986)
31
.
Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon Cnnoom PHH3 tn nasnauen n Apren-
rnny c rnrynom Fy+noc-Apeccxn. Heonro on npocnyxnn n mpncnx-
nnn 3apyexnoro Cnnoa n crpanax Rxno Amepnxn n n nauane 1950 r.
tn xomannponan n Hpan.
B 1952 r. nepeneen n Kanay n ynpannxn Monpeantcxo n Bocrouno-
xanacxo, a sarem 3monroncxo n 3ananoxanacxo enapxnxmn
PHH3. Cneyx enanrentcxomy nacrannennm Cnacnrenx Hncyca Xpnc-
ra - xora xe yyr rnart nac n onom ropoe, ernre n pyro (M].
10, 23), on ocrannn cnoe mecro nx ronnrene n nanncan npomenne cnx-
rememy narpnapxy Anexcnm o cnoem crpemnennn trt n enxapncrn-
uecxom n monnrnenno-xanonnuecxom omennn c Pyccxo npanocnanno
nepxontm n Oreuecrne
32
. 5 mapra 1959 r. apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon,
ncera xenanmn n nepno cnonx onrnx cxnrann no uyxo semne nos-
nparnrtcx n nono marepn-nepxnn, noccoennnncx c Mocxoncxnm narpn-
apxarom
33
. Cornacno Xypnantnomy nocranonnennm N 4 Cnxmennoro
Cnnoa, apxnenncxony Hanrenenmony tno ano npano cnxmennocny-
xennx n xpame no nmx cn. nnxmu. Bapnapt n ropoe 3monrone n n
npounx npanocnanntx xpamax
34
. 8 max 1959 r. n Htm-Hopxe nnatxa
Hanrenenmon nosrnannn apxnepecxym xnporonnm no enncxona Htm-
Hopxcxoro ocn]ex (Hnanuenxo)
35
. 8 anrycra 1959 r. ononpemenno c
yupexennem 3monroncxo-Kanacxo enapxnn Mocxoncxoro narpnap-
xara apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon tn nasnauen nepntm n, xax oxasanoct
n antnemem, nocnennm ee npanxmnm apxnepeem c rnrynom 3mon-
roncxn n Kanacxn.
B Kanae nacrny nnatxn Hanrenenmona cocrannxnn ente xpec-
rtxne ns Iannnnn, Fyxonnnt n Bontnn. B Kanae onn sannmannct rx-
xentm ]epmepcxnm rpyom na semne. Ho co npemenem yxe nx ern n
108
2009, N 3 (17)
rem onee nnyxn, nonyunn opasonanne n xanacxnx mxonax, crann ne-
peesxart n ropoa, npn +rom nocrenenno cnnnaxct c pyrnmn nanno-
nantnocrxmn n repxx yxonnym cnxst c pontmn xpamamn n npano-
cnanno xyntrypo. Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon ncemn cnnamn npornno-
croxn noono cexynxpnsannnn yxonno xnsnn pycnnon, croxn na crpa-
xe coxpanennx nmn nepxonnocnanxncxoro xstxa, rpannnonnoro yxnaa
xnsnn n pennrnosnoro tra. H ontmax uacrt pycnnon, nnnmax naro-
cnonennm cnoero nnatxn, crpemnnact epexno xpannrt ponym nepy
Xpncrony n cnon rpannnn, xoropte nx npexn npnnesnn, xax onn ntpa-
xamrcx, co craporo xpax.
Apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona n nonoopasonanno enapxnn oxnan
nenouart xpa paort. Hao tno npnopecrn sanne no pesnen-
nnm n enapxnantnoe ynpannenne, nananrt enapxnantnym n npnxoc-
xym xnsnt. Bo mnornx npnxoax ne xnarano cnxmennnxon, orocnyxe-
no nnreparypt, nxon. nx onnart anxoncxo ccyt n sapaorxa
cpecrn na coepxanne pesnennnn xenennx nnatxn apxnnaxon
n m n r p n
(Byp) naun-
naer nomnn
c n x me nnn-
uecxnx ona-
uenn. B npn-
operennom
na nnunte
cepexennx
omnxe onn
ycrponnn xpe-
cronym nep-
xont n uecrt
nnennx Fo-
xne Marepn
na Houaenc-
xo rope n
1240 roy, c
npecrontntm
npasnnxom n
n x r n n n y
Cnerno ce-
mnnt.
Ha +rom
cnoem nocne-
nem nocny-
Hpncnonamxrnt apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon (Pytx) na
npasnnunom npneme y ropocxoro ronont (m+pa) Monpea-
nx, re n osnamenonanne Bocxpecennx Xpncrona npyuaer xo-
sxnny ropoa xpacnoe xnuxo (Hacxa 1955 r.).
uoro ns apxnna npnxoxannna Monpeantcxoro Cnxro-Hn-
xonaencxoro coopa Kanacxo enapxnn Pyccxo npanocnan-
no nepxnn sa rpannne Herpa Hannonnua Haranynnn: http://
www.russianorthodoxchurch.ws/01newstucture/pagesru/
novosti2005/monttradition.html
109

mannn Pyccxo nepxnn apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon npnnoxnn nemano
ycnnn nx ynyumennx nepxonno xnsnn nonocosanno cnoe enapxnn.
C 1962 r. crann perynxpntmn enapxnantnte cest, saceannx enapxn-
antnoro ynpannennx n enapxnantnoro conera
36
. Or yxonencrna nnat-
xa crporo rpeonan xanonnuecxo ncnnnnnnt n npn +rom tn nx nero
nmxmnm ornom. Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon rpeonan n or mnpxn co-
nmennx xanonon n ycrpocrne npnxocxo xnsnn n ne nepenocnn sa-
nanoro yxa emoxparnn npn pemennn cyryo nepxonntx nonpocon.
Ho narocnonennm apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona n 1963 r. cran exe-
xnaprantno ntxonrt Kanactxn Hpanocnannn nicnnx. B ero nsa-
nnn, peaxrnponannn marepnanon, noncxe cpecrn nx neuarn n pacnpo-
crpanennn on npnnnman nocroxnnoe xnnoe yuacrne. Mecrnoe enapxn-
antnoe yxonencrno nynnxonano ocrynnte nx nonnmannx npnxoxan
crartn n npononen na yxpanncxom xstxe, uepes necxontxo ner c yue-
rom mecrntx ycnonn crann neuarart na anrnncxom xstxe rontxo xpo-
nnxy n nexponorn. 3ror exexnaprantnt xypnan, cranonxct c roamn
nce onee anrnoxstuntm, perynxpno nsanancx narpnapmnmn npnxoa-
mn n Kanae no 1986 r. Bce nomepa Canadian Orthodox Messenger
xpanxrcx n ]onax mysex-nnnorexn npn Cnxro-Bapnapnncxom coo-
pe.
Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon perynxpno noceman npnxot n nn npe-
crontntx npasnnxon, axe camte antnne n nemnorouncnennte, na
xoroptx nnxora ne tno apxnepecxnx orocnyxenn. Hpn orcyrcrnnn
npnxocxnx nacroxrene on conepman orocnyxennx n rpet n ]ep-
mepcxnx xpamax xax otunt cnxmennnx. Ho narocnonennm nnatxn
tn ycranonnen mecrnt omeenapxnantnt npasnnx - ent npano-
cnannx n Kanae, xoropt ropxecrnenno npasnonancx n Kanacxom
nannonantnom sanonennxe Hocnnt ocrpon (Elk Island National Park)
n ono ns nocxpecenn nmnx, a nosxe no ouepen n nsnecrntx cnoe
axrnnnocrtm npnxoax.
B camom nauane cnyxennx apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona n 3mon-
roncxo-Kanacxo enapxnn xaracrpo]nuecxn ne xnarano yxonencrna.
Ho ero xoaracrny nepe npecearenem Orena nnemnnx nepxonntx
cnomenn (c 2000 r. - Oren nnemnnx nepxonntx cnxse) Mocxoncxoro
narpnapxara mnrpononnrom Hnxonmom (Porontm) cnxmennonauanne
Pyccxo nepxnn crano perynxpno nanpannxrt n Kanay nx oxopmnennx
cooreuecrnennnxon cnxmennnxon ns Vxpanncxoro +xsapxara. 23 mapra
1962 r. n 3monroncxym enapxnm npntnn nepnte cnxmennocnyxnre-
nn ns Vxpannt nporonepen Koncranrnn Craxoncxn n Enrenn Fap-
mencxn. Onn, ontrnte n sacnyxennte cnxmennnxn, crann rnanntmn
nomomnnxamn npanxmero apxnepex. C roro npemenn oxono 40 cnxmen-
nocnyxnrene, nanpannenntx Cnxmenntm Cnnoom Pyccxo npanocnan-
110
2009, N 3 (17)
no nepxnn nx necennx nacrtpcxoro cnyxennx n narpnapmnx npnxoax
n Kanae, npoonxnnn cnxroe eno nepntx cnxmennocnyxnrene Pyc-
cxo nepxnn n xanacxo nponnnnnn Antepra ornon-mnccnonepon
nmnrpnx Kamnena, Bnanmnpa Anexcanpona, Haxona Kopunncxoro n
pyrnx. Or yxonencrna nnatxa rpeonan axrnnnoro mnccnonepcxoro
cnyxennx n cam nnuno noxastnan npnmep, unrax n pasntx npnxoax
nexnnn o yxonno xnsnn, ncropnn n cnxrtnxx Houaencxo nanpt n
Cnxro 3emnn.
Ocooe nnnmanne ntcoxonpeocnxmennt nnatxa yenxn yyme-
my npanocnannx monoexn. Bo mnornx npnxoax tnn ocnonant mo-
noexnte parcrna, cpen xoroptx camtm axrnnntm xnnxnoct Hpo-
poxo-Hntnncxoe, oennnnmee axrnnnym monoext npnxoon n unn-
mane, Bnmxonnax, Monepe n Berpennnne. Hentm parcrn xnnxnoct
npanocnannoe nocnnranne n opasonanne monoexn c nsyuennem po-
noro xstxa
37
.
exrentnocrt apxnnacrtpx cnococrnonana ynennuennm uncna npn-
xoon o 35. Hexoropte npnxot pyrnx mpncnxnn, n xoroptx ne
tno cnxmennocnyxnrene, nncann npomennx nnatxe Hanrenenmony
c npocto npnnxrt nx no cno omo]op n no ero pemennm npncoennx-
nnct x marepn-nepxnn. B cnxsn c pocrom xonnuecrna unenon nexoropte
xpamt crann recntmn nx yuacrnx n orocnyxennn ncex npnxoxan.
3ro ntsnano norpenocrt n crponrentcrne nontx, onee nmecrnrent-
ntx n naronenntx xpamon. Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon ocnxrnn non-
ntm apxnepecxnm unnom nononocrpoennte Cnxro-Bapnapnncxn co-
op
38
n necxontxo ]epmepcxnx xpamon (n nponnnnnn Antepra - n Hnc-
xm, Cnnpnr Pnnep, Ioptnt, n nponnnnnn Cacxauenant n Enop n Max-
Harr).
B nonoocnxmennt Cnxro-Bapnapnncxn coop, xoropt cran xa-
]epantntm xpamom 3monroncxo-Kanacxo enapxnn, apxnenncxon
Hanrenenmon nepean uacrnny mome (nenym crony) cn. nmn. Bapna-
pt. Hpnnesennax nm ns Knena nernennax nenax crona ouent nounrae-
mo na Pycn cnxro c rex nop xnnxercx rnanno cnxrtne narpnapmnx
npnxoon n Kanae. Ho a]oncxo rpannnn, ona nocroxnno naxonrcx
na npecrone coopa n anrape, orxya, no otuam, n ocote npasnnxn
ntnocnrcx nx noxnonennx nepymmnm.
Ho xoaracrny nnatxn Hanrenenmona n 1960 r. nepnax nanomnn-
uecxax rpynna npnxoxan narpnapmnx npnxoon n Kanae n cocrane 4-x
uenonex no rnane c nporonepeem Hoannom Maprnrnuem nocernna cnx-
rtnn Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn. B antnemem noonte nanom-
nnuecxne noesxn, n oprannsannn xoroptx npnnnman npxmoe yuacrne
nnatxa Hanrenenmon, crann perynxpntmn n conepmannct o nauana
1990-x rr. XX n. Taxne nanomnnuecrna ouent ynpounxnn cnxst mexy
111

npnxoamn Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara n Kanae c pono nepxontm n
Oreuecrne, nooymennxnn oromontnen x antnememy pennocrnomy
cnyxennm n nepnocrn marepn-nepxnn, yxpennxnn nepy n xanacxnx ce-
mtxx nanomnnxon.
C 7 cenrxpx 1961 r. apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon nocernn ponym nep-
xont-mart, xoropax nepexnnana cnoxnoe npemx xpymencxnx ronenn.
Bo npemx cnoero nyxneentnoro npetnannx n Conercxom Comse on
conepman orocnyxennx n xpamax Mocxnt, Tponne-Ceprneno nanpt,
Tponnxo Anexcanpo-Hencxo nanpt, Hennnrpaa, noxnonxncx cnxrt-
nxm, monnncx sa cnom nacrny n ncm Pyccxym nepxont, nmen ecet c
narpnapmnm +xsapxom n Amepnxe mnrpononnrom Fopncom n npecea-
renem OBHC apxnenncxonom pocnancxnm n Pocroncxnm Hnxonmom
39
.
Cnxremn narpnapx Anexcn I noapnn nnatxe cnncox uyornopno
Houaencxo nxont Foromarepn n paronennom oxnae n xnore n nne
cnxmme snest, xoropax nx nero xax tnmero namecrnnxa Houaen-
cxo nanpt crana nennxo cnxrtne n yxonno noepxxo n apxnnac-
rtpcxom cnyxennn na xpam semnn
40
.
B 1962 r. apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon conepmnn nyxmecxunoe (c 17
anrycra no 23 noxpx) nanomnnuecrno x cnxrtnxm Cnxro 3emnn, noc-
nomnnannx n nneuarnennx o xoropom on onynnxonan no nasnannem
Hpoma n Cnxry 3emnm i cnxrn ropo Cpycannm n nenom pxe nome-
pon Kanactxoro Hpanocnannoro nicnnxa sa 1965-1966 rr. Hs Cnxro
3emnn on npnnosnr nxont, onauennx n pyrne cnxrtnn, xoroptmn mepo
ennrcx c unenamn cnonx npnxoon.
Ho npnrnamennm cnxremero narpnapxa Anexcnx (Cnmancxoro) ap-
xnenncxon Hanrenenmon n 1967 r. n ouepeno pas notnan na Pyccxo
semne. C 24 max no 22 nmnx on nocernn nepxonnte cnxrtnn Mocxnt,
Tponne-Ceprneno Hanpt, Hennnrpaa, Knena, Oecct, Htnona, Houa-
encxo nanpt n Ponno, n xoroptx nmecre co cnonmn copartxmn-apxn-
epexmn conepman orocnyxennx.
C cepeuno ontm n couyncrnnem nnatxa ntcnymnnan paccxast
myxecrnenntx ncnonennxon o saxptrnn n ocxnepnennn npanocnanntx
xpamon n npnrecnennxx nepymmnx. Camoe rxxenoe npemx nx Pyccxo
nepxnn n nocnenoennt nepno +noxa xpymencxnx ronenn, xora sax-
ptnn Kneno-Heuepcxym nanpy n esycnemno ntrannct pasornart pa-
rnm Houaencxo nanpt - yxe mnnonano. Ho n n pexnencxne npemena
yxonencrny n nepymmnm nce xe npnxonnoct mnoroe n nepxonno xns-
nn enart rano n no crpaxom npecneonann. Hecmorpx na xonrpont
conercxnx opranon sa noesxo apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona, ocoenno
rporarentntmn nx nero tnn orocnyxennx n ncrpeun n Knene n Ho-
uaencxo nanpe. B Cnxro-Bnanmnpcxom coope x nemy c naroapno-
crtm noxonnn mnorne pyxononoxennte nm cnxmennocnyxnrenn, n
nnnno ouepetm sa apxnepecxnm narocnonennem croxn npocro
112
2009, N 3 (17)
npanocnannt napo.
3 nmnx 1967 r. n Cnxro-Bnanmnpcxom xa]epantnom coope Knena
apxnenncxon 3monroncxn n Kanacxn Hanrenenmon npnnxn yuac-
rne n napeuennn apxnmanpnra ueoocnx (nxyn; 23.10.1926-
+01.10.2001)
41
no enncxona Hepexcnan-Xmentnnnxoro, nnxapnx Knenc-
xo enapxnn, a na cneymmn ent n ero apxnepecxo xnporonnn
42
.
Onnm ns rnanntx nynxron nanomnnuecrna nnatxn Hanrenenmona
xnnxnoct nocemenne Cnxro-Vcnencxo Houaencxo nanpt, cnryannx
noxpyr xoropo ocrananact nanpxxenno. Monaxon n nocnymnnxon npo-
onxann ncxuecxn npnrecnxrt, cosanax nentnocnmte nx xnsnn yc-
nonnx: nx ntnopxnn ns cren nanpt n sarem ne anann paspemennx nx
nponncxn, nnmann nacnopron, monotx npnstnann n apmnm. Fontmax
uacrt crpoenn, npnnanexanmnx nanpe, tna yxe xon]ncxonana. Cno-
nm oromontem n monnrnenntmn orocnyxennxmn nnatxa yxonno
yxpennn nouaencxnx monaxon n nx ncnonennuecxom mnorocrpaant-
nom croxnnn sa om Foromarepn na cnxro rope Houaencxo. Fesox-
nte mecrnte nnacrn naunnann nonnmart, uro npoonxenne ronennx na
nacentnnxon n saxptrne onrenn, uacrtmn rocrxmn xoropo nce uame
cranonnnnct nnocrpannt, moxer naenart na 3anae mnoro nnmnero
myma, n nocrenenno cmxrunnn cnoe annenne.
C 23 nmnx no 3 nmnx roro xe roa apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon tn
rocrem mnrpononnra Bapmancxoro n ncex Hontmn Cre]ana
43
, cnoero
nnsxoro pocrnennnxa. Bnatxa nocernn npanocnannte monacrtpn n
nounne n na Ipaapxe n conepmnn orocnyxennx n Bapmancxom mnr-
pononnutem coope
44
.
Ko nm cnoero resonmennrcrna n 1968 r. no narocnonennm cnxmen-
nonauannx name nepxnn n npnrnamennm Koncranrnnonontcxoro narpn-
apxa A]nnaropa apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon c 25 nmnx nocernn cnxrym
ropy A]on, urot nomonnrtcx y cnxrtnt semnoro yena Foromarepn n
noepxart ocxyenmym uncnom pyccxym parnm. Ho cnyuam npe-
crontnoro npasnnxa on nosrnannn ropxecrnennte orocnyxennx n
Cnxro-Hanrenenmononom pyccxom monacrtpe. Bnatxa no nyrn rax-
xe nocernn Honon, Canonnxn, A]nnt, Hapnx n 22 cenrxpx neuepom
nosnparnncx n 3monron. 3ra nonyropamecxunax noesxa crana ero
nocnennm nanomnnuecrnom, xoropte on ouent nmnn conepmart nx
cnoero yxonnoro yxpennennx. Moxno nonarart, uro noxont nnat-
xa, yxe nnrentnoe npemx onenmn naerom, npeuyncrnonan, uro
on naxonrcx y nopora cnoe semno xnsnn. Tontxo rax moxno oxc-
nnrt cnntnoe crpemnenne cnxrnrenx ornpannrtcx n nnrentnoe n yro-
mnrentnoe nx rena nanomnnuecrno na Cnxro A]on, xnnmar xoroporo
onontno pesxo ornnuaercx or xnnmara Cenepo-3anano Kanat, no-
ronert n nomonnrtcx n pyccxo onrenn n ent cnoero resonmennrcrna.
B nocnenne rot cnoero cnyxennx nnatxa nnannponan npnopec-
113

rn ]epmy na epery nnxamero x ropoy osepa nx orxptrnx monac-
rtpx n npn nem ercxoro npanocnannoro narepx. K coxanennm, ns-sa
nnesanno cmeprn on ne ycnen nonnornrt +ry cnom nem n xnsnt, xax n
orxptrt narpnapmne npnxot n Kanrapn, Banxynepe n Toponro.
B osnamenonanne 50-nernx cnyxennx cnxremero narpnapxa Anex-
cnx Cnxro npanocnanno nepxnn n enncxoncxom cane n n namxrt co-
nmecrnoro cnyxennx Vxasom narpnapxa or 11 max 1963 r. apxnenncxon
Hanrenenmon tn narpaxen nepxonntm openom cn. xn. Bnanmnpa
1 crenenn
45
. 3a mnoronernee pennocrnoe cnyxenne apxnenncxona Han-
renenmona yxonencrno n nacrna 3monroncxo enapxnn pemnnn xoa-
racrnonart nepe cnxremnm narpnapxom Mocxoncxnm n ncex Pycn
Anexcnem (Cnmancxnm) o nosneennn cnoero apxnepex n can mnrpono-
nnra. Tontxo nnesannax cmeprt apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona nomema-
na ocymecrnnennm +roro ncxpennero namepennx.
Hocnennm orocnyxennem, na xoropom npncyrcrnonan nnatxa,
crana npasnnunax ncenomnax Bosnnxennm uecrnaro n Xnnornopx-
mero Kpecra Iocnonx. Ha cneymmn ent on yxe ne cmor nonxrtcx
na orocnyxenne. Bpaun npnsnann pesxoe ocnanenne exrentnocrn
cepna n conyrcrnymmee saonenanne nerxnx. Cxonuancx apxnenncxon
Hanrenenmon 2 oxrxpx 1968 r. n 5 uacon 30 mnnyr n nnxamem or
apxnepecxo pesnennnn rocnnrane Anexcanpa ropoa 3monron
46
.
Cmeprt ero crana nx ncex neoxnannocrtm.
B nocxpecente 6 oxrxpx nocne cnyxennx nnryprnn unn norpeennx
nnatxn, xoropt nnncx c 14 o 17 uacon, nosrnannn apxnenncxon Htm-
Hopcxn n Aneyrcxn Hona]an (Konononnu, 1912-1988). Cornacno ntc-
xasannomy n cnoe npemx noxenannm nnatxn, urot ero noxoponnnn
nne mymnoro ropoa, npax apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona tn norpeen
na nenrpantnom mecre xnanma nnxamero npnxoa n Hncxm (Nisku,
Rabbit Hill) n 16 mnnxx or r. 3monrona, nepe nxoom no xpam Poxe-
crna Hpecnxro Foroponnt, xoropt on ocnxrnn.
B monnrnennym namxrt o nnatxe Hanrenenmone na xnanme n
Hncxm tn ycranonnen nennuecrnennt narpont namxrnnx c na-
nnctm: 3ect noxonrcx apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon Emonroncxn n
Kanacxn, Hepnt nepapx Pyccxo Harpnapme Hpanocnanno Hepx-
nn n Kanae n enanrentcxo nnraro ns 3anonee naxencrn na nep-
xonnocnanxncxom xstxe: Fnaxenn ecre, era nonocxr nam, n nsxenyr,
n pexyr ncxx son rnaron na nt, nxyme Mene pan. Payrecx n necenn-
recx, xxo msa nama mnora na neecex (M]. 5, 11-12), n nx Cnxro-
Bapnapnncxoro xa]epantnoro coopa n 3monrone nanncant n 1970-x
rr. ne orpomntx pasmepon nxont cn. nmn. Bapnapt na cpecrna ap-
xnmanpnra nmnrpnx (Bypa) n Foromarepn xonnx anrapno pocnncn
Bacnenona Bnanmnpcxoro coopa n Knene.
Camax rnannax sacnyra apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona n nepno yn-
114
2009, N 3 (17)
mparuen1 narponoro naun1nnxa na
uornne apxnenncxona Han1enenuona.
pannennx 3monroncxo-Kanacxo enapxne n rom, uro on nocnnran cnom
nacrny n nenoxonenmo nepnocrn Mocxoncxomy narpnapxary n nea-
nam Cnxro Pycn. 3ro xpxo npoxnnnoct 10 anpenx 1970 r., xora Moc-
xoncxn narpnapxar npeocrannn Pyccxo npanocnanno rpexo-xa]onn-
uecxo Cenepoamepnxancxo mnrpononnn npocnmt em anroxe]antnt
craryc c nanmenonannem ee Hpanocnanno nepxontm n Amepnxe. Co-
rnacno Tomocy, Harpnapmn +xsapxar Cenepno Amepnxn n nxonnmax
n nero 3monroncxo-Kanacxax enapxnx tnn ynpasnent. Onaxo
nourn nce npnxot enapxnn nnatxn Hanrenenmona noxenann ocrart-
cx n anee n cocrane Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara n onnnct ocooro
craryca nx cnoero npetnannx no ero mpncnxnne, xoropt epe-
ryr o cnx nop.
Bepnt xenennx apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona apxnmanpnr nmnr-
pn (Byp, 17.12.1908 - +25.09.1989), manopocc ns Hoontcxo ryep-
nnn, npomemn c nnm nce nyrn samopcxnx nocnymann, na nonpoc
cnonx nemnorouncnenntx yxonntx ua ns rnepo pycnncxo mono-
exn: Kem tn nnatxa? nensmenno orneuan: Bnatxa tn ueno-
nexom crapo rannnxo mxont
47
. H, oannm, nennxnm nonnxnnxom,
npomemnm ncemn cnoxntmn nyrxmn pyccxo nepxonno ncropnn XX
n., n cosnannn xoropo npnnnman nenocpecrnennoe yuacrne. B nnne
nounnmero Pyccxax Hpanocnannax Hepxont norepxna oporo enare-
nx na nnne Xpncrono, c camtx mntx ner nocnxrnnmero cnom xnsnt
cnyxennm Cnxromy Hpanocnannm, - c ymenno rennoro o nnatxe
tno ormeueno n nexponore
48
.
Apxnenncxon
Hanrenenmon
nonnsancx n
monamecxom
opase 56 ner,
nepomonaxom
npocnyxnn 46
ner, 27 ner on
nec apxnepec-
xn omo]op
49
.
Vsox, rpyen n
repnncr npo-
ennt apxn-
enncxonom Han-
r e ne nmonom
nyrt, no, no cno-
ny Iocnoa na-
mero Hncyca
115

Xpncra, nmenno raxo n rontxo raxo nyrt neer n Hapcrnne Heec-
noe. Bnatxa Hanrenenmon croxn rnepo sa npany cnxroro npanocna-
nnx n sa rnannt pycnncxn nean sa enncrno Cnxro Pycn.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. K coxanennm, o cnx nop, xpome neontmnx samerox cnpanounoro xapaxre-
pa n xparxnx ynomnnann o cnyxennn nnatxn n monorpa]nxx, nocnxmenntx
pasntm nepnoam ncropnn Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn XX n., ner orentnoro
norpa]nuecxoro rpya, nonecrnymmero o cnoxnom xnsnennom nyrn +roro,
esycnonno, ntammerocx nepapxa Pyccxo npanocnanno nepxnn.
2. Kupeee A.ercauop, npomoouarou. Enapxnn n apxnepen Pyccxo Hpano-
cnanno Hepxnn n 1943-2002 roax. M., 2002. C. 314-316.
3. Btnycxnnxn orocnoncxoro (npanocnannoro) ]axyntrera Bapmancxoro ynn-
nepcnrera 1928-1935 rr. http://www.petergen.com/bovkalo/duhov/warszawa.html
4. Ocnxmenne xpama cocroxnoct 14 (27) oxrxpx 1901 r.
5. B mnpy Honnnxn Cepre Bacnntennu (25.09.1900-14.10.1976), ypoxenen
Mnncxo ryepnnn, n yymem apxnenncxon Anronomno nepxnn n sarem Moc-
xoncxoro narpnapxara. Cm. Hcnonennxn: nepnocrt cnyxennm (Henpnymannte
paccxast o none). http://www.world-war.ru/article_948.html
6. Cm. XMH. 1968. N 12. C. 27-28.
7. Huro.aee K.H. Bocrount opx. Hapnx, 1950. C. 169. Hnr. no: C+o.uu M.B.
Vxpancxax Pyct noxpemnax // Pyccxax Iannnnx n masennncrno. M., 2005.
C. 17.
8. Crvpam K.E. Hcropnx Hpanocnanntx Homecrntx Hepxne. In. VIII. Hontcxax
Hpanocnannax Hepxont. http://www.sedmitza.ru/text/441222.html
9. Ho cnonam ouennnen, craptx monaxon. Cm. Cnxro-Vcnencxax Houaencxax
Hanpa. Inana 19. Boccoennenne. Bona. Hocnenoennte rot (1939-1959).
www.pochaev.org.ua /?p=history/history_19
10. Miueuro Tu+oqi, npomonpeceimep. Hpanocnanna Hepxna n Vxpani ni
uac pyro cnirono ninn (1939-1945). Binniner-Htnin, 2000. T. 1 (Bonnnctxn
nepio). C. 189.
11. Tam xe. C 192. Ipueopi Bopuc, npomouepe. Cnirnn opas nnanxn
apxicnncxona Hanrenemona. // Kanactxn Hpanocnannn nicnnx. Memopixntne
nnannx n namxrt ynoxonmorocx apxncnncxona Hanrenemona. 1968, u.4, c.4.
12. Hempvuro B.aouc.ae. O nontrxax ynnarcxoro nposenernsma n Conercxom
Comse naxanyne Bennxo Oreuecrnenno nont. 2002. www.pravoslavie.ru/.../
uniatprozelit.htm 14/02/
13. Hinuu B.aouc.ae, npomouepe. Hcropnx Pyccxo Hepxnn 1917-1997. In.
VI. Pyccxax Hpanocnannax Hepxont npn mecronmcrnrene Harpnapmero npecro-
na mnrpononnre Ceprnn. http://kds.eparhia.ru/bibliot/istorserkvi/cupin/glava6/2/
14. Hinuu B.., npomouepe. Vxas. cou.
15. A.erceee B.H., Cmaepv 4. Pyccxax Hpanocnannax Hepxont na oxxynnpo-
nanno nemnamn reppnropnn. In. 5. Vxpanna. // Pyccxoe Bospoxenne. N 16.
116
2009, N 3 (17)
1981 r. (IV) - ricolor.org/arhiv/russkoe_vozrojdenie/1981/7/
16. o cxnmt apxnenncxon nmnrpn (n mnpy xnxst Aamnse ann Hntnu);
ponncx 2.10.1867 r. - cxonuancx 1.11.1942 r. n Kneno-Heuepcxo nanpe n norpeen
y nxoa n Fnnxnne nemept Kneno-Heuepcxo nanpt.
17. Lrapoecru B.M. Hanncrcxax Iepmannx n Hpanocnannax Hepxont (nann-
crcxax nonnrnxa n ornomennn Hpanocnanno Hepxnn n pennrnosnoe nospoxe-
nne na reppnropnn CCCP). M.: Kpyrnnxoe nonopte; Omecrno nmnrene nep-
xonno ncropnn, 2002.
18. Bocnomnnannx apxnenncxona Hnxonaencxoro n Bosnecencxoro Hnrnpnma
o nnatxe Hanrenenmone, xoropt rora pyxononoxnn n can cnxmennnxa ero
orna, nnocnecrnnn ynennoro nporonepex Herpa Crapnncxoro.
B pnsnnne omonoro xpama n uecrt nnennx Foxne Marepn na Houaencxo
rope - apxnepecxo pesnennnn n 3monrone - nmeercx naneuarannt no na-
rocnonennm Cnxremero Fonrapcxoro Cnnoa n nauane 1940-x rr. anrnmnnc co
cneymme nannctm Ocnxrncx cnxmennoecrnnem Hpeocnxmennaro Hanre-
nenmona, enncxona Htnoncxaro, ynpan. Kiencxo enapxie, n nero Iocnone 1943,
mecxna mapra, ent 21, n n apxnne Vnpannennx narpnapmnx npnxoon n Kanae
coxpannnact neuart apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona c orrncxom +Apxnenncxon
Knencxn Hanrenenmon.
19. Lrapoecru M.B. Hpanocnannax Hepxont n pexcxomnccapnare Vxpan-
na. uacrt 2. http://portal-credo.ru/site/index.php?act=lib&id=1473; 4omuee K,
Ceumu: A. Hpanocnannax Hepxont na Vxpanne n n Hontme n XX cronernn 1917-
1950 rr. M, 1997. C.72, 271.
20. A.erceee B. H., Cmaepv 4. Vxas. cou. ricolor.org/arhiv/russkoe_vozrojdenie/
1981/7/; Lrapoecru M.B. Hpanocnannax Hepxont n pexcxomnccapnare Vxpa-
nna.
21. Hs nocnomnnann o apxnmanpnre Hpencnane (Kamenxxo; 23.09.1906 -
ymep 25.03.2006 r. n cane apxnmanpnra n parcrne Bnnencxoro Cnxro-yxona
monacrtpx) nacroxrentnnnt Kpemenenxoro Foroxnnencxoro xencxoro monac-
rtpx nrymennn Xepynnmt (A]anacnn Mnpononnt Fenemyx, 3.12.1918-4.2.1996).
22. K ontmomy coxanennm, Bapmancxn mnrpononnr nonncn, xoroporo
nemnt ne onycrnnn x ynpannennm nepxontm na Vxpanne, npnnxn cropony pac-
xontnnxon n camounnno nosnen n can apxnenncxona nnxapnoro Hynxoro enncxo-
na Honnxapna (Cnxopcxoro), n npomnom nernmponcxoro unnonnnxa, n 24 exa-
px 1941 r. nasnaunn ero amnnncrparopom (ynpannxmmnm) nepxonntmn enamn
na Vxpanne. Tor nauan cosnart anroxe]antnym nepxont, onnpaxct na noepx-
xy nemenxnx nnacre n nacrpoennoro nannonanncrnuecxn n nporepmancxn sem-
nxuecrna Vxpannt, oocnonanmerocx n Hontme. Anroxe]antnax nepxont
tna o]nnnantno noccranonnena na coope, cocroxnmemcx 7-10 ]enpanx 1942 r.
n Hnncxe. Hmenno na nem anroxe]anncrt nropo nonnt nocranonnnn npnnn-
mart n omenne c coo cnxmennnxon nnnxoncxo xnporonnn es nonoro
nocnxmennx.
23. Hnemxnnnx Cnmona Hernmpt Crenan Cxptnnnx (10.04.1898-11-06.1993),
npnnxnmn 14 max 1942 r. can enncxona Hepexcnancxoro c nmenem Mcrncnan;
c 18.11.1990 r. - nepnt nxenarpnapx na Vxpanne. Hxemnrpononnr Xaptxoncxn
n Honrancxn ueo]nn (Fynoncxn) ronopnn o Mcrncnane: O, +ro crpamnt
117

uenonex. 3ro annr n enncxoncxom xnoyxe. On ns rex, uro moryr ynrt, yannrt
uenonexa, ecnn on craner nm npenxrcrnnem... Enncxon Mcrncnan onepennoe
nnno recrano n amnnncrparopa Honnxapna Cnxopcxoro. 3ro nnemxnnnx Hernm-
pt, ero amranr no ]amnnnn Cxpnnnnx. B xenenom pasronope c Mcrncnanom
x c xaxo-ro oxsntm cnpocnn ero o ynnn c pnmo-xaronnuecxo nepxontm. A on
mne orneuaer: Vnnx? A nouemy t n ner? Pasne re, xro nomnn na ynnm c Pn-
mom, uro-nno norepxnn? Hycrt c ueprom, nnmt t ne c Mocxno. Ho o +rom
eme pano ronopnrt... Cm. 4eooocu (Hpomr), apxuenucron (ntne mnrp.). Oo-
conenuecxne nnxennx n Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na Vxpanne (1917-1943). T. 5.
C. 254.
24. Lrapoecru M.B. Hpanocnannax Hepxont n pexcxomnccapnare Vxpan-
na. u. 2. http://portal-credo.ru/site/index.php?act=lib&id=1473
25. Paueecru C. Vxpanncxax Anroxe]antnax Hepxont. Jordanville, 1948. C.14
(npnmeuanne).
26. B cenrxpe roro xe roa croponnnxamn Honnxapna Cnxopcxoro ynr tn
eme onn apxnepe Anronomno nepxnn enncxon Bnanmnpo-Bontncxn
Manynn (Tapnoncxn). He xenanmnx nsmennrt npncxre n npncoennnrtcx x yx-
panncxo anroxe]annn crapmnx cnxmennnxon camocrnntxt ecnomano
nnxnnnponann, a monotx nsnnann o nonycmeprn n ntronxnn ns npnxoa.
Hornno mnoro cnxmennnxon crapo xnporonnn, croxnmnx na crpaxe npanocna-
nnx n npnnxnmnx myuennuecxym cmeprt. C. Paencxn n xauecrne npnmepa rono-
pnr o myuennuecxo xonunne crapna-nporonepex Menernx Ptxxoncxoro n cene
Mano Momanxe yencxoro yesa, xoropt ne cornacnncx cnyxnrt na yxpann-
cxom xstxe. Camocrnntxt npntnn x nemy n om, ecnomano nsnnn, nc-
xononn noxamn n eme nonyxnntm pocnnn ronono n xonoen (Paeecru C.
Vxas. cou. C. 15).
27. Btpaxenne nepxonnoro ncropnxa ns Kanat mnrpnx Hocnenoncxoro.
Cm. Hocne.oecru .B. Pyccxax Hpanocnannax Hepxont n XX nexe. M., 1995.
Kannrynxnnx Anronomno nepxnn tna rontxo npemenno n na ymare.
28. 4omuee Kupu.., npomouepe. Hontrxn yxpanncxo nepxonno anroxe-
]annn n XX nexe // Vxpanncxax onesnt pyccxo nannn. M., 2004. C. 283-284;
http://www.orthedu.ru/books/fotiev.htm
29. Lrapoecru M.B. Hpanocnannax Hepxont n pexcxomnccapnare Vxpan-
na. uacrt 2. http://portal-credo.ru/site/index.php?act=lib&id=1473
30. [OCA Archives, Box 20.] Cm.: Lrapoecru M. B. Pyccxax Hpanocnannax
Hepxont n nnaconcxoe nnxenne. http://ricolor.org/history/roa/rp/
31. Pocmuc.ae (Ko.vnaee), uev+eu. Pyccxne n Cenepno A]pnxe nccepra-
nnx. Inana 3. Hpnxocxax xnsnt n Tynnce. http://www.teolog.ru/lib/
t2.php?pid=83#_ednref142
32. Apxnepecxn coop 3apyexno nepxnn, cocroxnmncx n Htm-Hopxe 18
oxrxpx 14 noxpx 1959 r., n cnxsn c nosneenntm npornn nero rxxenom onn-
nennem, ncxnmunn nnatxy, orcrpanennoro or onxnocrn n tnmero no sanpe-
mennem, ns cocrana nepapxnn PHH3. Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon saxnnn, uro +ro
onnnenne necnpanennno. Mne npecrannxercx, uro +ror npncxopnt cnyua
nnatxa ncnontsonan xax npenor nx nosnpamennx n mpncnxnnm Mocxoncxo-
ro narpnapxara, n xoropom npnnxn apxnepecxym xnporonnm. Bepoxrno, n Apxn-
118
2009, N 3 (17)
epecxn coop PHH3, pasnpanmn +ro, noospenan noxnocrt noxasann, no-
romy uro orneccx cnncxonrentno x onnnennomy, ne sacynn ero crporo. Cm.:
Hs exnn Apxnepecxoro coopa Pyccxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn sa rpannne
(cocroxnmarocx 18 oxrxpx 14 noxpx 1959 r. n r. Htm-Hopxe, CBA). Jordanville,
1960. C. 134-135.
33. Fes yxasannx anropa. Bosnpamenne n nono Marepn-Hepxnn apxnenncxona
Hanrenenmona // Xypnan Mocxoncxo Harpnapxnn (XMH), M., 1959. N 6.
C.40-42.
34. Osop xnsnn +xsapxara Mocxoncxo Harpnapxnn n Amepnxe sa 1959 ro
// XMH, 1960. N 3. C. 23.
Hepnt cxpomnt epenxnnt xpam-uaconnx noxnnncx n 3monrone naro-
apx ycepntm mnccnonepcxnm rpyam cnxmennnxa Haxona Kopunncxoro n ero
marymxn Bapnapt n 1902 r. B 1908 r. tn nocrpoen epenxnnt rnnont xpam,
npocymecrnonanmn nonnexa. 1 oxrxpx 1946 r. omee copanne npnxoxan no-
cranonnno norn n mpncnxnnm Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara. 18 exapx 1955 r.
apxnenncxon Xepconcxn Fopnc (Bnx) conepmnn apxnepecxoe orocnyxenne n
Cnxro-Bapnapnncxom xpame n ycranonnn nonnoe omenne npnxoa c mareptm-
nepxontm. Crponrentcrno nonoro xnpnnunoro cemnxynontnoro sannx coopa n
ncenopomancxom crnne, c nauana X1X n. pacnpocrpanennom n Iannnnn, tno
nauaro 15 nmnx 1956 r.
35. Pyccxax Hpanocnannax Hepxont n xpncrnancxn mnp n 1959 roy // XMH,
1960. N 1. C. 18.
36. Hpn onncannn cnyxennx apxnenncxona Hanrenenmona n mpncnxnnn
Mocxoncxoro narpnapxara n 1959-1968 rr. ncnontsonant oxymenrt ns Apxnna
Vnpannennx narpnapmnx npnxoon n Kanae (Hporoxont saceann Enapxnant-
noro Vnpannennx, Enapxnantnoro Conera n Enapxnantnoro Copannx Kanacxo
enapxnn Harpnapmero Amepnxancxoro 3xsapxara ) n marepnant ns pasena xpo-
nnxn Kanactxoro Hpanocnannoro nicnnxa sa 1962-1968 rr. Bce nomepa Ka-
nactxoro Hpanocnannoro nicnnxa (Canadian Orthodox Messenger) xpanxrcx
n ]onax mysex-nnnorexn npn Cnxro-Bapnapnncxom coope.
37. Kanactxn Hpanocnannn nicnnx, 1964. u. 3. C. 20. u. 4. C. 17.
38. B nocxpecente 31 nmnx 1960 r. nmecre c narpnapmnm +xsapxom Cenepno n
Rxno Amepnxn mnrpononnrom Xepconcxnm n Oeccxnm Fopncom (Bnx; 1906-
1965). Cm.: Hpetnanne Harpnapmero 3xsapxa mnrpononnra Fopnca n Amepnxe.
// XMH, 1960. N11. C. 15; A Century of Faith. St. Barbaras Russian Orthodox
Cathedral (1902-2002). Edmonton, Alberta, 2002. PP. 34-38, 68, 70.
39. 3apyexnte rocrn n Mocxoncxo Harpnapxnn // XMH, 1961. N10. C. 3-4.
40. Apxucnucron Haume.ei+ou. Mox nosxa o Harpnapxi // Kanactxn Hpa-
nocnannn nicnnx, 1963. u. 1. C. 12-15.
41. Bnatxa ueoocn (nxyn) n cane apxnenncxona Honrancxoro cran nsnec-
rntm ncemy npanocnannomy mnpy naroapx cnoemy ncnonennuecxomy nnct-
my rencexy xomnaprnn H. Fpexneny o ronennxx na npanocnannym nepxont n ero
enapxnn no nropo nononnne 1970-x rr. XX n.
42. unn napeuennx n xnporonnm raxxe conepmann mnrpononnrt Kpyrnnxn
n Konomencxn Hnmen n Hennnrpacxn n Haoxcxn Hnxonm, apxnenncxont
Hpxyrcxn n unrnncxn Bennamnn, Hnano-upanxoncxn n Konomtcxn Hocn],
Xepconcxn n Oeccxn Ceprn, Htnoncxn n Tepnonontcxn Hnxona. Cm.:
119

XMH, 1967. N 8. C. 12.
43. Mnrpononnr Cre]an (n mnpy Cre]an Pytx) ponncx n 1891 r. n Maane
Hnnonenxom Hepemtmnxncxoro yesa Ancrpo-Benrepcxo nmnepnn. Inmnasnm
saxonunn no Htnone, a yxonnym cemnnapnm n Opne. B can cnxmennnxa tn
pyxononoxen n 1915 r. enncxonom nonncnem. Hacrtpcxoe cnyxenne npoxonn
n pasntx npnxoax, nexoropoe npemx tn noenntm cnxmennnxom. Bo npemx
Bropo mnpono nont naxonncx n narepxx nx noennonnenntx n Iepmannn.
Ho ocnooxennn cocroxn narounnntm Anexcanpo-Hencxoro oxpyra n cane
apxnmanpnra (ononen n nauane nont). B 1953 r. tn xnporonncan no enncxona
Hontcxo npanocnanno nepxnn. B 1965 r. nspan npecroxrenem Hontcxo npa-
nocnanno nepxnn. Cxonuancx 26 mapra 1969 r.
44. Opannx Hpecroxrenx Hontctxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn. // Kanactxn
Hpanocnannn nicnnx. 1965 p. u. 2. C. 16.
45. Harpaxennx apxnepeen Pyccxo Hpanocnanno Hepxnn. // XMH, 1963.
N 6. C. 10.
46. Bcrpeuammaxcx n nexoroptx nynnxannxx pyrax ara 3 oxrxpx - xnnx-
ercx nenepno. Cxopee ncero, +ra omnxa cnxsana c rem, uro nexponor o cmeprn
nnatxn, onynnxonannt n XMH, naunnaercx npenoxennem 3 oxrxpx 1968
roa n Mocxne tno nonyueno coomenne ns Kanat o xonunne apxnenncxona
3monroncxoro n Kanacxoro Hanrenenmona... Cm.: Houaqau, apxuen., Coro-
.oecru A., npom. Apxnenncxon Hanrenenmon (nexponor) // XMH, 1968. N 12.
C. 26-30; Coro.oecru A. npom. Konunna n norpeenne Btcoxonpeocnxmenne-
mero Hanrenenmona, apxnenncxona 3monroncxoro n Kanacxoro // Kanactxn
Hpanocnannn nicnnx. Memopixntne nnannx n namxrt ynoxonmorocx apxncnnc-
xona Hanrenemona. 1968. u. 4. C. 5-10.
47. Lanra P. Kparxn ouepx ncropnn rneptx pycnnon n Kanae // Mexy-
napont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2007. N 3 (9). C. 146-156.
48. XMH, 1968. N 12. C. 26.
49. Ipueopi Bopuc, npomouepe. Cnirnn opas nnanxn apxicnncxona Han-
renemona. // Kanactxn Hpanocnannn nicnnx. Memopixntne nnannx n namxrt
ynoxonmorocx apxncnncxona Hanrenemona. 1968. u. 4. C. 4.
120
2009, N 3 (17)
un1po AHHAKK
BIOMHH YHEHHH-CAABICT
M. AYHKAH (1789-1843)
(o 220-piuun ni nn napoaennn)
Mnxano Mnxanonnu Hyuxa
nnimon n icropim xx nuenn-icro-
pnx, monosnanent, ]ontxnopncr,
xyntrypno-ocnirni i nepxonnn
ixu. onx cynna omy posn`x-
sarn px naxnnnnx sanant, no-
crannennx nepe xpaxnamn eno-
xom n xxi nin xnn.
Horo xnrrx ixntnicrt npn-
nann na nepmy nononnny XIX cr.,
na ro nepio icropnunoro posnnr-
xy, xonn n saxinocnponectxnx
xpanax sicnmnanncx oxopinni
sminn xx n coniantno-exonomiuni,
rax i n cycnintno-nonirnuni c]epi. V nnpi ononnennx snnxann ycraneni
nixamn ieonoriuni ormn, posxpinauynanacx ymxa, spocran norxr o
nisnannx nanionantno icropi, pino monn, xyntrypn, roro mon nponec
nanionantnoro camoyrnepxennx nonenonennx napoin. Oxonnn nin i 3a-
xapnarrx, xxe nepeynano y cxnai Vropctxoro xoponincrna, a pasom s
nnm, n Ancrpictxi imnepi. Ie saxinocnponectxoro npocnirnnnrna
nce intme ononoinann ymamn snauno uacrnnn saxapnarctxo inreni-
renni, i nxe nanpnxinni XVIII cr. n ne c]opmynancx mnpoxn nayxonn
cnirornx, nona nonoina snaunom xepentnom asom npo mnnyne cnoro
napoy, oro ernorenesnc, xyntrypy, ocniry, mony. Cepe nnarnnx ixuin
Myxauinctxn cnncxon A.Faunnctxn, xorpn n ymonax enanionanisa-
ropctxo nonirnxn ancrpictxnx nnacre ne an saymnrn pine cnono,
monosnanni A. Konax i I. uoropami, noer i ]inoco] B. onronnu, nearor
I. uypronnu ra in. A n 1799-1805 pp. nnmna n cnir nepma npanx s icropi
3axapnarrx I.Fasnnonnua Koporxn napnc ]ynani ueopa Kopxronn-
ua, xxa sanouarxynana icropnuny nayxy n xpa.
Onax xnrrx nnmarano nnpimennx naspinnx nponem n xomnnexci i na
xxicno nnmomy nayxonomy pinni. 3 nnm ycnimno nnopancx M.Hyuxa,
npomonmn cxnann, ane naroarnn xnrrcnn i rnopun mnxx.
121

Mnxano Mnxanonnu Hyuxa naponncx 19 nncronaa 1789 p. n ceni
Bennxi Hyuxn, mo na Myxauinmnni, y ini araroirni cim` cnxmen-
nocnyxnrenx Mnxana Hona i yn crapmnm cepe micrtox ire [1. C.
55]. Bi nasnn pinoro cena sroom nsxn ncenonim Hyuxa. 3oynmn
nouarxony ocniry y micnenoro xxa, ncrynnn n Vxropoctxy rimnasim,
sroom nnnuan ]inoco]im y Bennxomy Bapanni (ctoroni Opaex n
Pymyni), a n 1812 p. ncrynnn y rpexo-xaronnntxy ceminapim y Bini
Fapapeym, e cnyxan nexni s icropi cnon`xn, nopyxnncx si cryenra-
mn, nnxinxmn s pisnnx cnon`xnctxnx sement.
Hanuannx y Bini sanepmnn y 1816 p. i, xx nnme oro nepmn iorpa]
B. Iaxera, nepnyncx o orunsnn s nemanom noxnanom, mo nipasy
yno nomiueno micnennm nepxonnnm xepinnnnrnom. Horo npnsnaunnn
iniorexapem i apxinapiycom npn Myxauinctxi rpexo-xaronnntxi cnnc-
xonctxi xannenxpi, a n 1818 p. - cexperapem cnncxona Onexcix Honuix
[2. C. 28-29]. Onax monon orocnon pain ne crintxn crpimxi xap`cpi,
cxintxn noxni moxnnnocri npanmnarn n cnapxiantnomy apxini i parn
yuacrt y sapyixnnx nosxax. Cnocrepexnnnn i onnrnnnn cnxme-
nnx-inrenirenr nepemancx yxom emoxparnunnx nepernopent y saxi-
nocnponectxnx xpanax, xaino cnpnman ie nanionantnoro nipo-
xennx cnon`xnctxnx napoin Ancrpictxo imnepi.
V 1827 p. M. Hyuxa npnsnauacrtcx napoxom n Vxropoi. Bin ne
rintxn ycnimno nnxonyc cnxmennnntxi oon`xsxn, a nixannrtcx icro-
picm cnoro xpam, xoue nnxcnnrn, o xxoro poy nnemeni nanexart oro
cninnirunsnnxn saxapnarctxi pycnnn. V sn`xsxy s nnm nin nixannrtcx
npocnirnnntxom ixntnicrm cnncxona A. Faunnctxoro i sananmcrtcx a-
xannxm noxnacrn i cni rananr na ninrap sminnennx nanionantno camo-
cniomocri saxapnarctxnx pycnnin, uyono posymimun, mo nx ocxr-
nennx nic naropono mern cni sacnorn naannx nepeono cnpo-
nectxo nayxn.
I raxa naroa nacrana. Ha npoxannx xnxsx iranictxoro micra Hyxxa
Kapna Fyponctxoro, M. Hyuxa me s rptoma cnxmennxamn sa cnpnxn-
nx I.uoropamix yn nipxxenn o Irani. Tax saxapnarent cran no-
cnannem xpam o xonncxn cnponectxo nnninisani, e npanmnan s nnnnx
1829 o xonrnx 1830 p. [3. C. 85]. Bin s rononom nopnnyn y ramremni
apxinn, soxpema Pnmy, nouan nnnuarn iranictxy mony. Inrepec o ocni-
xynannx mon y ntoro nnnnx anno, me y 1815 p. nin cxnan pyxonncny
posnixy npo e]ionctxi monn (Cnonnnx i an]anir), xxa sepiracrtcx y
inioreni VxHV [4], sa mo ]axinni nnaxamrt oro un ne nepmnm e]io-
nicrom n Vxpani [5]. A n onacnomy epxapxini sepiracrtcx oro uorn-
pnmonnn cnonnnx Hpocnexr pyctxo-narnnctxo-yropctxo-nimentxoro
cnonnnxa na ocnoni cnxmennnx ra niryprinnx xnnr [6].
Hepeynamun anexo ni pinoro xpam, M. Hyuxa nixonn ne saynan
npo onm cnoro napoy i crapa Hepxonnax rasera nisnauana, mo nin
122
2009, N 3 (17)
x cnocmy napoy nnran camoe rennemee uyncrno. O nem nmen on
nosntmennoe nonxrne, ycnannax emy onecrn, oemammne emy nnc-
rarentnym yymnocrt [7. C. 55]. icno, ni nouyrrx M. Hyuxax nrinn-
nncx n xonxperni cnpann. anexo ni artxinmnnn nin nocnneno npanmc
na crnopennxm rpamarnxn pino monn, mo, xx nnme B. Iaxera,
ninecrn uecrt cnoro napoy. I nxe y 1830 p. n Fynni nnxonrt oro
Ipamarnxa cnonxno-pyctxa [8] nepma ne rintxn nx saxapnarctxnx,
a rannntxnx i yxonnnctxnx pycnnin. Bona nipasy nicnx nnxoy yna
nncoxo oninena snannmn cnanicramn, soxpema unenamn niomo Pyctxo
Tpini y Htnoni. Onn is nnx, I. Barnnennu, y nncri o niomoro pocict-
xoro icropnxa M. Horoina nisnauan y 1836 p.: 3ro rnopenne no cnm
nopy ono ns camtx nyumnx n cnoem poe [9. C. 147].
Biomn monosnanent M. Bosnxx y 1909 p. nisnaunn, mo M. Hyuxa
nepmn n ancrpictxi Vxpani, nacxintxn nosnonxno na ce omy snannx
i nornxn na cnpany, an rpamarnune oponennx yxpanctxo monn[10.
C. 92]. A nnarnn uectxn cnanicr H. Ba]apnx, ananisymun cran mo-
nosnancrna n Vxpani, nasnan rpamarnxy M. Hyuxax nepmom nicnx Ipam-
marnxn manopoccncxoro napeunx O. Hannonctxoro, mo nnmna n
C.-Herepypsi n 1818 p. [11. C. 34].
xn M.Hyuxa intme niuoro ne nanncan, xpim Ipamarnxn, ro i
nnm n sacnyxnn na opy nam'xrt namaxin. Ane nin nocrannn coi sa
mery posn`xsarn me ony naxnnny nponemy onecrn, mo oro xpa,
nepeynamun n uyxosemnomy epxannomy yrnopenni, mac cnoc im`x, icro-
pim, nanexnrt o cxinocnon`xnctxoro apeany. Hpo ne cni saym nin
cnonicrnn n Ipamarnni i nrinnn oro y ]ynamenrantni mecrnromni
npani Icropix xapnarctxnx pycnnin. (Anrop 5-ro romy I.Hacreni).
pyxonnc sa paxom xomrin ra s inmnx npnunn ninropa cronirrx nponexan
rpomant rpy, nepnopxnt ncrounnx, xonoccantnoe nponsne-
enne romo. Tintxn n 1999-2003 pp. npn onomosi pexropary xonirxo
npani nuennx VxHV nnano nepexnaeni xintxoma poxamn panime uorn-
pn romn [12].
xi x nponemn nopymnn M. Hyuxa i mo nonoro nnic n icropnuny
nayxy? Hacamnepe nin nepexonnnno ononrt cnon`xnctxe noxoxen-
nx xapnarctxnx pycnnin i mo nonn anroxronne (xopinne) nacenennx
xpam. Tyr xe nirnepxeno nncnonox, sponenn me n Ipamarnni,
npo re, mo mona saxapnarctxnx pycnnin ra x cama, xxa nxnnacrtcx,
xpim Manopoci, Hontmi, me n Iannunni, Bonnni ra na Fyxonnni, i snicn
uepes ninennn ix Kapnarctxnx rip ao nepxnm Vropmnny, no Cnnm
[13. C. 48-49].
Baxnnno, mo mnnyne 3axapnarrx nuenn nncnirnmc na rni sarantnoc-
nponectxo icropi, nnoxpemnmmun n ni nanaxnnnimi noi, xxi nxe
oxapaxrepnsynann oro nonepennxn (I. Fasnnonnu, I. Opna, R. Be-
123

nenin), nepecenennx yropctxnx nnemen nanpnxinni IX cr. i crnopennx
nnmn epxannocri, npnxi na 3axapnarrx u. Kopxronnua n XIV cr., yx-
naennx Vxropoctxo yni n 1646 p., inmi noi.
Ta nayxona napricrt Icropi xapnarctxnx pycnnin nisnauacrtcx px-
om ymox i nncnonxin, xxnm nnacrnna ninxonnra nonnsna i opnrinantnicrt.
3aynaxnmo, mo n roimni icropiorpa]i ominynana rema yrnepxennx
napctxnx ra xoponinctxnx nnacri, xnrrx npnnopno snari, nanymunx
xnacin nsarani. upannystxn icropnx O. Ttcppi cnpanennno cxapxnncx:
Ham ne nncrauac icropi rpomaxn, icropi niannx, icropi napoy.
3axapnarctxn nuenn crnopnn moent raxoro nixoy o nncnirnennx
icropi, sponnmn xxicno nonn xpox y meronni icropnunoro ocnixen-
nx, rononnnm o`cxrom xxoro cran napo.
B Icropi xapnarctxnx pycnnin mnpoxo nncnirneno exonomiune i noni-
rnune cranonnme cenxncrna, oro anrn]eoantni nncrynn, nanionantno-
nnsnontni pyxn. Tax, xapaxrepnsymun cenxnctxy niny ni nponoom
rpea cxnnyrn xpmo nomimnxin, xa nepecranyrt icnynarn rpa]n,
aponn i snart, xa nasnnamrtcx nnme rpomaxnamn i cenxnamn, xa
ye snnmena cama xoponinctxa nnaa [14. C. 209]. Homy ne ayxi
inrepecn cenxn-xpinaxin, mnpo yoninac sa x onm. Bin s nennxnm cninuyr-
rxm nnme, mo nicnx xopcroxo posnpann ancrpinin na noncrannxmn
me intm orxxnnnom yna onx cenxn, romy mo ynn xnnyri y niune
pacrno, me renep onnaxymrt cnom nemacny onm.
M. Hyuxa nopymyc nnsxy nponem s icropi yropctxoro napoy, sox-
pema nncnirnmc oro oporty sa nnsnonennx s-ni sanexnocri Ancrpi-
ctxo imnepi n xinni XVII na nouarxy XVIII cr. Bin nncoxo oninmc ra-
xnx oro npononpin, xx Fouxa, 3anoni, Impe Texeni, uepenna Paxoni I,
oro pyxnny Oneny 3pini ra cnna uepenna Paxoni II. ocninnx s xa-
nem nnsnac, xxom oporom ninom rpea nnarnrn sa cnooy: 3nony crann
xpnnannmn pann yropctxoro napoy.
Hinxonnrom nonnsnom nisnauacrtcx ocnixennx raxo nponemn, xx
xyntrypa ocnira na 3axapnarri n oy Cepentoniuux. x posnnrox no-
n`xsann is ixntnicrm cnannnx myxin XVIII cr., xxi cxeponynann napo
o cnirna i na mnxx uecnocrn ra mopani. Tyr snaxonmo iorpa]i i onnc
nearoriuno ixntnocri 54 npo]ecopin myxauinctxnx mxin, xxi cnonna
niann cni rananr posnnrxy ocnirn, nayxn xyntrypn n xpa. Buenn
nipnn, mo nam`xrt npo nnx ocniuennx pycnnin ye narocnonenna. Oco-
nnny many niac raxnm myxauinctxnm cnncxonam, xx E. Ontmanctxn,
I. Fpaau, A. Faunnctxn. Haneeni npnxnan aprymenronano cnpocro-
nymrt me neanno nanymuy saieonorisonany resy npo cynintny nennct-
mennicrt 3axapnarrx n mnnynomy. He ynn ne rintxn nepxonni, a xynt-
rypno-ocnirni ixui, xorpi nocnynann cnxricrt manonno nayxn is no-
naxnicrm i crporicrm mopani [15].
124
2009, N 3 (17)
3a xpncrnxnctxnmn mopantno-ernunnmn npnnnnnamn xnn i cam
M. Hyuxa. Hi npnnnnnn nin n 1831 p. nnxnan y noromnomy rnopi Hep-
xonni ecin [16]. Bonn nponxri rymanismom, nmon`m o nnxntoro,
mnnocepxm. M. Hyuxax xx rymanicra xapaxrepnsyc i raxa oro nacra-
nona: Tintxn mopantnicrt rpea ninynarn, amopantnicrt snenaxarn i
nnxopinmnarn naintm imunmn sacoamn, xxnmn rintxn moxna. Bin s
nennxom nmon`m crannncx o cnoro napoy, saxnnxan oro o cnannx
n im`x naroponnx nine. Hasnnuano axryantnnmn ctoroni sannma-
mrtcx oro cnona: Hinicnicrt ra esnexa epxan rpynrycrtcx na
nsacmni nmoni cninrpomaxn. Buenn ne rintxn nponarynan ni npnn-
nnnn, a xepynancx nnmn y noncxxennomy xnrri. Bin ne cnpnman
posxim i cnacronmic, sacyxynan unancrno, nnxaricrt ararnx i cra-
nnn y npnxna rpyxmy nmnny: 3emneenen ninn rnxent npn xoci
mornni xap conneunn repnnr.
Bce cnoc xnrrx M.Hyuxa cniynan raxi sanonii: Inannemax no-
nnnnocrt uenonexonmix ecrt: nesnammero nayunrn, neoymenammemy
opn conir arn, a sanymero na nyrt nanpannrn i roi semnx ne
sapocre yp`xnom. Or uomy nin, xx mxintnn pe]epenr cnapxi, s onem
ononian npo nnstxn pinent mxintno ocnirn na Hepeunnmnni i Bennxo-
epesnxnmnni i nxasynan, mo npnunna ntoro inicrt napoy. Cam nin
onomaran nmxm xx mir snpan xomrn y nonnnnn i cnpirctxn
]on, uacro naniynancx n cnpirctxn im, xxn yn noyonann cnnc-
xonom O. Honuicm nx ire cnpir cnxmennxin n Vxropoi. Ta y nepe-
cmeprnomy sanoniri nin npocnn npoarn oro noyroni peui i xnnrn, i na
nnnyueni xomrn opranisynarn nnannnuy cnpany, a pemry posarn no-
nnnxm.
Im`x M.Hyuxax sasnyuano n nayxonomy cniri nxe sa oro xnrrx. Bci
ocninnxn, xorpi niniynann Vxropo, nnaxann sa onintnnm osnao-
mnrncx s oro nayxonnm opoxom. Cepe nnx pocictxn nuenn
I. Cpesnenctxn, xxn nasnan M. Hyuxax cnpanxnim xoxnom, yxpa-
nctxn . Iononantxn, nontctxn A. Kyxapctxn, cnonantxn F. Ho-
cax-Hesayon ra inmi. n Konnap y niomi noemi ouxa Cnann no-
crannn oro n onn px s raxnmn cnon`xnctxnmn ynrenxmn, xx Opa-
onnu, oponctxn, B. Kapaxnu, 3. Hecni [17. C. 241]. Horo im`x
nnncane n nireparypnomy antmanaci Pyctxo Tpini Pycanxa
nicrponax. Hocrynono im`x M.Hyuxax yrnepxycrtcx n cyuacni yx-
panctxi nayni oro nayxona cnamnna oxapaxrepnsonana n raxomy
axaemiunomy nnanni xx Icropiorpa]iuni ocnixennx n Vxpani [18].
M. Hyuxa niimon y niunicrt na 55-my poni xnrrx 3 rpynx 1843 p.
Hoxonann y xannnni xxy cam i syynan, inx nepxnn n Vxropoi (cto-
roni - nynnnx Herontnxnctxa).
Tananonnrnm nuennm cnponectxoro pinnx, rymanicrom-narpiorom,
xyntrypno-ocnirnim ixuem nnimon Mnxano Hyuxa n icropim namoro
125

xpam, n cnanicrnuny nayxy nepmo nononnnn XIX cr. [19]. Taxnm oro
snamrt, nmanonymrt i nomnnamrt namaxn n 215 piunnnm ni nx oro
napoxennx.
EPEAA TA AITEPATYPA
1. Hepxonnax rasera. Fynn, 1858. N 7. 10 mapra. C. 55.
2. Iaoreea B. Mnxann Hyuxa. Xnrrcnnc n rnopt. uaxcnm. Bnannx. Vxro-
po, 2000. C. 28-29.
3. Iopouuciru B. Ocnonanic rpexo-xaronnntxo nepxnn n xnxsincrni Hyxxa n
Irani // 3anncxn Hayxonoro ronapncrna T.Benuenxa. T.CXXV. Htnin, 1918. C. 85.
4. Lucskay M. Hoc vocabularium Alphabetum scripsit Viennae/ 1815-22 p. //
Finiorexa Vxropoctxoro nanionantnoro yninepcnrery, niin pyxonncin i crapo-
pyxin.
5. Ka:i P. Pyxonnc M. Hyuxax npo e]ionctxi monn // 3axap. Hpana. 1986. 19
xonrnx; Tmmpm+oea T.H., Lmepuoepe B.H. Pyxonnc 1815 r. yxpanncxoro yueno-
ro M.Hyuxax: (O +]noncxnx xstxax: Marepnant nepno xon]ep. no cemnr. xs.
26-28 oxrxpx 1964. M., 1965. Btn. 2 (u.1). C. 135-140.
6. nn.: seuose.ieciru H., Lmepuoepe B. uornpnmonnn cnonnnx M.Hyu-
xax // yxnx. 1986. N 2.
7. Hepxonnax rasera. 1858. 10(22) mapra. N 7. C. 55.
8. Hv:ra M. Ipamarnxa cnon'xno-pyctxa. Hepexna s narnnctxo H.M.Hnsan-
nx ra R.M.Caxa. K.,1986. -190 c.
9. Hnr. sa: Ceeuuru H. Marepnant no ncropnn nospoxennx Kapnarcxo
Pycn. Htnon, 1905. C. 147.
10. Bosur M. Cryi na rannntxo-yxpanctxnmn rpamarnxamn XIX cr. // 3a-
nncxn nayxonoro r-na im. T.Benuenxa. T. XC. Kn. IV. Htnin, 1909. C. 92.
11. Szafarzyka P. J. Slowianski Narodopis przelozyl z czeckiego Piotr Dantmann
w Wroclawly. 1843. S. 34.
12. Hv:ra M.M. Icropix xapnarctxnx pycnnin. V 6-rn rr.- T. I-IV. Vxropo,
1999-2003.
13. Hv:ra M. Ipamarnxa cnon`xno-pyctxa. C. 48-49.
14. Hv:ra M. Icropix xapnarctxnx pycnnin. T.2. Vxropo, 1999. C.209.
15. erantnime npo ne nn.: auu.mr . Mnxano Hyuxa narpiapx saxap-
narctxo icropiorpa]i. Vxropo, 1995.
16. Hv:ra M. Hepxonntx Fecet na nce neenn poxa na noyuenic naponoc n
nepxnn napoxiantno xasannt. u. 1. Fynn, 1831. - 340 c.; u. 2. - 311 c.
17. Slavy Dcera. Liricko epicka basen v peti zpevich od Jana Kollara. Osme
vydani. Nakladaxetl I.I.Kober knihkupectvi v Praze, b.p. - S. 241.
18. auu.mr . Mnxano Hyuxa xx icropnx // Icropiorpa]iuni ocnixennx n
Vxpani.
19. Hpo ne nn.: auu.mr . Icropnuna nayxa na 3axapnarri (xinent XVIII
nepma nononnna XX cr.). Vxropo, 1999.
126
2009, N 3 (17)
Anpin CBITAHHEHL
HTTR TA IRALHICTL
CXHAPXIMAHPHTA BIKEHTIR (OPOCA)
(18.09.1901 05.03.1982)
Orent Bixenri (n mnpy Opoc
Bacnnt Onexcionnu) naponncx n
ceni Isa, Xycrctxoro oxpyry 18 ne-
pecnx 1901 p.[1. C. 156] n ponni
cenxn Onexcix Onexcionnua ra
Karepnnn Bacnninnn.
Hporxrom 1908 1913 pp. na-
nuacrtcx y nepxonnonpnxoctxi
mxoni pinoro cena, ane penirina
oporta, apemrn yropctxom nna-
om onocentnin ra pyrn Ma-
pamopom-Cirerctxn cyonn npo-
nec smycnnn noxnnyrn nanuannx.
Hi noi sannmnnn rnnoxn cni n
ymi mnaxa, xxn yxe onxue
cnpnnxn roninnx na npanocnanny
nipy. V n`xrnanxrnpiunomy nini
(1916 p.) npncnancx o npano-
cnannoro pyxy n ceni Isa i ncrynac
o parcrna Cnxro-Mnxonanct-
xoro monacrnpx [1. C. 109]. Xonamunct ni penpeci ancrpo-yropctxo
aminicrpani, exxn uac nepeynan pasom s inmnmn onocentnxmn y
xam`xnnx neuepax sa piuxom Pixa inx Xycra [1. C. 85].
3 ntoro nepioy xnrrx mayrntoro apximanpnra sepernacx ononi
nixana icropix. Cecrpa Vrnxnctxoro monacrnpx monaxnnx Marpona (Bn-
mon) posnoniac, mo xxoct n ceno Vrnm pasom s o. Anexcicm (Kaanm-
xom) npnmon monon mnax Bacnnt Opoc s Isn. 3ynnnnnncx nonn na
naropi, e xonnct snaxonncx anni monacrnp i n nenennxi xannnuni
na pynax craporo ]ynamenry nicnyxnnn oxecrnenny niryprim. Hicnx
cnyxn nnpimnnn rpoxn ninounrn i nesuynncx xx sapimann. Bacnnm
npncnnncx con, nin mann xnonunx cxasan omy, mo na ntomy micni
nenonsi croxrnme monacrnp, a nin ye n ntomy npannrn. Konn npoxn-
nynncx, ro o. Anexci sannran mnaxa, mo romy nacnnnocx. ope nam`x-
127

ramun nnnn con, Bacnnt sacopomnncx i ne xorin npo ne posnoniarn, i
monax, niuynamun senrexenicrt cnoro cynyrnnxa, cxasan: He copom-
cx, npoe neararo uacy i rn yem cnyxnrn n ntomy monacrnpi.
4 xonrnx 1922 p. npnsnann na crpoxony cnyxy o uexocnonantxoro
nictxa, s xxoro emoinisynancx 4 nncronaa 1924 p. [1. C. 13]. Hicnx
nonepnennx npanmnan y omamntomy rocnoapcrni. Ane noi n pino-
my ceni 1913-1914 pp. ne saynncx i, moxnnno, came nonn niirpann nnpi-
mantny pont y nnopi xnrrcnoro mnxxy. Hpomno exintxa poxin, i mnax
nnpimyc npncnxrnrn cnoc xnrrx cnyxinnm Fory.
Pasom is ronapnmem Inanom Kynpem (n mayrntomy npenoonn
Ion Vrontctxn anr.) nonn nnpimymrt sicnnrn npomy na cnxry ropy
A]on. Ane nonirnuna cnryanix, xxa cxnanacx n Ipeni y cepenni 20-x pp.
XX cr. ne cnpnxna sicnennm mpi [2. C. 53].
5 nmroro 1929 p. ncrynac nocnymnnxom y CnacoHpeopaxenctxn
uononiun cxnr npn ceni Tepenx, e irymenom na ro uac yn o. Canna
(Anpimxo). A nxe 14 nmroro, sa narocnoninnxm npannxuoro apxicpex
Cepa]nma (Inanonnu), cnncxona Pamctxo-Hpnspenctxoro i Kapnaropyct-
xoro, apximanpnr Anexci Kaanmx nocrpnrac oro n many cxnmy s
imenem Bixenri [1. C. 3, 18].
24 nmroro (5 epesnx) 1929 p. cnncxon Cepa]nm n Xycri nncnxuyc
oro n nxxonn, a nxe 20 epesnx (2 xnirnx) n can icpomonaxa [1. C. 15,
17].
3 rpannx 1929 p. monon monax nanpannxcrtcx y napa]im cena Boni-
rono s rnmuaconnm ocnyronynannxm raxox cena Honoapono, Txuinct-
xoro oxpyry [1. C. 17]. Fintme nox poxin monon monax nic nacrnpct-
xn nocnyx y ntomy ceni. 3a ininiarnnn ornx Bixenrix ra crapannxmn
axrnnni nirpnmni napa]ixn ryr yno noyonano nenennxn epen`x-
nn xpam [1. C. 127].
Hepeynamun na npnxoi, icpomonax npoonxyc nirpnmynarn ricni
sn`xsxn s cnom onocentnem Inanom Kynpem, xxn pasom s inmnmn
mnaxamn nnpimnn noyynarn n ropax na piuxom Pixa uononiun cxnr.
Konn nocrano nnrannx xyninni sementno inxnxn, ro o. Bixenri, ne sa-
ymymunct, nian y cnintny xacy nci cno saomaxennx 8 rncxu xpon.
Henonsi, na nnxynneni inxnni, xxa nasnnanacx Maxonnnx, i yn syo-
nann Cnxro-Tpontxn Ioponninctxn cxnr [2. C. 58; 3. C. 66]. 3naxo-
nnm c re, mo y cno anroiorpa]i npenoonn Ion Vrontctxn (Kyn-
px) nnme, mo Cnxro-Tpontxa nycrnnt n Ioponnoni yna sacnonana came
npn nirpnmni icpomonaxa Bixenrix [4].
Hi uac nacrnpctxoro nocnyxy n c. Bonirono icpomonaxa Bixenrix xx
sinoro cnxmennxa uacro nocnnamrt y pisni napa]i nx cnxrxonoro un
rnmuaconoro orocnyxinnx (cin Feennx, Tepemynt, Hinnema) [1. C.
18]. 20 nnnnx 1931 p. nporocnnrn o. Iycrnn, xxn rnmuacono nnxonynan
128
2009, N 3 (17)
oon`xsxn xepymuoro cnapxicm, nanpannxc monaxa y m. Paxin (uacrnna
Fnuxin-Fouxo) s ocnyronynannxm cin Posroxa i Finnn [1. C. 18]. Tyr
npoyn neonro, o nxe 26 epesnx 1932 p. Myxauinctxo-Hpxminctxn
cnncxon amacxin (Ipaniuxa) snony noneprac oro y napa]im Bonirona,
a 27 xonrnx narocnonnxc na nacrnpctxe cnyxinnx o c. Hnxni Fncr-
pn [1. C. 4]. 3 roro nepioy sepernocx nixane ]oro, na xxomy sopaxe-
no monaxa cepe micnennx cenxn. 3a cniuennxm crapoxnnin, monon
nacrnp ysxn axrnnny yuacrt y yinnnnrni cintctxo nepxnn. V 1933 p. n
ceni Kpnueno cxnanacx cxnana penirina cnryanix mix npanocnannom i
rpexo-xaronnntxom rpomaamn. Bpaxonymun sinocri ra mypicrt o.
Bixenrix, cnncxon nanpannxc oro na ne npnxi [1. C. 119]. I ne nomn-
nnncx. 3a xoporxn uac cnryanix n ceni crainisynanacx, a xpim nacrnpct-
xoro cnyxinnx monon monax nncrynnn ininiaropom yinnnnrna npano-
cnannoro xpamy [5. C. 757].
Taxox nx roro, mo ninxrn nnacnn yxonnn pinent, nporxrom 4-x
poxin o. Bixenri pasom is inmnmn 28 cnxmennxamn ra monaxamn niniyc
nacrnpctxo-orocnonctxi xypcn, opranisonani cnncxonctxom nnaom na
asi epxanno peantno rimnasi n m. Xycr [1. C. 12; 6, apx. 38].
Be n 1933 p., sa pexomenanicm apximanpnra Anexcix (Kaanmxa),
o o. Bixenrix snepnyncx nnanxa amacxin s nponosnnicm ninonnrn
crapoanni npanocnannn monacrnp y ceni Vrnx, na mo nin, snnuano,
noronncx. Orpnmanmn cnncxonctxe narocnonennx, icpomonax xynyc
sementny inxnxy n ceni ra ominmc na semnm n ypounmi na ropax, e
xonnct, sa cniuennxm crapoxnnin, snaxonnacx annx onrent. Ocxint-
xn yinentnoro marepiany ne yno, ro o. Bixenri xynnn na crapi epe-
n`xni ynnxn n c. Kpnueno, xxi posipann i nepenesnn n Vrnm. Came s
nic epennnn i yna noyonana nenennxa nepxna n uecrt Vcninnx Foxo
Marepi, xxy ocnxrnn apximanpnr Anexci n 1936 p. Is sannmxin epenn-
nn snenn nenennxn ynnouox na ni xeni, n xxnx nocennnocx exintxa
monaxin is Ioponninctxoro cxnry [7].
Hixano, mo me na nouarxy 1934 p. n ceni parono, xyn icpomonax
uacro naniynancx o o. ocn]ex (Banpa), nin sycrpincx s micnenom
memxanxom, xxa posnonina npo nnnn con, n xxomy noaunna annm
onrent, mo yna spynonana me n xinni XVIII cr. Hpo ne monacrnp
o. Bixenri snan me sanna is nnnaxono nouyro ecin nox crapmnx
nme. A ocxintxn roi n 3axapnarri yno nennxe roninnx na npanocnan-
ny nipy, ro mnax an oirnnnm Foroni y mayrntomy ninonnrn nm on-
rent. Hanenno, raxe yno Foxe nponninnx, mo icpomonax y norpinn
uac onnnnncx y norpinomy micni. Tax o. Bixenri npncrynnn o ninon-
nennx me onoro icropnunoro cxnry parinctxoro. Cnouarxy na micni
xonnmntoro monacrnpx nicnyxnnn niryprim, a n nacrynnomy poni ocnx-
rnnn ]ynamenr mayrntoro xpamy. 3a nennxi crapannx na nnni yrnep-
129

xennx ra nomnpennx npanocnan`x n namomy xpa, npannxun icpe nna-
nxa amacxin, 4 nnnnx 1935 p. naropoxyc o. Bixenrix naepennxom
(uaoeopeuur :acmuua ooev ceueuura, ra cu+eo.isvc ovxoeuu
uum aem.).
26 epesnx 1937 p. monooro icpomonaxa npnsnaunnn nacroxrenem
parinctxoro cxnry [8. Apx. 73]. yxonnn, nonnxnnntxn nonnr o.
Bixenrix an cno pesyntrarn na 1938 p. n cxnri necnn cni monac-
rnpctxn nocnyx 7 cecrep i sa ocnrt xoporxn uac, npn ri sarantnona-
poni cxpyri ra inocri, omy nanocx syynarn nepxny, exintxa xeni
ra nenennxn. Hanxonnmnc nacenennx essanepeuno nnsnanano anropn-
rer o. Bixenrix, nanpantonann i soyrn nenromnom, esxopncnnnom
npanem na nnni yrnepxennx cnxroro npanocnan`x.
V nepmi poxn nicnx nxoxennx 3axapnarrx o cxnay Paxnctxo
Vxpann, xxnxoct ceposnnx penirinnx smin ne niynanocx. Hecraua
cnxmennocnyxnrenin y nonocnnn uac smymynan arartox monaxin o-
cnyronynarn me cintctxi napa]i. Tax, 10 rpynx 1947 p. npannxun My-
xauinctxo-Vxropoctxn cnncxon Hecrop (Cnopyx) npnsnauac o. Bixen-
rix raxox nacroxrenem Cnxro-Tpontxoro xpamy n c. parono [1. C. 166].
Ane uepes nenonnn pix, 24 nncronaa 1948 p., nxe nonn npannxun
apxicnncxon Maxapi (Oxcimx) snintnxc oro ni ocnyronynannx cintctxo-
ro npnxoy [1. C. 159], sannmamun raxnm unnom yxinnnxom cxnry. Ane
ni xaponi sminn ra nepecranonxn n nacrnpctxomy xnrri monaxa ynn
nnment nouarxom.
Ha nouarxy 1949 p. n cxnri niynncx aminicrparnnni sminn. 23 e-
pesnx 1949 p. nnanxa Maxapi, apxicnncxon Htninctxn i Tepnonintct-
xn ra Myxaueno-Vxropoctxn, snintnxc o. Bixenrix ni oon`xsxin
yxinnnxa parinctxo onreni i npnsnauac nacroxrenem cintctxo na-
pa]i n c. Bonirono [1. C. 149-150]. 3apas naxxo noxcnnrn, mo yno npn-
unnom saminn yxinnnxa, rnm intme, mo nctoro uepes exintxa micxnin,
a rounime 21 uepnnx 1949 p., naxasom N1070 apxicnncxon Maxapi ra-
xox npnsnauac nonom irymenem marymxy Baccy (Pocoxa) [9. ox. ni.
21.06.1949].
3mina xepinnnnrna cxnry cxnnnmnana ne rintxn nacentnnnt onreni, a
xnrenin nanxonnmnix cin. V Xycrctxomy cnapxiantnomy apxini sepir-
cx nixann oxymenr ni 25 epesnx 1949 p., n xxomy unenn npanocnan-
no omnnn parona snepnynncx o apxicnncxona Maxapix s npoxannxm
sannmnrn y nnx o. Bixenrix mornnymun rnm, mo sa ocranni 15 poxin
o. icpomonax Bixenri araro nonpanmnan y cnpani nponnirannx cnxro
Hpanocnanno Xpncrono Hepxnn i ncx omnna cena parona nonaxac
npanm icpomonaxa i axac, mo nin sannmnncx naani i npoonxnn npa-
nm nouary 18 poxin romy, rnm intme, mo n ocranni uac yniarctxa o-
mnna cena nepemna n npanocnanic i norpeycrtcx nacroxrenm me intme
130
2009, N 3 (17)
npanmnarn y cnpani npanocnan`x, . rnm naue, mo omnna yniarctxa
axac npanmnarn s icpomonaxom o. Bixenricm. [9. ox. ni 25.03.1949].
Ane npoxannx cenxn sannmnnocx es ynarn.
uepes pix, 25 epesnx 1950 p., naxasom N 57 npannxun apxicpe sno-
ny snintnxc o. Bixenrix yxe s nocan nacroxrenx cintctxo napa]i Boni-
rona ra nepenonrt sacrynnnxom nacroxrenx Ioponninctxoro Cnxro-
Tpontxoro cxnra [1. C. 147]. Hpo anropnrer, xxn man icpomonax y
nipnnxin, cniunrt nncr xnrenin cena ni 22 rpannx, xxi snepramrtcx s
npoxannxm o npannxuoro cnncxona. 3oxpema n nncri cxasano (monom
opnrinany): Icpomonax Bixenri n namomy ceni nxe naxonrtcx on-
rn uac. Horo rpyom i oro ininiarnnom noyonano n nac npexpacny
nepxon i oro nicyrnicrt n namomy ceni yna nennniunmom panom n
namnx xpncrixnctxnx cepnxx. Cam nin c monaxom, ocoa yxe cxpomna,
cnxro xnmua i yxe mano rpeonarentna. Hacenennx namoro cena o-
cnrt ine, rax mo cnxmennxa Bixenrix n cnni nnepxarn. Kpim roro,
oro noneinxa, xpncrixnctxo-cnxmennnue xnrrx nacrintxn nxopennnn-
cx n nami cepnx, mo rxxxo yno nam npomarnct s nnm.
Tomy npocnmo sannmnrn nam cnxmennxa icpomonaxa Bixenrix
[1. C. 132].
Inmn nonropnn nncr-npoxannx ni 27 nncronaa ronopnrt: Hpo-
cnmo nnanxy, mron nam oparno nasnaunn cpmonaxa Bixenrix Cnyxn
Foxoi ne yno yxe 2 micxni, ro napo nounnac sannmarn nepxon Foxy
Hpocnmo nepnyrn cpmonaxa Bixenrix, romy mo nin y nac araro rpynn-
cx, noyynan nepxon ime n 1926 poni i yxe na ntoro napo nannx [1.
C. 135]. Hixannm c ]axr, xonn npanocnanna omnna cena Kpnuena isna-
nacx npo nepemimennx icpomonaxa o Ioponninctxoro monacrnpx, nona
raxox, xx i xnreni Bonirona, snepnynacx o npannxuoro cnncxona s npo-
xannxm nanpannrn came o nnx o. Bixenrix (monom opnrinany): npo-
cnmo Bame Hpeocnxmencrno nasnaunrn nam cnxmennxa nepomonaxa
Bnxenrnx Hpomenne mornnnpyem cneymmee y nac ecrt mnoro
cexranron cyornnxon, ro o. Hoann Kpnu]anymn ne n cnnax cnpa-
nnrtcx c cexranramn. O. nepomonax Bnxenrn y nac tn sa nacroxrenx
nepxnn, n ero nce ceno xouer Haeemcx na nonoxnrentnoe ncnonne-
nne name npoctt. Hepxonnt coner n napo. (54 ninncn) [1. C.
137]. Ane onna nncrn rax i sannmnnncx es ninonii.
Hi nncrn c xcxpannm cniuennxm cnpanxntoro nacrnpctxoro cnyxin-
nx icpomonaxa Bixenrix. e nin ne nic nacrnpctxn nocnyx, sanxn
cymninno i pennocno crannncx o cnox oon`xsxin. Tomy cintctxi omn-
nn, n xxnx panime cnyxnn icpomonax, i npocnnn nepxonny nnay, mo came
o nnx nonepnyrn nacrnpx.
Hpomno nnme exintxa micxnin, i snony, naxasom N778 ni 4 xonrnx
1950 p., o. Bixenrix nepemicrnnn na ne pas y Cnxro-Mnxonactxn
131

Istxn monacrnp o oconnnoro posnopxxennx cnncxona [1. C. 139].
oxymenrn cnapxiantnoro apxiny nponnnamrt cnirno na npnunny raxoro
pisxoro nepemimennx yxinnnxa. Haxnni cnpann cniuart npo aminicr-
parnnne poscniynannx cnpann npo nesaxonne ninuannx ponuin, xxe nin-
ro sicnnn o. Bixenri. Hpo pesyntrar nepenipxn cniunrt nncr ni 1
xonrnx 1950 p. apximanpnra Istxoro monacrnpx o.Mar]ex (Baxapona),
n xxomy nin nnnpanonyc ra nirnepxyc nennnnicrt yxinnnxa [1. C.
140-141]. I xx pesyntrar nic cnpann naxas cnncxona N988 ni 21 rpynx
1950 p. npo nonepnennx o. Bixenrix y napa]im cena Bonirono.
Ta ntomy ne yno xinnx. Heniomo uomy, ane 30 uepnnx 1951 p. yxin-
nnxa snony nepemimamrt i nasnauamrt nacroxrenem napa]i cena Vrnx
[1. C. 118]. I xxmo nx xnrenin c. Bonirono ne yna nrpara, ro nx omn-
nn Vrni nennxa paicrt. Hpo ne noniomnxc nncr ni 23 rpynx 1951 p.
nepxonnoro xyparopa Ionyxa Inana na im`x cnncxona, e nin soxpema
nnme (monom opnrinany): Or nmenn npanocnannoi omnnn cena Vrni
nmeem uecrt nonaroapnrn Bame Hpeocnxmencrno sa ro, mo c re nam
ann ornx Bnxenrix Oren Bixenri ecrt npononinnx Xpncra Or
ornonn npnxoxrt anricrt, on nx xpecrnrt, xxi ne tnn xpement mno-
ro nir. Hapoa npnxonrt oraro y xpam [1. C. 118-118 (o)].
Be onnm nixannm i manoocnixennm mrpnxom y iorpa]i o. Bixen-
rix c ninonnennx i yinnnnrno Cnxro-mnrpinctxoro xpamy n ceni Mana
Vrontxa na micni anntoro icropnunoro cxnry, mo icnynan ryr me n rnn-
oxy annnny.
Ha nouarxy 1950-x pp. o icpomonaxa snepnynncx xnreni c. Mana
Vrontxa Ia]ix ra Bacnnt Ocronomi, xxi sanpononynann na micni xonnm-
ntoro cxnra noyynarn nenennxy nepxny. Orpnmanmn ni nnanxn na-
rocnonennx, npncrynnnn o sicnennx saymanoro. 3a cniuennxm mo-
naxnni Marponn (Bnmon), ocnonnn rxrap opranisaninnx ra yinent-
nnx poir nir na nneui yxinnnxa. Axrnnno omy onomarann ni monoi
nocnymnnni is Vrnxnctxoro monacrnpx Mapix Bnmon i Mapix Mansmx
ra micneni xnreni. 3a xoporxn uac nnmn yno nnxonano rpanme ra spo-
neno ]ynamenr. Hporxrom nira micneni macrpn Mnxona Kypnuxa ra
Bacnnt Hectxo nocrannnn spy, xxn o oceni ncrnrnn naxpnrn axom. 8
nncronaa 1951 p., n ent Cnxroro Bennxomyuennxa nmnrpix Conynct-
xoro, niynocx ocnxuennx xpamy. o camoro apemry y 1952 p. i nicnx
snintnennx icpomonax onixynancx nnm xpamom ne sannmamun nanpnsno-
nxme me one cnoc irnme.
1952 p. n xnrri o. Bixenrix samac oconnno rpariune micne. Bnoui 23
rpannx na npnxoctxi ]api cena Vrnx oro saapemrynann npaninnnxn
MF sa niospom y cninnpani s annramn. x noniomnxn y cnapxim
o.Ion (Iamnap), si cnin nporoicpex Inana Firapx n ceni parono yn nopa-
nenn ra sarpnmann annr Honxi, i cepe oconcrnx peue y ntoro
132
2009, N 3 (17)
snamnn sanncny xnnxxy is cnncxamn opounnnin, xxi onomarann ani
xapuamn. Homix nnx nme raxox snaunnocx im`x o. Bixenrix. He i no-
cnyxnno npnnoom o apemry yxinnnxa [10. 3nir ni 25.05.1952].
Kpim o. Bixenrix, nacrynnoro nx 24 rpannx sarpnmann monaxnnm
Konamninctxoro cxnry Marannny (Benemy Mapim Rpinny), a raxox
n c. Konamneno y nnacnomy ynnxy saapemronano nocnymnnxa Cnxro-
mnrpinctxoro cxnra (c. yone, Txuinctxoro p-ny) uapxannx Rpix
Bacnntonnua [10. 3nir ni 25.05.1952; 11. C. 39-40]. Ta na ntomy ne-
npncmnocri ne saxinunnncx. 30 rpannx saapemrynann o. Iona (Iamnap), a
13 uepnnx icpomonaxa uymaninctxoro monacrnpx o. amiana (Font) [11.
C. 39-40]. Bcim m nncynynn snnnynauennx y cninnpani s anamn An-
pinx ra Hnnnnnx, xxi ixnn n ripctxi micnenocri Txuinctxoro, Xycrct-
xoro, Ipmanctxoro ra Mixripctxoro paonin. uepes exintxa nin nicnx
apemry o. Bixenrix s`xnnxcrtcx naxas cnncxona Inapiona N 726 ni 1
uepnnx 1952 p., sa xxnm icpomonax y sn`xsxy s apemrom snintnxcrtcx s
nocan nacroxrenx napa]i c. Vrnx Txuinctxoro paony i sannmacrtcx
nosamrary es npana nnxonynarn yt-xxe orocnyxinnx [1. C. 117].
x npnrayc monaxnnx Vrnxnctxoro monacrnpx marymxa Marpona
(Bnmon), nicnx apemry o. Bixenrix cecrpn nimnn na ]apy i sapann n
monacrnp nci oconcri peui yxinnnxa. Hporxrom ecxrn micxnin rpnna-
no cnicrno, i nect ne uac cecrpn noueprono naniynann oro ra nocnnn
nepeaui s xem. Ane nauacrime, ne nnnxunct na moxnnni nenpncm-
nocri, o ntoro snn xnrent cena Vrni Mnxano Hemem. Is roro xx
nnrnxan yxinnnx yno nnno, mo oro ram yxe nnn. A uepes exint-
xa micxnin niyncx cy. Konn oronocnnn nnpox, ro icpomonax nnme ripxo
ycmixnyncx i ne cxasan ni cnona. O]inini oxymenrn xpnminantno cnpa-
nn N 5254-C cniuart: o. Bixenrix snnnynarnnn n romy, mo n nepio 1948
1949 pp. nin nirpnmynan ricni sn`xsxn s rax snanom anom oyninnx
Hnnnnnx. Hporxrom ntoro uacy nepionuno xonan annrin y cno xeni,
pemonrynan nsyrrx, saesneuynan xapuamn oconcro nepean 10 xr
oni, 20 xr xnaconi. V cni saxncr icpomonax nnnpanonynancx rnm, mo
sycrpiuancx s annramn ne perynxpno, a nnme cnopanuno i ro nnme
oxunct xnto posnpann. Pemonr uoir ra nepeauy xapuin sicnnn ni
sarposom nnncrna si croponn xepinnnxa rpynn Hnnnnnx.
I xoua s xpnminantnoro poscniynannx nnnnnnac, mo nicynn y xo-
nnx nacnntnnntxnx ixx nporn rpomaxn yuacri ne pan, a nci inmi i
ynn cxocni nnme ni sarposom posnpann nnpox yn nennarannnm: 25
nmnx 1952 roa ocyxen noenntm rpnynanom norpannuntx nocx MIF
3axapnarcxo onacrn no cr. 20-54-1 a VK VCCP x 25 roam nnmennx
cnoot n HTH (ncnpannrentno-rpyono narept anr.) c nopaxennem
n npanax na 5 ner n c xon]ncxanne nmymecrna. Mamun exxy naim
na cnpanennne nnpimennx cnpann, o. Bixenri noac xacaniny cxapry,
133

ane nictxonn rpnynan nictx MF Htninctxoro oxpyry nnpox sann-
mac es smin [11. C. 39-40].
Ananoriuni mipn yno sacroconano i o inmnx sacyxennx ornin Iona,
amiana, uapxannx Rpix ra monaxnni Marannnn [11. C. 39-40]. 3a
cniuennxm nnni xnnnx cecrep o. Bixenri niynan noxapannx na yin-
nnnrni. Oryr i snaonnncx ri yminnx ra nannuxn, xxi soyn me noma,
npanmmun y rocnoapcrni. Fyyun ni npnpon crapannnm i npantonn-
rnm ra mamun xncr o yinentno cnpann, o. Bixenri nnxonynan no ni
nopmn, mo anano smory orpnmarn oarxonn xapuonn naox. Pasom
s nnm npanmnan raxox icpomonax o. amian, mo snnuano nonermynano
nepeynannx na sacnanni, o pysi mornn xou mopantno nirpnmarn onn
onoro. Ta na xant, o. amian ne nnrpnman nenocnntnnx ymon npani,
anrncanirapi i, saxnopinmn, nenonsi nomnpac.
Hicnx cmepri Cranina y epesni 1953 p. n xpani cranncx nonirnuni
sminn i niyncx uacrxonn nepernx xpnminantnnx cnpan panime sacy-
xennx rpomaxn ra sa x pesyntraramn nponeena amnicrix. Hi nm am-
nicrim norpannnn sacyxeni nepxonnocnyxnreni npanocnanno ra rpexo-
xaronnntxo nepxon. Taxox nepernxnynn xpnminantny cnpany n`xsnx Opoca
i onpeenennem noennoro rpnynana 4-ro noenno-mopcxoro ]nora
or 8 nmnx 1955 roa cocroxnmeecx cyente pemennx n ornomennn
ocyxennoro nsmenent. Mepa naxasannx no cr. 20-54-1 a VK VCCP
emy cnnxena o 5 ner nnmennx cnoot n HTH es nopaxennx n npa-
nax [12. C. 3]. Orxe, xx cniunrt oxymenr, cy nepernxnyn cnpany
sacyxenoro i nauamun esnicrannicrt snnnynauent, smenmnn mipy
noxapannx, saminnnmn 25 poxin raopin na 5. Ta nanirt i ntoro yno saa-
raro, o nxe uepes rpn rnxni, 29 uepnnx 1955 p., ornx Bixenrix ocrpo-
xono snintnnnn is snxrrxm cynmocri. uaxrnuno nnm pimennxm npo oc-
rpoxony amnicrim yna nirnepxena necnpanennnicrt ra acypnicrt
nncynyrnx snnnynauent paxnctxo nnan nporn icpomonaxa. (Hpom-
eo+ 1955 p. maror ov.u sei.iueui eci sacvoreui +ouaxu saapeu-
moeaui e 1952 p. aem.).
Honepramunct is sacnannx, y Htnoni o. Bixenri nnnaxono sycrpin
nacroxrentxy omoxctxoro Cnxro-Vcninctxoro monacrnpx. Monaxn-
nx, noaunnmn n xxomy naxxomy crani nepeynac yxinnnx, sapana oro
n monacrnp, e cecrpn nporxrom micxnx ornxann ra nnxoxynann o.
Bixenrix. Hpnynmn oomy icpomonax crac na onix i nenonsi orpnmyc
nacnopr, es xxoro ne man npana npoxnnarn n npnxoponni soni 3axap-
narctxo onacri. He, xx na nam nornx, raxox c cniuennxm roro, mo
epxanni oprann nnsnann oro nonny nennnnicrt i esnicrannicrt cyn-
mocri. 21 nnnnx o. Bixenri nnme npoxannx na im`x cnncxona Inapiona npo
npnnxrrx oro n uncno cnxmennntxo pari Myxauinctxo cnapxi [1. C.
113]. Ocxintxn cnncxon na ro uac yn nicyrni, ro rnmuacono o. Bixenrix
134
2009, N 3 (17)
nanpannnn y Cnxro-Tpontxn cxnr Xycr-Ioponnono [1. C. 114]. I nnme
maxe uepes ninpoxy s`xnnncx naxas N 1095, xxnm icpomonaxa npnsna-
uamrt yxinnnxom CnxroVcnenctxoro xinouoro monacrnpx n c. om-
oxn [1. C. 112].
Poxn craninctxnx raopin ne snamann o. Bixenrix ra ne snnmnnn n
ntomy yx cnpanxntoro nacrnpx nmctxnx ym. Hecyun nocnyx yxin-
nnxa omoxctxoro monacrnpx, icpomonax, xpim cnox npxmnx oon`xsxin,
namaracrtcx yrn xopncnnm nx onreni. Be n parinctxomy cxnry, o.
Bixenri man nect menctxn incrpymenr, samancx mnrrxm ra pemon-
rom nsyrrx nx cecrep. V noni onreni nin raxox xorin nanunrn ntomy
pemecny exintxox cecrep, mo ri mornn naronrn cnoc nsyrrx i ne yrn
sanexnnmn ni sonnimntoro cniry. Tomy nin nnme npoxannx na im`x im-
uoro nnanxn s npoxannxm narocnonnrn omy ninycx na rpn ni, mo
noxarn n parinctxn cxnr i saparn snirn cno incrpymenrn [1. C.
111]. He ]axr xpacnomonno cniunrt npo o. Bixenrix, xx npo oporo
rocnoapx ra annnoro yxonnoro artxa, xxn no-cnpanxntomy oni-
xycrtcx mayrntom onem cnox yxonnnx ire.
He saynan o. Bixenri i npo Vrnxnctxn cxnr, xxn raxox yn nipo-
xenn oro crapannxmn i no npany icpomonax nnaxancx xpemennm art-
xom Foxo onreni. Hesnaxamun na re, mo nin y ro uac ram nxe ne
cnyxnn, cecrpn i naani nnaxann oro sa cnoro yxonnoro nacrannnxa.
Tomy ne c nnnnm, mo nonn snepranncx o ntoro is pisnnmn npoxannxmn.
Konn nanpnxna, nanecni 1956 p. n cxnri nocrano nnrannx npo pemonr
monacrnpctxoro xpamy, ro cecrpn npocxrt narocnonennx nnanxn na-
npannrn o nnx came o. Bixenrix, mornnymun rnm, mo: no +romy eny
oren nepomonax Bnxenrn Opoc xnnxercx ncxycntm cnennanncrom
[13. ox. ni 12.12.1955 p.]. I sposymino, mo yxinnnx n xntomy npoxanni
ne nimonnn [1. C. 109].
Fyyun yxinnnxom onreni, o. Bixenri xpim nacrnpctxoro nocnyxy i
posn`xsannx nennxo xintxocri opranisaninnx nnrant, ne saynan i npo
cnoc yxonne xnrrx. 3 roro nepioy sepircx nixann oxymenr, n xxomy
icpomonax npocnrt narocnoninnx noxarn n Ioponninctxn cxnr, mo
nncnoniarncx y cnoro yxonnoro artxa o. irymena Iona (Kynpi) [1. C.
109]. Horpino nisnaunrn, mo mix icpomonaxamn sanxn ynn opi
ronapnctxi crocynxn. Vpoxenni onoro cena, maxe ononirxn, nonn
me y anexomy 1916 p. crann na naxxy repnncry, a roi me i neesneuny
opory cnyxinnm Fory, cranmn ocnonnnmn ]ynaropamn Cnxro-Tpont-
xoro cxnry 3a Pixom. Fynn cnixamn i axrnnnnmn rnopnxmn ninon-
nennx npanocnan`x y 3axapnarri, cnocm camonianom npanem yrnep-
xynann icrnnny Xpncrony nepxny i cixnn sepna Foxoro cnona n nmct-
xnx ymax. Be intmo onipn y xnix crocynxax oano re, mo onna
yxinnnxn esnicranno ynn sacyxeni paxnctxnmn xapantnnmn opra-
135

namn i npomnn uepes nxnontctxe nexno craninctxnx xonnraopin, a
npenoonn Ion me npomon uepes ]ponrone nexno. He cnintnn mo-
menr y iorpa]ixx naanan xnim crocynxam oconnnnx onipunx ]opm i,
mayrt, came romy o. Ion cran yxonnnm artxom nx o. Bixenrix. Fo x
xro-xro, a nonn yxe ope snann paxnctxy icnicrt i nanepe aun-
nn, mo uexac n neanexomy mayrntomy npanocnanne monamecrno. Ta
ne ni na mnrt ne noxnrnyno xnc mnpe cnyxinnx i ne smycnno sirn s
opano oporn. yxinnnx cxnry o. Ion, ope snamun cymninnicrt o. Bixen-
rix, onipxn omy napisnomanirnimi cnpann. B cnapxiantnomy apxini se-
pircx oxymenr, n xxomy npenoonn o.Ion Vrontctxn npocnrt icpo-
monaxa noxarn n Xycrctxn paon, mo orpnmarn ra npnnesrn na snonn
nx Cnxro-Tpontxo Ioponninctxo onreni [1. C. 108].
Penne cnyxinnx o. Bixenrix y cnpani yrnepxennx cnxroro npanocna-
n`x ynn sacnyxeno onineni nepxonnom nnaom yxasom narpiapxa Anex-
cix I (Cnmanctxn) oro naroponnn nanepcnnm xpecrom [1. C. 86 (sn.)].
26 rpynx 1957 p. cnncxon Bapnaam (Fopncennu) yxasom N 1082
snintnxc o. Bixenrix is nocan yxinnnxa omoxctxoro monacrnpx ra
npnsnauac yxinnnxom Cnxro-Vcnenctxoro monacrnpx n c. Vrnx. Tax icpo-
monax snony nonepnyncx y Foxy onrent, xxa yna ninonnena s Iocno-
ntoro narocnonennx ra oro nenromno npani i xxy yn smymenn npn-
mycono sannmnrn n 1952 p. y sn`xsxy s apemrom. nx cecrep ne crano
cnpanxntom paicrm o icpomonaxa ryr ope snann i nonaxann. Hpn-
ynmn na micne, o. Bixenri, xpim cnox npxmnx oon`xsxin, spasy x ysxn-
cx sa pemonrn, xxnx rax norpeynana onrent. Crapannxmn yxinnnxa
saminnnn npornnni nnxni pycn crin xpamy ra ninonnnn epen`xny ninory
nepxnn, xxa yna nonnicrm snnmena rpnxom. Ta naonmuimnm sann-
manocx nnrannx pemonry xnrnonoro xopnycy, xxn sa onomorom icpo-
monaxa uacrxono ninonnmnann me n 1956 p. I ocxintxn yinnx yxe
crana soncim nenpnarnom nx npoxnnannx, ro yno npnnxro pimennx
yynarn nonn nononepxonn xopnyc. x cniuart cecrpn, o saxpnr-
rx onreni nepmn nonepx ncrnrnn nonnicrm sanaronrn, a pyrn rax i
sannmnncx neoxinuennm.
x cniuart oxymenrn roro nepioy, o. Bixenri, nesnaxamun na no-
nny amnicrim, sanxn yn y noni sopy xomnerenrnnx opranin. He ana-
no npano pisnnm ynonnonaxennm npnnnxynarn im`x icpomonaxa.
Tax, noxina cecrpa Mnxana (Pnapt) nncana, mo ni uac ueprono
nepenipxn n cxnri, xroct is unnonnnxin, isnanmnct, mo ryr yxinnnxom c
o. Bixenri, saynaxnn: Xro nasnaunn Bixenrix, xxmo nin yn sn`xsann is
anrnpaxnctxom anom ra sa ne cnin y rmpmi? [1. C. 102].
Kpim roro, y epesni 1959 p. rasera Conercxoe 3axapnarte n exint-
xox nomepax napyxynana nennxy crarrm uepnax nayrnna, n xxi an-
rop remnnmn ]apamn smanmnan nci saxapnarctxi monacrnpi ra x na-
136
2009, N 3 (17)
centnnxin. Oconnno icranocx xonnmntomy aminicrparopy cnapxi
Mnxany Honony i noxinomy o. Anexcim Kaanmxy, a raxox irymenam
cxnrin o. Iony (Kynpi), o. Beniaminy (Kepeuannn), o. Apcenim (3exany)
ra exxnm icpomonaxam [14. C. 4]. He sannmnncx nosa ynarom i o. Bixenri,
na npnxnai xxoro anrop nnme npo nirpnmxy npanocnannnmn monaxamn
anrnpaxnctxnx annrctxnx rpyn. B xinni crarri anrop oconnno naro-
nomyc, mo xoua o. Bixenri ra o. Ioan (Iamnap) ynn sacyxeni, ane
nicnx nonepnennx is raopin snony npoonxymrt cnyxnrn na npnxoax, a
ne cynepeunrt paxnctxnm saxonam [15. C. 4]. Ha macrx nixxo nera-
rnnno peaxni cnncxonctxo nnan na nm crarrm ne yno, o nci ope
posyminn, mo ne nnme ueprone samonnennx epxannnx opranin, xxi na-
namronynann ymxy mnpoxoro naponoro sarany nporn onrene i nane-
pe rorynann nirpynrx nx mayrnix penpeci croconno monacrnpin.
Ta nesnaxamun na nerarnnny in]opmanim, xxy pyxynann epxanni
rasern, npaxonymun sacnyrn icpomonaxa n yrnepxenni npanocnan`x ra
yxonni poori na nacrnpctxi nnni, y 1959 p. icpomonaxa o. Bixenrix
nosnoxrt y can irymena. nx yxinnnxa ne yna icrnno sacnyxena naro-
poa, xxa sacniunna, mo nepxonna icpapxix nnsnanana oro nacrnpctxn
ocni ra sacnyrn nepe Cnxrom nepxnom.
Ane nanopi yxe yn 1959 p., xxn cran nx npanocnannnx monacrnpin
3axapnarrx uopnnm. Came y ne pix yno nixnionano intmicrt on-
rene. He cran nnnxrxom i Cnxro-Vcnenctxn cxnr n c. Vrnx.
Cnapxiantna nnaa snana nanepe, mo epxanni oprann rorymrtcx
nixnionynarn monacrnpi, ane peantno nixrn niuoro ne morna sannmn-
nocx nnme monnrncx o Iocnoa Fora s naicm na nonepnennx xpamnx
uacin. Bo yesneunrn ni nenpncmnocre cee ra yxinnnxa, 15 rpan-
nx o. Bixenrix nnxnnxamrt n cnapxiantne ynpanninnx, e noniomnxmrt
npo npnsnauennx oro na napa]im cena Vrnx [1. C. 100]. Axnix nixniani
Cnxro-Vcnenctxo onreni yna nponeena nanpnxinni nira i xx cniunrt
saxna nacroxrentnnni cxnry marymxn Mnxann (Pnapt), came s 17 ne-
pecnx 1959 p. cxnr nnaxacrtcx ne imunm [16. C. 76]. (Huui ruevui
cecmpu cmeeporvmmi, uo ocmauuc ooeoc.vriuu e +ouacmupi
npoeeoeuo 22 eepecu aem.).
Monaxnnx Marpona (Bnmon) srayc, mo o. Bixenri snan npo nixnia-
nim onreni. Tomy, na nponosnnim yxinnnxa, onipeni nmn snxnn ixono-
crac, monacrnpctxi snonn ra nepeann x o cintctxo nepxnn na Many
Vrontxy.
Ta neonro npoyn icpomonax na cintctxi napa]i. Haxasom N 744
ni 9 nepecnx 1960 p. o. Bixenrix npnsnaueno nacroxrenem CnxroHpe-
opaxenctxoro cxnry n c.Tepenx [1. C. 91]. Tyr nin saminnn apximan-
pnra o. Beniamina (Kepeuannna), xxn 30 epesnx yn sacyxenn Txui-
nctxnm paonnnm cyom o 18 micxnin nosannennx noni [17, ox. ni
137

1960 p.]. Ta mnnyno nnme cim micxnin i 10 rpannx 1961 p., ne nnnxunct
na nci crapannx monaxin, ocranni uononiun cxnr na repnropi xpam ra-
xox nixniynann [18. C. 57].
24 rpannx 1961 p. naxasom N 307 irymena o. Bixenrix snintnxmrt s
nocan nacroxrenx Cnxro-Hpeopaxenctxoro monacrnpx i nonepramrt
y nonepenm napa]im o cena Vrnx [1. C. 88]. Tax saxinunnacx enonex
nepeneennx icpomonaxa s ono onreni n inmy.
Ha napa]i o. Bixenri opoconicno npoonxyc necrn cni nacrnpct-
xn xpecr. Biomo, mo npanocnanna omnna Vrni cnouarxy cnyrynanacx
rax snannm mannm xpamom, a nennxn (rpexo-xaronnntxn - anr.) croxn
saneann. Konn n 1964 p. micnena nnaa sapana many cintctxy nepx-
ny ni sepnonn cxna, ro snaxamun na roimnc crannennx arecrin o
xpncrnxnctxnx cnxrnnt, icpomonax is narocnonennx npannxuoro cnnc-
xona sanpac snirn cnxrn npecron o nennxoro xpamy [1. C. 81]. B
ntomy, sa onomorom nipnnxin, npononrt pemonrn axy, crin i nenonsi
n xpami nounnac npononrn orocnyxinnx.
Micnene nacenennx yxe ope snano o. Bixenrix i sanxn ninynano
oro penne cnyxinnx, esxopncnnnicrt, uecnicrt, roronnicrt onomorrn
monnrnom, yxonnnm cnonom un npocro mypom nopaom. cxpannm
npnxnaom anropnrery yxinnnxa c nncr nipnnxin cena Bintxinctxi Hasn
ni 15 xnirnx 1965 p. s npoxannxm rnmuacono npnsnaunrn came icpomo-
naxa o. Bixenrix, noxn napa]ixntnn cnxmennx o. Inan Kpnu]anymi ye
nepeynarn na nixynanni [1. C. 79]. Be onnm nesanepeunnm oxasom
nennxoro anropnrery i nonarn o yxinnnxa c ro ]axr, mo micnene xep-
innnnrno (uacro i naprine) onipxno racmno xpecrnrn cnox ire came
o. Bixenrim.
Bpaxonymun sacnyrn irymena ra oro araropiuny nniny npanm y
nipoxenni i yxpinnenni cnxroro npanocnan`x, n ent Cnxro Hacxn
1965 p. cnxrimn Anexci I, narpiapx Mocxonctxn i Bcic Pyci, naro-
poxyc icpomonaxa nannnem, xxa yna npyuena 25 nnnnx ni uac cnxrxo-
no nirypri n Cnxro-Vcnenctxomy Ka]epantnomy coopi micra Myxa-
uena [1. C. 71] (na.u :acmuua ceueuuiroeo ooev v qop+i
po+oa, ra cu+eo.isvc ovxoeuu +e: aem.).
Haintm xcxpano i npomonncro npo yxinnnxa ronopnrt xapaxrepnc-
rnxa roro uacy s oro ocoono cnpann: Hrymen Bnxenrn onn ns
craptx nepomonaxon, xoropte paorann na nospoxennem npanocna-
nnx na 3axapnarte. Fyyun yxonnnxom, noxasan cno uecrnt xapax-
rep n pennocrnoe ncnonnenne ncex nosnoxenntx na nero nocnymann.
Xopomo cnyxnr n npononeyer, xopomn oprannsarop npnxocxo xns-
nn, nontsyercx anropnrerom n nmontm cnonx npnxoxan [1. C. 69].
I xx nirnepxennx nnmecxasanoro c ro ]axr, mo nporxrom ara-
rtox poxin ni uac npecrontnnx cnxr o. Bixenrix nipxxamrt o uyma-
138
2009, N 3 (17)
ninctxoro Cnxro-Bosnecenctxoro monacrnpx ao nanxonnmnix cin Ko-
none, Fymrnno, parono, Tepenx, ynono, Bintxinni, Bintxinctxi Hasn
ra in. [1. C. 51-68, 73], e nin pasom s inmnmn yxinnnxamn epe yuacrt
y cnxrxonnx orocnyxinnxx.
Baxxi nocnni ra nonocnni poxn, roprypn n yxropoctxi n`xsnnni nicnx
apemry, rono ra xono craninctxo xaroprn naxnann ninrox na sopo-
n`x yxinnnxa. 3 poxamn y o. Bixenrix nouacrimann oni n rpyxx. Cno-
uarxy repnin, a xonn crano nxe soncim sne, snepnyncx o nixapin. Hicnx
ocrexennx na penrreni nnxnnnn ni pepamn s npanoro oxy noy. Ta-
xn iarnos smycnn yxinnnxa npocnrn narocnonennx na xoporxy niny-
crxy, mo ninixynarncx [1. C. 47]. Hicnx nixapni irymen nonepracrtcx
na napa]im, e oro s nerepninnxm uexann nipnnxn. I snony, xx i panime,
o. Bixenri opoconicno npoonxyc nnxonynarn cni nacrnpctxn no-
cnyx.
Ane poxn epyrt cnoc i yxe ne mamun ]isnunnx cnn cnocuacno i na-
nexno ocnyronynarn napa]im, na nouarxy 1973 p. icpomonax nnme npo-
xannx o npannxuoro apxicnncxona Ipnropix (3axanxx) npo npninennx
o ntoro na onomory nxxona [1. C. 23]. Ane ocxintxn na ro uac is
cnxmennntxnmn xapamn yno cyryxno, ro saonontnnrn npoxannx ne
yno moxnnnocri.
He nnnxunct na ocnrt nonaxnn nix, icpomonax npoonxyc necrn
cni nacrnpctxn xpecr ninuac, xpecrnrt, xonac, cnyxnrt napacracn
npocro onomarac ncim yxonno i marepiantno.
Crapoxnnn cena posnoniamrt icropim npo micnenoro xnrenx Pomxa
ueopa, xxn, mamun 8 ire, na crapi poxn sannmnncx es narnxy.
Cnpana n romy, mo nci namaxn noxnnynn nipy cnoro artxa i nepemnn
y cyornnxn, a ocxintxn crapn ne cxorin, ro oro sannmnnn nanpnsnonx-
me. isnanmnct npo raxy nemacnnny onm uononixa, o. Bixenri cran sa
nnm ornxarn, ax noxn ro ne cnounn. Taxnm unnom yxinnnx onomir
crapomy uononixoni seperrn cnom npanocnanny nipy. Inma icropix pos-
noniac npo cnpory Mapim s Anranonent, xxa, ne mamun nnacnoro omy
ra ponnn, cnyxnna pisnnm nmxm n ceni. Fauaun nesannne cranonnme
inunnn, icpomonax ninpannxc na Many Vrontxy o apximanpnra Iona.
Hisnime nona npnnxna nocrpnr i n mayrntomy crana manrinom mo-
naxnnem Cnoxicm.
He saynac yxinnnx i npo im Foxn. 3 onomorom nipnnxin ponrt
pemonr cintctxo nepxnn, nicnx uoro y nepecni 1974 p. npononrt none
ocnxuennx [1. C. 15].
I, xx nisnaxa, o nx Cnxro Hacxn 1974 p. narpiapx Himen naropo-
xyc irymena Bixenrix Xpecrom s npnxpacamn [1, ox. ni 28.04.1974].
Hpo nonary o icpomonaxa, nnsnannx oro anropnrery xcxpano cniunrt
ro ]axr, mo nanirt xonn nin ne yn yxinnnxom monacrnpx, o ntoro
139

npoonxynanncx sneprarncx monaxn ra monamxn s npoxannxmn nocrpn-
ry. Tax, y nnnni 1975 p. is narocnonennx nnanxn Ipnropix, apxicnncxona
Myxauinctxo Vxropoctxoro, o. Bixenri sicnnn nocrpnr y many cxnmy
6 inuar [1, ox. ni 08.07.1975]. A n xnirni 1981 p. n ceni Hnxni Fncr-
pn sicnnn nocrpnr y cxnmy iymena Knpnxxa (Pocoxy) [1, ox. ni
08.04.1981].
Cymninne nnxonannx nacrnpctxnx oon`xsxin ra penne cnyxinnx na
yxonni nnni ynn sacnyxeno onineni icpapxamn npanocnanno nepxnn.
3a npecrannennxm apxicnncxona Ipnropix, n ent Cnxro Hacxn 30 rpan-
nx 1976 p., ni uac cnxrxono nirypri y Cnxro-Vcnenctxomy xpami cena
Vrnx irymen Bixenri yn nosneenn n can apximanpnra [1. C. 9]. A 16
epesnx 1977 p. yxasom N 171 npnsnauenn yxinnnxom nx cnonii ncix
cnxmennxin Bnnorpainctxoro paony [1. C. 8].
Mamun sa nneunma maxe 80 poxin, o. Bixenri npoonxyc y mipy
cnox cnn, nnxonynarn nenerxn yxonnn oon`xsox nacrnpx. Onn s
nacrapimnx icpomonaxin cnapxi xopncrycrtcx anropnrerom ra nonarom
cepe cnxmennxin i romy oro uacro npnsnauamrt ouonmnarn cnxrxoni
orocnyxinnx (nirypri) ni uac xpamonnx cnxr y Cnxro-Bosnecenctxo-
my coopi y m. Xycr [1. C. 6].
Ane poxn amrt npo cee snarn yxinnnx xnopic nce uacrime i ua-
crime. V nepeent nacxantnnx cnxr o. Bixenri nnme npoxannx Bnan-
xoni Canni (Fannent) npo npnsnauennx na onomory cnxmennxa, o nin
naxxo xnopic i ne moxe nonnom mipom nnxonynarn cno oon`xsxn [1. C.
1]. Ocxintxn cran sopon`x i naani noripmynancx, ro 26 rpannx
1981 p. apximanpnr Bixenri nnneenn nosa mrar [1. C. 1].
Monaxnnx Vrnxnctxoro monacrnpx cecrpa Marpona (Bnmon) npnra-
yc, mo ocranni pix cnoro xnrrx yxinnnx npoxnnan na cintctxi ]api n
Vrni, e oro ornxann pini cecrpn-monamxn Marpona i uexna (Bn-
mon). Ane norim y o. Bixenrix pisxo noripmnncx sip i nin maxe ocnin.
Toi cecrpn nnpimnnn saparn yxinnnxa o cee oomy, e mann
smory oro xpame ornxnyrn.
Biuynamun nannxennx ocrannto ronnn, o. Bixenri xx icrnnnn
cnyra Foxn npnmac pimennx npo nocrpnr y cxnmy (ee.ura cxu+a
ocoo.ueu rpor e rummi +ouaxa, ru eeoe cveope acremu:ue
rumm, noeuicmm npuce:vc ceoe c.vriuum Xpucmv, eiopiracmic
eio ceimv i eeci :ac npoeooumi mi.iru e +o.umeax aem.). Orent
Inan Kontonmi, nacroxrent xpamy n ceni Mana Vrontxa, npnrayc, mo
nocenn 1981 p. o apximanpnra Iona n ceno npnnesnn o. Bixenrix. Hpo-
rxrom rnxnx Bixenri 7 pasin npnnxn s pyx npenoonoro cnxre npnua-
crx, a monaxnni Marpona (Bnmon) ra uenponix (Kpnu]anymi) nect
uac unrann monnrnn i nicnx roro niyncx nocrpnr.
140
2009, N 3 (17)
Hanirt yyun nespxunm, yxinnnx npoonxynan npnmarn nipnnxin.
o ntoro sanxn npnxonnn nmn s pisnnmn onxmn ra nponemamn, i
nin sanxn namarancx m onomorrn. Oconnno npnxonno araro cemi-
napncrin, xxi ryr orpnmynann ne rintxn yxonne nixnnnennx, a mare-
piantne. Bci xomrn, xxi man o. Bixenri nin posanan mnaxam, mo nanua-
nncx y yxonnnx saxnaax. Biuynamun, mo oro semne xnrrx cxopo
saxinunrtcx, apximanpnr noniomnn cecrep, y xxn oxr mamrt oro
oxrnyrn i xx posnopxnrncx oro xnnramn ra nexnrpnm manom. Oxpe-
mo nimirnn, mo onna naroponi xpecrn norpino niarn nom mono-
nm xnonnxm, xxi na ro uac nanuanncx n ceminapi, a coi sannmnn npo-
crn icpectxn xpecr.
Hmon nepmn rnxent nennxontoro nocry, xonn unramrt xanonn
Anpix Kpnrctxoro. Fyn snnuann ent, xx i araro inmnx. B xari, e
xnn apximanpnr o. Bixenri, roro nx sipanocx 5 cecrep: cxnmonaxnnx
uexna (Bnmon), monaxnni Karepnna (Cran), Cnrenix (Hon), uenponix
(Kpnu]anymi) ra Marpona (Bnmon). Kpim nnx spanxy me npnmna crap-
ma xinxa Mapix Foran ra Inan uecp, xxn uacro npnnocnn xapui nx
cecrep. Cecrpa Marpona npnrayc, mo yxinnnx npoxnnyncx npanni xx
sanxn, nomonnncx, non, npnnir na nixxo i xaxe : Fepirt noy ra nomn-
re meni onnuux, pyxn, norn. mnnxo nnxonana npoxannx norim nepe-
oxrna oro n uncrn oxr. Konn nce yno sponeno, o. Bixenri nonpo-
cnn npnnecrn snnuann icpectxn xpecr ra cxy]im (cxy]ix rononnn
yip na xoxen ent anr.). Oxrnyn yce na cee, n pyxn ysxn uorxn i
rnxo nouan monnrncx. Cecrpn npncnanncx o ntoro. A xonn saxinunnn
xanon, ro yxinnnx nonpocnn sacninarn Ce xennx rpxer n nonynomn.
Ho saxinuenni monnrnn cecrpn rnxo nnmnn s ximnarn i nouann rory-
narn oi. B ximnari sannmnnacx monaxnnx Marpona ra xinxa Mapix
Foran. yxinnnx rnxo nexan y nixxy i nin sapiman. Inxnynmn na
o. Bixenrix, Marpona inryrnnno niuyna, mo ro nomnpac. He posrynn-
mnct, nona nouana mnpo monnrncx, mo Iocnot For sapan ymy cno-
ro paa Bixenrix na neo. uepes exxn uac, xonn xroct ynimon o
ximnarn, ro noaunn, mo yxinnnx rnxo, cnoxino i esonicno niimon y
niunicrt. Tax, n n`xrnnnm o 5 ronni no oii, 5 epesnx 1982 p. saxinunn-
cx semnn mnxx nennxoro nonnxnnxa npanocnanno nipn, nenromnoro
yinnnuoro Xpncrono nepxnn, yxonnoro artxa arartox corent npa-
nocnannnx xpncrnxn.
Hpo cmeprt apximanpnra spasy x noniomnnn cnapxim, i yxe uepes
ni ronnn cmn npnyn irymen uymaninctxoro monacrnpx o.Cn]nmi
(Byrax) i pasom s cintctxnm cnxmennxom nonn oxrnn o. Bixenrix. Bne-
uepi, sa anntom xpncrnxnctxom rpannicm, n omi, e nomep o. Bixenri,
niynacx nomnnantna cnyxa, unranncx ncanrnpi. A npanni apximan-
pnra nepenesnn n npnxoctxn xpam nx monamectxoro noxopony. He-
141

npncmna nicrxa npo cmeprt monaxa mnnxo nomnpnnacx no nci oxpysi, i
nmn macono nouann npnxonrn o xpamy, mo niarn ocrannm many
cnocmy yxinnnxy. 3aynoxina cnyxa ra npomannx s noxinnxom rpnna-
no ax o rperto ronnn, nicnx uoro rino monaxa xpecnnm xoom nepe-
nesnn o uymaninctxoro monacrnpx. Ocxintxn y neintnn ent nci cnx-
mennxn sanxri na npnxoax i ne mornn nsxrn yuacri y ninpani, ro yno
nnpimeno xonarn apximanpnra n noneinox.
x npnraymrt cecrpn, nacrynnoro nx y noxonanni nsxnn yuacrt
nnstxo 90 cnxmennxin ra monaxin i nennxa xintxicrt nme, mo sacni-
unno rnnoxy nonary, many i nmon nipnnxin o cnoro yxonnoro nacrn-
px.
Mnnyno yxe intme nox ecxrxin nir s nx cmepri o. Bixenrix. Fara-
ro uoro sminnnocx y cniri. Posnanacx nennxa paxnctxa imnepix i na
ocnoni naponnncx noni epxann. 3a mnnyni poxn ann oninxy arartom
noixm roro uacy. Te, unm panime nexrynann, sapas cnpnmacrtcx xx
xnrrcna icrnna. Tnx, xoro panime sacyxynann i snenaxann, crann repo-
xmn.
Hpncmno nisnaunrn, mo cnpanennny oninxy ano i rpariunnm noixm
anexoro 1952 p., xonn oprann esnexn esnicranno sacynnn rpyny npa-
nocnannnx monaxin. 12 rpannx 1992 p., pinno uepes 40 poxin ni rnx sno-
macnnx noi, na Opoca Bacnnx Onexcionnua n nny orcyrcrnnx
oxasarentcrn, nornepxammnx oocnonannocrt npnnneuennx ero x
yrononno ornercrnennocrn nomnpmcrtcx ix crarri 1 3axony Vxpa-
nctxo PCP Hpo peainiranim xeprn nonirnunnx penpeci na Vxpani
[11. C. 39-40]. Toro, na epxannomy saxonoanuomy pinni nnsnano es-
nicrannicrt i necnpanennnicrt apemry ra sacyxennx yxinnnxa. Ha
npenennxn xant, apximanpnr Bixenri ne oxnn o roro uacy, mo
nouyrn npo cnom nonny peainiranim i nnsnannx nennnnocri. Ane sann-
mnnncx ecxrxn nxunnx yunin, corni, rncxui nipnnxin, xxi cnxro epe-
xyrt nam`xrt npo nunrenx, nacrannnxa, yxinnnxa. A nirnepxennxm
ntomy c ]axr, mo n ceni Vrni ne npoxonrt xone cnxro, un orocnyxin-
nx, e ne sraann rennnmn cnonamn npo o. Bixenrix. I ne c naxpamnm
nam`xrnnxom nipnomy cnysi Foxomy i opnm npnxnaom nx nacniy-
nannx nnnimnim i npnemnim noxoninnxm.
CHHCOK BHKOPHCTAHHX EPEA TA AITEPATYPH
1. Apxin Myxauinctxo-Vxropoctxo cnapxi (ani Apxin Myx.-Vx. cn.). Oco-
ona cnpana o. Bixenrix (Opoc B.O.).
2. Pa:vr I. Honnxnnx Pycn Kapnarcxo. Apximanpnr Hon (Kynpx). M., 2008.
C. 53.
142
2009, N 3 (17)
3. Haeup B. Monacrnpi 3axapnarrx. Myxaueno, 1994. C. 66.
4. Horounn apxin Cnxro-mnrpinctxoro xpamy c. Mana Vrontxa. Anroiorpa-
]ix o. Iona (Kynpx).
5. Cupox+au M. Hepxnn Vxpann. 3axapnarrx. Htnin, 2000.
6. epxannn apxin 3axapnarctxo onacri (ani A3O). u. 21. O. 9. Cnp. 78.
7. Cepeu (Hiora), uepo+ouax. Hpanocnanne n nnouecxax xnsnt n 3axapnarte
n nepno nononnne XX cronernx// Kypconoe counnenne. u. II. 3aropcx, 1960 (xom-
n`mrepna nepcix).
8. A3O. u.P.1490. O. 4. Cnp. 167.
9. Apxin Xycrctxo cnapxi (ani Apxin Xycr. cn.). Hanxa parinctxn monac-
rnp. oxymenr ni 21.06.1949 p.
10. Apxin Myx.-Vx. cn. Ocoona cnpana o. Iona (Iamnap I.u.).
11. auu.ei P. Cnxmennxn-myuennxn: penpeci nporn npanocnannoro yxo-
nencrna na 3axapnarri (na mexi 1940-1950 pp. XXcr) // Hepconan. 2007. N 1.
12. Mouu: O. Cnoninnntxa ixntnicrt cxiapxnmanpnra Bixenrix (Opoca) s
ninonnennx Vrnxnctxoro monacrnpx y 40-50-x pp. XX cr. // pyxa. N 145-146,
24 nncronaa. 2007 p.
13. Apxin Xycr. cn. Hanxa Cnxro-Vcnenctxn monacrnp y ceni Vrnx.
14. Bu.uue C. uepnax nayrnna // Conercxoe 3axapnarte. 1959. 7, 12, 17, 24
mapra. Ha 4 crp.
15. Bu.uue C. Hasnana npanx. 24 mapra.
16. Apxin Myx-Vx. cn. Hanxa Monacrnpctxi cnpann (1959-1960 pp.).
17. Apxin Xycr. Cn. 3ipxa cnapxiantnnx oxymenrin.
18. Uonur-Murvuoa C. Cnaco-Hpeopaxenctxn uononiun monacrnp inx
cena Tepenx (1921-2001). Vxropo: Ipaxa, 2007.
143
Kpnn AHHAEH
HCTOPHR MYKAHEBCKOH EHAPXHH
APXHMAHPHTA BACHAHR (HPOHHHA)
Hcropnx xpncrnancrna na
3axapnarte n pasnte nepnot
nnrepeconana nccneonarene.
Ocroxrentnte paort no nep-
xonno ncropnn Myxauena nann-
cann Hoannnxn Fasnnonnu,
Mnxann Hyuxa, Bacnnn Ia-
xera. Baxnoe mecro cpen
onynnxonanntx nayuntx paor
sannmaer xnnra apxnmanpnra
Bacnnnx (Hponnna) Hcropnx
Myxauencxo enapxnn (c pen-
nemnx npemen o Hepno mn-
pono nont 1914 r.). Vxasan-
nt rpy tn nororonnen xax
xannarcxax ncceprannx na
concxanne nayunoro snannx xan-
nara orocnonnx n 1951-
1954 rr. onroe npemx nccep-
rannx ocrananact n pyxonncn n
tna onynnxonana nnmt n
2005 r. naroapx ceronxmne-
my enncxony Myxauencxomy n Vxropocxomy ueoopy. Knnra nocrpoe-
na no xpononornuecxomy npnnnnny n cocronr ns nneennx, 10 rnan n npn-
noxenn.
Ho cnonam camoro anropa, nnrepec x ncropnn Myxauencxo enapxnn
y nero noxnnncx no npemx cnyxennx n Vxropoe. Hocne nepexoa n
Myxauencxn monacrtpt o. Bacnnn npncrynnn x paore n nnnore-
xe. Cpen mnoxecrna xnnr ero nnnmanne npnnnexnn rpyt no nepxon-
no ncropnn. ecrnnrentno, n +ro npemx nnnorexa Myxauencxoro
monacrtpx tna camo ontmo n 3axapnarte.
Bo nneennn anrop npoanannsnponan rnannte ncrounnxn no ncropnn
Myxauencxo enapxnn. Cpen nnx o.Bacnnn nastnaer neronncn na apa-
cxom, apmxncxom, rpeuecxom, cnanxncxom, narnncxom xstxax, xnnrn no
apxeonornn, ncropnuecxo reorpa]nn, c]parncrnxe, nymnsmarnxe, +r-
144
2009, N 3 (17)
nonornn n ]ontxnopncrnxe, naneorpa]nn, nnreparype, ncropnn. Onenn-
nax paort cnonx npemecrnennnxon, anrop ntcoxo onennnaer Memo-
pnan Konnapa. Konnennnx "Memopnana" nosnennunrt nepxonnoe npo-
mnoe Myxauencxo enapxnn - oxasanact cosnyuna romy npemenn, net
oraroe npomnoe anano npana n naexy na ocnooxenne or sanncn-
mocrn xrepcxnx enncxonon.
3naunrentnoe nnnmanne yeneno anannsy paort H. Fasnnonnua
Brevis Notitia Fundationis. Hponnn yrnepxan, uro +ra xnnra nme-
na ontmoe snauenne n pasnnrnn nepxonnoro n cnanxncxoro camocosna-
nnx mecrnoro nacenennx, xpome roro, yxastnana na pocrnennocrt
cnanxncxnx nnemen, na cnxsn c penne Bnsanrne. Hsyuax nacnene
R.Xarxonnua, anrop yxastnan, uro crartn Xarxonnua nmenn, npex-
e ncero, nentm ycranonnrt ncropnuecxym npany.
Bo nneennn raxxe ano onncanne reorpa]nuecxoro nonoxennx 3a-
xapnartx, xapaxrepncrnxa xnnmara, necon, nacenennx, xstxa n opxon
pycnnon Kapnar.
B nepno rnane anrop paccmarpnnaer nepno 33-863 rr. On onycxa-
er, uro n VI n. na +rn semnn morna pacnpocrpanxrtcx mpncnxnnx Hyc-
rnnnana Hpnma. Bo nropo rnane (863-988 rr.) o.Bacnnn yrnepxaer,
uro xpncrnancrno na 3axapnarte mornn npnnecrn cn. Knpnnn n Me]o-
n. Hnrepecna mtcnt o rom, uro Myxauencxax enapxnx morna trt
onnm ns cemn Hannoncxnx enncxoncrn, ocnonanntx apxnenncxonom
Me]onem. Mnoro mecra n rnane yeneno xpncrnannsannn matxp. Tpe-
rtx rnana (988-1241) n ocnonnom nocnxmena ornomennxm 3axapnartx c
Knencxo Pyctm. Hnrepecnte npenonoxennx enaer o. Bacnnn no
nonoy nponcxoxennx cn.Ieoprnx, E]pema n Moncex Vrpnnon. Cctna-
xct na Ionynncxoro, xoropt nncan, uro cn. Bnanmnp npnrnacnn nx
npononen xnencxnx pyccxnx cnxmennnxon ns 3axapnartx, on onycxa-
er, uro xena xnxsx Bnanmnpa nponcxonna ns saxapnarcxnx onrap.
Hmenno +rnm Hponnn oxcnxn ocoennym nnsocrt parten Vrpnnon
x xnxxnuam Fopncy n Iney.
B uernepro rnane (1241-1414 rr.) npoanannsnponana nn]opmannx o
ocnonannn nepntx monacrtpe na 3axapnarte, paccmorpent cotrnx,
xacammnecx xnxsx ueopa Kopnxronnua. Ho mnennm anropa, noxpyr
xnxsx ecrt xax mnnnmym enxrt nepasraanntx nonpocon: npemx npn-
trnx Kopnxronnua n Vropmnny; nepecenenne c xnxsem 40-60 rtc. ue-
nonex; rpamora 1360 r.; mecro xonunnt Kopnxronnua; nmx cynpyrn xnx-
sx n r.. Hanpnmep, on npnnnmaer nepcnm o nepecenennn c Kopnxronn-
uem ns Hoonnn 40-60 rtc. uen., onaxo cunraer, uro na 3axapnarte
morno trt na xnxsx c onnaxontm nmenem.
Ho nonoy nepnoro Myxauencxoro enncxona Hyxn (nxrax rnana) Hpo-
nnn nnmer, uro on tn nacroxrenem monacrtpx, nosmoxno, n unne
145
apxnmanpnra. Bosmoxno, uro on tn ynonnomouennt xaxnm-nno
enncxonom, tn, rax cxasart, enncxoncxn amnnncrparop. Cnopntmn
cunraer anrop nepcnn o mpncnxnnn Myxauencxoro n Ipymencxoro
monacrtpe.
B noctmo-ecxro rnanax paccmorpena ncropnx Myxauencxo enap-
xnn or 1646 o 1914 r. O Vxropocxo ynnn anrop nnmer cneymmee:
Hpnunno saxnmuennx ynnn uacro ntcrannxercx rxxenoe marepnant-
noe n omecrnennoe nonoxenne npanocnannoro yxonencrna. Ho penn-
rnosnte cotrnx nentsx oxcnxrt +xonomnuecxnmn npnunnamn. Mox-
no cxasart, uro pennrnosno-xpncrnancxne crnmynt, xora onn ncrnnnt,
omnnnpymr na +xonomnuecxnmn. Tontxo npn ynaxe nept ntcryna-
mr marepnantnte coopaxennx.
Mnoro n xnnre nanncano o exrentnocrn enncxonon Bacnnnx Tapaco-
nnua, Herpa Hap]ennx, Hoannnxnx 3exana, Hoanna Manaxoncxoro,
ueo]ana Manpoxoparo, Me-
]onx Paxonenxoro, Hocn]a
Croxn, ocn]ex ueooponn-
ua n p. Ha ocnonannn Cnn-
cannx onrene Mapamopom-
cxnx npecrannena nn]opma-
nnx o monacrtpxx n Foponx-
ne, parone, Kpnuene, Vront-
xe, Byntxonnax, Feenne, Fe-
no Hepxne, Fnuxone n r.. e-
xrentnocrt enncxonon n mona-
crtpe paccmorpena n recno
cnxsn c nonnrnuecxnmn cot-
rnxmn (noccranne Texenn, noc-
cranne uepenna Paxonn II).
Ho cnonam o.Bacnnnx (Hpo-
nnna), na Mapamopomnny ynnx
nponnxna rontxo n xonne
XVIII n. Hanpnmep, n 1761 r. n
Tpancnntnannn n 3axapnarte
nponsomno noccranne npornn
ynnn no rnane c nepomonaxom
Co]ponnem.
Orentno n xnnre cxasano
o cnxmennnxax-nncarenxx:
O.yxnonnue, A.Kpannnxom,
H. Cnntnae, O.Hannonnue,
E.uennnxe.
Hpouuu Bacu.u, apxu+auopum.
Hcropnx Hpanocnanno Hepxnn na 3axap-
narte. Cnxro-Hnxonaencxn Myxauencxn
monacrtpt. OPH 4iokuiu, 2005. - 528 c.
146
2009, N 3 (17)
Homnmo ncropnn, o.Bacnnn n cnoem rpye mnoro nnmer o orocno-
nnn, opxe, ormarnxe.
Bospoxenne npanocnannoro nnxennx na 3axapnarte n nauane
XX n. anrop cnxstnaer c pennnmn rpannnxmn, neonornuecxo no-
roronxo exrene nropo nononnnt XIX n., npanocnanntmn nepxonnt-
mn xnnramn, nanomnnuecrnamn x npanocnanntm cnxrtnxm, npnnepxen-
nocrtm saxapnarnen pyccxnm nepxonntm otuaxm.
B npnnoxennxx nomement apcrnennax rpamora xnxsx Myxauenc-
xoro ueopa Kopnxronnua or 8 mapra 1360 roa (pyccxn n narnncxn
napnanr); nocnomnnannx apxnmanpnra Anexcnx (Kaanmxa) (28 nox-
px 1945 roa); nnctmo o saxnmuennn Vxropocxo ynnn; cnncox crapo-
neuarntx nepxonnocnanxncxnx xnnr, xpanxmnxcx n Myxauencxom mona-
crtpe, n p. B xonne xnnrn npecrannena nnnorpa]nx no ncropnn
Myxauencxo enapxnn.
Knnra apxnmanpnra Bacnnnx Hponnna xnnxercx ecnenntm rpyom,
nocnxmenntm nccneonannxm nepxonno ncropnn o nauana XX n. He-
xoropte momenrt n xnnre omnount, nexoropte nyxamrcx n npoxc-
nennn, no +ro rontxo oannxer nnrepeca n nsyuennn ncropnn 3axapna-
rtx.
Bnanunp Bacnntennu Hponnnponncx 8 cenrxpx 1911 n r. Knene. Cpenmm
mxony oxonunn n Knmnnene n 1929 r. B +rom xe roy nocrynaer n Fnrontcxym
yxonnym cemnnapnm n Cepnn. 11 mapra pyxononoxen n naxont. 25 nmnx
1939 r. - pyxononoxen n nepomonaxn. 28 nmnx 1939 r. nasnauen cnxmennnxom n
Cnxro-Mnxanoncxym nepxont r. Myxaueno. C anrycra 1939 r. ncnonnxn oxsan-
nocrn nroporo cnxmennnxa n c. Feennx. B mae 1940 r. nepeneen n r. Vxropo
nacroxrenem Cnxro-Hoxponcxo nepxnn. B 1941-1945 rr. npenoanan 3axon Fo-
xn n mxonax Vxropoa. B 1946-1947 rr. npenoanan na nacrtpcxnx xypcax n o
1956 r. tn +xsamenaropom nx cnxmennnxon. 25 anpenx 1947 r. n Myxaueno nosne-
en n can nrymena. B 1946-1950 rr. - cnxmennnx n omonxom monacrtpe. 24
nmnx 1950 r. nasnauen yxonnnxom Cnxro-Vcnencxoro xencxoro monacrtpx n
omoxax. 18 exapx 1950 r. nepeneen n Myxauencxn monacrtpt, re 30 nmnx
1951 r. nasnauen na onxnocrt pyxononrenx xyoxecrnenno crynn n nnno-
rexn. 15 anpenx 1958 r. nonyunn can apxnmanpnra. B rom xe roy samnrnn xann-
arcxym ncceprannm n MA na remy: Hcropnx Myxauencxo enapxnn (c pen-
nnx npemen o Hepno mnpono nont) n nonyunn crenent xannara orocno-
nnx. 13 nmnx 1964 r. nasnauen yxonnnxom Myxauencxoro monacrtpx. 18 mapra
1965 r. nasnauen yxonnnxom Myxauencxoro narounnnx. 22 max 1966 r. narpax-
en narpnapme rpamoro. Vmep 5 xnnapx 1997 r., noxoponen na xnanme mo-
nacrtpx n Myxaueno. B 2008 r. ero reno nepeneceno n rnannt xpam monacrtpx
nx noxnonennx. Ioronxrcx marepnant x xanonnsannn.
147
Maxcnu HX
K HPOBAEME PYCCKOIO KAIAHATA:
PEBHRR PYCL H EE CTEHHLE COCEH
K uncny nonaropcxnx paor, nnocxmnx
n nayxy norox cnexnx ne, no ononpe-
menno nopoxammnx n nonte ceptesnte
nonpoct, npnnanexar nccneonannx
E.C. Ianxnno no +rnoxyntrypno ncropnn
Rro-Bocrouno Enpont +noxn pannero
cpenenexontx
1
.
Tema nauana Pycn n recno cnxsannax c
ne nponema cranonnennx pennepyccxo
rocyapcrnennocrn ncera tna ono ns
nenrpantntx n ncropnorpa]nn. Ecre-
crnenno, uro sa nourn rpexnexonym ncro-
pnm nsyuennx +roro nonpoca pemenn ero
tno npenoxeno nemano
2
. H cpen mno-
xecrna nonpocon, na xoropte pacnaaer-
cx +ra rpannosnax rema, ncera ocooe
mecro sannman nonpoc o rax nastnaemom
Pyccxom xaranare.
Hpn ero paccmorpennn npnxonrcx pe-
mart mnoxecrno uacrntx nonpocon pan-
ne ncropnn Pycn n ee nsanmoornomenn
c Xasapne, xaxt ns xoroptx cam no
cee xnnxercx remo nx ncxyccn.
B Pyccxom xaranare nnenn n nepnoe no-
crounocnanxncxoe rocyapcrno sapo-
tm yyme Knencxo Pycn, n xaxym-
ro onacrt, nounnennym Xasapnn, n ro-
cyapcrno, cosannoe nopmannamn na ce-
nepe Bocrouno Enpont, n p.
3
3ect nyxno cpasy oosnaunrt onn
naxnt momenr. V pxa npo]eccnonant-
ntx ncropnxon n apxeonoron, ne sannma-
mmnxcx nanpxmym nponemamn nauantno pyccxo ncropnn, ouent ua-
cro nosnnxaer nonpoc o camom repmnne Pyccxn xaranar. O rom, na-
cxontxo on coornercrnyer peannxm +noxn, n ne npnymano nn +ro nonx-
148
2009, N 3 (17)
rne nyrem nexoppexrnoro opamennx c ncrounnxamn
4
. Bet n ncrounn-
xax ecrt rontxo ynomnnannx o raeaue pycon, no ner raeauama. Tora,
nnpouem, nosnonnrentno nocrannrt ananornunt nonpoc n o Xasapcxom
raeauame, no n pannecpenenexontx ncrounnxax raxoe nonxrne rax-
xe ne ncrpeuaercx. Vunrtnax cam xapaxrep ynomnnann o xarane py-
con n ro, uro ynomnnannx +rn ornocxrcx x uesaeucu+i+ pyr or pyra
rpannnxm (cxaxem, nocrouno n sananoenponecxo), mt nmeem non-
noe npano ronopnrt nmenno o raeauame r. e. mnoroyponnenom nonnrn-
uecxom oennennn. Hmenno ero mnoroyponnent xapaxrep n npnnen
x npnnxrnm ero npannrenxmn rnryna xaran (r. e. npannrent na npann-
renxmn).
B conpemenno ncropnorpa]nn npn nsyuennn nonpocon nauana +rno-
xyntrypno ncropnn Pycn nepnyna cee npeonaanne neonoxparno
onponepranmaxcx panee nopmancxax (nnn, nepnee cxasart, nopmancxo-
xasapcxax) xonnennnx, cyrt xoropo E.C. Ianxnna onpeenxer rax: Bo-
crounax Enpona VIII X nn., cornacno npecrannennxm ntnemnnx nop-
manncron, tna pasenena na ne npnmepno pannte c]ept nnnxnnx: c
cenepntx onacre nsnmamr ant napxrn-nopmannt (onn xe pyct), c
mxntx nyecxax Xasapnx (Pyccxn xaranar. C. 5-6). B nanont-
me mepe raxo noxo xapaxrepen nx paor B.. Herpyxnna
5
, no n
ro nnn nno ]opme npncyrcrnyer n n paorax nenoro pxa pyrnx nc-
cneonarene
6
.
Ho nosnnxaer nonpoc o oocnonannocrn anno reopnn, o rom, uro y
nee ecrt n axrnne, na xaxne ncrounnxn ona onnpaercx n xaxona ee mero-
onornuecxax asa. H nor ryr oxastnaercx, uro nponema nonce ne rax
npocra, xax xorxr ee npecrannrt nonemne yuente +roro nanpanne-
nnx.
Inanntm onnonenrom conpemenntx nopmanncron mnoro ner xnnxncx
A.I. Kystmnn. Ecnn xoporxo pesmmnponart ero nsrnxt na nponemy
nponcxoxennx Pycn
7
, ro cyrt nx cocronr n rom, uro n pennocrn ne
tno enno nsnauantno Pycn. Pycamn (nnn cxontmn nmenamn)
pasnte ncrounnxn nastnamr nouac pasuoomuu:uie opasonannx.
Hmenno no+romy nx cneennx cront npornnopeunnt, nmenno no+romy
rax onro nomamr xontx ncropnxn, rmerno ntraxct +rn npornnopeun-
nte cnnerentcrna xax-ro cornaconart. A peut na camom ene, no mne-
nnm yuenoro, ner o pasuix napoax n +rom n ecrt xnmu x pemennm
nponemt. H onnmn ns +rnx pycon tnn pyct npancxoro nponcxoxe-
nnx.
He yem nanartcx n erantnym onenxy pesyntraron nayuntx no-
ncxon A.I. Kystmnna +ro orentnax ontmax rema. nx nac ceuac
ropaso naxnee, uro mtcnt o npancxnx ncroxax Pycn nmeer npounym
ncropnorpa]nuecxym rpannnm. Hnnrnncramn yxe anno oocnontna-
ercx mtcnt o npancxom nponcxoxennn camoro +rnonnma pyct
8
, uro
149
nonce ne xnnxercx ynnnrentntm: nent px pannnx cnanxncxnx +rno-
nnmon nmeer npancxoe nponcxoxenne (anrt, cept, xopnart n p.)
9
.
3ro, no-nnnmomy, oxcnxercx nnrentntm cnanxno-npancxnm +rnn-
uecxnm cnmnosom, nmenmnm mecro n nepnte nexa name +pt n apea-
ne uepnxxoncxo apxeonornuecxo xyntrypt
10
.
Hao ormernrt, uro nonemnxa nopmanncron n anrnnopmanncron
cnnmxom uacro nanomnnaer cnop rnyxnx, npn xoropom cropont orxa-
stnamrcx cntmart pyr pyra n ncxart nonte nyrn n pemennn craptx
nponem. Hmenno nontrxo narn raxo npnnnnnnantno nont nyrt n
xnnnact monorpa]nx yuennnt A.I. Kystmnna E.C. Ianxnno.
B cnoe npemx M.H. Apramonon, pasnnnax xonnennnm npancxoro npo-
ncxoxennx Pycn, ntcxasan ouent ocropoxnym mtcnt o npanoxstu-
nom napoe pycon, cnxsannom c ananamn nocnrenxmn onee nosne
canroncxo xyntrypt nepxonten Cenepcxoro onna, Ocxona n ona
11
.
B ro xe npemx yuent sanoxnn n ocnont xonnennnn, cornacno xoropo
Xasapnx rocnocrnonana na ncem mrom Bocrouno Enpont. Marepn-
antntm ntpaxennem +roro rocnocrna xnnxnoct, no mnennm M.H. Ap-
ramonona, cymecrnonanne enno apxeonornuecxo xyntrypt Xasapnn,
n xoropym n xauecrne noxantnoro napnanra on nxnmunn n canrono-ma-
xnxym xyntrypy
12
. Hosnee H. H. Hxnymxnn noxasan, uro ocnonann
nx raxoro npenonoxennx neocrarouno
13
. Onaxo on uerxo ne oxc-
nnn, xaxomy ns pennnx napoon npnnanexana cront pasnnrax xyntry-
pa.
3ra neocxasannocrt nosnonnna nocneymmnm nccneonarenxm nr-
nopnponart ntno o camocroxrentnocrn canroncxo xyntrypt no orno-
mennm x xyntrype Xasapnn. uro xe xacaercx anancxoro napnanra CMK
(ca.moeo-+aro rv.imvpi M..) Hoontx, nncana, nanpnmep,
C. A. Hnernena, ro o nem ne coxpannnoct nnxaxnx cneenn n nnrepa-
rype roro npemenn. Forart, pasnnrt n nonncrnennt napo xax y-
ro conepmenno ne yuacrnonan n omeenponecxo xnsnn. 3ro nanonr
na mtcnt, uro u+ a.auoe crpimo n ncrounnxax no xaxnm-ro pyrnm
.nasnannem
14
. Hontranmnct paspemnrt +ro npornnopeune, nccneo-
narentnnna saxnmunna, uro anant Bepxnero ona cnnnnct c ocnon-
ntm nacenennem Xasapcxoro xaranara xasapamn n nomnn n cocran
+roro rocyapcrna
15
.
Kax uacro tnaer c neocrarouno oocnonanntmn, no yontmn
xonnennnxmn, nocrpoennx C.A. Hnerneno tcrpo crann rocnocrnym-
mnmn, xorx nn apxeonornuecxnmn
16
, nn nnctmenntmn
17
ncrounnxamn
oocnonart nx nenosmoxno. Hnxaxnx ocnonann nxnmuart canroncxym
xyntrypy n cocran Xasapnn y nac ner (Pyccxn xaranar. C. 139-191;
Homat. C. 327-369, 385-391). Xorx mnorne conpemennte anropt cmor-
pxr na nponemy ee arpnynnn nmenno n yxe xonnennnn Apramonona
150
2009, N 3 (17)
Hnerneno n ne sameuamr ouennntx npornnopeun mexy ne n co-
crnenntmn marepnanamn
18
.
Bosmoxnocrt npnnnnnnantno nnoro noxoa x anannsy +rnononnrn-
uecxo cnryannn na mre Bocrouno Enpont eme n 1970 r. namernn yx-
panncxn apxeonor .T. Fepesonen, xoropt, pasnnnax xonnennnm npan-
cxoro nponcxoxennx Pycn, npenmymecrnenno n ee nnrepnperannn
M.H. Apramonontm, ntcxasan n crarte O nmenn nocnrene canron-
cxo xyntrypt mtcnt, cornacno xoropo pyct nocrountx ncrounnxon
+ro npanoxstunte nocnrenn necocrennoro napnanra canroncxo xynt-
rypt
19
. Taxo neoxnannt ntno ne namen noepxxn n nocneym-
me ncropnorpa]nn
20
, rax xax npornnopeunn ncem ocnonntm xonnennn-
xm xax penneme ncropnn Pycn n Xasapnn, rax n ncropnn pyccxo-
xasapcxnx ornomenn. Xorx cam .T. Fepesonen nce xe ne pncxnyn yr-
nepxart, uro +rnmn pycamn tno cosano cxontxo-nnyt snaunrent-
noe nonnrnuecxoe oennenne, nonarax, uro onn nounnxnnct Xasa-
pnn, ero ntnot oxasannct nenpnemnemtmn nx ontmnncrna apxeo-
noron-xasaponeon: nmenno sa cuer apeana canroncxo xyntrypt onn,
xax yxe ronopnnoct ntme, oocnontnann resnc o snaunrentno reppn-
ropnn Xasapcxoro xaranara, nxnmuanme n cex Hoonte n Hoonno-
nte
21
. Henpnemnemtm +ror resnc oxasancx n nx rex nccneonarene,
xoropte orcrannann nem o Cpenem Honenponte xax o penneme
reppnropnn Pycn
22
. Henpnemnema noonax mtcnt, pasymeercx, n nx
nonemnx croponnnxon nopmancxo reopnn
23
. Mexy rem, nex
.T. Fepesonna npecrannxercx nectma nepcnexrnnno n conepmenno
nesacnyxenno orneprnyro
24
, uro xopomo noxasann paccmarpnnaemte
namn paort E.C. Ianxnno.
B cxarom nne xonnennnx ncropnn Pyccxoro xaranara tna nsnoxe-
na E.C. Ianxnno eme n crarte, nanncanno conmecrno c A.I. Kystmn-
ntm, re anropt, npnnxn sa ocnony cnonx nocrpoenn ntnot .T. Fe-
pesonna, nomnn cymecrnenno antme, ntnnnyn resnc o cymecrnona-
nnn Pyccxoro xaranara snaunrentnoro nonnrnuecxoro oennennx,
cosannoro na pyexe VIII IX nn. npanoxstuntmn napoamn, xnnmn-
mn n nepxontxx ona, Cenepcxoro onna n Ocxona
25
. Apxeonornuecxn
Pyccxn xaranar +ro reppnropnx canroncxo xyntrypt c ee enoxa-
menntmn samxamn
26
, pasnnrtmn pemecnom n ropronne, a, nosmoxno, n
c cocrnenntm monerntm enom. Pyccxn xaranar nepno rpern IX n.
cnntnax epxana, naxonnmaxcx n xecroxom npornnoopcrne c Xasa-
pne
27
n n xonne xonnon coxpymennax nocnene
28
. uacrt pycon npn +rom
ymna n Hpnanrnxy, re onn nsnecrnt pxy nosnemnx anropon (Aam
Fpemencxn, Ieorpa] Panencxn, Orron Fameprcxn, Iepop, 3on
n p.). B +ro cnxsn nccneonarenn oroxecrnnnn ynomnnaemt neo-
noxparno n apao-nepcncxo cpenenexono reorpa]nuecxo nnrepa-
rype saraount ocrpon pycon c ocrponom Caapemaa y eperon co-
151
npemenno 3cronnn. annt cmxer coennnn n cee nn]opmannm o
Pyccxom xaranare n nosnemem mecre onrannx canroncxnx pycon.
B antnemem E.C. Ianxnna onynnxonana nent px paor, nocnx-
menntx orentntm cmxeram n pamxax nponemt Pyccxoro xarana-
ra, re npoonxnna oocnonanne +ro opnrnnantno xonnennnn
29
, oc-
nono oocnonannx xoropo xnnxmrcx pesyntrart conocrannennx cne-
enn nocrountx reorpa]nuecxnx counnenn (n nepnym ouepet, ano-
nnmntx Hpeenon mnpa, coepxamnx esau+uie roopouuami pas-
nnuntx napoon n reorpa]nuecxnx oexron) c +rnoxyntrypno n apxe-
onornuecxo xapramn Rro-Bocrouno Enpont, re n +ror nepno npe-
menn cymecrnonana canroncxax apxeonornuecxax xyntrypa (Pyccxn xa-
ranar. C. 63-191, Homat. C. 179-270, 385-413), na reppnropnn xoropo
nocrounte anropt n nomemamr pycon.
annt ntno npornnopeunr xonnennnxm xax nopmanncron, crpe-
mxmnxcx ortcxart pycon na cenepe Bocrouno Enpont, rax n nx onno-
nenron, xoropte nmyr nx n Cpenem Honenponte. B nenom n nsyuennn
nponem +rnoxyntrypno ncropnn Rro-Bocrouno Enpont nosnnx cno-
eopasnt samxnyrt xpyr: apxeonorn npn nxnmuennn sement nepxont-
en Cenepcxoro onna, Ocxona n ona n cocran Xasapcxoro xaranara,
xax npannno, cctnamrcx na omencropnuecxne n ncrounnxoneuecxne
paort, a sarem +rn ntnot apxeonoron npnnnmamrcx anropamn o-
mencropnuecxnx n ncrounnxoneuecxnx paor n xauecrne nesanncn-
moro oxasarentcrna ncxonoro nonoxennx. Pasymeercx, ecnn ant-
me cneonart nornxe +roro samxnyroro xpyra, ro nnxenne nayxn nne-
pe yer conepmenno nenosmoxno.
B pesyntrare peannsyemoro E.C. Ianxnno xomnnexcnoro noxoa x
nsyuaemo nponemarnxe nepe namn npecraer xpxax n n snaunrent-
no mepe nonax xaprnna ncropnn nenoro pxa napoon Rro-Bocrouno
Enpont, n xoropo ocooe nnnmanne yeneno ncropnn npanoxstuntx
ananon or +noxn Bennxoro nepecenennx napoon o xonna I rtc. n. +.
Hmenno ananamn, no yexennm nccneonarenx, n tno cosano na
pyexe VIII IX nn. nonnrnuecxoe oennenne, npannrenn xoroporo,
nperenyx na reremonnm n yxasannom pernone, npnnnmamr ntcmn ns
nsnecrntx nm rnrynon rnryn xarana. Marepnantntm ntpaxennem
poxennx +roro nonnrnuecxoro oennennx xnnnact xpxax canronc-
xax xyntrypa, nocnrenxmn xoropo tnn ocnoent n cocrnennoe mo-
nernoe nponsnocrno, n pynnuecxax nnctmennocrt, nepexo es ocra-
rountx ocnonann npnnnctnaemte rmpxam-xasapam (Pyccxn xaranar.
C. 139-235, Homat. C. 407-446). Hmenno or Pyccxoro xaranara, coce-
xmn xoroporo tnn nocrounte cnanxne, nocnenne nonyunnn oraroe
xyntrypnoe nacnene, n rom uncne n camo nasnanne pyct, n rnryn (nnn
nouernoe onpeenenne) xarana, xoroptm nnora oosnauann pennepyc-
cxnx xnxse (Pyccxn xaranar. C. 353-359).
152
2009, N 3 (17)
Bce ntmenepeuncnennoe (a nmenno pasnnroe pemecno n ropronnx,
noennax oprannsannx
30
, noxnnenne monymenrantno apxnrexrypt, co-
crnennoro monernoro ena n nnctmennocrn) nosnonnno E.C. Ianxnno
cenart ntno o nannunn y canronnen-anan cocrnenno pauueeocv-
oapcmeeuuo opeauusauu (Pyccxn xaranar. C. 190-191, Homat.
C. 391-399), c uem, nepoxrno, cneyer cornacnrtcx.
Onn ns naxnemnx nonpocon, sarponyrtx nccneonarenem, non-
poc coornomennx connantntx +nnr Pyccxoro xaranara n Knencxo Pycn
n mnpe - coornomennx +rnx nonnrnuecxnx opasonann noome. Ecnn
panee Pyccxn xaranar (nesanncnmo or ero mxno nnn cenepno noxa-
nnsannn) paccmarpnnancx n xauecrne np+oeo npeouecmeeuuura Kn-
encxo Pycn, ro paort E.C. Ianxnno ycranannnnamr nx ncxpernocrt.
A oroxecrnnenne nocnrene canroncxo xyntrypt c nacenennem Pyc-
cxoro xaranara nosnonxer no-nonomy nocrannrt nonpoc o nponcxoxe-
nnn connantno-nonnrnuecxo +nnrt penne Pycn IX X nn., xoropax,
cornacno Koncranrnny Farpxnoponomy, nmenonanact pycamn n npo-
rnnonocrannxnact cnanxnam
31
. 3rn cneennx nanoxr na npenono-
xenne, uro na Pycn tna peannsonana moent nonnrorenesa, nnsxax x
onrapcxo (na ynae), xora xopennoe cnanxncxoe nacenenne nonepr-
noct sanoenannm, n pesyntrare xoroporo opasonanact nno+rnnunax
npanxmax +nnra. Honyuaercx, uro pennepyccxn nonnrorenes ocyme-
crnnxncx n ycnonnxx +rnoxyntrypnoro cnnresa, n xoropom yuacrnonann
canroncxne anant-pyct n nocrounte cnanxne. A +ro, n cnom ouepet,
neer x nepecmorpy nce xaprnnt panne ncropnn Pycn.
Hponemt omuono.umoeeuesa, ero nosmoxntx nyre n napnanron
sannmamr n paorax E.C. Ianxnno nenrpantnoe mecro. Opamenne x
nnm npnneno nccneonarenx x cosannm nono oomamme paort
no ncropnn xouentx omecrn Rro-Bocrouno Enpont Homat Bo-
crouno Enpont: +rnoct, connym, nnacrt.
Cpasy nyxno ormernrt, uro annoe nccneonanne nepnax n oreue-
crnenno ncropnorpa]nn paora, n xoropo cncremno nsyuena +rnoxynt-
rypnax n connantno-nonnrnuecxax ncropnx xouentx omecrn Rro-Bo-
crouno Enpont na nporxxennn ncero I rtc. n. +. Panee nccneonarenn
opamannct nnmt x ncropnn orentntx napoon nnn nx nonnrnuecxnx
oennenn, cmenxnmnxcx nouac c xaneocxonnuecxo tcrporo,
no nnxora npexe nnxro ne paccmarpnnan creosuo npoecc +rnnuec-
xoro, nonnrnuecxoro, connantnoro n xyntrypnoro pasnnrnx nomaon noc-
rounoenponecxoro pernona na cront snaunrentnom orpesxe npemenn.
Pasnnnax cymecrnymmne na ceronxmnn ent nayunte npecran-
nennx o nonnrorenese xouentx omecrn, n paspaorxy xoroptx nnecnn
nemant nxna xax oreuecrnennte (F.. Bnanmnpnon, I.E. Mapxon,
A.M. Xasanon, H.H. Kpann, E.H. Ktuanon, C.A. Hnernena n p.), rax
n sapyexnte nccneonarenn (H.F. Ionen, P. Ko+n, B. Aponc, H. Kp+-
153
ep, .M. annon, O. Hpnnax n p.), E.C. Ianxnna paccmarpnnaer conn-
antno-nonnrnuecxoe pasnnrne xouentx omecrn Rro-Bocrouno En-
pont xax eouui no cyrn nponecc, nounnennt omnm saxonomepno-
crxm pasnnrnx. 3ro rem onee onpanano, ecnn yuecrt, uro n npome-
xyrxe mexy namecrnnem rynnon (IV V nn.) n nropxennem nenrpon n
neueneron (IX X nn.) nacenenne crenno nonoct Bocrouno Enpont
cnaranoct ns nyx rnanntx +rnnuecxnx xomnonenron: npanoxstuntx
napoon, omnnnponanmnx o +noxn Bennxoro nepecenennx napoon, n
nosnerynncxnx nnemen, +rnnuecxym npnnanexnocrt xoroptx a-
nexo ne ncera moxno c ynepennocrtm onpeennrt (cannpt, xasapt,
ynrapt n p.).
Coornercrnenno, no mnennm E.C. Ianxnno, moxno ntennrt n na
rnna +rnononnrorenesa nomaon Rro-Bocrouno Enpont (Homat. C.
447-452): ceneponpancxn (anant n pyct) n ror, xoropt moxno ycnon-
no nasnart xasapcxnm n xoropt tn xapaxrepen nx ncex nosneryn-
ncxnx +rnocon (Homat. C. 450-452). Hepnt ns +rnx nyre sanep-
mnncx cosannem Pyccxoro xaranara, nropo - opasonannem Xasapnn.
3ro tnn na conepmenno pasntx nonnrnuecxnx oennennx c pas-
nnuno +xonomnuecxo crpyxrypo n nonnrnuecxo oprannsanne.
nx ceneponpancxoro nyrn xapaxrepen nonyocent rnn xosxcrno-
nannx c panntm npnmepno snauennem semneennx
32
n cxoronocrna, n
ocnone uero nexana ceneponpancxax neonornuecxax rpannnx, npnpan-
nnnanmax semneentnen n pemecnennnxon x pxontm xouennnxam.
Hmenno +rn ]axropt ecrecrnenno nenn n x nnrerpannn c nno+rnnunt-
mn n nnoxyntrypntmn oennennxmn (n uacrnocrn, nocrounocnanxnc-
xnmn). Co npemenem nce +ro npnneno x nonnrnuecxo nnrerpannn pxa
nnemen, oennnnmnxcx n ono neprnxantno nnrerpnponannoe norec-
rapnoe oennenne Pyccxn xaranar. B +xonomnuecxo c]epe +ra
nonyocenax moent neennx xosxcrna npnnena nocrenenno x npons-
noxme +xonomnxe c xosxcrnom, ocnonanntm na ntcoxopasnnrom pe-
mecnennom nponsnocrne n ropronne, n rom uncne n nnemne.
3xonomnuecxym ocnony xasapcxoro nyrn cocrannxno xouenoe cxoro-
nocrno n +xso+xcnnyarannx ocenoro semneentuecxoro nacenennx
(rpanrentcxne naern n ant). nx nonnrnuecxoro pasnnrnx omecrn,
nymnx no +romy nyrn, xapaxrepna nacnntcrnenno ocymecrnnxemax
neprnxantnax nnrerpannx (nounnenne onnx +rnocon pyrnmn). B nro-
re nosnnxaer rax nastnaemax xouenax nmnepnx ptxnoe n necra-
nntnoe nonnrnuecxoe opasonanne, ocnonannoe ncxnmunrentno na sa-
noenannn, npnuem nxnmuennte, npenmymecrnenno nacnntcrnenntm
nyrem, n ero cocran +rnoct moryr naxonrtcx na pasntx crynenxx co-
nnantno-+xonomnuecxoro, nonnrnuecxoro n xyntrypnoro pasnnrnx. Taxo-
ntmn tnn Tmpxcxn xaranar n Xasapnx. Hocnenxx cymena oen-
nnrt npaxrnuecxn nce nosnerynncxne +rnoct Rro-Bocrouno En-
154
2009, N 3 (17)
pont. Hmenno nacnntcrnennt xapaxrep neprnxantnoro oennennx
pasnnuntx +rnocon oxcnxer nnyrpennmm cnaocrt Xasapcxoro xara-
nara n ero nnyrpennne ncnponopnnn.
B nenom nponema xasapcxoro nonnrorenesa xnnxercx eme manonc-
cneonanno. Xasapnm otuno onontno ynepenno nastnamr rocyap-
crnom (ncnomnnm xorx t uaseauue nsnecrno paort A.H. Honocent-
nena), no n cymnocrn annoe nonoxenne nnxora n nnxem nceptes ne
oocnontnanoct, xax ne paccmarpnnanact n n npnnnnne nponema ro-
cyapcrnoopasonarentntx nponeccon, xoropte nmenn mecro n Xasa-
pnn. E.C. Ianxnna npoyer sanonnnrt n +ror nemanonaxnt ncropno-
rpa]nuecxn npoen.
Hepnt +ran ncropnn cpenenexontx xasap cnxsan c +noxo apao-
xasapcxnx non. Hmenno n ropnnne optt c apaamn nponsomno cra-
nonnenne camoro xasapcxoro +rnoca n poxenne nosrnannxemoro xasa-
pamn norecrapnoro oennennx, xya nomnn cannpt, px nosneryn-
ncxnx nnemen Hpexanxastx n Bennxo Fynrapnn (Homat. C. 271-
327). Hmenno nnemnxx onacnocrt n nnne apaon xnnnact ronuxom, na-
roapx xoropomy nponsomno oennenne necxontxnx +rnocon no rna-
nencrnom xasap, nenrp xoroporo tn pacnonoxen na reppnropnn conpe-
mennoro arecrana.
Hosnee no yapamn apaon nponcxonr macconoe nepememenne
nacenennx ns Hpexanxastx na cenep, n crenn mexy nnsontxmn Bonrn
n ona, re nponecct nonnrorenesa npnnoxr x mnoroyponneno nnrer-
pannn nacenennx, oennennoro n cocrane Xasapnn: 1) nyeo-xasapc-
xn +rnoc-crpara, oxpanxemt mycyntmanamn-naemnnxamn n cnxsan-
nt c rpansnrno ropronne; 2) nnemennax xouenax apncroxparnx; 3)
pxonte xasapt-xouennnxn. enenne +rnocon, nounnenntx xasapam,
tno ornocnrentno onee npocrtm n pasnnnanoct no nnnnn +nnra
pxonoe xouenoe nacenenne. Hocrenenno nno+rnnunoe pxonoe xouenoe
nacenenne cnnnanoct c xasapcxnm, ro xe camoe nponcxonno n c +nnra-
mn. Bce +ro neno x nocrenennomy o]opmnennm mnoxecrna nosneryn-
ncxnx nnemen Rro-Bocrouno Enpont n ennt xasapcxn +rnoc.
Bepoxrno, x xonny ncropnn xaranara nponecc +rnnuecxo xonconnannn
ero nacenennx yxe ocrnr onpeenenntx pesyntraron.
Cront cnoxno nnrerpnponannax cncrema, cocroxnmax ns mnornx na-
poon n omecrnenntx crpar, nosnonxer ronopnrt o ]opmnponannn n
mexypeute Hnxne Bonrn n ona n IX X nn. pauueeo eocvoapcmea,
n xoropom npecrannen rnannt crpyxrypoopasymmn npnsnax rocy-
apcrna nannune nnacrn, pemnrentno oropnanno or napoa n nporn-
nocroxme emy, uro namno n cnoe neonornuecxoe o]opmnenne: +nnra
Xasapnn npnnnmaer nyansm, n ro npemx xax macct nacenennx npoon-
xann ncnoneonart pasnoopasnte xstuecxne xyntrt, xpncrnancrno n
ncnam (Homat. C. 378-384). 3ro orenenne nnacrn or napoa ntpasn-
155
noct raxxe n cosannn naemno apmnn ns mycyntman Cpene Asnn,
nonnocrtm oropnanno or nacenennx xaranara n cranme onopo nnac-
rn ero nyansnponanno +nnrt.
Paort E.C. Ianxnno, na nam nsrnx, nmemr naxnoe snauenne nx
nsyuennx xax nponem nauana Pycn, rax n ncropnn Xasapnn n xouentx
+rnocon Rro-Bocrouno Enpont pyexa I II rtc. n. +. Ho xonnuecrny
nontx cmentx ne n sanono nocrannenntx nonpocon +rn paort sa-
merno ntenxmrcx ns pxa noontx nccneonann, onynnxonanntx
sa nocnenee npemx. He nce npenaraemte pemennx moxno npnsnart
eccnopntmn. Baxno pyroe: poxenne nono nayuno xonnennnn crn-
mynnpyer ncxyccnm, a snaunr, cnococrnyer antnememy pasnnrnm
ncropnuecxo nayxn.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. Ia.ruua E.C. 1) Tant Pyccxoro xaranara. M.: Beue, 2002 (anee Pyccxn
xaranar); 2) Homat Bocrouno Enpont: +rnoct, connym, nnacrt (I rtc. n. +). M.:
Hpomere, 2006 (anee Homat).
2. Honemne ncropnorpa]nuecxne osopt cm.: X.eeoe A.A. Hopmanncxax
nponema n oreuecrnenno ncropnuecxo nayxe. CH., 1997; Cnanxne n Pyct:
nponemt n nen: Konnennnn, poxennte rpexnexono nonemnxo, n xpecroma-
rnnom nsnoxennn / Cocr. A.I. Kystmnn. M., 2001; 4o+uu B.B. 1) Bapxrn n na-
pxxcxax Pyct: x nroram ncxyccnn no napxxcxomy nonpocy. M., 2005; 2) Homo-
nocon. Ienn pyccxo ncropnn. M., 2006; K.eu H.C. Cnop o napxrax. Hcropnx
npornnocroxnnx n aprymenrt cropon. CH., 2009.
3. Cm.: Caxapoe A.H. nnnomarnx penne Pycn. M., 1980. C. 22-46; Hoe+ui-
cru X. Pyct n nopmannt. M., 1985. C. 194-197; Lacro.icru H.H. Hsnecrnx
Feprnncxnx annanon n cnere anntx conpemenno nayxn // Heronncn n xponnxn.
1980. M., 1981. C. 43-54; Hoeoce.iee A.H. K nonpocy o onom ns pennemnx
rnrynon pyccxoro xnxsx // Hcropnx CCCP. 1982. N 4. C. 150-159; Ceooe B.B. Pyc-
cxn xaranar IX n. // Oreuecrnennax ncropnx. Kouoea.oea H.I. O nosmoxntx
ncrounnxax sanmcrnonannx rnryna xaran n penne Pycn // Cnanxne n nx coce-
n. Btn. 10: Cnanxne n xoueno mnp. M., 2001; 4u.muruu A.H. Tnrynt pyccxnx
rocyape. M.; CH., 2006. C. 18-24 n p.
4. Cm., nanp., nonemym paory A.H. unnmmxnna (4u.muruu A.H. Tnrynt
C. 18-24).
5. Hempvxuu B.B. Hauano +rnoxyntrypno ncropnn Pycn. Cmonencx, M., 1995;
pennxx Pyct. Hapo. Knxstx. Pennrnx // Hs ncropnn pyccxo xyntrypt: T. 1
(pennxx Pyct). M., 2000.
6. Cm., nanp.: Hoeoce.iee A.H. Opasonanne pennepyccxoro rocyapcrna n
nepnt ero npannrent // Bonpoct ncropnn. 1991. N 2-3; auu.eecru H.H. pen-
nxx Pyct rnasamn conpemennnxon n noromxon (IX XII nn.): Kypc nexnn. M.,
1999. C. 41-78; Iopcru A.A. Pyct: Or cnanxncxoro paccenennx o Mocxoncxoro
napcrna. M., 2004. C. 36-76 n p.
156
2009, N 3 (17)
7. Hanonee nonno onn nsnoxent n nocnene paore ncropnxa: Kvsi+uu A.I.
Hauano Pycn. Tant poxennx pyccxoro napoa. M., 2003.
8. Aoaee B.H. Hcropnxo-+rnmonornuecxn cnonapt ocernncxoro xstxa. M.,
1973. T. 2. C. 435-437; Tpvoa:e O.H. K ncroxam Pycn (nanmennx nnnrnncra).
M., 1993.
9. Heauoe B.B., Tonopoe B.H. O pennnx cnanxncxnx +rnonnmax. Ocnonnte
nponemt n nepcnexrnnt // Cnanxncxne pennocrn: +rnorenes, marepnantnax
xyntrypa penne Pycn. Knen, 1980; Tpvoa:e O.H. Indoarica n Cenepnom Hpn-
uepnomopte: Pexoncrpyxnnx pennxron xstxa: 3rnmonornuecxn cnonapt. M.,
1999.
10. Ceooe B.B. 1) Cnanxne n pennocrn. M., 1995. C. 233-286; 2) Cnanxne. Hcro-
pnxo-apxeonornuecxoe nccneonanne. M., 2002. C. 150-198.
11. Apma+ouoe M.H. Hcropnx xasap. 2-e ns. CH., 2002. C. 297-301.
12. Apma+ouoe M.H. Capxen n nexoropte pyrne yxpennennx Cenepo-3ana-
no Xasapnn // Conercxax apxeonornx. 1940. Btn. VI.
13. Hnvuruu H.H. Hamxrnnxn canroncxo xyntrypt n accene p. ona //
Marepnant n nccneonannx no apxeonornn. M., 1958. N 62.
14. H.emueea C.A. Or xouenn x ropoam. Canrono-maxnxax xyntrypa // Mare-
pnant n nccneonannx no apxeonornn. M., 1967. N 142. C. 186.
15. Tam xe.
16. Hnvuruu H.H. Hamxrnnxn canroncxo xyntrypt; Mepnepm H.B. Bep-
xnee Canrono (Canroncxax xyntrypa). ncc. xan. ncr. nayx. M.; H., 1949; O rene-
snce canroncxo xyntrypt // Kparxne coomennx Hncrnryra ncropnn marepnant-
no xyntrypt. 1951. Btn. 36.
17. Pioaroe B.A. K nonpocy o ponn Xasapcxoro xaranara n ncropnn Pycn //
Conercxax apxeonornx. Btn. XVIII. M., 1953; Ia.ruua E.C. Teppnropnx Xasapc-
xoro xaranara IX 1- non. X n. n nnctmenntx ncrounnxax // Bonpoct ncropnn.
2006. N 9.
18. Cm., nanp., copnnx: Xasapt / Pe. xon.: B.. Herpyxnn (n p.). Hepycannm;
M., 2005 (Enpen n cnanxne. T. 16) (ocoenno crartn A.B. Komapa, B.C. Axcenona n
B.B. Konot). Cm. raxxe: Topmura A.A. Bocrounocnanxncxne nnemena nenpon-
cxoro Henoepextx, Hoontx Hpnoneutx n xonrexcre xasapcxo ncropnn: +r-
nononnrnuecxax moent nsanmoornomenn // Xasapcxn antmanax. Xaptxon, 2002.
Btn. 1.
19. Apxeonorix: Copnnx. T. XXIV. Knin, 1970.
20. Enncrnennoe nsnecrnoe ncxnmuenne cocrannxer paora noponexcxoro
xpaenea A.I. Hnxonaenxo Cenepo-3ananax Xasapnx nnn oncxax Pyct? (Bo-
noxononxa, 1991).
21. Cm., nanp.: H.emuea C.A. Xasapt. M., 1986; Ha cnanxno-xasapcxom norpa-
nnute. M., 1989; Aqauaciee I.E. Ie xe apxeonornuecxne cnnerentcrna cyme-
crnonannx Xasapcxoro rocyapcrna? // Poccncxax apxeonornx. 2001. N 2 n p.
22. Pioaroe B.A. Knencxax Pyct n pyccxne xnxxecrna XII XIII nn. M., 1982. C.
55-90. Fnaroapx paoram F.A. Ptaxona nonoxenne o cpenenenponcxnx ncro-
xax Pycn nonyunno mnpoxoe pacnpocrpanenne. Hmontrno, uro n nonpoce o
nponcxoxennn +rnonnma pyct F. A. Ptaxon rax n ne cmor npnrn x onpee-
nennomy pemennm, npenonoxnn rontxo ero cnxst c nasnannem peuxn Poct,
nponcxoxenne xoroporo ocraercx ne nnonne xcntm, npnuem nanonee nepoxr-
157
no xnnxercx xax pas ero npancxax +rnmonornx (Tpvoa:ee O.H. Hasnannx pex
Hpanoepexno Vxpannt. M., 1968. C. 237, 262).
23. Cm., nanp.: Hoeoce.iee A.H. 1) Xasapcxoe rocyapcrno n ero pont n ncro-
pnn Bocrouno Enpont n Kanxasa. M., 1990; 2) Opasonanne pennepyccxoro
rocyapcrna; Hempvxuu B.B. 1) Hauano +rnoxyntrypno ncropnn Pycn; 2) pen-
nxx Pyct n p.
24. Ta.uc .H. Poct n Kptmy // Conercxax apxeonornx. 1974. N 3. Hoepxan
nen .T. Fepesonna A.I. Kystmnn (Kvsi+uu A.I. Xasapcxne crpaannx // Kvsi+uu
A.I. Mapoept na oporax ncropnn. M., 2005. C. 272-277 n cn.), no, x coxanennm,
neocrarouno nx pasnnn.
25. Ia.ruua E.C., Kvsi+uu A.I. Poccxn xaranar n ocrpon pyccon // Cnanxne n
Pyct
26. Otuno panee onn rpaxronannct xax norpannunte yxpennennx Xasapnn,
nanpannennte npornn nocrountx cnanxn cm.: H.emuea C.A. Ha cnanxno-xa-
sapcxom norpannute; Aqauaciee I.E. Ie xe apxeonornuecxne cnnerentcrna
27. Hmenno no+romy npannrenn pycon n npnnxnn rnryn xarana, cunranmncx
y napoon enpasncxnx crene or xyant-xyane o monronon nanntcmnm,
uro cnnerentcrnyer o nx nperensnxx na nepnencrno n pernone.
28. Hpemecrnymmne nccneonarenn ronopnnn n cnxsn c +rnm o rpaxancxo
none (Apma+ouoe M.H. Hcropnx xasap. H., 1962. C. 324 n cn.) nnn o cmyre
(Hoeoce.iee A.H. Xasapcxoe rocyapcrno C. 132) n Xasapcxom xaranare, noc-
neonanme sa npnnxrnem +rnm rocyapcrnom nyansma. Ho mnennm E.C. Ianxn-
no n A. I. Kystmnna, npannntnee ronopnrt o cxnarxe mexy nymx xaranara-
mn (Ia.ruua E.C., Kvsi+uu A.I. Poccxn xaranar C. 462).
29. Ia.ruua E.C. 1) Canrono-maxnxax xyntrypa n nponema Pyccxoro xaranara
// Hayunte rpyt Mocxoncxoro nearornuecxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcn-
rera. Cepnx: Connantno-nonnrnuecxne nayxn. M., 1997; 2) K ocmtcnennm rnryna
xaxan pycon n apao-nepcncxo reorpa]nn IX XII nn. // Tam xe. M., 2003; 3)
K nponeme noxannsannn napoon Rro-Bocrouno Enpont na +rnnuecxo xapre
reorpa]on mxont an-xaxann // Vuente sanncxn Henrpa apacxnx nccneo-
nann Hncrnryra nocroxoneennx PAH. M., 2003. Btn. 3; 4) Xaxan pyc n cpe-
nenexono apacxo reorpa]nuecxo nnreparype // Inoannsannx n myntrnxynt-
rypannsm: oxnat n ntcrynnennx. VII Mexynaponax ]nnoco]cxax xon]e-
pennnx nanor nnnnnnsann: Bocrox 3ana, 14-16 anpenx 2003 r. M., 2004 n
p.
30. O ne cm.: Bvoeuor O.B. Anann-acn ninponctxo-onctxoro mexnpiuux na
nictxoni cnyxi n xosap // Xasapcxn antmanax. Btn. 1. Anrop, npana, ncxonr
ns esoxasarentnoro resnca o sanncnmocrn canroncxnx anan or Xasapnn, uro,
onaxo, ne menxer ome xaprnnt nx noenno oprannsannn, opnconanno nc-
cneonarenem.
31. Koucmaumuu Baepuopooui. O ynpannennn nmnepne: rexcr, nepeno,
xommenrapn / Orn. pe. I.I. Hnranpnn, A.H. Honocentnen. M., 1989. C. 51 n p.
32. O pasnnrnn semneentuecxoro xosxcrna y canroncxnx anan cm. nonemym
paory: Ko.ooa B.B., Iopoaueuro C.A. 3emneentuecxn xomnnexc pannecpe-
nenexonoro nacenennx Bepxnero Canrona // Xasapcxn antmanax. Knen; Xaptxon;
Mocxna, 2004. Btn. 2.
158
2009, N 3 (17)
He1p mOPHHKOB
XPAHHTEAL MOAABCKOH TPAHHHH
20 cenrxpx nsnecrnomy mon-
ancxomy yuenomy n nonnrnxy
Bacnnnm Crarn ncnonnnnoct 70
ner. Crarn, npnsnamr axe ero
onnonenrt, onn ns camtx ex-
rentntx npononnxon nnxennx
monanncron; on xnnxercx anro-
pom cepnn neuarntx paor, orno-
cxmnxcx x pasnnrnm naponoro
monancxoro xstxa n cnanxncxnm
nnnxnnxm na monancxym xyntry-
py. H rontxo? B Monannn n sa ee
npeenamn Bacnnn Hnxonaennu
nonyunn nsnecrnocrt xax ome-
crnennt exrent, nnep Harpn-
ornuecxoro nnxennx Hpo Mon-
ona, enyrar napnamenra, xpxn nynnnncr, peaxrop n nsarent o-
no ns anropnrernemnx raser 90-x rr. Inacyn Monone. H nce xe
on xannar ]nnonornuecxnx n oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, anrop rpy-
on no monancxo ncropnn, +rnonornn n connonnnrnncrnxe npexe
ncero yuent.
enom cnoe xnsnn cunraer nayxy n cam B.H. Crarn. C npnsnarent-
nocrtm ncnomnnaer on cnonx nacrannnxon n nayxe ntammnx yue-
ntx-]nnonoron axaemnxa H. Kopn+rxny, B. Kopoana, T. Bacnnteny,
H. Mesennena. Cnocont ntnycxnnx monancxoro orenennx ncropn-
xo-]nnonornuecxoro ]axyntrera Knmnnencxoro ynnnepcnrera, on tn
npnrnamen na paory n axaemnuecxn Hncrnryr monancxoro xstxa n
monancxo nnreparypt. B 1972 r. samnrnn xannarcxym nccepra-
nnm, na roa cnycrx ntmna n cner ero monorpa]nx Cnanxncxne sa-
nmcrnonannx n monancxnx ronopax, ntcoxo onenennax n nayuntx xpy-
rax.
B nepnonuecxo neuarn B.H. Crarn nynnxonancx na monancxom n
pyccxom xstxax, npoxnnn n cxnonnocrt x nncarentcrny. uenonex oax-
rentnt n aprncrnunt, on ymen paorart c nmtmn. 3ra oapennocrt
raxxe tna onenena: ero npnrnacnnn na npecrnxnt nocr n annapar
159
!
Henrpantnoro xomnrera Kommynncrnuecxo naprnn Monannn. Kax
nnreparopy omenne c nnrennnrennne, ocoenno rymannrapno n
rnopuecxo, ano Bacnnnm Crarn ecnennt xnsnennt n nonnrn-
uecxn ontr. 3nax +rn xpyrn nsnyrpn, on npennen, x xaxnm nocne-
crnnxm moxer npnnecrn n Monannn nepecrpoxa. On nosnparnncx n
Axaemnm nayx n nosononnn nayunte nccneonannx. B 1988 r., xora
npopymtncxne nannonan-panxant orxptro ntcrynnnn npornn +rnoxynt-
rypno camotrnocrn monancxoro napoa, Crarn nonen nror npe-
mecrnymmemy +rany nacnntcrnenno noronxn pono peun no cran-
aprt pymtncxoro xstxa, ntnycrnn monorpa]nm Monancxn xstx n
ero neopoxenarenn
1
. 3nax ncropnuecxym xonnennnm pymtnnsma, on
saxnmunn, uro rnanntm nannonantntm nonpocom Monannn craner non-
poc monancxn. Kypc pymtnnsaropon na ncxpenrannm nnnrnonnma
monancxn xstx, nepeopnenrannm xstxonoro crponrentcrna na py-
mtncxne opasnt on pacnennnan xax mept, nanpannennte na pymtnn-
sannm monanan n nnxnnannm Monancxoro rocyapcrna.
B rot xpnsnca B.H. Crarn ntcrynnn na samnry monancxo camo-
trnocrn. Hnnrnonnm monancxn xstx, nonaran on, cneyer coxpa-
nnrt yxe xax oennnrentnt cnmnon monanan, nenrn]nxarop cy-
mecrnonannx monancxo nannn. Bmecre c pyrnm exrenem mona-
nnsma, peaxropom xypnana Hnma mononenxcx+ (Monancxn
xstx) Banepnem Cennxom ntcrynan n monancxnx cenax c nexnnxmn
n samnry monancxoro xstxa. B nmne 1989 r., naxanyne poxono nx
cye monancxo xyntrypt 13- ceccnn Bepxonnoro Conera Monanc-
xo CCP, xora monancxax nnctmennocrt tna nepeneena na narnn-
cxym rpa]nxy, a nx monancxoro xstxa tnn yrnepxent xax oxsa-
rentnte nopmt nnreparypnoro pymtncxoro xstxa, B.H. Crarn ony-
nnxonan n coanropcrne c nsnecrntm ncropnxom Bnancnanom Ipocy-
nom xonnenryantnym crartm Harnnnna: ntmtcen n npana
2
. Knpnn-
nnna, ronopnnoct n crarte, ne tna nneena nmecro xaxoro-ro py-
roro an]annra, na ee ocnone nsnauantno tna cosana monancxax nnct-
mennocrt. B crarte tno yenrentno onponeprnyro ncropnuecxoe n
+xonomnuecxoe oocnonanne rpeonannx pymtnnsaropon o nepenoe
monancxo nnctmennocrn na narnncxym rpa]nxy.
Ha pyexe 90-x rr. pyxonocrno npanxme naprnn nepeano nnacrt n
Monannn nannonan-panxanam, xxot monancxnm. Hauannct macco-
nte ynontnennx paornnxon no npenorom ncnonnennx saxona O ]yn-
xnnonnponannn xstxon. Ho nannonanncrt ntcrynnnn n npornn ant-
nemero cymecrnonannx Monancxoro rocyapcrna, cran raxxe ynno-
nncramn. B yuentx saneennxx npenoananne monancxo ncropnn,
monancxoro xstxa n monancxo nnreparypt tno sameneno anrnna-
yuntm xypcom Hcropnx pymtn, xypcom pymtncxoro xstxa n pymtn-
cxo nnreparypt. Ho+romy ynontnxnn ne rontxo pyccxnx n pyrnx pa-
160
2009, N 3 (17)
ornnxon nernryntno nannonantnocrn, no n monanan, ne npnemnm-
mnx nonnrnxy pymtnnsannn. B.H. Crarn tn noneprnyr nonnrnuecxo
rpanne. He onontcrnyxct ero n]]amanne n npecce, pymtnnsaropt
ocrannnn monancxoro ]nnonora es cpecrn x cymecrnonannm, yno-
nnn ero ns Axaemnn nayx. B.H. Crarn ne sanxncx uennouno ropron-
ne n ne +mnrpnponan. Ha nporxxennn pxa ner on sapaartnan na xnsnt
npenoanannem n mxone, no sanxrn nayxo ne ocrannn. B ypnom
1992 r. on samnrnn n Mocxne, n anropnrernemem nayunom yupexennn
Hncrnryre +rnorpa]nn nm. H.Mnxnyxo-Maxnax, oxropcxym nc-
ceprannm no ncropnn, nocnxmennym nonpocam monancxo +rnonnnrnn-
crnxn.
B ornnune or ontmnncrna xonner-]nnonoron, B.H. Crarn ne orcry-
nnn or nayuntx nosnnn n nocne pacunenennx Comsa CCP. B 1993 r.
ornymnrentno cencanne cran n nayunom mnpe Monannn ntxo rpy-
a, npnsnannoro oocnonart npanomepnocrt antnemero ncnontsona-
nnx +rnonnma monanane n nnnrnonnma monancxn xstx, Mon-
anane n ncropnn
3
. Anrop npoemoncrpnponan ne rontxo nayunym +py-
nnnm n nnreparypnt nxyc, no n uyncrno mmopa. Knnry, cocrannen-
nym ns ntepxex ns rpyon xnaccnxon monancxo nnreparypt Hona
Kpxnr+, Anexy Pycco, Ieopre Acaxn, Koncranrnna Herpynnn, Mnxanna
Kor+nnnuany, Mnxanna 3mnnecxy, Mnxanna Caonxny, a raxxe pymtnc-
xnx ]nnonoron n nnreparopon XX n., on nonncan Herpe H.Mono-
nan. B nepno nononnne XX n. +rnm ncenonnmom nontsonancx py-
mtncxn ncropnx Herpe Hananrecxy. Oxastnaercx, axe on, neonor
pymtnnsma, npnsnanan, uro monanane camotrnt napo, ornnu-
nt or pymtncxoro. Ho xro xe anrop +ro opnrnnantno no samtcny,
onntno oxymenrnponanno n nerxo unraemo xnnrn? B nayunom coo-
mecrne Monannn comnenn no +romy nonoy ne tno: Bacnnn Crarn!
Cam on, ncera ntcrynammn c orxptrtm sapanom, xpannn no +romy
nonoy monuanne. B nonemnxe, pasnepnynmecx n CMH nocne ntxoa
xnnrn, yrnepnncx repmnn mononennsmyn (monannsm).
Antrepnarnnnt monannsmy pymtnnsm B.H. Crarn pasonauan xax
neonornm arpeccnn, pacxptnax ero nonnrnuecxne ]ynxnnn. B 1993 r.,
ormeuan yuent, mecrnt nnep napnamenrcxo nppeenrncrcxo on-
nosnnnn npeocreperaer cnonx croponnnxon: He ocyxart nonpoc
rnorronnma pymtncxn xstx orentno or +rnonnma pymtn. Ho-
cxontxy ocnonno +nemenr, noxpyr xoroporo noer nennxax nrna,
pymtncxn napo, a ne monancxn. Hpecearent Comsa nncare-
ne, cosnanax naxnocrt nnnrnonnma monancxn xstx nx yymno-
crn Monancxoro rocyapcrna, saxnnn n 1995 r.: Vrnepxennem nonx-
rnx monancxn xstx npecneyercx orxas or pymtncxo rocyap-
crnennocrn Pecnynnxn Monona. Ftnmn pymtncxn nocon n Kn-
161
!
mnnene Bnxrop Ftpcan, npoonxan Crarn, nynnuno pasxcnnn: Ecnn
t ne cymecrnonano monancxo nannn n monancxoro xstxa, ne tno
t neoxonmocrn n cymecrnonannn Monancxoro rocyapcrna, n sax-
nauennte n 1940 r. reppnropnn nao nosnpamart Pymtnnn. 3rn npn-
snannx onxnt tnn nacropoxnrt ncropnxon n rocyapcrnenntx ex-
rene Vxpannt, no +roro ne nponsomno.
Kax nynnunt nonnrnx B.H. Crarn xpxo npoxnnn cex n 90-e rr. On
ne rontxo ocyxan rocyapcrnennoe espasnnune nnacre n ycnonn-
xx nacaxennx n Monone neonornn pymtnnsma. B nenxx samnrt
monancxnx nannonantntx nennocre on yupenn n 1994 r. omecrnen-
nym oprannsannm Harpnornuecxoe nnxenne Hpo Monona. Btcxa-
stnaxct no naxnemnm nonpocam nannonantnoro trnx, Crarn cran n
Monannn snaxono ]nrypo. Ho cnncxy naprnn arpapnen on tn ns-
pan n napnamenr n npnnxn yuacrne n ]opmnponannn neonornn +ro
naprnn monancxnx rpannnonanncron. Vuacrnonan n paore na npo-
exrom Koncrnrynnn Pecnynnxn Monona, oocnonan ynomnnanne n ne
nnnrnonnma monancxn xstx. Bmecre c connanncramn ]nnonorom
B.F. Cennxom n nocnennm mnnncrpom opasonannx Monannn npemen
CCCP .I. 3ny, arpapnem mpncrom B.. uexanom, axaemnxom-nc-
ropnxom xommynncrom A.M. Hasapentm n pyrnmn enyraramn-mon-
anncramn on onnancx nosnpara n nporpammt yuentx saneenn
xypca Hcropnx Monannn
4
. Fonee nxrn ner ntnycxan rasery Inacyn
Monone. Btcrynan n neuarn no nonpocam rexyme nonnrnxn. Hstc-
xnnan cpecrna na nsanne rpyon yuentx, orcrannammnx npany mon-
ancxo ncropnn.
3pynnnx n anropnrer yuenoro npnanann ocot nec xaxomy cno-
ny Crarn - nonnrnxa. Ho ncropnm on nsyuan ne pan pemennx rexymnx
nonnrnuecxnx nonpocon on peman saaun crparernuecxoro snauennx
nx monanan n Monannn. Honnnno +nnnxnonene monancxo-py-
mtncxnx mexrocyapcrnenntx n mex+rnnuecxnx ornomenn cran nt-
nymennt nymx nsannxmn, n 1995 n 2007 rr., rpy Bacnnnx Crarn
Hcropnx Monont n arax
5
. B +ro paore, a raxxe n xnnre Cre-
]an Bennxn, noenoa Mononannn (2004 r.)
6
, ncropnx pacxptn xon]-
ponrannonnt xapaxrep ornomenn mexy Monanne n Banaxne,
monananamn n nanaxamn n cpenenexonte, samanunnaemt n pymtnc-
xo, n conercxo, n conpemenno ynnonncrcxo ncropnorpa]ne. Peut
ner o saraxe ncropnn. Houemy n nepno noema Monancxoro rocy-
apcrna npn Cre]ane Bennxom (1457-1504 rr.) na nnsxnx no xstxy
npanocnanntx napoa na nporxxennn nonynexa nenn mexy coo 24
nont? Houemy n XX n. npanxmne xpyrn Pymtnnn nosponnn tno
nanamcxo-monancxn anraronnsm? Pasxcnennx +roro xnnennx, rnan-
ntm opasom, connantno-+xonomnuecxoro cnocrna, annte anropom,
162
2009, N 3 (17)
pesonnt, onaxo mecro nx comnenn ocraercx. Ouennno, monanane
XV-XVI nn. snann o nanaxax (mynrxnax) ontme, uem nsnecrno ncropn-
xam namnx ne. A n 1918-1940 n n 1941-1944 rr. n n xonne XX cronernx,
xax n n nacroxmee npemx, monanane npocro xenann ocranartcx mon-
ananamn, n uem orxastnamr nm pymtnnsaropt.
Hayunax paora B.H.Crarn, ero rpaxancxax nosnnnx nonyunnn n
monancxom omecrne ntcoxym npancrnennym n nonnrnuecxym onen-
xy. Kora arpapnn, onycrnn omnxn n +xonomnuecxo n connantno no-
nnrnxe, a raxxe nonnrnxe n c]epe xyntrypt, norepnenn na napnamenr-
cxnx ntopax 1998 r. nopaxenne, B.H. Crarn, anropnrernt yuent,
necrxmn nynnnncr n nsnecrnt n napoe omecrnennt exrent,
tn nocrpeonan n pyrnmn rocyapcrnenno opnenrnponanntmn cnna-
mn. On tn nspan n napnamenr no cnncxy Haprnn xommynncron. Hpn
]opmnponannn npannrentcrna xonnern no ]paxnnn npenoxnnn emy nop-
r]ent mnnncrpa xyntrypt. Ho Crarn npenouen ocrartcx enyrarom,
nororonnrt n nsart px nayuntx paor, samenxx cnonmn rpyamn
paory nenoro nncrnryra. Pesyntrart ero nccneonann n c]epe mon-
ancxo ncropnn onynnxonant raxxe n monorpa]nxx Monanane x
nocroxy or necrpa (1995)
7
, Hcropnx Monont (2002, 2003)
8
, Mon-
anane Vxpannt (2007)
9
. Cno nropo enyrarcxn manar on sanep-
mnn nynnxanne xonnenryantntx oxymenron nnxennx monanncron
anrnynnonncrcxoro mann]ecra eno name npanoe n cnxroe
10
n Mt
monanane
11
, a raxxe paccunranno na sananoro unrarenx pomm-
po-pasxcnennem Hannonantnax nenrnunocrt monanan n nonn+r-
nnunom xonrexcre Rro-Bocrouno Enpont
12
.
Monancxym nnnrnncrnxy Bacnnn Crarn ntnen na nont pyex,
nsan n 2003 r. Monancxo-pymtncxn cnonapt
13
, n xoropom nponen
emapxannonnym nnnnm mexy monancxnm nannonantntm xstxom n
pymtncxnm nannonantntm xstxom, nayuno oocnonan xonnennnm mon-
ancxoro +rnoxyntrypnoro cynepennrera, monancxym xstxonym camo-
trnocrt, npano monanan pasronapnnart no-monancxn, nesanncnmo
or nopm, ycranonnenntx pymtncxo Axaemne nayx nx pymtncxoro
nnreparypnoro xstxa. Hmnrenxm nyntrapnsonart ero nsrnxt Crarn
nanomnnn: pymtncxn xstx n monancxn ne xnnxmrcx pasntmn xst-
xamn, y nnx na nnnrnonnma monancxn nannonantnt xstx n py-
mtncxn nannonantnt xstx. V pymtncxoro n monancxoro xstxon
omax nnreparypnax ]opma, omne xopnn, omn ocnonno cnonapnt
]on, omn ncropnuecxn nyrt pasnnrnx. Onaxo nnnrnonnm mon-
ancxn xstx onee pennn, uem nnnrnonnm pymtncxn xstx. Ho
cpannennm c mynrxncxnm nanexrom nnn rpancnntnancxnm napeunem
monancxn ronop cam no cee nnreparypnt naroapx mxrxocrn peun.
Monancxn xstx nasnart nanexrom nentsx, noromy uro nnxro ne sna-
163
!
er, xaxont uerxne xpnrepnn pasrpannuennx nanexron. Moxno cnopnrt
co Crarn no uacrntm nonpocam nacxontxo oocnonanno pasrpannuen
cnonapnt ]on monancxoro n pymtncxoro xstxon
14
. Ho nnxro ns o-
poconecrntx nccneonarene yxe ne cmoxer nrnopnponart nonoxennx
n ntnot, c]opmynnponannte n MPC.
Hmont x cnoemy napoy, monananam, ne nomemana Bacnnnm Hn-
xonaennuy ynaxart n nnrepect pyrnx nannonantntx coomecrn Mon-
annn. Pecnynnxa Monona, nanomnnaer on, mnoronannonantnax
crpana. Kax enyrar, a sarem xax cexperapt nn]opmannonno-anannrn-
uecxoro nenrpa monancxoro napnamenra on yuacrnonan n nororonxe
naxntx nx noccranonnennx rpaxancxoro cornacnx saxononpoexron O
npanax nnn, npnnanexamnx x nannonantntm mentmnncrnam, n o npa-
nonom craryce nx oprannsann n Konnennnn rocyapcrnenno nanno-
nantno nonnrnxn Pecnynnxn Monona. Or paor anropon, nnmymnx
n pycne Hcropnn pymtn, rpyt B.H. Crarn ntrono ornnuaer nonno-
ra ncropnuecxoro xonrexcra. On ne samanunnaer cnanxncxnx cmxeron
ncropnn Monannn, naunnax c yuacrnx nocrountx cnanxn, r.e. pycnnon,
n monancxom +rnorenese. Monancxn napo, yrnepxaer on, noxnnn-
cx n pesyntrare pomancxo-pycnncxoro +rnoxyntrypnoro cnnresa. Orme-
uan Crarn n rpannnonno pyxecrnennt xapaxrep ornomenn Mon-
ancxoro xnxxecrna c Mocxno, Iannnxo Pyctm, sanopoxcxnm xasa-
uecrnom, oxcnxx +ro xnnenne nnnxnnem npanocnannx n nannunem o-
mnx nparon. Bacnnn Hnxonaennu yuacrnyer n nayuntx xon]epennnxx,
npononmtx n Knmnnene Omecrnenno acconnanne Pyct, n nynn-
xyercx na crpannnax xypnana Pycnn
15
. Monancxax rpannnx, xncrny-
er ns ero paor, nxnmuaer xoppexrnte ornomennx c pyrnmn napoamn
n nannonantntmn mentmnncrnamn n camo Monannn. 3a 650 ner cy-
mecrnonannx monancxoro napoa mexy monananamn n pycnnamn
Monannn ne nponsomno mex+rnnuecxnx cronxnonenn
16
. To ocrox-
rentcrno, uro ornomennx nyx xopenntx +rnocon Monannn pasnnna-
nnct no saxonam cnmnosa, crannr nepe ncropnuecxo nayxo saauy
ntxcnennx npnunn +roro xnnennx.
Kax nonnrnx B.H. Crarn corpynnuan c oprannsannxmn nannonantntx
mentmnncrn n npornnoecrnonan npenpamennm rpaxancxoro xon]-
nnxra n Monannn n xon]nnxr mex+rnnuecxn. B 1992 r. monancxne
rpannnonanncrt ctrpann naxnym pont n npexpamennn necrponcxo
nont. B 1994 r. onn ormennnn +rnnuecxym uncrxy, nororonnennym
ynnonncramn no npenorom arrecrannn cnyxamnx na snanne monan-
cxoro xstxa, n ynpasnnnn nnnrnncrnuecxym nonnnnm enapramenr
xstxon. enyrart-yuacrnnxn nnxennx sa pannonpanne Vnnrare-Enn-
crno nomornn monanncramn n napnamenre, ntcrynann na crpannnax
rasert 3emnx n nmn n peaxrnpyemtx B.H. Crarn raser Inacyn
164
2009, N 3 (17)
Monone n Monona Mape; n rpynt momenr Enncrno npeo-
crannno ymary nx neuarannx Inacyn Monone
17
. Pyxonocrno
Iaraysnn nomorno nsannm nexoroptx paor neonora monannsma.
oxymenrantnym asy nccneonann no pycnncxo remarnxe
B.H. Crarn oorarnn, ntnycrnn xnnry Hepnte ncropnn Monont. Mon-
ancxo-cnanxncxax xponorpa]nx
18
. B.H.Crarn nxnmunn n nee rexcrt
nepntx monancxnx neronnce. Onn, ormeueno n xnnre, cocrannxnnct
no cnanxncxnm opasnam. Taxontmn tnn cepcxne Kparxne cxasa-
nnx n Poocnonnx. Onaxo neronncn, monancxne no nponcxoxe-
nnm n remarnxe, no xstxy xnnxmrcx pyccxnmn. Monancxo-pyccxoe ny-
xstune monanan tno oycnonneno ne rontxo nnnxnnem orocnyxe-
nnx na cnanxncxom xstxe, no n rem ocroxrentcrnom, uro no npemena
neronncnen, a n nosnee, 40 nponenron nacenennx Monannn cocran-
nxnn pyccxne nmn, noromxn pennepyccxoro nacenennx Kapnaro-ne-
crponcxnx sement, ronopnnmne na xstxe, nnsxom x xnnxnom pyccxomy
xstxy rex npemen. Monancxne neronncn, a raxxe xomnnexc oxymen-
ron xannenxpnn monancxnx rocnoape xnnxmrcx namxrnnxamn ne ront-
xo monancxo ncropnn, no n ncropnn pyccxoro xstxa nosmoxno, rax-
xe xstxa pycnnon Monannn. Hanmenonanne cnanxno-monancxne ne-
ronncn yuent npnsnan omnountm. Koppexrnoe nx nasnanne mon-
ancxo-pyccxne neronncn
19
.
Hsanne +ro xnnrn ononnno nayunym aprymenrannm croponnnxon
rpannnonno monancxo rpa]nxn. Monancxo-pyccxne neronncn na-
nncant xnpnnnnne. B XVII cronernn, ormernn anrop, nosnnxna n xn-
pnnnnuecxax nnctmennocrt na monancxom xstxe. Harnnnsannx nnct-
mennocrn n 60-e rr. XIX cronernx n Oennennom rocyapcrne Bana-
xnn n Monannn, n 1918 r. n Feccapann, n 1932 r. n Monancxo
anronomnn, a n 1989 r. n Monancxo comsno pecnynnxe nnont npe-
crana xax nent nacnnn na monancxo xyntrypno rpannne, npn-
snanntx nsmennrt rpannnonnym reononnrnuecxym opnenrannm mon-
ancxoro napoa.
Onaax mnpoxnm n conpemenntm nsrnxom na pont npanocnannx n
nepxnn n xnsnn omecrna, B.H. Crarn nomoran Monancxo mnrpono-
nnn n ee opte npornn nontrox ynnonncron nounnnrt ee narpnapxnn
Pymtnnn. B 1993 r. n noptnntx nonnrnuecxnx nenxx n Monannn tna
yupexena nounnennax pymtncxo narpnapxnn Feccapacxax mnrpo-
nonnx. Perncrpannx +ro mnrpononnn, npeynpexan yuent, npnne-
er x pacxony... na cnonx, xoropte samnmamr cnom nepxont, cnom
ncropnm, cnon semnn, n uyxnx pymtn, xoropte onxrt nyr, urot
saxnarnrt nepxnn, ncnorannrt ncropnm Monont, saxnarnrt semnn
monanan. Onaxo nnacrn ne nocmenn nocnpornnnrtcx nnocrpannomy
nropxennm na xanonnuecxym reppnropnm Monancxo nepxnn.
165
!
B 2002 r., xora +roro norpeonana ceccnx HACE, Feccapacxax mnr-
pononnx tna saperncrpnponana. B.H. Crarn ocynn nepxonnym arpec-
cnm Pymtnnn n xannrynxnrcxym nosnnnm pyxonocrna Monont.
20
.
Onaxo opta npoonxaercx. Cnoe 70-nerne Bacnnn Hnxonaennu
ormernn ntnycxom nyx ]ynamenrantntx rpyon: cnnresa cnonx nc-
cneonann monancxo camotrnocrn nourn 500-crpannuno mono-
rpa]nn Monanane
21
n xnnrn o pono peun n ee cytax 3a xstx
nam monancxn
22
. Hayuno oocnonan monancxym nannonantno-xynt-
rypnym camotrnocrt, on pacxptn cyrt pymtnnsma xax +rnorocyap-
crnennoro npoexra, cxoncrpynponannoro n nenxx xyntrypno rpanc]op-
mannn n reononnrnuecxo nepeopnenrannn nocrountx pomannen. Co-
sanne Pymtncxoro rocyapcrna n ]opmnponanne pymtncxo nannn
cnnerentcrnyer o rom, uro npoexr ocymecrnnxercx ycnemno.
Ho ornocnrentno yymero monancxoro +rnoca Bacnnn Crarn oc-
raercx onrnmncrom. Bosponnnct, yrnepxaer on, n npoxnnxmr cex c
nennanno xnsnenno cnno xapaxrepnte cnocrna +roro napoa, ero
ntepxanmn ncntrannx mnoronexont nncrnnxr camocoxpanennx, ro,
uro npnnxro nastnart monancxo cymnocrtm (]npx mononennnop),
monancxnm xomnnexcom camontpaxennx n camosamnrt, cyrt xoropo-
ro saxnmuaercx n orcrannannn cnoero npana na nesanncnmoe nannonant-
noe n rocyapcrnennoe cymecrnonanne. Bonpexn ncem nperpaam e-
crnymr Harpnornuecxoe nnxenne Hpo Monona, nayuno-xyntrypnax
Acconnannx ncropnxon Pecnynnxn Monona, Acconnannx ncropnxon
Menxr naran (Pono xpa), Acconnannx monanan Vxpannt. Onn
ntnycxamr rasert Monona Mape, Hyua]+pyn n Hapa Mono-
ne, nponoxr macconte meponpnxrnx, nsamr yuennxn no monanc-
xomy xstxy n nnreparype, no ncropnn Monont uro xacaercx xpnsn-
ca monancxo nannonantno nenrnunocrn, ro on, nonaraer nccneo-
narent, saxnmuaercx n necxonuaemtx nanaxax pymtncxnx ]nnonoron
n ncropnorpa]on na nannonantnym n xstxonym nenrnunocrt monanc-
xoro napoa, n nontrxax pymtncxoro nonnrnuecxoro xnacca orpnnart
cymecrnonanne monancxo nannn, monancxoro xstxa n monancxoro
rocyapcrna.
uenonex, ronopxmn n nnmymn npany, operaer ne rontxo pyse,
no n nparon. Hmenno onn, xameneont na amnnncrparnnntx nocrax,
ecxrnnernxmn ne nosnonxnn emy paorart n nayuntx yupexennxx,
uepnnnn n neuarn, sarenann npornn nero cyente ncxn. Hs marepna-
non, coepxamnx nanaxn na Crarn, onynnxonanntx n npecce, ]nnan-
cnpyemo ns Fyxapecra, moxno cocrannrt connnt rom. Bnymnrent-
nax xoropra pymtncxnx ncropnxon n ]nnonoron ormernnact n xauecrne
xpnrnxon Crarn, oxasan rontxo ono: ero nsrnxt npornnopeuar ne-
onornn pymtnnsma. Ho nonoy coepxannx xnnrn Monanane n ncro-
166
2009, N 3 (17)
pnn pymtncxn anrop H]rene Hon ntnycrnn xnnry, no oemy npent-
mammym xpnrnxyemym paory
23
. Hexn aenr pymtnnsma n snax npo-
recra cxer Monancxo-pymtncxn cnonapt Bacnnnx Crarn na cry-
nenxx pesnennnn Hpesnenra Monont. Ho ontmnncrno opasonan-
ntx monanan nsanne xnnrn npnnercrnonano. Hepnt rnpax Cnona-
px tn pacxynnen n reuenne necxontxnx ne
24
. 3panym peaxnnm
napoa ormernnn ceptesnte yuente, n rom uncne pymtncxne. Hpoun-
ran, ormernn Mnxnx Fepnne, ecrnnrentnt unen Axaemnn nayx
Pymtnnn, uro cxasann o Cnonape [Bacnnnx Crarn] nexoropte namn
yuente-]nnonorn, nonnnnte anropnrert n cnoe c]epe. Inynocrt,
pe, sanyxenne, cnnncrno. Tontxo +ro onn cymenn cxasart. ueno-
nex c ynnnt moxer nosnonnrt cee cxasart: Inynocrt n pe, npo-
]eccnonan xe oxsan anannsnponart n onponeprart aprymenramn. C
pyro cropont, uem oxcnxercx ror ]axr, uro rax mnoro napoa, ne
oxsarentno pexmero, noxynano n npoonxaer noxynart +ror
pe? 3ro xnnenne onxnt oxcnnrt connonorn n cnennanncrt no
connantno ncnxonornn, xoropte onepnponann t co snannem ena n c
coornercrnymmnmn onoamn.[] Mt onnentnaem ocyxaemt
Cnonapt, a napo ero noxynaer
25
.
Bacnnn Crarn nnec sameuarentnt nxna n peannnrannm monan-
cxo ncropnn, oonranno, maprnnannsyemo, nsnpamaemo n oecnenn-
naemo nonnrnuecxnmn xomnpaopamn. Ero rpyt amr nont orner
na nonpoc o rom, uro osnauaer monancxax camotrnocrt. Ouennno,
ona nxnmuaer ne rontxo nannune monancxoro nannonantnoro cosnannx,
camonasnannx monanane, nanmenonanne pono peun monancxn
xstx, ncnontsonanne monancxo xnpnnnnuecxo rpa]nxn. Crarn ntx-
nnn ocoennocrn monancxoro cosnannx npnnepxennocrt npanocna-
nnm, nocrounym reononnrnuecxym opnenrannm, ynaxnrentnoe ornome-
nne x nnrepecam n nennocrxm pyrnx napoon. Crarn ononnn ncropn-
uecxym aprymenrannm monancxo nannonantno-xyntrypno nenrnu-
nocrn, yxpennn neonornuecxne ocnont cymecrnymme monancxo
rocyapcrnennocrn. B Pecnynnxe Monona n uacrnocrn, n noromy,
uro naxnemne ns cnonx rpyon on nsan raxxe na pyccxom xstxe,
Crarn xnnxercx nanonee unraemtm ncropnxom, nonnnntm nnacrnre-
nem ym, n rom uncne ym cnonx onnonenron. Harpao emy cnyxnr
npnsnarentnocrt conpemennnxon, nsyuammnx no ero rpyam ncropnm
Monannn n monanan.
HPHMEHAHHR
1. A ce nex: Cmamu B. Hnma mononenxcx+ mn p+ynonropn e. Knmnn+y,
1988.
167
2. Cm.: Ipocv. B., Cmamu B. Harnnnna: ntmtcen n npana // Ptnnnxn me-
rannypr. 1989. 30 nmnx.
3. A se vedea: Moldovan P.P. Moldovenii n istorie. Chisinu, 1993;
Mo.ooeau H.H. Mononane n ncropnn. Knmnnen, 1994.
4. Cm.: Lopuuroe H.M. Hnrennnrenr no nnacrn. Crpannnt nonnrnuecxo no-
rpa]nn B.F. Cennxa // Hponeme axryane ane ]nnonoxne mononenemrt xon-
remnopane Tnpacnon: HCHK, 2006. H.11-43.
5. A se vedea: Istoria Moldovei n date. Elaborat: Vasile Stati. Chisinu, 1998;
Stati V. Istoria Moldovei in date. Chisinu: Cartea Moldovei, 2007.
6. Cm.: Cmamu B. Cre]an Bennxn, noenoa Mononannn. Knmnnen, 2004.
7. A se vedea: Stati V. Moldovenii din stnga Nistrului. Chisinu, 1991; Stati V.
Moldovenii la rsrit de Nistru. Chisinu, 1995.
8. A se vedea: Stati V. Istoria Moldovei. Chisinu, 2002; Cmamu B. Hcropnx
Monont. Knmnnen, 2003.
9. A se vedea: Stati V. Moldovenii din Ucraina. Studiu istorico-geografic si
etnodemografic. Chisinu, 2007.
10. A se vedea: Stati V. Cauza noastr e dreapt si sfnt. Manifest antiunionist.
Chisinu, 2000.
11. A se vedea: Stati V. Noi sntem moldoveni. Odesa, 2000.
12. A se vedea: Stati V. Identitatea national a moldovenilor n contecstul sud
estic polietnic European. Chisinu, 2001.
13. A se vedea: Stati V. Dictionar moldovenesc-romnesc. Chisinu, 2003.
14. Hopono cm.: Lopuuroe H. Honx naennx. Hcropnorpa]nx monancxo
+rnononnrnxn. Knmnnen, 2009. C. 52-59.
15. Cm.: Cmamu B. enannonannsannx monanan xax cpecrno ynpasnennx
Monancxoro rocyapcrna // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn.
|Knmnnen]. 2006. N 4 (6); ero xe. Hana pyc, mama pyc, a Hnan mononan // Mex-
ynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Knmnnen]. 2007. N 3 (9); ero xe.
Kro raxne monanane? // Mexynapont ncropnuecxn xypnan Pycnn. [Kn-
mnnen]. 2007. N 4 (10).
16. Hoponee cm.: Lopuuroe H. Honx naennx. C.63-64; ero xe. Monancxax
camotrnocrt. Tnpacnont: Hsarentcrno HIV. 2007.
17. Hoponee cm.: Lopuuroe H. Monancxax camotrnocrt. C.347.
18. A se vedea: Primele istorii ale Moldovei. Cronografia moldo-slavon. Editie
alctuit si completat de Vasile Stati. Chisinu: Lumina. 2007.
19. Hoponee cm.: Lopuuroe H. Cxasannx monancxo crapnnt. (Pen. na xn.:
Primele istorii ale Moldovei. Cronografia moldo-slavon. Editie alcatuit de Vasile
Stati. Lumina. Chisinu, 2007) // Pyccxoe cnono. 2008. N12 (176). Mapr.
20. Cm.: Cmamu B. Hpanocnannax rpannnx n ]apncecrno. //Moldova Mare.
2008. 11 mapra.
21. Cm.: Cmamu B. Monanane. Hcropnuecxoe n +rnononnrnuecxoe nccneona-
nne. Knmnnen, 2009.
22. Stati V. Pentru limba noastr moldoveneasc. Studiu istoric, sociolingvistic.
Chisinu, 2008.
23. Pop I. Basarabia din nou la rscruce. F.l. Demiurg.1995.
24. Jurnal de Chisinu. 2003. 5 septembrie; 13 septembrie
25. Jurnal de Chisinu. 2003. 29 august.
168
2009, N 3 (17)
HAPOOHACEAEHHE BECCAPABHH
(sanncxn paranona)
Pyccxoe nacenenne Beccapann,
xopennoe n npnmnoe
Pyccxnn napo n Feccapa-
cxo ryepnnn, cyx no noc-
nennm crarncrnuecxnm nsne-
crnxm (1908 r.), xnner n xonn-
uecrne 537 943 ym ooero
nona, r. e. coepxnr 1/4 uacrt
ncero pasnoponoro nacene-
nnx ryepnnn (2 344 800). Hpn
+rom ontmnncrno ero na cro-
pone uanopycon, xoroptx
379 698 ., rpnxt mentme ne-
nnxopycon 125 774 ., aeno-
pycon, xoropte nce npnmnte,
2 471 yma sa ncxnmuennem
c1apoopnnen n yxnonnm-
mnxcn or npanocnannx, xoro-
ptx 28 532 ., ocrantnax, sna-
unrentnemax uacrt pyccxoro
nacenennx Feccapann orno-
cnrcx x pennemy npanocna-
nnm n ennonepnm, xoropte
nmecre c ocrantntm nacenenn-
em rpexo-poccncxo n noc-
rouno-xa]onnuecxo nepxnn
(rpexamn, monananamn, on-
rapamn, raraysamn n uexamn)
cunramr cnonm cnxmennonauannemapxnenncxona Knmnnencxoro n Xo1nncxo-
ro n ero nyx nnxapnen - Axxepuancxoro n Hsuanntcxoro. 3rn nnxapnart o
1821 roa nxonnn n cocran rnrynxpno Knmnnencxo un1pononnn, xoropo n
cnom ouepet nounnxnnct nporononcrna Oeccxoe, Tnpacnontcxoe n Ananten-
cxoe o yupexennx n 1837 roy camocroxrentno xa]ept apxnepecxo Xep-
concxo n Tanpnuecxo. Ho nce cxasannoe ntme ornocnrcx nnmt x xoxuemy,
crarncrnuecxomy onpeenennm pyccxoro napoa n Feccapann. Hcropnuecxo
xe +rnonornn n conpemennomy ]ontxnopy nsnecrno neuro ontmee o pyccxnx n
Feccapacxo ryepnnn. 3ect pyccxn napo npecrannen n nacroxmee npemx
ne rontxo noromcrnom nosnnx nepecenennen ns Manopoccnn n Mocxoncxoro
169

rocyapcrna, n nnne xasaxon pasnoro nanmenonannx, nexpaconnen, nnnonan (cra-


ponepon uncro nennxopyccxoro rnna n peun), uonoxan, m1ynnc1on (npenmy-
mecrnenno manopycon) n axe pacxontnnxon-nsynepon npoe enmx ronyen
n oatnx nmen (xnmc1on ncxonnon), no n n nnne noromxon aopnrenon xpax
- conpemenntx crporo npanocnanntx pycnaxon, nnn pycnn, xornncxnx panxon
(no-monancxnpannnn) n oruacrn rynynon, neuxon nonxon, r. e. nosnero noxo-
nennx snamennrtx n Pyccxo nauantno neronncnyrnnuen, 1nnepnen, nyuann
o nexoropo crenennepnannxon, ponnxon n xonnron, nomemnx cnepna n
cocran Pycn Bennxoro xnxxecrna Knencxoro, a nnocnecrnnn n Bennxoro xnxxe-
crna, n norom xoponencrna Iannnxoro (y sanantx nncarene Bononmepnx), sa-
nnmanmnx snamennroe Ayxouopte, Yron Koncranrnna Farpxnoponoro, nosxe
Pocconnaxnm (y Hnx. Xanxonnnt) n, naxonen, Horacxn Byaax, Yxpanny
Xancxym n Honym Ceut. Hs 314 ropoon yrnnue n rnnepnen, yxastnaemtx
Panencxnm xocmorpa]om, ocoenno tnn snamennrt xnaccnuecxn Tnpac, pyc-
cxn Benropo, rpeuecxn Acnpoxac1pon, monancxn He1a1e-Ana, rarapcxo-
rypenxn Axxepuan, nasnannx xoroptx na ncex +rnx xstxax osnauamr ono n ro
xe. Broptm nacenenntm nynxrom Pycn Feccapacxo cunrancx snamennrt
crontnt ropo yrnnue Hepeceuen, npocnannnmncx rem, uro ntepxan onee
uem rpexnernmm ocay xnencxoro noenot Cnenenta, ne xenax norn n nacry-
narentnt coms pyccxnx xnxse na Koncranrnnonont, n yxe no npemx nroporo
noxoa Pycn Knencxo na Haperpa yrnnun n rnnepnt no caue Hepeceuenx,
nomnn n cocran Pyccxoro rocyapcrna. 3ror Hepeceuent tn npemerom apxeo-
nornuecxoro orxptrnx n ocoo ncceprannn orna nayxn ncropnuecxo reorpa-
]nn n Poccnn tnmero npo]eccopa H. (u+nepamopcroeo - C.C.) Mocxoncxoro
ynnnepcnrera, snononyunoro nsarenx xypnana Tenecxon, norom unnonnnxa
ocotx nopyuenn npn Honopoccncxom n Feccapacxom namecrnnxe cnerne-
mero xnxsx Mnx. Cem. Boponnona n, naxonen, peaxropa xypnana Mnnncrepcrna
nnyrpennnx en, snamennroro Hnxonax Hnanonnua Haexnna (O mecrononoxe-
nnn pennero ropoa Hepeceunna, npnnanexamero napoy yrnnuam. 3anncxn
Oeccxoro Omecrna ncropnn n pennocre, r. I, 1844, crp. 243 n cne.). Ha pasna-
nnnax +roro ncuesnynmero ne eccneno Hepeceuenx cronr renept nourn conep-
menno omonanannnmeecx cenenne Hepeceunna na nonnyrn or Knmnnena x Opre-
eny.
Bennxopyccxoe nacenenne conpemenno Feccapann xnner npenmymecrnen-
no n ropoax n rnanntm opasom n Knmnnene, re nx 33 339 ym, n n yesax
Hsmanntcxom (30 235) n Axxepmancxom (25 523). Manopyct onramr npenmyme-
crnenno n cenennxx Fenepcxoro, Axxepmancxoro n Hsmanntcxoro yeson. Paxn
nnn panxnt sacenxmr nourn cnnomt Xornncxn n oruacrn Co (oopieaemc:
Coporcru u Be.iru - C.C.).
1) n Hsuanntcxou yese: Hsmann, n xoropom 16 127 pyccxnx, c npemecrnxmn:
Konannax Fanxa, Marpocxa, Honax Hexpaconxa, Crapax Hexpaconxa, Cnaccxax,
Fopnconxa, Bacnntenxa, Hono-Tponnxoe, Manaxona, Hono-Hoxponxa, Hoxonxa,
unuma, Bnnxon (noca), Knnnx c nocaamn: emtxnonxa n Hnnonanonxa, Hnxona-
enxa, Hpanopt, Penn (oruacrn), Tysnt, Kemuarxa, Mapasnnenxa, Panxnxa, Capa-
ra, Hapnuanxa, Koncranrnnonxa, Co]nenxa, Fypnax, Anexcanponxa, Bnmnenxa
(oruacrn), Bnanmnponxa, Hono-Hnxonaenxa, Hannonxa, Hnxonaenxa, Hono-Bosne-
170
2009, N 3 (17)
cente, Knxsenxa, Hono-Tponnxax, Anrononxa - ncero 42 nacenennmx nynx1a n
xonnuec1ne 7 837 pyccxnx;
2) nKnmnnencxou yese: Knmnnen, n xoropom 33 339 pyccxnx, Hosona, Crontnn-
uant, Mapnnnu, Hoxapxnt, Co]nenxa, Crapax Houra, ontnax, Bonunnen, Ca-
ono, Cennme n Inyoxa - ncero 14 nacenennmx nynx1on n xonnuec1ne 38 621
pyccxnx;
3) n Opreencxou yese: Opreen, n xoropom 1 423 uenonex pyccxnx, anee: Ta-
op, Ipymeno, Hnanua, Hsemrn, Hmxonen, Korentnnu, Kpyrnnx, Ptmxona, Io-
ponme, Horpexnt, Croona, Hcaxono, Fpxnono, Inyoxa, Hyxamenxa, Mopo-
sent, Cnooa-Hcaxona, Mamxonen, Hapenxa, Boporen, 3aropxnt, Knomxonen,
Cnpora, Kotnxa, Bonono, Knnpnxnxa, Hepeceunna (oruacrn), Tenemono, Mam-
xonen, Moponax, Vcrte, Pesnna, Hononen, Caxapna, Conouant, Tapaconxa, uep-
nax Bnxa, Btmxonen, onnna-Cnoosex, Xonoox, Manonara, Mapxonen, Ho-
ropnnuant, yma, Kopneno, Ieponen, Mopnsenxa, Hananxa, Oxnnna n Exnmon-
nt - ncero 54 nacenennmx nynx1a n xonnuec1ne 15 595 pyccxnx;
4) n Bentnxou yese: Fentnt, n xoroptx 4 220 pyccxnx, Ennsaneronxa, Fonorn-
no, Kamenxa, Knoxauenxa, Kyant, Mypannnen, Hnxonaenxa, nonx Honax, 3a-
pnuant, Anexceenxa, Fparyuant, Ioponme, Kynunno, Hpocxypent, Tepenn-
no, Bepanxa, Hnnonanxa, Hanaent, Hnxonaenxa, Cnoosex, Fynrax, Hapxnt-
Hnanonxa, uontmanxa, Posennxnt, Enenenxa, Capara Honax, Capara Crapax, Vc-
rte n nonx Crapax, ncero 34 nacenennmx nynx1a n xonnuec1ne 38 345 pyc-
cxnx;
5) n Benepcxou yese: Fenept, n xoroptx 17 124 pyccxnx, Hnanonxa (Tpya-
enxa), Kanauenxa, Bapnnna, Ieponnt, Fnaroart, Hnanonxa Honax, Bnnonxa
Crapax, Hnnonant, Pyconxa Honax, Pyconxa Crapax, Rptenxa, Anexceenxa, An-
nonxa, Fynaronxa, Bosnecentenxa, Enrentenxa, Hono-Kanremnp, Hono-Tponnxoe,
Hepcnanonxa, Honax Cxptnanonxa, Crapax Cxptnanonxa, Crapt Kanremnp,
Anexcanponxa, Hepmonronxa, Koncranrnnonxa, Hono-Eroptenxa, Heonrtenxa.
uepanonrtenxa, Ennsaneronxa, 3nesouxa, Honax Hnanonxa, Herponxa-uara, Fe-
pesox, Kopxeno, Honax Hnxonaenxa Pyccxax, Crapte yoccapt, Anpeenxa-
Hnamxonxa, Foranonxa-Kypnx, Konxpnnonxa, Mnxanonxa-Faxmyr n Honax For-
anonxa - ncero 43 nacenennmx nynx1a n xonnuec1ne 39 660 pyccxnx;
6) n Axxepuancxou yese: Axxepman, n xoropom 20 966 pyccxnx, Honax Cno-
oxa, Honymo, Typnaxn, Bao (oruacrn), Mnxanonxa, Tapanonxa, Anexcan-
ponxa, Maptxnonxa, Cemenonxa, Hnxonaenxa, Hono-Hannonxa, nnnsnx, Ipnro-
ptenxa, Hono-Hnxonaenxa Hap]entenxa, Cepreenxa, Hnanonxa-Pyccxax, Anro-
nonxa, Bnanmnponxa, Kanremnponxa, Bneencxax, Honax Hapnuanxa, Crapax
Hapnuanxa, Herponannonxa, Panxnxa, Crenanonxa, Ennsaneronxa, Mapasnnenxa,
Maptxnonxa Hepnax, Maptxnonxa Bropax, Co]nenxa, Hnxonaenxa Honopoccn-
cxax (Hanpamua), ennconxa, Koncranrnnonxa, Pomanonxa, Hananxa, Pomxanc-
xax Koca, Hnaxrnenxa, Baneptxnonxa Hepnax, Baneptxnonxa Bropax, Bneencxax
(Tamyp), Bosnecencxoe, Kanxpnna-Caparonxa, Haexa, Hanponxoe, Aamonxa
Honax, Aamonxa Crapax, Anexcanponxa, Annconxa, Fyaxn, emnonxa, Han-
nonxa, Crapoxasaute, Tonmast, Hononxa, Tarap-Fynap, Hannonxa, Cnaccxoe, Tam-
ntx, Cnnnnoronxa, Anpeenxa, Monaua, Kapnanenxa, Forortpenxa, Hma n Her-
ponxa - ncero nacenennmx nynx1on 68 n xonnuec1ne 25 523 pyccxnx;
171

7) n Copoxcxou yese: Copoxn, n xoroptx 2 997 pyccxnx, Btcoxoe, Iopanme,


Kpemenuyr, Kpnuxonen, Kyxyen, Hoxponxa, Camononxa, Cyapxa, Taraponxa
Honax, Taraponxa Crapax, Tenemonxa Honax, Tenemonxa Crapax, ponax, Araxn
(oruacrn), Fpaxona, Bepexant, Henxonen, Mepemonxa-Aranxax, Mepemonxa-
Henxonenxax, Haycrono, Canxa, Cnooxa-Bonunnen, Tymnnonxa, Boponxonant,
Iononunnen, epxonen, Kapro]enxnxa, Koronxa, Maxaponxa, Pynennna, Xa-
xa, Knnmonnt, Kom, Kymnnpxa Btcmax, Kymnnpxa Hnsmax, Kymnnpxa Cpenxx,
Hennna, Mnxanonxa, Cexarnnxa, Coxon, Bactxonnt, Boponxnno, nmnrponxa,
3anyuant, Knpnnonxa, Hemnponxa, Cnooa-Boponxono, Cnooa-Komenenxa,
Cononen, uepenxono, uepnnna, Knnmonnt, Ipnono, Ipnnonnt, enxant, Hnn-
nnx, Pyxnnna, uepnonenxa, 3aropxa, Kotntnx Honax, Kotntnx Crapax, An]n-
conxa, emenrtenxa, Hnxonaenxa, Cre]anonxa, Oxonnna, Bacnntxono, Boxnt,
Bonona, Bononnna, yno, Eroptenxa, 3acrtnxa Hepnax, 3acrtnxa Bropax, Ko-
connt, Kpement, Hon-Hnnnnono, Paxonen, Hnnnnono, uepemnenen, Anexceenxa,
Kacconxa, Konauant, Mnxanonxa, Hnxonaenxa, Herponannonxa, Cnanxnxa, Co-
nonen, Tepnono, Anrononxa, Kamranonxa, Enncaneronxa, Pycxnt, Cepreenxa,
Cononnno, Haperpa, Ioponme, Anexcanponxa, Bapnaponxa, Inoseno, Hna-
nonxa, Hyxono, Hpannna n Paynxnt - ncero 104 nacenennmx nynx1a n xonnue-
c1ne 45 772 pyccxnx;
8) n Xo1nncxou yese: Xornn, n xoropom 8 618 pyccxnx, Fpnuant, Fanxonnt
Hnxnne, Innnnax, Innxonnt, Ipnmanxonnt, Ipyno, Kannnxonnt, Kopocron-
nt, Hyxauant, Mapxonnt, Mnxanxonnt, Honocennna, uenenennt, Iposnnnt,
Fouxonnt, Mannnxonnt, Hepenxonnt, Pxannnt, Bnnonnt, Bnmxonnt, an-
xonnt, nopnnuant, onnnxnt, Kamenxa, Kanenxa, Kpyrnnn, Hennnnt, Ham-
xonnt, Cranyuant, Ennnt, Koncranrnnonxa, Tpocrxnxa, Tepnono, Araxn, Fan-
no, Bonunnen, Boponxonnna, Ipymennt, Kononxa, Henxonnt, Maxaponxa, Me-
nexa, Momanen, Haropxnt, Hennnonnt, Knnmxonnt, Bnatuna, 3apoxant, Kpe-
crennt, Knnmxoncxne-Mnnnxn, Honxna, Bnponnt Btcmne, Hnnxant, Fnnxnnn-
nt, Innnxa, 3anyua, 3enenax, Kostpxnt, Korentnx, Kpnnax Hapra, Hapra Hone-
nax, Menexa Bnanuecxax, Hepeptra, Canxonnt, Cnooxa-Bnponnnxax, Bn-
ponnt Hnsxne, Fasnnennu, Fepecrna, Banuaxonnt, Banunnnt, Bentnnna, nnon-
nt, omancxoe, Kortnen, Kynaxoncxoe, Manencxoe, Hon-Banuaxonnt, Paxnrna,
Penxonnt, Cononen, Crponnnt, Tapaconnt, Tomamencxoe, uepneno-Mope, uep-
rxona, Pomanxonnt, Bactxonnt, Berpxnxa, Kapnnxon, Komapono, Komaponcxne
Araxn, Kynnmonxa, Henoporono, Honnnanono, Honnnanon p, Cennme, Bey-
rnnnt, xonnt, Apncronxa, Araxn, Heoonnt, Hpnropoox, Cexypxnt, Fepna-
xnt, Fenoyconxa Kasennax, Fenoyconxa Bnatuecxax, Bacnnennt, Bonomxono,
Inosonnt, Ipnnonnt (Ipnnoynt), Homaunnnt, Oxeno, Pacnonnnnt, Xaa-
ponnt, Fenxonnt Btcmne, Fenonnt, Momant, Mnxanonxa n Hecnox. Bcero
127 nacenennmx nynx1on n xonnuec1ne 183 109 pyccxnx.
Bo nce xe Feccapann ns 4 785 nacenenntx nynxron na onm pyccxoro napo-
a n ne npnxonrcx 446, n xonnuecrne 537 943 xnrene ns 2 344 800 nacenennx
ryepnnn.
axe nourn conepmenno omonananennte n nacroxmee npemx cpenne yes-
t Feccapacxo ryepnnn (Knmnnencxn, Opreencxn n Fentnxn) n +noxy o-
pasonannx Poccncxoro rocyapcrna, a nnocnecrnnn no npemx pacnnera n nonn-
172
2009, N 3 (17)
rnuecxoro morymecrna Bennxoro xnxxecrna (norom xoponencrna) Iannnxoro, o]n-
nnantno nmenonanmerocx na 3anae Bononmepne, npecrannxno concem nnym
+rnorpa]nuecxym xaprnny. 3ro rocyapcrno onnmano coo ne rontxo Iann-
nnm, Fyxonnny, Pocconnaxnm (Feccapanm), crpany ponnxon n Kymannm, Xan-
cxym Vxpanny n Vron, on xe Fyxax, no n ncm Hnxneynacxym nnsmennocrt c
Mano Cxn]ne, renepemne opyxem. H yxe ropaso nosxe, nocne cnycxa
n nepennxennx ns Kapnarcxnx rop no Fyxonnne n Feccapanm n no ry cropony
Hpyra npexon ntnemnnx pymtn, ocnonanmnx n XIV nexe na nontx npnyna-
cxnx rocyapcrna - Monannm n Banaxnm (ona xe Mynrennx), yxe ncnecrnne
nenaronpnxrntx nx enncrna Pyccxoro rocyapcrna nonnrnuecxnx ocrox-
rentcrn (ncrynnennx sananopyccxnx yenon no Hmnencxn ynnn n cocran Peun
Hocnonnro) n, naxonen, ncnecrnne enncrna nept n o]nnnantnoro rocyap-
crnennoro, cyenoro n orocnyxenoro nmenno cnanxncxoro xstxa y monanan
n nonoxon, pyccxn xstx n pyccxn napo nauan repxrt n +rnx crpanax cnoe npe-
xnee snauenne, onycrnn cex x pomannsannn co cropont monanan n Feccapa-
nn.
Ho uro nourn omonanannnmnecx nnonne n nacroxmee npemx cpenne yest
Feccapann, a n camn Monannx, Banaxnx n Cemnrpate (Tpancnntnannx) npe-
crannxnn coo o XIV nexa n nosxe cnanxncxn cycrpar, nncrarentntm oxa-
sarentcrnom +roro cnyxar annte nayxn ncropnuecxo +rnonornn n ncropnuec-
xo +rnorpa]nn, paspaorannte n XIX nexe rpyamn yuentx anropnreron c en-
ponecxnm nmenem, n uncne xoroptx ecrt n opoconecrnte snaroxn ena ns
pymtn, xaxont H.H. Ba]]opnn, H.H. Haexnn, Hec, B.H. Ipnroponnu,
H. Mypsaxennu, H. Fapcon, Mnxnamnu, Peccnep, O. encymany, Fnxny, Foran,
upynsecxy n pyrne. Hpn +rom rnanntmn ormarnuecxnmn nonoxennxmn nt-
meyxasanno ncrnnt cunramrcx:
1) Coxpanenne n monancxom xstxe, a n n camom pymtncxom, axe noneme-
ro crnnx, mnoxecrna cocrnenntx n napnnarentntx nmenonann cnanxncxoro
nponcxoxennx n ycnoenntx pymtncxnm xstxom n Feccapann, Monannn, Ba-
naxnn, Tpancnntnannn n Hcrpnn c nonnnntm, nocontm nponsnomennem oonx
mcon. Taxont cneymmne nasannsmt nnn pnnesmt ns nepxonnocnanxncxoro xst-
xa n mono-nnaxncxom nnn pymtncxom xstxe:
= IH, VM:
Inmuoxa, Inmuouen - nasnannx mnornx mecr n Monannn n Banaxnn. Imn-
ran ronopxmn n noc, n. cnan. r rnnnt. Imnax xyx, or n. cn. r crn, rtnx
nepenxa, uyx. omna npntnt. muenn, muox, muonnna - nasna-
nnx mnornx mecr n Feccapann, Monannn n Banaxnn. yupana, ypona, yu-
ponenn enpecxax xononnx n Copoxcxom yese. yuponnnm - cenenne n
Fentnxom yese. 3mupy - syp, ryp, onent-camen. 3mupenn ceno n Knmnnen-
cxom yese. Kpmnr - xpyrnt, opyox, nent-xonoa. Aynr noma, nyr. Mynx+
rpy, paora. Mynuem1m cenenne Knmnnencxoro yesa. Mmnp xopomn,
npnroxn. Mmnpnn ropocrt, xpacora, mypocrt. Mmnpem1t ceno Fentn-
xoro yesa. Ocmnnpen pesonmnnx, naxasanne. Hannua nayx. Hannanna
nayrnna. Hopynxa nopyuenne, npnxas. Hopynuana saxas. Hmnecx npecne-
ym. Hmnapt xapayntmnx, cropox. Pacnmn1ne - pasnnnxa opor, nepexpec-
rox. Cxyun oporo, xant. Tpmunna rpya. Tmux ryno, rnynt.
173

Tmnryecx ryxy (ryxnrt). Tmnaenem1m cenenne Knmnnencxoro yesa. mpmnx


xaronnx, nnocrpanen, pyccxoe ]pxr, ]pxsnn. Ynrny, ynrept yron. Ynrpm
ceno Copoxcxoro yesa. Ynrypnn yrpnn, nenrp. Ynnna youxa.
= HH:
Ipnna anxa, penno. Konnna xonxa, xonxxn. Mnn1a mxra. Mnnua
mxu. Ornnna cepcxoe orneano, sepxano. Onnnxa nanort. Haumn1 na-
mxrt, semnx. Hnn1enne nxrxa, mnopa. Ho1mnra roncrt pement, xoroptm
nepenxstnamr tmno ocn x nnyry, n. cn. nor ra. Onnn1npea nanpxrart cnnt, n.
cn. on rnrn. Cnnnnnpea ocnxmenne. Cnnnnn cnxrte. Cnmn1y cnxro. Cumn-
1mna cmerana. C1mnanna caxnna, n. cn. c xent. Pmn px. Pmnynna
nopxox, pernamenr. Pmnan nopuart, ptuart, n. cn. p xarn. Hmn1 rnost, n.
cn. n ra. Hnupy, unupnnxa uapen, n. cn. n p. Hnnc1e uecrt.
2) Coxpannnmnecx n pymtncxom xstxe raxne pyccxne cnona, xax nopox cua-
crte, nopo napo, n ocoenno nonnornacnme cnona, nensnecrnte pyrnm
cnanxncxnm napeunxm, nanpnmep: nspan nopon.
3) Hasnannx mono-nnaxncxnx unnon n onxnocre, sanmcrnonannte ns pyc-
cxoro xstxa nnn mrocnanxncxnx napeun, nsxnmnx nx n cnom ouepet ns rpeuec-
xoro xstxa, xoncranrnnonontcxoro npnnopnoro opxnnxa (nepemonnana), xa-
xont: an rocyapt; annca rocyaptnx; nopnnx (ns nopnnxa) - nopxnnn,
xameprep; noc1entnnx nocrentnnun (magister sacri culiculi); xnmuap xnmu-
nnx; xaunnap - ouaxnt; naxapnnx uamnnx, nnnouepnn; nn1apt xpanun;
cnyaapt nauantnnx nopnono crpaxn, orxya nent an nennxn an, nent
noc1entnnx, nent xnmuap n npou.
4) Bennxoe unoaec1no pyccxnx n cnannncxnx cnon, coxpannnmnxcn ne 1ont-
xo n uono-nnaxnncxnx, no n n nosnenmnx naun1nnxax pyumncxoro nsmxa,
naunnan nponsneennnun npoc1onaponon no+snn, npoonaan ncnpannennmun
aae no na1nncxnn c1nnt cnnmennmun n orocnyaenmun xnnraun nonen-
men peaxnnn n oxanunnan nponsneennnun pyumncxon nynnnnc1nxn n aae
nsannnun Pyumncxon Axaeunn nayx n Byxapec1e.
H. paranon
25.XII.1910.
ocronpnmeuarenen eme cneymmn ]axr, ronopxmn o xnnyuecrn penne-
pyccxoro xstxa n Feccapann. Kax nsnecrno, no ncex conpemenntx cnanxncxnx
napeunxx, r. e. opo mxnne rax nastnaemtx cnanxncxnx xstxon, nnmt n pyc-
cxom xstxe coxpannnoct nonnornacne, xoroporo ne snamr nn nepxonnocnanxnc-
xn, nn pyrne cnanxncxne xstxn. Feccapacxnmn npnmepamn-oxasarentcrna-
mn +roro ormara nayxn cpannnrentno rpammarnxn moryr cnyxnrt onontno
mnoro reorpa]nuecxnx nasnann n Feccapann n n monancxom xstxe n nx pyc-
cxo nepeaue. Taxont, Hepeceuent nnn Hepeceunna nmecro cnanxncxnx Hpncn-
unna nnn Hpecnunna, raxont nacenennte nynxrt Ioponme, xoroptx n Feccapa-
nn nxrt, nmecro Ipanme, xoropoe x romy xe nnmt ono, a nmenno cenenne
Ipanme, nmenne Pooxana xax n rypa-ranencxom xstxe.

174
2009, N 3 (17)
3naunrentnemax uacrt nennxopycon npanocnannte n ennonepnt, pyrax
uacrt yxnonxmmnecx or npanocnannx n crapoopxnt pasntx ronxon n corna-
cn o npornnoomecrnenntx xntcron n cxonnon n pyrnx ormenennen pyccxo
rocnocrnymme nept. Xpncro-Poxecrnencxoe mnccnonepcxoe parcrno o]n-
nnantno npnsnano n Feccapacxo ryepnnn 35 nacenenntx nynxron, nanonee
sapaxenntx pacxono-cexranrcrnom. Hpornn +rnx nynxron n yupexena tna
mnccnx c nosnoxennem oxsannocre mnccnonepa na mecrnoro noxoxmero
cnxmennnxa, xoropt no cnoemy snannm ecrt nepnt n nesamennmt mnccno-
nep. Taxnmn nynxramn xnnxmrcx ocoenno: 1) ropo Xornn, 2) ceno Ipyno,
3) c. Bonunnnt, 4) Bnponnt-Btcmne, 5) mecreuxo Cexypxnt, 6) c. Fenoyconxa,
7) m. Ennnt n epennx Pycxnt, 8) m. Ptmxanonxa, 9) r. Fentnt, 10) c. Kormxant
Hnxnne, 11) c. Hoxna-Kynnua, 12) m. Tenenemrt, orxya poom unen Iocyap-
crnenno ymt rpertero npnstna . Iyntxnn, 13) c. Cnpxono nnn Ctpxono,
14) r. Opreen, 15) r. Knmnnen, n xoropom nmeercx raxxe n monentnx, 16) r. Fene-
pt, 17) m. Manstpt c xyropamn Annonxo n 3nesouno, 18) r. Axxepman,
19) mecreuxo, tnmax nemenxax xononnx Tapyrnno, 20) r. Karyn, 21) r. Hsmann c
ero npemecrtxmn Crapo n Hono Hexpaconxamn, 22) nnyxcxax xoca,
23) r. Fonrpa (tnmax rnannax onrapcxax xononnx), 24) r. Knnnx, 25) c. Hoxona,
26) c. Xypannenxa, 27) noca Bnnxono, 28) c. Xapnxnt, 29) c. Kopnauxa,
30) m. unuma, 31) Cnaccxoe nnn Cnacx, 32) Hnxonaenxa, 33) Barant n 34) Bacnnt-
enxa (cm. H. Hapxo+oeu:a: Kparxn ncropnuecxn ouepx npornnopacxontnnuec-
xo mnccnn n Knmnnencxo enapxnn c 1813 o 1911 r. Tpyt Fecc. nepxonnoro
ncropnxo-apxeonornuecxoro omecrna. Btnycx III. Knmnnen, 1909, crp. 71-72).
Hcmo:uur: HAPM. 4. 1262. On. 1. . 3. Hapooouace.euue Beccapaouu (sa-
nucru paeauoea). paeauoea - v:ume. c.oeecuocmu (ouo.uoepaq). Ha:amo:
25 oeraop 1910 e. - 10 ..
.
Ennan PYCL
http://www.edrus.org
Car cosan n 1999 r. nx npornnocroxnnx cranme
o]nnnantno nannonanncrnuecxo nepcnn ncropnn na
Vxpanne. Coepxnr marepnant no ncropnn yxpanncxoro
pacxona, cosannx "mont" n ronenn na omepyccxn xstx,
pasmtmnennx o xyntrype n reononnrnxe, anannrnuecxne crartn
n apxnnnte oxymenrt.
Ha care moxno narn xnaccnxy nonemnxn c yxpanno]nnamn
(H. Vntxnon, H. Bonxoncxn, xnxst Tpyenxo n p.) n
conpemenntx xpnrnxon yxpanncxo nen (C. Cnopenxo).
175

O HOBOHPECTABAEHHOM
HPOTOHEPEE MHXAHAE mYBAPE
(+26.09.2009)
Hp o r o ne p e
Mnxann Bynap
ponncx 26 ]enpa-
nx 1958 r. n cene
Fonmen Iannucxo-
ro paona Hnano-
upanxoncxo o-
nacrn n cemte pa-
ounx. B 1977-
1979 rr. cnyxnn n
Boopyxenntx cn-
nax Conercxo ap-
mnn. Hocne emo-
nnnsannn n 1980-
1981 rr. paoran
xyoxecrnenntm
pyxononrenem n
Iannucxom paon-
nom orene xynt-
rypt.
B 1981 r. nocry-
nnn n Hennnrpa-
cxym yxonnym
cemnnapnm, xoro-
pym saxonunn n
1983 r. B rom xe
roy tn npnnxr
na nepnt xypc Hennnrpacxo yxonno axaemnn. 4 exapx tn py-
xononoxen pexropom Hennnrpacxo yxonno axaemnn n cemnnapnn
apxnenncxonom Knpnnnom (ntne cnxremn narpnapx Mocxoncxn n ncex
Pycn) n can naxona, a 25 exapx roro xe roa apxnenncxonom Tnxnnn-
cxnm Mennronom pyxononoxen n can npecnnrepa.
B 1988 r. saxonunn Hennnrpacxym yxonnym axaemnm co crene-
ntm xannara orocnonnx n tn nanpannen na cnyxenne n Hnano-upan-
xoncxym enapxnm, n xpam Hoxpona Foroponnt c. Fayxnn Porarnnc-
xoro narounnnx c npanom ncnonnennx rpe n c. Konmmxn. B 1989 r.
176
2009, N 3 (17)
saperncrpnponan n orxptn npnxo n c. Konmmxn n nauan crponrentcrno
xpama. B oxrxpe 1989 r. nauanact +xcnancnx ynnarcrna n Iannunne. B
anpene 1990 r. n c. Fayxnn ynnarcxnmn mrypmonnxamn tn saxnauen
xpam Hoxpona Foroponnt, a n cenrxpe 1989 r. tn saxnauen n crpox-
mncx xpam n c. Konmmxn. 3naunrentnax uacrt npnxoxan orna Mnxan-
na ocranact nepna marepn-nepxnn, n cnxmennnx npoonxan cnyxnrt -
cnauana na xnanme, norom n epenxnno uaconne. B 1993 r. on nauan
crponrentcrno yxe nroporo xpama n uecrt Cnxroro Apxncrparnra Fo-
xnx Mnxanna nx npanocnanntx npnxoxan.
Bmecre c parom nporonepeem Bnanmnpom n 1990 r. on nauan sann-
martcx oprannsonanno samnro npanocnannx n Hnano-upanxoncxo
enapxnn n n Iannunne. B 1990 n 1991 rr. onn nponenn px meponpnxrn n
Hnano-upanxoncxo enapxnn. B 1991 r. nocne nponeenntx ronoonox
partx nonyunnn n ropoe Hnano-upanxoncxe sanne ercxoro caa,
xoropoe npncnoconnn no monnrnennt om. B 1992 r. onn orcroxnn
sanne enapxnantnoro ynpannennx nocne mrypma oennenntx cnn
ynnaron n pacxontnnxon. B 1991-1997 rr. o. Mnxann tn nacroxrenem
xa]epantnoro monnrnennoro oma n ocnyxnnan npnxo n c. Konmm-
xn Porarnncxoro paona. B 1992-1999 rr. on - cexperapt Enapxnantnoro
ynpannennx Hnano-upanxoncxo enapxnn.
B 1994 r. oren Mnxann narpaxen xpecrom c yxpamennxmn, a n
1996 r. - mnrpo.
B 1988-2006 rr. tn xnnpnxom Hnano-upanxoncxo enapxnn, nacrox-
renem npnxoa n c. Konmmxn, re sanepmaercx crponrentcrno xpama
Cnxroro Apxncrparnra Foxnx Mnxanna, enncrnennoro n Porarnncxom
paone.
Ho nepeese na cnyxenne n Hrannm oren Mnxann nce cnnt nonaran
na cosnanne omnnt n operenne sannx npnxocxoro xpama...
Ceaueuuoucnoeeuuu. Tar Bce.eucra eproei Xpucmoea u+euv-
em moeo, rmo nocmpaoa. sa npaeoc.aeue, u.u, :mo oouo u mo re, -
nocmpaoa. sa Xpucma e ucmuue u ocma.c rue, oo roua ceoux
se+uix oue npeoi. eepeu Bce.eucro npaeoc.aeuo epreu, c :e+
u vnorou.c - me.o+ e se+.m, a ovuom e Heoecuie Ooume.u, oru-
oa Bceooueeo Bocrpeceuu u ee:uo eo Xpucme rusuu e Ooume-
.x Hapcmeu Heoecuoeo!
Bce +ro moxno cxasart n o orne Mnxanne, xoropt xnn npanocnan-
no n cnoe xnsntm sacrynnncx sa xanonnuecxoe npanocnanne na Vxpan-
ne, orcroxn enapxnm n ropoe, ntxnn nocne rxxentx nooen n peann-
mannn, nmneonntno nmecre c marymxo nocnnran uerneptx ere, a
ntne c mnpom nounn!
...Vsnan x o ero xonunne 26 cenrxpx, n 17 uacon. Mox mama coo-
mnna, uro oromen on n 11 yrpa. Hepesnonnn ero ouepn, ona nornep-
177

nna. o +roro x snan, uro oren Mnxann n peannmannn ns-sa onesnn
cepna. B +ror nocnenn ero ent, oxono 11 yrpa, x uyncrnonan cex
ouent ontntm: pexo rax onnr ronona, xax onena n +ror ent, n o-
mee camouyncrnne tno ouent nnoxoe - ymnpammee. Kora n oe x
nauan ecrt, rpxcnnct pyxn, npnmnoct ocrannrt nepnoe, ntrn, n nocne
nxrn mnnyr x c rpyom oen, nao xe xax-ro tno noxpennrtcx. A nor
x 17-rn yxe noneruano. n ne yman, uro mexy namn raxax rnyoxax
cnxst xouy paccxasart o cnoem nnunom omennn n o roax xnsnn c
+rnm opornm mne uenonexom!
17 ner nasa, nnnmarentno npounran Fnnnm, x nonxn, uro ncrnna
no Xpncre, n nauan xonrt n nepxont: Cosnxy Hepxont Mom, n npara
aa ne oonemr Ee - cxasan Xpncroc. Ftn rora xonen 1992 roa, n
yxe cnyunnoct pasenenne - nepxonnt pacxon na Vxpanne.
Hnora, npoxox mnmo Fenoro enyrarcxoro oma n Hnano-upanxo-
ncxe, eme n nauane 1991 roa x nnen mnrnnrymmnx nepymmnx, uro-ro
npocxmnx y nnacre n o uem-ro monxmnxcx. Hosxe, n 1993 roy, x ys-
nan, uro npocnnn mecro, xpam nx nepxonntx copann n cnyxennx Fory.
Hopx necxontxo mecxnen, c ocenn 1990-ro no ]enpant 1991-ro, mo-
nnrno n nocrom - ronoonxo y Fenoro oma nepymmne npocnnn
mecro nx cnyxennx Xpncry. Onnm ns yuacrnnxon n oprannsaropon
+roro tn oren Mnxann. 3nmo na crynentxax Fenoro oma, nnmax cex
renna n ymra, nepymmne nce xe ntnpocnnn nnn ornoenann y nnacre
mecro. ann nm anapnnt tnmn ercxn canx, ono+raxnoe sa-
nne n nenrpe ropoa. omnx nepymmne oopyonann no xpam, nosnnrnn
xpecr, n norexna n ropoe npanocnannax xnsnt.
B Hnano-upanxoncxe nxenepymmne or nepymmnx orennnnct rax.
Kora nponsomno naenne xommynnsma n ncxycno cnnannponannoe
pasenenne cnanxncxo reppnropnn na xxot orentnte rocyapcrna -
Poccnm, Fenopyccnm, Vxpanny, ne rontxo noxpyr nepxnn, no n nnyrpn ee
tn nororonnennt nnacrxmn napo n axe nexoropte ns nepxonnn-
xon, xoropte ne pasnpannct n nonpocax xanonnuecxoro npanocnannx n
xoropte onxnt tnn opasonart nepxont, nounnxmmymcx rocy-
apcrny, nx npoonxennx paspymennx npanocnannx pyxamn rex, xro
nmnr cex ontme, uem Xpncra.
Hocne saxnara ynnaramn Cnxro-Hpeopaxencxoro xpama no Htnone,
n xonne exapx Hnano-upanxoncxn ropocxo Ka]epantnt coop
npxmo no npemx nnryprnn oxpyxnna ronna n 6-7 rtcxu uenonex. uacrt
ns nnx nopnanact n xpam n crana memart conepmennm orocnyxennx
ntxpnxamn, pantm n apec cnxmennnxon, nnnort o nenensypno. Vua-
crnnxamn +ro axnnn tnn n ocnonnom nmn, npnnesennte n ropo ns
cen. Hponenron 20 cocrannxna monoext. Pyxononnn ronno monote
oennxn. Hanaanmne mnrnnronann y xpama cemt ne. 3a +ro npemx
178
2009, N 3 (17)
mnornx namnx cnxmennnxon sanyrnnann, nnn, xnarann sa nonoct n on-
nentnann. Cpen nnx tn n cnxmennnx Mnxann Bynap. B ro npemx
apxnenncxon Hnano-upanxoncxn n Konomtcxn Maxapn oxnnn
ronoonxy n norpeonan npexpamennx reppopa. Bnx, xax pasnopaunna-
mrcx cotrnx, nnacrn cnauana ncnyrannct, no uepes neenm o]nnnant-
no nepeann xpam ynnaram. Tora mnrnnrymmne ntpocnnn namnx cnx-
mennnxon ns coopa na ynnny, uro crano cnrnanom x macconomy saxnary
pyrnx xpamon n ropoe n onacrn. Ecrt cnnerentcrna, uro paora
oennxon tna onnauena. B nn ocat Ka]epantnoro coopa onn ns
namnx monotx npnxoxan npnmen x oennxam n, ne yyun ysnanntm,
ycntman nonpoc: C namn pacnnarnnnct? Hoxa ner, - ornernn on. H
ryr xe, ne pacrepxnmnct, yrounnn: A c namn? a nor ann no nxrt
onnapon sa neuep, uro mt sect exypnm.
Taxnm, xax oren Mnxann, ero par cnxmennnx Bnanmnp n nnte,
xenanmnm trt co Xpncrom n n nepxnn Xpncrono, ne rpyno tno
pasopartcx, c xem n raxo cnryannn npetnaer Xpncroc. Ocrananoct
rontxo nocrynnrt no conecrn n nepe.
B ro npemx yxpanncxax nnacrt cxasana: nepxont - +ro ra, xoropax sa
nnntny Vxpanny, n nooemana nepeart nexoropte saxptrte xpamt
rem, xro sa nnntny Vxpanny, nx roro urot paspymnrt ne rontxo
reppnropnm moryue crpant, no n cnnouennoe enncrno nepxonnoe!
Bomem, uepes amnnncrpannm tn an cnrnan ecrnonart. B
Hnano-upanxoncxe n xonne oxecrnenno nnryprnn ntmen enncxon co
Cnxro uame npnuamart napo, noomen x nemy co cropont xynnen-
nt cnxmennnx n cnno nauan rxnyrt uamy na cex. 3anxsanact opt-
a. Enncxon, onacaxct nponnrt nnn ntnnecnyrt ns uamn na non, no-
ancx nacnnnm n ornycrnn. Cnxmennnx, xomyncrnenno sanonyunn uamy,
ntxpnxnyn: 3a nnntny Vxpanny! Tax, ryr xe, n xpame, nauanoct ene-
nne: xro ocrancx c enncxonom, a xro c orcrynnnxom pemnn opasont-
nart anroxe]annm n ropoe n cenax. Cnxmennnx Mnxann Bynap - or-
nnunnx-axaemncr n xannar orocnonnx - nerxo pasopancx n cnrya-
nnn, ornepr noauxn n ocrancx cnyxnrt Xpncry n Cnxro Coopno n
Anocrontcxo npanocnanno nepxnn.
anee, nnacrn Hnano-upanxoncxa c nomomtm rex xe anroxe]annc-
ron n oennxon, npn noepxxe ynnaron na pennrnosno noune saxo-
renn oropart npanocnannym enapxnm - mecro, re naxoxrcx noxon
enncxona, urot concem ocrannrt npanocnanntx n cxopxx n nnmenn-
xx. Hauancx mrypm enapxnn, +ro tna nrna nacmeprt, es npeynenn-
uennx! Hpnmnoct nexoroptm cnxmennnxam n mnpxnam, ne crpamact
cmeprn, samnmart enapxnm n enncxona or nonnoro ynnuroxennx n ns-
rnannx, samnmart pan npoonxennx npanocnanno xnsnn n Hnano-
upanxoncxe.
179

Cnnonax araxa na enapxnm nauanact n nmne 1992 roa. uepemyxo
n tmontmn mamxamn sapactnann na reppnropnn enapxnn cnxmen-
nnxon n nexoroptx mnpxn. 3amnrnnxon tno ouent mano. Ho For nomor
manomy cray, n enapxnm npanocnannte orcroxnn, necmorpx na noon
xenesntmn npyrtxmn, nenxmn, ynnxamn no reny n no ronone. Cnx-
mennnx Mnxann Bynap c mnorouncnenntmn nooxmn n nonpexennem
ronont nponexan necxontxo mecxnen n ontnnne n xora tn n peann-
mannn, xax on mne norom paccxastnan, ymom ntxonn ns rena. Tax
uro x ne rontxo nepym, - ronopnn on, - x snam, uro orcma rya, n
xnsnt neunym, nnuero ne nsxrt, xpome cnoe xnsnn no Xpncre! Tontxo
xnsnt no Enanrennm, no cnxrtm ornam nepxnn n rnox nepxonnax xnsnt
noyr c roo n xnsnt neunym! Bmecre c ornom Mnxannom, samn-
max enapxnm, cnntno nocrpaan or nooen cnxmennnx Aam 3anenxn
- ntne nepomonax Am]nnoxn, cnyxamn n Hnano-upanxoncxo enap-
xnn. On rax xe npotn onrne mecxnt n ontnnne n nepenec rxxenym
onepannm pyx.
.Tora, n nauane 1993-ro, x ronxocre eme ne snan, no nonnman, uro
cpen npaxymmnx oprannsann c xem-ro ecrt Xpncroc, a c xem-ro
Ero ner, re-ro Hepxont Cnxrax, a re-ro Ee ner! xynnn xnnry Hpo-
nor n noyuennxx n unran Berxn 3aner, xonn n xpam c nacroxmnm
xynonom, rax nastnaemym Iocyapcrnennym anroxe]annm. Hacroxmne
npanocnannte monnnnct yxe n ercxom cay, oopyonan ero no xpam.
Bosnnx y menx nonpoc no onomy ntcxastnannm ns Berxoro 3anera,
n x nomen c nnm n anroxe]antnt xpam x nacroxrenm. On nnuero ne
cmor oxcnnrt, axe pasnen nneuamn n cxasan: Hon cnpocn n xpam-
canx, ram nyume snamr! nomen n ntpan cnxmennnxa, xoroptm
oxasancx oren Mnxann. On mne ornernn na mo nonpoc, n x nonyrno
pemnncx ysnart y nero, uro on ymaer o xpame anroxe]antnom. Tam
ner naroarn, - ornernn on, - onn sanpement n cnyxennn n ne nmemr
npana cnxmennoecrnonart, ro ecrt xonrt rya nentsx! Hosxe x
ysnan, uro ner naroarn osnauaer, uro ner y nnx n nepxonntx ra-
nncrn, noromy uro Cnxrax nepxont na Coope no+ranno ntnecna onpe-
enennx: sanpernna nx n cnyxennn, cnxna c nnx can cnxmencrna, orny-
unna or nepxnn, npeana ana]eme, n re, xro rya xonr, naxoxrcx no
npoxnxrnem! H no nepxonnomy Coopnomy ycranonnennm tno peme-
no: axe xpecrnnmnxcx ram n nenuanmnxcx nepexpemnnart n nepenen-
unnart.
uyrt nosxe, n +rom xe 1993 roy, xynnn n Tyne nyxromnym xnnry
Heronnct Cepa]nmo-nneencxoro monacrtpx, nanncannym cnxmen-
nomyuennxom mnrpononnrom Cepa]nmom unuarontm, x oxonuarentno
yenncx n enncrne Cnxro Pycn n enncrne Cnxro nepxnn, n cnxro-
180
2009, N 3 (17)
crn ee, xoropax coopno sanpemaer essaxonnnxon n cnyxennn n saxoc-
renentx npeaer ana]eme, noxa ne noxamrcx n ne npnyr n nee xe - no
Cnxrym nepxont - c noxaxnnem!
Oren Mnxann n ro npemx xnn na reppnropnn Cnxro-Hpeopaxencxo-
ro xpama, tnmero ercaa, c marymxo Mapne n uertptmx ertmn,
Bepo, Haexo, Hmontm n Bnanmnpom. Marymxa ero ropronana
npn +rom xe xpame n nxonno-xnnxno nanxe, xoropym oren Mnxann no-
crponn cam c nomomtm necxontxnx paounx. Hocne rpex mecxnen moe-
ro npetnannx n ncrnnnom npanocnannn on n menx noxnmunn x nxonno-
xnnxno nanxe. ynonnncx c paort, n mt nmecre esnnn sa ononne-
nnem xnnr n nxon n Houaencxym nanpy, Kneno-Heuepcxym nanpy, a nos-
xe n npanocnannte nsarentcrna Mocxnt n n Tponne-Ceprneny nanpy.
Hpocnemenne, necenne cnona Foxtero n ]opmnponanne npannntnoro
cosnannx nx yrnepxennx n ncrnne n cnacennx nx orna Mnxanna tno
naxneme saaue. uacro, c ero narocnonennx, x pasanan rasert n
xypnant Pyccxn om, Pyct epxannax, Becrnnx VHH, Pyc-
cxn Becrnnx nx ]opmnponannx cosnannx nme n npanocnanno-nar-
pnornuecxom yxe. P n PB raxxe narocnonnxnnct narpnapxom
n nospannennxx, n +ro anano nam npano na pasauy nx npn xpame. Eme
o npocnannennx napcxo cemtn oren Mnxann yxe nounran nx xax my-
uennxon. uaxnnx ero tnn o npanocnanno monapxnn n npanocnanno
rocyapcrnennocrn. Hamnmn nmnmtmn npnnosntmn xnnrn tnn nn-
cannx cnxrtx ornon nepxnn, xnrnx npenoontx crapnen Onrnno
Hycrtnn (npen. Hanpenrnx uepnnroncxoro, npen. Kyxmn Oeccxoro,
npen. Hona Houaencxoro, npen. Cepa]nma Btpnnxoro, npenoontx
Cepa]nma Caponcxoro n Ceprnx Paonexcxoro), ronxonanne Enanrennx
naxennoro ueo]nnaxra Fonrapcxoro, ronxonanne cn. Anpex Kecapn-
cxoro na xnnry Anoxannncnc, xoneuno, Karexnsnc, monnrnocnont.
B noesxax oren Mnxann ncrpeuancx co snaxomtmn monaxamn n cnx-
mennnxamn. Bennct nnrepecnte ecet o xnsnn nepxnn n sarparnna-
nnct pasnte remt. B Mocxne, tnano, mt ocranannnnannct y pyra
orna Mnxanna cnxmennnxa Onera Crenxena. Kora oren Mnxann cny-
xnn co cnxmennnxom Onerom, oren Oner anan emy npano necrn cnyx-
y n cnyxnrt ncm nnryprnm npn orxptrtx Hapcxnx nparax. H nocne,
na npononen, oren Oner noxcnxn, uro oporo rocrt nmeer narpay
cnyxnrt npn orxptrtx Hapcxnx nparax, ronopnn o nenpocrom cnyxe-
nnn na Vxpanne n o ronennxx na nepxont, n uro naroapx raxnm, xax
oren Mnxann, nepxont nmeer xopomnx samnrnnxon xanonnuecxoro npa-
nocnannx. 3arem on anan cnono orny Mnxanny.
Ftnann mt c ornom Mnxannom n na Fepcenenxe, re tnn pat nac
nnert, npeocrannxnn nam npnmr n rpanesy n nenn c namn ecet o
3anano Vxpanne. Mt tnn nouerntmn rocrxmn. Hrymen Knpnnn,
181

nacroxrent Fepcenencxoro xpama n Mocxne, rxroren x eceam o nep-
xonno xnsnn na sanae n nocroxe Vxpannt, n mt nepexo nontsona-
nnct ero rocrenpnnmcrnom.
.B 1998 roy nnacrn Hnano-upanxoncxa pemnnn nepeart nam
xpam-canx anroxe]anncram Knencxomy narpnapxary. Bce yxe sa-
ouno, na ymare tno pemeno n nontsy anroxe]anncron, n co nx na
ent mt xann npnxoa cnnonnxon n mrypma xpama. C narocnonennx
orna Mnxanna renerpammamn nonxnn na norn Mocxny (orpomnoe yua-
crne n +rom rora ctrpan Coms Hpanocnanntx parcrn). Ftnn oprann-
sonant nnxert y Hocontcrna Vxpannt n Mocxne, orrya sactnann snon-
xamn Knen: uro y nac ram nponcxonr?, a Knen n cnom ouepet sact-
nan Hnano-upanxoncx. Taxnm opasom, no nenouxe, nce tno nocran-
neno na cnoe mecro, essaxonnxm n Hnano-upanxoncxe ann n ro npemx
oro! Fontmoe snauenne n +rnx cotrnxx ctrpana n Pyccxax omnna
Hnano-upanxoncxa, yxonnnxom xoropo xnnxncx nounraemt n napoe
oren Mnxann. Ee yuacrne n orcrannannn Cnxro-Hpeopaxencxoro xpa-
ma-canxa n xanonnuecxoro npanocnannx n nenom, ee nnctma n rene-
rpammt nmenn nopo xnmuenoe snauenne!
.Mne uacro npnxonnoct tnart c ornom Mnxannom n pasnnuntx
noesxax n npncyrcrnonart npn eceax na nepxonnte remt. Paorax
n nxonno-xnnxno nanxe, x nnora ocranancx c ero cemte n npncmarpn-
nan sa ne no npemx ero ntnyxenntx noesox. B raxne nn x otuno
onosna ropronan n nanxe, a c neuepa o yrpa naxonncx c ero cemte
na reppnropnn xpama-canxa. npncmarpnnan sa ertmn, a no ero nos-
npamennn mt rpanesnnuann, eceonann, ortxann. Vxpennrt cemtm,
nocnnrart ere, oepeut nx or ro nerarnnno cpet, xoropax nac
oxpyxana, tno ero saaue. H renept nnno, uro +ro yanoct: ern
ero npouno croxr n npanocnannn, nournrentnt n mnnt. Cam oren Mn-
xann n cnon mxontnte rot ne tn nn oxrxpenxom, nn nnonepom - rax
nocnnran ero pono oren. Hnonepcxn nosynr Bcera yt roron,
paccxastnan on mne, tn sanmcrnonan y xpncrnan. Xpncrnannn on-
xen trt ncera roron, - ronopnn on, - art orner Fory sa ceronx, sa
nuepa, sa npoxnrym xnsnt. Hac Iocnot moxer npnsnart n nmo mo-
menr orcma rya, n neunym xnsnt!
Oren Mnxann tn nacroxrenem Cnxro-Hpeopaxencxoro xpama-ca-
nxa no Hnano-upanxoncxe n xpama Cnxroro Apxncrparnra Mnxanna n
cene Konmmxn. Hosxe, x nauany 1999 roa, ns-sa npnrecnennx n anne-
nne nnacre, on ocrancx rontxo nacroxrenem xpama n cene Konmmxn.
.B 1990 roy ynnarcxnmn mrypmonnxamn tn saxnauen crpoxmn-
cx ornom Mnxannom xpam n c. Konmmxn - yxe rora on nperepnen ns-
rnanne n nopyranne. Fnaroapx ero crapannxm n npononexm snaunrent-
nax uacrt npnxoxan orna Mnxanna ocranact nepna marepn-nepxnn. On
182
2009, N 3 (17)
npoonxan cnyxnrt nnryprnn n +rom xe cene no orxptrtm neom na
cocene nosntmennocrn, ncnontsyx or nenorot nanec.
Onaxt n 1990-m nponsomen uyecnt cnyua - Foxne npasymne-
nne nx nepntx. Hocne oxonuannx oxecrnenno nnryprnn n cene Ko-
nmmxn, xora cneun n anrapno uacrn yxe ne ropenn, oren Mnxann c
amnona npononeonan napoy Foxne Cnono. Hoomnn ynnart ns ne-
anno saxnauennoro xpama n crann nacmexartcx na cnonamn orna
Mnxanna n memart cnymammnm. Bpyr cpen npnxoxan npoexan
menor, onn noxastnann n cropony anrapx. Vnnart npnrnxnn. Oepnyn-
mnct x anrapm, oren Mnxann ynnen na anrape ropxmne cneun. Vnnart
pasnepnynnct n ymnn, a npanocnannte nocunrann +ro sa snax cntme.
.Hosxe on oprannsonan n cene Konmmxn crponrentcrno nomeme-
nnx-uaconnn nx npoonxennx cnyxennx Fory - sect xe, na rope, a
ncxope pxom nauan crponrentcrno nonoro xpama, xoropt nasnan no
nmx Apxncrparnra Mnxanna. Bosnenn c nomomtm Foxne crent, a sa-
xonunrt xynon ne tno cpecrn. B cnxsn c rxxentm marepnantntm
nonoxennem oren Mnxann nonyunn narocnonenne nexoropoe npemx
nocnyxnrt n Iepmannn, n na cpecrna, xoropte noxnnxnnct or +roro, on
notman no yuee ere n ocrponn xynon nonoro xpama. Meuran on
nnyrpn xpama pacnncart crent, urot tnn n nem nxont oyxornopen-
nte n xanonnuecxne, xenan nce oycrponrt noxpyr nx nopmantno
xnsnn no Xpncre, xoren n +rom cnxrom mecre cenart monacrtpt, menx
nnen n xauecrne monaxa, a cex ynoxoenntm pxom c xpamom. Hnora
o +rom ocropoxno, xax t nomyunnax, ronopnn.
.Heanno oren Mnxann xpecrnn mom nonopoxennym nnyuxy n na-
pexcx ee xpecrntm ornom, rax mt c nnm no yxonno nnnnn cenannct
pocrnennnxamn. Kpecrnn on ee ymnpanmym, npxmo n poome, non-
ntm unnom, n npaun ynnnxnnct, uro ona tcrpo nonpannnact, ntso-
ponena n ncxope tna ntnncana omo. eno n rom, uro xnrt e npn-
mnoct n rnyxom cene Konomtcxoro paona, n nensnecrno, xax t ram
oepnynoct c xpemennem, a x ceuac n Mocxne. Tam anroxe]annx, ynn-
arcrno n coornercrnymmee annenne, xpama npanocnannoro ner. Ho-
+romy, moxer, n npnsnan Iocnot xpecrnrt ee no upanxoncxe, a nocne
ornycrnn omo.
na roa nasa oren Mnxann nonyunn narocnonenne npemenno cny-
xnrt n Hrannn. Hpnunna ra xe - nyxnt cpecrna nx xpama, nx ce-
mtn. Ho n ram ero xpecr ne tn nerox. Bet Hrannx xnnxercx xaronn-
uecxo crpano. Ho oren Mnxann ne yntnan, a ncera naexncx na no-
momt Foxtm. Eme neanno oren Mnxann npnesxan orrya n ornycx.
On exan uepes Mocxny omo, n mt c nnm nnennct n omannct. Ho
nepeese na cnyxenne n Hrannm oren Mnxann cnon cnnt nonaran na
183

cosnanne mecrno omnnt n operenne sannx npnxocxoro xpama. B
+ro crpane n npnsnan ero x Cee Iocnot nam Bceepxnrent.
. ysnan o xonunne orna Mnxanna n cyory, a n nocxpecente neue-
pom nocernn nonopte Onrnno Hycrtnn n Mocxne. Hanncan sanncxy-
copoxoycr o nononpecrannennom nporonepee Mnxanne, a nnxe n cxo-
xax onncan: Cnxmennoncnonennx. 3amen n cnennantnt xopnyc no
npnemy sanncox, ornosnmtx n camy Onrnny Hycrtnt Kanyxcxo ona-
crn, n oran ee. Ho nepe yxoom c nonoptx x samen n xpam noxno-
nnrtcx cnxrtnxm. B xpame x romy npemenn tnn nocnenxn, xora
cnyxa yxe saxonunnact n cnxmennnx c npnxoxanam nen ecey na
npanocnannte remt. nx +roro cxamexn n cryntx tnn nonnnyrt
nonnxe x cnxmennnxy, xoropt n pyxecrnenno ocranonxe rono-
pnn. 3ax n xpam, x ycntman, uro cnxmennnx paccxastnaer cnen-
mnm noxpyr nero o nonnre ncnonennuecrna. 3ro npomtcen Foxn
o orne Mnxanne, - noyman x n, npncoennnnmnct, ocrancx c nnmn o
xonna...
Anexcanp HOBEAHXHH
184
2009, N 3 (17)
HOHHCKA HA MEYHAPOHLH
HCTOPHHECKHH YPHAA PYCHH
Hepnonunoc1t nmxoa 1 pas n xnapran.
Oseu 192 crp.
mopua1 A5.
Teua1nxa: ncropnx nacenennx Kapnarcxo Pycn.
Rsmx: pyccxn, pycnncxn, yxpanncxn. Ho cornaconannm c peax-
nne onycxamrcx nynnxannn n na pyrnx xstxax.
Hoc1onnnme pypnxn: ncropnx, xstxosnanne, snamennrte pycn-
nt, nynnnncrnxa, pycnncxax nnnorpa]nx.
Ha aypnan osnnnena nonncxa.
C1onuoc1t nonncxn na onn +xs. c yue1ou nou1onmx ycnyr:
CmA n Kanaa: 8 USD (nce xomnccnn nnarnr nonncunx, npn nepe-
uncnennn npocnm yxasart ]axr onnart xomnccnn n nnarexnom oxy-
menre);
Enpona: 6 EURO (nce xomnccnn nnarnr nonncunx, npn nepeuncne-
nnn npocnm yxasart ]axr onnart xomnccnn n nnarexnom oxymenre);
Yxpanna: 45 rpnnen;
Poccnn: 220 pyne;
Monannn: 35 neen.
B nna1eanou oxyuen1e npocnu yxasa1t, sa u1o nepeuncne-
nm entrn: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn, a 1axae sa xaxne
nouepa n nx xonnuec1no.
nx roro urot o]opmnrt nonncxy, neoxonmo nepeuncnnrt neo-
xonmym cymmy na cuer Omec1nennon acconnannn Pyct n ntc-
nart nnctmo n apec peaxnnn nnn na +nexrponnt apec
sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
B nnctme neoxonmo yxasart nouront apec nonncunxa, nomep
nnarexnoro oxymenra n nepeuncnennym cymmy. Ho nosmoxnocrn npo-
cnm ntcnart xonnm nnarexnoro oxymenra.
SUBSCRIPTION TO THE INTERNATIONAL
HISTORICAL JOURNAL RUSIN
Regularity of Publication - once quarterly.
Number of Pages - 192.
Format - A5.
185

Themes: History of the Population of Carpathian Rus'.
Languages: Russian, Rusin, Ukrainian. Other languages are permitted
in consultation with the editor.
Rubrics: History, Linguistics, Famous Rusins, Publications, Rusin
Bibliography.
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186
2009, N 3 (17)
Beneficiary Bank: BC Victoriabank S.A. Chisinau, Moldova,
SWIFT Code: VICBMD2X
Beneficiary: Account: 222400100181787
Asociatia Obsteasca Rusi
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r. nenpone1poncx
MuO 305299
Honyuarent: KB Victoriabank A.O., Knmnnen, Monona
K/C 16000000324001
Hasnauenne nnarexa: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn
nx Omec1nennon acconnannn Pyct
cuer N 222405100181787
POCCHHCKHE PVBBH
Fanx nonyuarent: Cepanx Pm
r. Mocxna.
FHK 044525225
K/c 30101810400000000225
HHH 7707083893
KB Bnx1opnaanx AO.
P/c 30111810200000000220
Hasnauenne nnarexa: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn
nx Omec1nennon acconnannn Pyct
cuer N 222405000181787
MOBABCKHE BEH
Asociatia Obsteasca Rusi
uncxantnt xo 40038013
Pacuernt cue1 225100000181787 n BC Victoriabank SA,
qnnnan 3.
Ko anxa VICBMD2X416
Hasnauenne nnarexa: sa nonncxy na aypnan Pycnn
187

Hpannna nynnxannn n aypnane Pycnn
Pexonnernx xypnana Pycnn npnnnmaer rontxo crartn, npncnannte ]a-
nom, npnxpennenntm x +nexrponnomy nnctmy. Crartx onxna trt o]opmnena
crporo n coornercrnnn c nsnoxenntmn nnxe rpeonannxmn n rmarentno ntun-
rana. B nnctme neoxonmo coomnrt cneennx o cee: ]amnnnm, nmx n orue-
crno nonnocrtm, yuente crenent n snanne, mecro paort n onxnocrt, +nexr-
ponnt apec, nouront apec c nnexcom.
Crartn ne onxnt npentmart 1 a.n. (32 000 snaxon c npoenamn) c oxsarent-
no annoranne na anrnncxom xstxe, coomennx 0,5 a.n., penensnn 0,2 a.n.
unent pexonnernn snaxomxrcx c marepnanom n npnnnmamr pemenne o ny-
nnxannn. Orstnt unenon pexonnernn n penensenron anropy ne coomamrcx.
mopua1 1exc1a
Asan orcryn 1,27 cm
Mexycrpount nnrepnan 1,5
Bpn]r Times New Roman, pasmep 14
Fes nepenocon!
Fyxna e crannrcx rontxo n rex cnyuaxx, xora samena na e ncxaxaer cmtcn
cnona, no ncex ocrantntx cnyuaxx rontxo e.
Coxpamennn
Hpn nepnom ynomnnannn nnna oxsarentno yxastnamrcx H.O., H.O. orenx-
mrcx npoenom or ]amnnnn.
Iot npn yxasannn onpeenennoro nepnoa yxastnamrcx rontxo n nn]pax, a
ne n uncnnrentntx: 20-e rot, a ne nanarte rot
Konxpernax ara aercx c coxpamennem r. nnn rr.: 1920 r., 19201922 rr.
He nex nnn nexa, a n. nnn nn. (pnmcxnmn nn]pamn): IX n.
Hncart rontxo nonnocrtm: rax xax, rax nastnaemte.
Hs coxpamenn onycxamrcx: r.., r.n., p., r.e., cm.
% crannrcx snauxom, a ne cnonom, ecnn cnxsan c nn]po, n orenxercx or
nn]pt nnrepnanom: 3 %.
Hn]pt: mnnnnont or rtcxu n rtcxun or coren orenxmrcx npoenom:
4 700 000, 1 560.
000 moryr trt samenent coornercrnymmnmn coxpamenntmn cnonamn n
apennarypamn: rtc., mnn., mnp.
Hasnannx enexntx snaxon amrcx no npnnxrtm coxpamennxm: onn., ]p.,
py., ]. cr., mapxa.
Kantuxn rontxo , ecnn saxantuennoe cnono naunnaer nnrary nnn npnmt-
xaer x xonny nnrart, ynorpenxmrcx xantuxn n xantuxax: "pas", na, rpn, "ue-
rtpe".
Cnocxn n ccmnxn n 1exc1e oqopunnm1cn n nopnxe cneonannn n 1exc1e
apacxnun nnqpaun. Pasnnunn ueay cnocxaun, o1cmnammnun x npnueuann-
nu nnn nnnorpaqnuecxouy onncannm nc1ounnxon, ne enae1cn. An1opcxne
npnueuannn n nnnorpaqnuecxoe onncanne nc1ounnxon am1cn n xonne c1a-
1tn ennmu noxou.
uamnnnn H.O. anropon xypcnnom.
Cnocxn ne anromarnuecxne, nponymeponannte apacxnmn nn]pamn.
Hn]pa cnocxn n xonne npenoxennx crannrcx nepe rouxo.
Hnnmcrpannn npeocrannxmrcx n ]opmarax tif nnn jpg (paspemennem ne me-
nee 200 dpi).
188
2009, N 3 (17)
CBEEHHR OB ABTOPAX
Bypxy1 Hropt Ipnroptennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept
nonnronornn n rocyapcrnennoro ynpannennx uepnonnnxoro nannonantnoro ynn-
nepcnrera nm. R. uetxonnua. 889393@inbox.ru
annnen Kpnn Bacnntennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept
ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera.
jurijdanilec@rambler.ru
annnmx un1pnn un1pnennu - oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop,
saneymmn xa]epo ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynn-
nepcnrera. profddd@rambler.ru
Hon (Cuaxoys) - enncxon Kamnpcxn, nnxapn Mocxoncxo enapxnn, ynpan-
nxmmn Harpnapmnmn npnxoamn n Kanae n npemenno n CBA, xannar oro-
cnonnx. bishjob@telus.net
nx Maxcnu Hnanonnu - concxarent xa]ept myseonornn ncropnuecxoro
]axyntrera CHIV. max-mors@mail.ru
Knuepa Bnx1op Bacnntennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, npenoanarent
xa]ept ncropnn Vxpannt Vxropocxoro nannonantnoro ynnnepcnrera.
vkichera@ukr.net
Hecnn Mnxann Anexcanponnu - ntnycxnnx xa]ept Hcropnuecxoro perno-
noneennx ncropnuecxoro ]axyntrera Canxr-Herepyprcxoro rocyapcrnennoro
ynnnepcnrera. petergof-history@yandex.ru
Honennxnn Anexcanp Anexceennu - nynnnncr, xpaene. Povelihin@ya.ru
Pyccen Hnxonan un1pnennu - oxrop ncropnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop, npe-
noanarent Btcme anrpononornuecxo mxont (Knmnnen). nrussev@mail.ru
Cnn1nnnen Anpen Anpeennu - meroncr Hpmancxo paonno crannnn
mntx rypncron (3axapnarcxax onacrt Vxpannt), ncropnx-xpaene.
andrijsvit@ukr.net
Cynnx Cepren Ieoprnennu - xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, rnannt peaxrop
mexynaponoro ncropnuecxoro xypnana Pycnn, npesnenr Omecrnenno
acconnannn Pyct (Monannx). sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
menca Mnxanno - oxrop nnnrnncrnuecxnx nayx, npo]eccop xa]ept pycnn-
cxoro xstxa n nnreparypt ]nnoco]cxoro ]axyntrera ynnnepcnrera Honoro Caa
(Cepnx, Boenonna). fejsam@eunet.yu
mopnnxon He1p Mnxannonnu -xannar ncropnuecxnx nayx, onenr xa]ept
Oreuecrnenno ncropnn Hpnnecrponcxoro rocyapcrnennoro ynnnepcnrera T.I.
Benuenxo.p_shornikov@km.ru
189

INFORMATION ABOUT THE AUTHORS
Burkut Igor - Doctorate of History, Associate Professor of the Faculty of Political
Science and State Administration of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy.
889393@inbox.ru
Danilets Iurii - Candidate of Historical Sciences, Associate Professor of the
Faculty of the History of the Ukraine, Uzhgorod National University.
jurijdanilec@rambler.ru
Daniliuk Dimitrii - Doctorate of History, Professor, Director of the Faculty of
History of the Ukraine, Uzhgorod National University. profddd@rambler.ru
Iov (Smakouz) - Bishop of Kashira, Vicar Bishop of the Diocese of Moscow,
Administrator of the Patriarchal Parishes in Canada and temporarily in the USA,
Doctorate of Theology. bishjob@telus.net.
Zhikh Maksim - Doctorate of the Faculty of Museum Studies of the Faculty of
St. Petersburg State University. max-mors@mail.ru
Kichera Viktor - Doctorate of History, Lecturer of the Faculty of History of the
Ukraine, Uzhgorod State University.
Nesin Mikhail - Graduate of the Faculty of Historical Regional Studies, St.
Petersburg State University. petergof-history@yandex.ru
Povelikhin Aleksandr - Publisher, Local Historian. Povelihin@ya.ru
Russev Nikolai - Doctorate of History, Professor, Lecturer of the Upper
Anthropological School (Kishinev).nrussev@mail.ru
Svitlinets Andrei - Methodologist of the Irshava Regional Tourist Station
(Transcarpathian Oblast), local historian. andrijsvit@ukr.net
Suleak Sergei - Candidate of Historical Sciences, chief editor of the international
historical journal Rusin, President of t he Association Rus' .
sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
Feisa Mikhail - Doctorate of Linguistics, Professor of the Faculty of Rusin
Language and Literature of the Faculty of Philosophy, University of Novy Sad
(Voevodina).fejsam@eunet.yu
Shornikov Piotr - Doctorate of History, Professor of the Faculty of Domestic
History of the State Univeristy of Pridnestrovye in honor of T.H. Shevchenko.
p_shornikov@km.ru
190
2009, N 3 (17)
SUMMARY*
Igor Burkut. The Historical Fate of the Galician and Bukovinian
Rusins.
The author studies the development of the Rusin Movement in Bukovina
and Galicia and believes that the events of WWII completely ousted from
common usage the old identification of Rusin in all its variations among the
Galicians and Bukovinians. However, contemporary Galicians and
Bukovinians, who presently regard themselves as Ukrainians, do not forget
about their Rusin roots. The problems of today rarely disappear into the past
and without a detailed study it is not possible to find a solution to such major
issues of the contemporary Ukraine as the formation of the current Ukrainian
nation.
Sergei Suleak. Rusins: the past, the present, the future. During the
time of the USSR the history of the Rusins, the native population of the
Carpathian Region, was silenced due to ideological reasons. The
consequences of that ban continue up to the present. Many issues regarding
the history of the Rusins are not clarified. Today we have the opportunity of
openly declaring our identity. However, no matter whom we consider
ourselves to be, the descendents of the Rusins should not forget about their
roots and their ancestors.
Mikhail Feisa The forms and methods of the Ukrainianization of
the Rusins-Rusnaks of Serbia and the influence of this on the status
of the Rusin language. Rusins-Rusnaks of Serbia continue to experience
Ukrainianization, which is carried out by local Ukrainian activists. They
endeavor to prove that the Rusins of Voevodina are a sub- ethnos of the
Ukrainians and their language a dialect of Ukrainian. The Rusins of Serbia
want to uphold their right for their original national self-identity.
Iurii Danilets. An Essay about the History of the village of
Koshelovo in the District of Khust, Transcarpathia. In the material
presented special attention is given to the toponyms of the village. Its history
is examined from the 15th to the 20th centuries in detail.
Viktor Kichera. The Cultural-Educational Activity of the monks
of the Mukachevo Monastery in Transcarpathia. The monastery played
an important role in the history of Transcarpathia. The monks not only
* annotations of the material published in the rubrics "History of the Rusins"
and "Famous Rusins".
191
Summary
concerned themselves with religious matters but gave much attention to the
cultural and educational also. In the schools and libraries which were affiliated
with the monastery the monks continued to educate. Such known scholars
as A. Kotsak, A. Kralitskii and A. Bachinskii arose out of this process.
Bishop Iov (Smakouz) The Service to the Church by the dedicated
son of Galician Rus Archbishop Panteleimon (Rudyk). (On the 50th
Anniversary of the Establishment of the Edmonton-Canadian Diocese
of the Moscow Patriarchate). Archbishop Panteleimon was a native son
of Carpathian Rus who gave much effort for the restoration of the old
ancestral faith in Galicia. At the Pochaev Lavra and in other areas of Volynia
he organized monastic life and in Kiev during the years of WWII stood firm
on the position of the unity of the Russian Church in opposition to the Ukrainian
Autocephalic Schism (1941-1943). In the last years of his life Archbishop
Panteleimon worked among the Rusins creating a newly established diocese
of the Moscow Patriarchate in Canada.
Andrei Svitlinets. The life and activity of Schi-archimandrite
Vikentii (Oros) (1901-1982). In the article the work of Vikentii Oros in
the Orthodox Church of Transcarpathia is analyzed. He was the founder of
several monasteries and suffered under the Soviet system. However, after
internment he continued his religious activity.
Dmitrii Daniliuk. The well-known scholar Slavist M. Luchkai
(1789-1843). (On the 220th Anniversary of his birth). The life and
creativity of the initiator of Transcarpathian Slavistics, a well-known folklorist,
cultural enlightener and church activist is analyzed in the article. The author
confirms that M. Luchkai was a scholar of European standard, a patriot,
humanitarian whose historical inheritance still awaits research.
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E-mail: info@rusyn.md, journalrusyn@rambler.ru
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