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2010, 2 (20)


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.: (+373 22) 28-75-59, : 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Editor's address: Association Rus'. M. Kogalniceanu Street, 24, ap. 1A,
Kishinev, MD 2001, Moldova.
Tel.: (+373 22) 28-75-59, fax 27-15-15. E-mail: journalrusyn@rambler.ru
, 2010
Association Rus', 2010

/ CONTENTS
........................................................................................................... 6
Editors Page

650-
On the 650th Anniversary of Moldavian Statehood

: ......................... 7-9
Anatolii Fetesku
The Statehood of the Moldavian People: History and the Present

( 6 5 0 -
) .................................................................................................... 10-19
Sergei Suleak
Moldavian Rus (on the 650th Anniversary of the formation of Moldavian Statehood)

(14741486 .) ...................................................................................................................... 20-28
Aleksei Balukh
The Struggle of the Moldavian State Against Ottoman Expansion (1474-1486)


................................................................................................................. 29-37
Nikolai Russev
Controversial Questions in the Early History of the Medieval Moldavian State


XIV . .......................................................................................................... 38-48
Aleksandr Masan
International Aspects of the Creation and Formation of the Moldavian Princedom to
the End of the 14th C.
,

( ) .................................................................................................... 49-57
Bohdan Bodnariuk, Stanislav Khilchevskii
The Dynamics of Village Settlement on the Territory of Moldavia during the Late Medieval
Period

- xv . ................... 58-65
Marina Voloshchuk
The Wallachian-Polish Armed Controversy for Moldavia at the End of the 15th C.


. XIV-XVII . ................................... 66-74
Petr Shornikov
The Linguistic Dualism of the Moldavian Princedom. 14th - 17th Centuries

- ..................................... 75-78
Alina Fedorova
The Adoption of Christianity by the Eastern Romance Population

............................................ 79-89
Galina Chaika
The Exodus of Bukovinian Workers to Bessarabia

XVI . ................................... 90-97
Aleksandr Sych
Moldavia in the Plans of English Diplomacy at the End of the 16th C.

(19461950 .) .................................................................................................................... 98-101
Vasyl Botushanskii
The Aid of the Ukraine during the Postwar Reconstruction of the Sate of Moldavia
(1946-1950)

:
..................................................................................................... 102-110
Viacheslav Sodol
Orthodox Monasteries of Moldavia and the Soviet Government: Economic Interaction

- 1992 .............. 111-116
Vadim Pintsak
The Military-Political Controversy of 1992 in Moldova

- 19922000 . .......................... 117-122
Aleksandr Novosyolov
The Growth of Ukrainian-Moldovan Relations 1992-2000


...............................................................................................123-129
Galina Melnichuk
Neutral Status as a Guarantee of the National Security of Moldova
,
.................................................. 130-134
Andrii Bzovii, Aleksandr Kozholianko
Springtime Rituals of the Moldavians of Bukovina


-
............................................................................................................... 135-141
Ivan Derda
Musical Creativity as a Factor in the Interrelations of the Spiritual Culture of the
Moldavians and Ukrainians


. .......................................................................................................................142-147
Georgii Kozholianko
Research of the Winter Rituals of the Moldavians at the Second Half of the 20th C.
,
:
...............................................................................................................148-157
Georgii Kozholianko, Mikhaila Burla
The Christmas Holy Days of the Moldavians and Romanians: the Question of the
Development of the Celebrations

,
..................................................................................................................158-167
Elena Kozholianko
The Invitation of Guests in the Wedding Rituals of the Ukrainians, Moldavians and
Romanians of Bukovina

- .... 168-174
Aleksandr Kurochkin
Ritual Customs of the Winter Cycle on the Ukrainian-Moldavian Border

, .......................... 175-179
Aleksandr Kozholianko
Social, Historical and Religious Carols of the Moldavians of Bukovina
............................................................... 180
Rules of Publication in the Journal Rusin
............................................................................................ 181-184
Information about the Authors
Summary ............................................................................................................... 185-191

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. 380.
21. Iorga Nicolae. Histoires des relations russo-roumaines // Histoires des
relationes roumaines. Anthologie et edition augmentee par Florin Rotaru. Bucarest,
1995. P. 358.
22. Letopiseul Trii Moldovei. Chiinu: Hyperion, 1990. . 28.
23. . . VII. . ., 1856. . 240;
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1992. . 174.
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. . V. 4. ., 1946. . 335-336.
40. Brbulescu I. Individualitatea limbii romne i elementele slave. Bucureti,
1929. . 81.
41. .. . : , 1978. . 91.
42. .. . . 31-37; .. : . , 2009. .
75, 80, 131.
43. .. . .: , 2000. . 146.

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:
1. 1359-1507 . // - VV . .: , 1976. . 24-34.
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: 3- . .: , 1970. . I. 1408-1632. 363 .
3. - 1457-1499 . // - V-V . . 36-54.
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V-V . . 62-67.
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V-V . . 68-74.
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.. , .. . . . .. :
, 2005. . 5-169.
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( XIV XIX .):
. : , 1997. 224 .
17. . // . , 1975. . 51-56.
18. ( V .) / . .. . :
, 1987. 464 .
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650-

29




, , , 1359 ., , , , , , ,
-
.

.
XIV . .
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Dniestr (DRH.-I 1975: 416, Nr. 1). , , 1374 .
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( 1977: 193-213). .. ( 1964: 182-196; ,

30

2010, 2 (20)

1974: 9-12 .).


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22, 175). ,
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1995: 58-59, 607-608).
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650-

31

22 1368 .
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(in terra ipsius domini
Demetrii)
mrtrs domini Demetrii, principis
Tartarorum (DRH.D-I 1977: 90). I c .
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. 1419 .
- : , ; ( 1984: 121/299). ,
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11-19).

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32

2010, 2 (20)

( 1987: 20).
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(. 1980: 244-252; 1981:
77-78 .; Spinei 1982: 67-71, 265-268 etc.).
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4 , 6 ( 1976: 24, 35, 58,
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I (1342-1382) : , (Wayvoda Olachorum de Maramorosio),
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324). (regnum) ,
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20). 60-65
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34

2010, 2 (20)


- 1367-1369 . ( 1977: 209).
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63, 66, 70, 73, 80, 88, 90, 96; DR.D-I 1977: 119, 127, 197). , .. .
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(Luchian, Buzdugan, Oprescu 1977: 64; Stnga 1992: 133-136). , ( 14151418 .) , . ,
, . - , ,
, 1408-1412 . (
1980: 82; . Iliescu 1971: 261-266).

1. . 1997. . .
2. 1966. . .
3. . 1987. . , ,
. . .
4. . 1995. Ii i-. . VI. i.
5. .. 1989. . .
6. . 1995.
( XII V ). .
7. .. 1985. . .
8. 1984. , //
. XI-XV . . . 120-13 , 298315.
9. 1987. . . I. .
10. .. 1980. -
// - -
( XIX .). . . 244-251.
11. . 1984. . . .

36

2010, 2 (20)

12. 1987.
( IV XIX .). .
13. .. 1975. //
- . . . 33-52.
14. .. 1980. IV . // -
- ( XIX .). . . 62-87.
15. .. 1981. . .
16. .. 1964. XIV .
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17. .. 1979. IIIV . .
18. .. 1985. . .
19. .., .. 1974. XIVXVII . // P. .7. .
20. 1975, 1980. // . 32: : , . : , . .; . 35: -. .
21. 1976. - V-VI . .
22. .. 1884. ,
. . 1: . .
23. - .. 1973. . .
24. .. 1987. -
. .
25. .. 1977. (=-= -)
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http://www.edrus.org

1999 .
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2. - 1359-1504 . // - XV-XVI . .: , 1976. . 55-59.

650-

47

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10. .. XIV
XV .: - : . . .
. . / . , 2004. 20 .
11. ., .
XIV - XV . / ,
// : . . , 2000. . 4. . 221237.
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. , 2002. 496 .
13. . -: 11 . 12 . / .:
.. () . / . .: . , 1992.
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14. . -: 11 , 12 . / .:
.. () . / . .: . , 1994.
. 5. 704 .
15. . // - /
. . , . , . / .
--: , 1956. . 63-420.
16. / . , .-. () . / .
. .: , 2005. 680 .
17. . - / // , . , 1906. . 158-184.
18. ..
1774 . / //
( .) / .. , .. , .. . . . .. . : , 2005.
. 9-168.

48

2010, 2 (20)

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/ . . , . , .
/ . --: , 1956.
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20. .. - XIV
XV . ( 1388 .) / // . . 1981. 3. . 21-31.
21. .. XIV .
/ // . .-, 2003. . 2. .
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22. . / / .
. . . -. : .., 2001. 192 .
23. .. /
// . ., 1973. . 2. . 21-26.
24. .. ( XIV .) /
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25. .. - / . : . , 1987. 184 .
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650-

49




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50

2010, 2 (20)

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650-

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650-

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54

2010, 2 (20)

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56

2010, 2 (20)

600
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1. .. // , 1939.
10-11.
2. ..
// , 1940. 10-12.
3. .. III XV .
, 1979.
4. .. - . ., 1950.
5. . --
XVIII . , 1967.

650-

57

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7. .. . . ., 1941.
8. .. - I II
.. // , 1961. 5.
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2010


- 31808




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:
1. .. -. . 8. . I. -, 1922. 336 .
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66

2010, 2 (20)


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1. .: .. XV-XVII . .
1969; .. XIII-XV .
. 1979; .. ( ). // V . ., 1987. . I. . 2; Oraul
medieval in Moldova. Chiinu, 1997.
2. .: . , , . . 1977; .. . . 1981; .
. ,. 1982; -

650-

73

. 1. 1840. .
1986; .. .
. , 1988.
3. A se vedea: Gona A. Relaiile romnilor cu slavii de rsrit pn la 1812.
Chiinu: Universitas, 1993.
4. .: .. . . , 2004.
5. .. . . . 257-259.
6. .. XIII-XV .
, 1979. .113.
7. : . . . 1971. .
66, 70, 118 ..; . -
. , 1972. .116, 166; . . . , 1974. . 291, 305.
8. .. XIX
. .
. 2001. . 44,46, 47.
9. . . . C. 9.
10. .. . . . 232-244; .. . . . 69-81.
11. Ibid. . 234.
12. Ibid. . 242.
13. .. . ., 1974. . 5.
14. .. .
. 1909. . 1. . : . I. . , 1961. . XI-II.
15. ..
. // . 1961. 1. . 52-66.
16. .. . . . 231; . :
. ., 1960.
17. . ,1978. . 83.
28. . .3. 1840.
. 1986. . 43-44; . . 837.
19. . . I. . 363; .. .
, 1981. . 73.
20. . . . . 108-111.
21. .. . . . 17.
22. . . I. . 77, 69-71;
. XVII-XVIII. ,
1977. . 36-50
23. Stati V. Istoria Moldovei in date. Chiinu,1998. P. 93.
24. . , , . ,
1977. . 24; Stati V. Istoria Moldovei n date. P. 56.
25. ... . 324, 325.
26. .. . . . 242.
27. Ibid. . 243, 244.

2010, 2 (20)

74

28. .. . --. , 1993. . 57.


29. .. . . . 239-241.
30. .: . .4. /.: .. ., 1991. . 65.
31. . . . . 93-104.
32. . . 324, 325; .
1840. . 1. , 1986. . 44;
. . 332, 333.
33. . . 326-328
34. .. . ., . 242.
35. . . , 1971. . 101;
. 27.


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78

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3. . . : , 2003.- 477 .
4. . . : , 1973.222 .
5. : ( ).
. . . : , 1994. - 583 .
6. . . : ,
1966. - 442 .
7. .
. : ,1969. - 388 .
8. . . : , 1967. - 295 .
9. . X-XV . .; .,1959.- 449 .
10. / .
. . : , 1979. - 287 .

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2010, 2 (20)

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1905 . :
[4. 1905. 26
.]. .
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1.
. (
). / . .. , .. ,
.. . : , 1979. 285 .
2. .. ( (1865-1866.
XIX XX .) // . .
, 1993. . 1. . 71-78.
3. .. (
.). : , 2000. 340 .
4. (). 1887-1908, 1996, 1999, 2007.
5. (). 1897, 1898.
6. ..
XIX XX . : .,
1980. 168 .
7. . . 3. . (. ) . 1. . 2868.
8. . . 320. . 1. . 86.
9. / .. , .. ,
.. . .: . , 1980. 340 .
10. .
. . . / .: .. , .. ,
.. . : , 1986. 206 . ( ).
11. .
. . . .: .. , .. , .. , .. . : ,
1990. 468 .

650-

89

12. .
1910
. .:
, 1913. . L. 202 .
13. Berichte ber die ffentlichen Sitzungen der Bukowiner Handels und
Gewerbekammer in Czernowitz. Jnner-Dezember 1901. Czernowitz [...].
278 S.
14. Bukowinaer Rundschau (). 18921897, 1899.
15. Hauptbericht und Statistik ber das Herzogtum Bukowina fr die Periode
vom Jahre 18621871. Lemberg, 1872. 422 S.
16. Fridman A. Arbeitermangel und Auswanderungen. Referat erstattet dem
Zentralausschu des Bund sterreichisher Industrielle / Artur Fridman. Wien,
1907. 71 S.

90

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96


. - - ,
.
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. , ,
,
.
, XVI . , , ,
-

. ,
, .

1. ., .: .. XVI . // / .
.. . ., 1984.
2. : 2 . / . . .. . ,
1965. . I. . 242.
3. Documents conceming Rumanian history (1427-1601) / Collected from
British archives by E.D. Tappe. With an introduction by C. Marinesco. Hague,
1964. P. 62. 86.
4. Seton-Watson R.W. History of the Romanians from Roman times to the
completion of unity. Cambridge, 1934. P. 72.
5. / . .. , .. . , 1951. . I. . 219-220.
6. Seton-Watson R.W. Op. cit. P. 59.
7. Ibid. P. 61.
8. Documents conceming Rumanian history P. 42-43. 53-54; P. 54 -55.
74; Podea I.I. A contribution to the study of queen Elizabeths Eastern policy
(1590 - 1593). Bucurest, 1938. P. 28-29.
9. Documents conceming Rumanian history P. 54-55. 74.

650-

97

10. Seton-Watson R.W. Op. cit. P. 59.


11. . . ., 1890. .18.
12. Calendar of State Papers and Manuscripts, relating to English affairs,
existing in the archives and collections of Venice, and in other libraries of Northern
Italy / Ed. by H. Brown. L., 1897. 861 (: CSPM).
13. CSPM. 128, 133.
14. Ibid. 96.
15. . . I. .156.
16. CSPM. 92.
17. Podea I.I. Op. cit. P. 33.
18. Cernovodeanu P. Englands trade policy in the Levant and her exchange
of goods with the Roumanian countries under the latter Stuarts (1660-1714).
Bucurest, 1972. P. 51, 60.
19. . . I. . 176.
20. Cernovodeanu P. Op. cit. P. 60.
21. Documents conceming Rumanian history P. 69. 102.
22. Ibid.
23. Ibid. P. 62. 86.
24. Podea I.I. Op. cit. P. 37.
25. The Encyclopaedia Britannica. N.Y., 1886. Vol. XXI. P. 17.
26. Podea I.I. Op. cit. P. 42.
27. CSPM. 131.
28. Documents conceming Rumanian history P. 65. 97.
29. CSPM. 233.
30. Documents conceming Rumanian history P. 80. 117.
31. CSPM. 555, 560, 643.
32. Ibid. 620, 647.
33. Documents conceming Rumanian history P. 123. 172.
34. Ibid. P.139. 208.
35. Cernovodeanu P. Op. cit. P. 61.

98

2010, 2 (20)



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2006.
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181


- ,
.
journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- - ,
. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- , ,
. slavikkk06@rambler.ru
- ,

. g_botushanskaya@ukr.net
- - ,
. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- ,
. irina1008@gmail.com
-
, .
ivanderda@mail.ru
- , ,
. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- .. , .
journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- ,
- (. -).
Nov.a@rambler.ru
- ,
,
. alexkozholianko@gmail.com
- ,
,
. g_kogolianko@ukr.net

182

2010, 2 (20)

- , ,
. kor-kojolena@rambler.ru
- , , ,
.. . alex-kuro@yandex.ru
- ,
. vadimpincak@mail.ru
- , ,
(). nrussev@mail.ru
- , , .. . sodol_slv@mail.ru
- , , (). sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
- , ,

. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- - ,

. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- ,
,
. g_botushanskaya@ukr.net
- ,
, . journalrusyn@rambler.ru
- ,
.. ,
. p_shornikov@km.ru
- -
. lucafarul@neo.od.ua

183

Information ABOUT THE AUTHORS


Aleksei Balukh - Doctorate of History, Junior Member of the Research
Staff of the Faculty of History of the Fedkovich University of Chernovsty.
journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Andrei Bzovii - Masters student of the Faculty of Ethnology, Antiquity,
and Medieval History of the Fedkovich University of Chernovsty.
jurnalrusyn@ramble.ru
Bogdan Bodnariuk - Doctorate of History, Senior Lecturer of the Faculty
of Ethnology, Antiquity and Medieval History of the Fedkovich University of
Chernovtsy. slavikkk06@rambler.ru
Vasilii Botushanskii - Doctor of of History, Professor of the Faculty of History
of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. g_botushanskaya@ukr.net
Michaela Burla - Master s student of the Faculty of Ethnology,
Antiquity, and Medieval History of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy.
journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Marina Voloshchuk - Co-researcher of the Faculty of Ethnology, Antiquity and
Medieval History of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. irina1008@gmail.com
Ivan Derda - Professor of the Faculty of Music of the Fedkovich University of
Chernovtsy. ivanderda@mail.ru
Aleksandr Masan - Doctorate of History, Professor of the Faculty of Ethnology
of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Melnichuk Galina - Professor of the Faculty of History, Political Sciences and
State Management of the Bukovinian State Academy. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Aleksandr Novosyolov - Doctorate of History, Senior Scholarly Contributor
of the Ukrainian Ethnopedagogical and National Academy of Pedagogy (IvanoFrankovsk). Nov.a@rambler.ru
Aleksandr Kozholianko - Doctorate of History, Assistant of the Faculty of
Ethnology of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. Alexkozholianko@gmail.
Georgii Kozholianko - Doctor of History, Professor of the Fedkovich University
of Chernovtsy. g_kozholianko@ukr.net
Elena Kozholianko - Doctorate of History, Professor of the Faculty of Ethnology
of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. kor-kojolena@rambler.ru

184

2010, 2 (20)

Aleksandr Kurochkin - Doctor of History, Professor, Main Colleague of the


Rylsk Institute of Art, Folklore and Ethnology. alex-kuro@yandex.ru
Vadim Pintsak - Doctorate of Political Sciences, Instructor of the Faculty of
Modern History of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. vadimpincak@mail.ru
Nikolai Russev - Doctor of History, Professor, Instructor of the High School of
Anthropology of Kishinev. nrussev@mail.ru
Viacheslav Sodol' - Doctorate of History, Professor of the Faculty of Fatherland
History of the Institute of History, State and Law of the Shevchenko State University
of Pridnestrov'ye.
Sergei Suleak - Doctorate of History, chief editor of the international historical
journal Rusin, President of the Association Rus'. sergei_suleak@rambler.ru
Aleksandr Sych - Doctor of History, Professor, Head of the Faculty of Modern
History of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Alina Fedorova - Masters student of the Faculty of History, Political Science
and International Affairs of the Fedkovich University of Chernovtsy. journalrusyn@
rambler.ru
Chaika Galina - Doctorate of History, Senior Teacher of the Faculty of History,
Political Sciences and State Management of the Bukovinian Financial Academy.
g_botushanskaya@ukr.net
Stanislav Khilchevskii - Doctorate of History, Professor of the Faculty of History,
Political Sciences and State Management of the Bukovinian Financial Academy.
journalrusyn@rambler.ru
Piotr Shornikov - Doctorate of History, Professor of the Faculty of Domestic
History of the State Univeristy of Pridnestrovye in honor of T.H. Shevchenko,
Associate Editor of the International Historical Journal Rusin. p_shornikov@
km.ru
Anatolii Fetesku - President of the All-Ukrainian National-Cultural Moldavian
Association. lucafarul@neo.od.ua

Summary

185
SUMMARY

Anatolii Fetesku. The Statehood of the Moldavian People: History and the
Present.
The history of Moldova begins from a legend which related that Dragosh and
his compatriots, hunting a bison, descending from the Carpathian mountains, met a
beekeeper in a beautiful land. Talking about the newest history of Moldova it is in
order to notice that recently there has been published a number of fundamental works
- among them The Statehood of the Moldovan People, The History of Moldova,
The History of Moldova in Dates. The works of Moldovan writers are published and
famous personalities of Moldova are honoured. On the whole, during the years of the
independence of Moldova serious miscalculations have been allowed. Many scholars
of the Academy of Sciences of Moldova and the media work not for the statehood
of Moldova. To a significant extent they are under the influence of the ideology of a
neighbouring state. In practicality, schools and higher institutions of learning have
been given away to the neighbouring state. Lightly speaking, it has been proven to be
true that such miscalculations gave way to the ruinous events of April 2009 in Kishinev.
Sergei Suleak. Moldavian Rus (on the 650th Anniversary of the Formation of
Moldavian Statehood).
The Moldavian Orthodox Princedom was founded on the territory which earlier
was within Ancient Rus and was later a part of the Galician Princedom. During the
formation of the Moldavian Princedom, the Rusins (Rus population) comprised 39.5%
of the population of the land. In time the greater part of the Rusins entered into the
composition of the Moldavian people. In particular, the Rusin composition lead to the
creation of the ethno-cultural and anthropological differences of the Moldavians which
differentiated them from other Eastern Romance groups including the Wallachians.
Considering the mixed composition of the population and the ethno-cultural situation in
Medieval Moldavia, the Moldavian Princedom may be rightfully called Vlacho-Rusin.
G.V. Vernadsky substantiated and named Medieval Moldavia as Moldavian Rus . The
Russian population (Rusin, Rusnak) compactly settled the Northern and North-Eastern
lands of the Princedom. It maintained a Russian ethno-cultural identity for a long expanse
of time and a significant part of this population was not assimilated. From the time of
founding to the beginning of the 18th C. Moldavia was a bilingual state.
Aleksei Balukh. The Struggle of the Moldavian Princedom Against Ottoman
Expansion (1474-1486).
The military-political situation of Moldavia and its northern territories in the second
half of the 70s and the first half of the 80s of the 15C. was complicated. To secure
the independence of its territory and all of its lands, in part Northern Bukovina, the
Moldavian Hospodar was required to maneuver between relatively powerful neighbours.
He constantly was required to contain the aggression of the Turkish Sultan, who
endeavoured to subject the state, and also to take into account the struggle of Poland
and Hungary for the right to be the ruler over the princedom. During the struggle to
maintain independence of the country, its territory underwent many devastations.
Nikolai Russev. Controversial Questions in the Early History of the Medieval
Moldavian State.
According to the Chronicles, the Moldavian State was created in 1359. In its rather
long history of formation, the neighbouring states of Hungary, Poland, Lithuania, the
Golden Horde, Bulgaria and Wallachia had a part. In the Fall of 1362, on the river

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Sinukh a tributary of the Southern Bug, the Lithuanian Prince Olgerd defeated three
Tartar Khans - Khachibei, Kutlubug and Dmitry. The victory opened the way for the
Lithuanians to the Black Sea. The defeated Horde ran off. One of the Tartar leaders with
the Christian name Dmitry probably went to the mouth of the Danube and further on
to Dobruja. How far his rule extended to the East is difficult to say. The Horde continued
to play an important role in the history of the region. At the end of the 14th C. in the
Lower Danube region there could still be found the formerly powerful Tartar nomadic
camps. Among the Wallachian writings beginning in 1391, is a decree of the extent of
the rule to the Tartar borders of Mircha the Elder (1386-1418). The phrase in Latin,
as in Slavonic to the Tartar borders is found in the title of Mirchas successors right
up to 1421. This word combination is used in the plural since two Tartar lands at a
minimum is referred to. At that time neighbouring lands with Wallachia could only be
the possessions of Dmitry and Kutlubug and were obviously ruled by their successors.
These Tartar possessions can be tied to Moldavia, two thirds of which (the Lowland
and Bessarabia) show the genetic unity with the Horde history of the land.
Aleksandr Masan. International Aspects in the Creation and Formation of the
Moldavian Princedom to the 14th C.
The Carpatho-Dniestrovian Region from time immemorial was at the crossroads of the
interests of various states of Central and Eastern Europe. The nucleus of the formation
of the Moldavian state was the province extending over the upper sources of the rivers
Moldova and Siret (later Bucovina), where there arose the main centers of the future
princedom - Sochava, Seret and Radeutsi (Radeuts). At one time this territory was part
of the Galician (Rus) Princedom. Moldavian statehood was formed and strengthened
during the second half of the 14thC. in which Russian ethnic territories were included.
Although the neighbouring states often meddled in its internal affairs, from the 1470s
they did not contest the right of an independent Moldavian statehood. Being a formal
vassal of the Polish Kingdom was a form of military-political union (with a number
of shared responsibilities) which at the time secured for Moldavia favourable external
conditions for the further strengthening of its state structure and its economic growth.
Bogdan Bodnariuk, Stanislav Khilchevskii. The Dynamics of Village Settlement
on the Territory of Moldavia During the Late Medieval Period (General Tendencies).
In the settlement of Moldavia in the 14-15th C. two groups of settlement places may
be clearly identified, the names of which are mentioned in the documents of the time.
One of these groups included complete toponyms, that is, long since and totally settled
locations, the names of which were already formulated. The second group included
urban settlements (devastated places of settlement) and wilderness, which were under
settlement. In the Bukovinian lands in the first half of the 15C. about 14% of the general
population was urban. From the second half of the 15th C. the Slavic population of
Bukovina grew continuously with settlers from Galicia and Podolia. The cities continued
to be actively settled by Hungarians, Germans, Armenians and Jews (from the 16th C).
In the Rusin villages of Bukovina the population was higher, having changed during the
designated time from 110 to 130 inhabitants. In comparison, the dynamics of non-Slavic
settlements remained even at 70-80 inhabitants over a period of 100 years.
Marina Voloshchuk. The Wallachian-Polish Armed Conflict for Moldova at the
End of the 15th C.
As is known, Mikhai the Brave and the Transylvanian Prince Sigismund Batory
entered into armed operations in the war against Turkey. The capturing of Moldavia
by Polish forces and the strengthening of the position of Jeremia Movila worsened the

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position of the anti-Turk coalition. Moldavia, located between Poland and Transylvania,
was in a difficult situation. The Polish government and the Moldavian Hospodar forbid
the passage of Cossacks through Moldavia. However, detachments of Cossacks continued
to fight on the side of Mikhai against the Turks. At the end of the 16th C. the Hospodar
of Wallachia Mikhai the Brave managed to unite Wallachia, Moldova and Transylvania
into one princedom and to defeat the Turkish invaders. In his struggle Mikhai counted
on the political support of Moscow, the Zaporozhian Cossacks and Austria.
Petr Shornikov. The Linguistic Dualism in the Moldavian Princedom. 14th 17th C.
In the Moldavian Princedom (1359 - 1859) existed a Moldavian-Russian bilingualism.
Following the Moldavian, the second linguistic community was made up of descendents
of the Old Rus population of the Carpatho-Dniestrovian lands - the Rusins. In the
North-Eastern part of Moldavia the Rusins made up the majority of the population.
Up to the first half of the 18th C. Russian was the state, business, church and official
language, that is, it had official status. Following the ethno-assimilation processes, the
linguistic boundary shifted to the North, however a part of the Rusins (in Northern
Bukovina and Bessarabia) kept the Rusin speech, the linguistic form Rusin talk and
Rusin self-identity.
Alina Fedorova. The Acceptance of Christianity by the Eastern Romance People.
Christianity appeared in the Pruth-Dniester lands long before the appearance of the
Moldavian Princedom. The Moldavian Church, like the Bulgarian and Kievan, was
subject to the Patriarchate of Constantinople. The neighbouring countries - the Galician
Princedom and Bulgaria sent priests to Moldavia prior to and after its formation. Having
a monopoly on the spirituality of the population of Moldavia, the Orthodox Church
had a great influence on the culture of the Moldavian people and on the strengthening
of Moldavian statehood. Orthodoxy determined the civilization and cultural belonging
of the Moldavians.
Galina Chaika. The Exodus of Bukovinian Workers to Bessarabia.
That Bukovinian workers went to work yearly to Bessarabia is attested to in various
sources. There were certain years when this turned into mass departure, especially
during the years of low crop productivity. To the beginning of July, 1866 277 families
of 844 persons emigrated from Bukovina. The level of seasonal Bukovinian workers
in various provinces of the Russian Empire was markedly differentiated. Although the
exodus for work to Bessarabia at the beginning of the 20th C. diminished somewhat,
it continued right up to WWI.
Aleksandr Sych. Moldavia in the Plans of English Diplomacy at the End of the
16th C.
The situation of Moldavia in the second half of the 16th C. was truly tragic. The
national liberation movement headed by Ivan the Fierce (Ion Voevoda the Fierce)
suffered defeat. The state coffers were empty and the taxation of the Turkish yolk
tightened. Turkish, Tartar, Polish raids, looting, violence and killings were typical. The
religious life of Moldavia and the Moldavians, the majority of which were Orthodox
Christians was complicated by the ever-growing activity of the Jesuits in their spread
of Papal Catholicism on the one side, and the opposition of various local Protestant
communities on the other. No less complicated was the international situation of the
Princedom. It, as with other Danubian princedoms, became at that time the object of
dispute of powerful neighbouring states - Turkey, Poland, Austria. At the time, English

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diplomacy in particular made its first moves in maneuvering and strengthening its
political and economic positions in Moldavia. Englands representatives meddled in
the election of Moldavian Hospodars (rulers), set the nobility up against the Austrian
Hapsburgs, supported local Protestants while their political actions were strengthened
by their intensive trade strivings for the local market. Researched analysis allow one to
deduct that toward the end of the 16th C. England more often and with determination
sided with Turkey, hoping for Turkish help in Englands struggle with Spain. England
therefore extended no little effort so that the balance of power in South-Eastern Europe
did not help tip the scale to the detriment of the Ottoman Empire and so that her strength
did not divert to war with the Danubian princedoms and Poland. In fact this complicated
the national liberation movement of the peoples of the given region in their struggle
against Turkish domination and hampered the process of the formation and strengthening
of national states.
Vasil Botushanskii. The Aid of the Ukraine to the Postwar Renewal of Moldavias
Economy (1946-1950).
The war did great damage to the Ukraine and Moldavia as to other republics of the
former USSR. At that time the worker collectives demonstrated feasible aid to each
other. This was confirmed by the practical actions of two neighbouring republics - the
Ukraine and Moldavia. During the war, Moldavia lost up to 64 000 people, 47 000 were
taken to Romania and Germany. 1037 factories, 353 collective farms, 66 MTC were
destroyed and 50 000 homes and farm buildings burnt. In 1946 Moldavia received aid
from various regions of the Ukraine to re-establish its economy which was ruined by
the war: cranes from Dnepropetrovsk, transformers from the village of Kalinovka, steel
from Makeevka, cement from the Lvov region, instruments from Kharkov, pipes and
distribution help from Zhdanov (Mariupol) was received. In all, between 1945-1950,
the collectives of the Ukraine helped Moldavia re-establish and re-build more than
600 new factories and in the creation of new branches of industry, like auto making,
metallurgy and the like. This allowed Moldavia to increase the output of its industry
by 2 times the amount as compared to the pre-war period. Many factories re-built or
re-established with the aid of Ukrainian specialists remain operational to the present day.
Viacheslav Sodol. Orthodox Monasteries of Moldavia and Soviet Authority:
Economic Interaction.
In the middle of the 1940s began one of the most interesting phases in the history of
the relations of church and state in the USSR. After the period of severe confrontation in
the 1920s and 1930s, the Soviet authorities turned toward cooperation with religious
organizations. These changes in state-church relations affected the Moldavian clergy after
the liberation of the Moldavian territory by the Soviet troops from the fascist invaders
in the spring and summer of 1944. After evicting the invaders, the state forced the
monasteries to fulfill obligations of supplying natural products such grain (wheat, rye),
meat, milk and wool. In 1945 Orthodox monasteries delivered to the state 101 091 kg of
grain, 1111 kg of meat, 1984 liters of milk and 152,4 kg of wool. Along with fulfilling
these obligations, the monasteries had the opportunity to make contractual agreements
with the Soviet authorities and to receive in such manner additional income for their
produce. After the end of the war, a legislative base was formed for giving a judicial
status to the monasteries and allowing their inhabitants to enter into various contacts
with economic proprietors of varied types. The subsidiary farming of the monasteries
were called upon to fulfill state obligations by delivering a natural form of taxes of
grain, meat, milk and wool. They also contributed the expected required payment into
state revenue. At the same time, according to contract, the government bought from the

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monasteries vegetables, fruit, grapes and other products. A telling moment in the relations
between the authorities and monasteries was when the monasteries were granted a loan
of grain seed in the spring of 1947 when the republic experienced famine. This move
by the government of the USSR authorized the help of monasteries from crisis and in
their reconstruction in 1948. In such manner, between 1945 and 1948, in the course of
economic interrelations of the Soviet administration and the monasteries, the restoration
of the destroyed economy (during the time of the Great Patriotic War) of the Moldavian
SSR in whole and the monasteries in part was successfully resolved.
Vadim Pintsak. The Military-Political Controversy of 1992 in the Republic of
Moldavia.
The existing cold war between Moldova and Pridnestrovye and the events in
the Caucasus region demonstrate the possibility of armed escalation of the conflict in
Pridnestrovye. The military-political controversy is a distinct experimental action
for the sake of accomplishments and calculations which significantly assists finding an
optional model of action for official Kishinev in the future. The question of the armed
political controversy received various evaluations in Moldavian and Pridnestrovian
historical studies. After the fighting for the city of Bendery in Pridnestrovye there
appeared signs of post-trauma psychosis at the level of consciousness of the population
which was accompanied by propaganda about the taking of power in Moldova by fascists.
Their presence causes worry to the present time and is supported by the authorities of
the region. On the right bank ultra national pro-Romanian hysteria also reigns, which
is supported by the propaganda of the aggression of the 14th army. The image of the
enemy helps the conflicting elite to maintain their authority, meanwhile laying the
responsibility of the social-economic miscalculations on the opposing side.
Aleksandr Novosyolov. The Growth of Ukrainian-Moldavian Relations 19922000.
The area between the Pruth and Dniester Rivers has been a distinct zone of ethnic
and demographic contact of the Ukrainian and Moldavian peoples. After the fall of
the USSR, the legislatures of both countries concluded a basic political agreement
about a good neighbour policy, friendship and co-operation between the Ukraine and
Moldova. Between the two states a long lasting programme of economic co-operation
for 1998-2007 with the goal of achieving an agreement about a customs union was
signed. In 2000 the Supreme Council of the Ukraine ratified an agreement between the
Ukraine and Moldova about state boundaries. From the time of the establishment of
diplomatic relations between the two states, 121 bilateral documents, 7 interstate, 57
intergovernmental and 57 interdepartmental agreements have been signed. The Ukraine
is also an mediator with regard to the Pridnestrovian question.
Galina Melnichuk. Neutral Status as a Guarantee of the National Security of
the Moldovan Republic.
From the first day of independence Moldova announced its neutral external affairs
policy which it adheres to today. A policy of neutrality for a young country should
be its guarantee of territorial integrity and unity. The Moldavian elite regarded the
announcement of neutrality as a solution to the question of the departure of Russian troops
from Pridnestrovye. Along with neutrality, Moldova was guaranteed full participation in
international affairs. Public opinion had input into the neutral status policy of Moldova.
The results of a public poll on March 6, 1994 showed that 95% of those questioned
(about 75% of those registered in the list of voters) expressed that Moldova should be
an independent, sovereign state, supported by mutually beneficial bilateral relations

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with all countries and to maintain neutrality. The idea of neutrality was confirmed in
1994 with the acceptance of the Constitution of Moldova.
Bzovii Andrei, Kozholianko Aleksandr. Spring Rituals of the Moldavians of
Bukovina.
From time immemorial the inhabitants of Bukovina celebrated the seasons of the
calendar year. Over time the welcoming of spring evolved more into youth amusements
and merrymaking with songs, games and dances. For the Moldavians and Rumanians of
Bukovina the start of the spring celebrations began on March 1- Mertsishors Day. The
beginning of March was the beginning of spring. The Ukrainians and Moldavians knew
of the legend of Dokia, the March Elder (Elder Evdokiia). Similar legends about
the March Elder, who controls the weather at the beginning of March, are known in
the rituals of many peoples - the Bulgarians, Portugese and Swiss among others. Elder
Evdokiia - Dokia in Bukovina influenced the naming of the first 10 days of March
called Elder Days similar to the Bulgarian Elder Days of January.
Ivan Derda. Musical Creativity as a Factor of Mutual Interaction in the Spiritual
Culture of the Moldavians and Ukrainians.
The history of Ukrainian-Moldavian ethno-cultural bonds has old connections. One
of the oldest printed Ukrainian folk songs Oh, Danube, Oh Danube, why do you flow
so sorrowfully? was recorded in the Czech Grammar of John the Theologian in 1571.
In it is mentioned the Moldavian ruler Stefan the Musician. Many songs, created in the
Ukraine, were included in Moldavian folklore. These were military, popular, lyrical,
satirical and other types.
Georgii Kozholianko. Research of the Winter Calendar Rituals of the Moldovans
in the second half of the 20th C.
The customs of the winter cycle relates to pre-Christian times and is marked by mans
belief in natural occurrences and as distinct pagan belief. With the spread of Christianity,
old festivals and ritualistic traditions underwent Christianization in a significant way,
however pagan elements were very much alive. The agricultural character of the life of
the Moldavians caused traditions to remain alive, as they reflected the cyclical processes
in nature and influenced the life of people. The winter rituals of the Moldavians has
interested many researchers. The question of the origin of the winter cycle of festivals
has also been grounds for disagreement. In this the opinions diverged: some authors
looked at the New Year-Christmas rituals as stemming from Roman borrowings, others
actively developed the thought of Slavic influences while others have kept a more
moderate view, thinking that a process of diverse influences took place.
Georgii Kozholianko, Mikhaela Burla. The Christmas Holidays: the Question
of the Development of the Celebrations.
Christmas occupies a central place not only in the winter cycle of holidays but in
all of the yearly cycle of rituals. According to its significance, it nearly is as important
as Paskha (Easter). In its external form it appears Christian, however the roots of
many rituals are of pagan origin. To understand the symbolism of Christmas rituals, a
comparative historical analysis helps in that many peoples in ancient times had similar
rituals. In that many ancient customs survived to our time is indicative of traditional
agricultural rituals inherent not only in magical but in esthetical functions, the basic
component of which is in the poetics in the life of a peasant and in his work. Along

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with doing what father, grandfather and great grandfather did, not least a passion for the
poetry of images, words and theatrical practices came into play. At once, the forces of
tradition and poetry merged into one mix. However with time, the mystical and magical
gave way to the aesthetic and theatrical, which began to dominate.
Kozholianko Elena. The Invitation of Guests in the Wedding Rituals of the
Ukrainians, Moldavians and Rumanians of Bukovina.
Among the wedding rituals an important part was the ritual of wedding invitations.
The ceremony included a festive accompanying of the daughter or son around the village
by the bridesmaids and groomsmen, the actual invitation of guests and the entertainment
of the bride. Close and distant relatives, friends, neighbours and, most likely in the past,
whole villages were invited. This amounted to the social acceptance of the formation
of a new family. The ritual is reflected in the folklore. At the present time in Bukovina,
as throughout the Ukraine, the traditional invitation of guests has undergone dramatic
change. The wedding card is widespread in the cities and villages. The bride invites
close relatives and neighbours personally.
Kurochkin Aleksandr. Customs of the Winter Cycle on the Ukrainian-Moldavian
Boundary.
Presently the only rituals of the winter season which have survived among the
Moldavians and Ukrainians are mainly Christmas, New Years and the Baptism of
the Lord. Up until the 1950s a part of traditional peasant life were youth assemblies.
Malanka, one of the traditional new year rituals, still has a significant place among
the Ukrainians and Moldavians. The name derives from St. Melaniia celebrated on
December 31/January13. This ritual was celebrated in the Dniestrovian lands of Galicia,
in Podolia and Bukovina, which are known for their agrarian cultures. Malanka is
also popular in Northern Moldavia, where it is a form of drama. In the Ukraine it has
more characteristics of an older archaic form.
Kozholianko Aleksandr. Social, Historical and Religious Carols of the
Moldavians of Bukovina.
The question of the classification, origin, character and description of Moldavian
carols in ethnography has not been researched. Research of Christmas carols shows that
they were sung basically by the young men and only in certain cases by girls and older
people. Moldavian carols are classified by content into social, historical and religious.
A significant segment of the carols are the historical, which basically are dedicated to
the struggle of the Moldavian people against foreign invaders, in part against the Turks
and Poles.

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