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On the Lattice of Quasivarieties of Sugihara Algebras Author(s): W. J. Blok and W.

Dziobiak Reviewed work(s): Source: Studia Logica: An International Journal for Symbolic Logic, Vol. 45, No. 3 (1986), pp. 275-280 Published by: Springer Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20015269 . Accessed: 17/04/2012 13:33
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W. J. BLOK the Lattice of Quasivarieties On

and of Sugihara Algebras

Abstract. Let S denote the variety of Sugihara algebras. We prove that the lattice A (K) of subquasivarieties of a given quasivariety K c S is finite if and only ifK is generated by a finite set of finite algebras. This settles a conjecture by Tokarz [6]. We also show that the lattice A (S) is not modular.

1. Preliminaries Let S be the algebra <Z, A, v, ,-> of type <2,2, 2, 1> where Z is the set of integers with the usual ordering, -x , and X y ixvy if X?y

jxAy otherwise.

By a Sugihara algebra we will understand any algebra in the variety S generated by S. The variety S is closely related to the deductive system RN of relevant logic (cf. Anderson and Belnap [1], Dunn [3]). More precisely, RM is strongly algebraizable in the sense of Blok and Pigozzi [2], and its associated variety is S.
Let -1, for n > variety e2n 1, denote n... the subalgebra of G whose domain is 82n {}, and S2n?1 the subalgebra with domain 82u+1 -S2U will use G, to denote the 1-element algebra. Sugihara by S. will be denoted by S.. For a class K . {O}, The

1. We


of similar

algebras we denote the quasivariety generated by K by Q (K). For notions of lattice theory and universal algebra we refer to [4] and [5]. LEAIMA1.1. (i) S is locally finite. (ii) Up to isomorphism, the only finite subdirectly irreducible algebras in S
are the G, 2< i< a)

PROOF. (i): As any n-generated subalgebra of c is isomorphic to a subalgebra of S2n+1 the free algebra j: (n) in S with n free generators belongs to ISP(32n+1) therefore, :s(n) is finite. (ii): That every i is subdirectly irreducible follows from the observa tion that the least congruence relation on gi that identifies -1 with +1 is a unique atom in the congruence lattice of Si.


W. J. Blok, W. Dziobiak

Let 9 e S be finite and subdirectly irreducible, and let 9J =n. Then 9 e HSP(Q2j+1) since s(n) eISP(92n?l) EHence, by Jonsson's Lemma, ; E HS(S2n+1). But every nontrivial algebra from HS(;2n+l) is isomorphic for some n, n 2. to one of (i's, where 2< i_2n+1. Thus 9f g 2. Directly
If % e S

indecomposable Sugihara algebras

is finite, then W has a sm-lallest and a largest element, denoted

by 0 and 1c respectively. For a e A let a* a-?O0, and let the center of St, If then C(t denoted C(%), be the set {a*:aeA}. 2, S.3n, - {0w, More generally we have: 1%}. LEMMA 2.1. Let 91 be a sutbdirectproduct of a finite family <i : i e I> of finite subdirectly irreducibles. Then a c C (X) if and only if a (i) e {O0f 1Wi}
for all j i I. If a eG(g), then lW}, ls, a b* for then asome a**, b e A. and If lhence b (i) =0%, then PROOF.


if a(i) e {


If b(i) > O%,

i c I,

then a(i) = b(i)->0% - 0%. Con

a c CG(1).

Observe that G(O) is closed under v, A a subuniverse of 9X which is a Boolean algebra. THEOREM2.2.
and only if C(?)

and -, and hence


Let % e S be finite.
{, 1%}.

-Then9f is directly indecomposable if then <0K,>1(2> C ) ,

converse, assume such that suppose C(%) 9( is a subdirect

while # <Kof, le> {O0,1g} say, #= a,

- $xs,


IBI>1, 1CI>1,
For the WYe may # J,

,O <00, 1(?> 1,x. a =AO , 1. ( C(), there is a J $

product of a finite family of finite subdirectly

the previous lemma I, o

irreducibles <f

: i e I>. By

0 %

if iecJ
if i J

Conversely, eA, =

if i.e., ? and

ce B

ye C,

Then 1B1 1, > 11

then x =- nj(x'), Hence (y'Aa*). This

> 1, and clearlyA c B xC.

y= for some x',y' n\j(y') and thus <x, y> efA, 9t the proof of the

<X, y>=(X"Aa)v is directly

53 xT,



theorem. In the remainder of this section we will characterize the finite Sugihara
algebras are among Given A+ of 9 whose them, % e S, we center but these define consists are not an of 0%, 1% only. the only ones. %+ of 9 two new Clearly as follows. elements, the G., The n > donain The 2

extension with

9+ consists

of A


1 and T.

lattice order of W is extended by stipulating IX, T?x, ceA+ xeA+.

On the lattice of quas2f'varieties... -? and - are extended the clauses:





if X=
X Iy 7y (in9W) ifX,qeA



T x x(i:n )

if X- 1= if x e A

otherwise. Note that for n> 1 n 5n+2 then %+ e S as well.


If % e S,

PROOF. In view of Lemma 1.1(i), it suffices to show that every finite then Q3 subalgebra 53 of 9+ belongs to S. If B contains- only 1 and T,
-_ 2 and so, in this case, Q e S. Otherwise, let C = B\ {1, T}. Then C

is the domain of some subalgebra T of t. T is a subdirect product of a finite family of finite algebras <9i : i e I>, where Wi is trivial or sub directly irreducible, and hence 93 is a subdirect product of the familyr If ? _
A \{Ol,15}.

Q3+for some 03 e S, let 9t- be the subalgebra of 9fwith domain

In particular, for n>3 -n =en-2.

It follows easily from the definition {0+, 1%+}. Conversely we have: THEOREM2.4.
if and for only if 9( _ some S3 c Sand (2 or 9( _ % e Sn,

of 9t

that CM(+) = {-L, T}

Let % e S be finite and non-trivial. Then C(f) = {O%, 1%}

Q3+ for some Q3 e S. C thenB eSn-2. Furthermore, if 0+

PROOF. Only one direction needs verification.

Suppose finite -<1 ? is a subdirect irreducibles. If b e A, b >- 0 product subdirectly : i eI >. the finite family <Ki : i e I> of = <0%: i e I>, and 1% that 0 Observe then for some i e I b(i) > O- , and hence of

l1 b* (i) = Os. It follows that b* # 1 , and since C(9t) - {%W,a} we conclude = 0U, and thus that b(i) > i e I. Since 91 is subdireetly em that b* Owj,
bedded in II 9I, we



b (i) >- 0,

i e I,




b is the only

cover of 0W.If b (j) = 4

b =?c% and 11 <9,(

a for some j e I, then b(j) = 0%J b (j), and hence

In this case 9f _ 2. of If b(i) < 1% for all ie I,


b and

1W. hence

then we have 0%,< b(i) < b(i) < 1%. i E I, and it follows that [b, b] c 7
: i e I>, is a subuniverse t. Let 53 be the Sugihara

algebra with universe B

Finally, hence Wi if, in this e Sn-2. case, Thus

Q3+. [b, b], then it is easy to verify that 9t _then it e S.\S2 for all i eI, and

c Sn, n>3, e 03 e Sn2



J. Blok, W. Dziobiak

if and only if ?


f ES be finite. Then W is directly indecomposable

--+ for some i3 E S.

- C2 or 9

We noticed before that if 9 e S is finite, then C(S) is a Boolean algebra, p say, C(S) _ (Z2)n. In view of Corollary 2.5, 9 is then isomorphic to ll3 i, where each Oi is either isomorphic to G2 or to (O3). 3. The lattice of quasi-varieties of Sugihara algebras

In this section we will characterize the quasivarieties of Sugihara If K algebras which have only a finite number of subquasivarieties. let A(K) denote the lattice of its subquasivarieties, is a quasivariety, ordered by inclusion. A finite algebra 91 is critical if it does not belong to the quasivariety generated by all its proper subalgebras. LEMMA 3.1. Assume K is a locally finite quasivariety. Then A(K) is finite if and only if K contains, up to isomorphism, a finite number of critical algebras. Notice that if%t is critical, then it is subdirectly irreducible P:ROOF. =:.: t and 53 we have: Q(%) =Q(3) in Q(9f). Hence, for critical algebras implies t 5Q3. From this the statement follows. S=:Since K is locally finite, each subquasivariety of K is generated by its critical members. The proof of the following lemma is straightforward. n
LEmA 3.2. (i) Let 01, ... X 9n E S. If II O?

is critical,

then Q31, ...I on

are critical and pairwise non-isomorphic. (ii) Let 53 be a finite and non-trivial Sugihara algebra. If 93+ is critical, then so is 08.
We are now ready to prove the main result of the paper:

THEOREM3.3. Let K be a subguaasivariety of S. Then A(K) if and only if K is generated by a finite set of finite algebras. n PROOF.
9=: Since Lemma 1.1 K

is finite


is immediate

from Lemma

it follows the varieties from S.

is generated by a finite set of finite algebras, c S_ for some n < co.We claim that (ii) that K

possess, up of Lemma of algebras is the only

for S2. Now

to isomorphism, only finitely many critical algebras. In virtue 3.2(i), it suffices to show that each S, has only a finite number which are both critical and directly indecomposable. Since Z2 directly indecomposable algebra in S2, our claim holds true
suppose it has been verified for k< n, where 2< n < ca.

If ? c Sn is critical and directly E


then by Corollary 2.5








2 or

? _




S3 E S.



of Lemma



in the

latter case (f 3 or % -__ f3+ for some non-trivial critical algebra B3. Furthermore, by the second part of Theorem 2.4, p3 E S.-2. SinceSby our induction hypothesis Sn-2 has only a finite number of critical algebras, it follows that S. has only a finite number of critical, directly indecompo sable algebras. This completes the proof of the claim. By the claim and Lemma 3.1, the lattices A(Sn) are finite, n < co, and thus so is A (K). TiEOREM 3.4. A(S) is not modular.

PROOF. We prove that A(S4) is not modular. As SZ3 is a homomorphic image of S4, we have S3,S4ES4. Hence Q(S3),QQ(S4) and Q(3EX S4) are contained in S4. Since E4 iS embeddable in 3 X 4, we have Q (S4) c Q(S3 xs4). Clearly Z3 XS4 EQ(S3 X4)A (Q(S3)vQ(S4)). Assume A(S4)
is modular. Then S3 X4 E (Q (e3 X S4) A Q (3)) vQ (Q4). It follows from the

proof of the previous theorem that the critical directly indecomposable algebras in S3 are (2;2 and i3, and hence 22 e3 and S2 X ( are the Critical
algebras in Q (S3). Now S2 and 62 X 33 belong to Q ((3 X S4), but 3 does

not, because (3 iS not embeddable in S.3 x (. We conclude that Q (S3 X x 4)AQ(a3) = Q(S2 x 3). Thus 3 X e4EQ(,2 XS3)VQQ((4). Let
( : S3 X S4- (? 2 X S3) X 4

be an embedding, with I, J finite index sets. Since S is congruence distri butive, every congruence relation on S x Z4 iS a product of its factors. But , is simple and the congruence lattice of 4 is a three-element chain
A < 0 < V, hence the congruence lattice t7x V of S3 X4 iS

The map P is 1-1,

ncoy > or A x A, for all ker nco p=A 3, which

and therefore Aie,Uj ker ^o

i, and the hence first for case, some i E IuJ, x V7. In likewise


x A. Clearly ker

is not embeddable in either of S2 x S

X 4] _ is not

or S4. In the second case, no p [5, x

in Z2 x S. or in G4. We have

ker noop = A x 0, G4] _ X Z3 , which nio 9 [S3 X


thus arrived at a contradiction, modular.

and must


that A(S4)

is not



J. Blok, W.


Theorem 3.3 confirms a conjecture by Tokarz [6]. It follows from the results of Dunn [3] that the system BMl of relevant implication (cf. Ander son and Belnap [1]) is strongly algebraizable in the sense of [2], and that the class of algebras associated with it is precisely S. Tokarz investigated certain deductive systems, stronger than RM: the standard strengthenings, of RM. Their associated classes of algebras are precisely the quasivarieties, of Sugihara algebras, and the correspondence is 1-1 and order reversing (see [2]). Let us denote by C, the deductive system whose associated quasivariety is Q () ). The cardinality of the set of standard strengthenings of Q,, equals that of A (Q(Z.)), and hence is finite by Theorem 3.3. It follows that the degree of maximality of CQ, dmCQ, equals JA(Q(ZJn))as well, and hence, in particular, is finite. This was proven in Tokarz [6] for n < 4, for n > 5. and conjectured

Vol. I, Princeton University [1] A. R. ANDERSON and N. D. BELNAP, Jr., Entailment, Press, 1975. [2] W. J. BLOE and D. PiGozzI, Thte deduction theorem in algebraic logic, manuscript. [3] J. M. DUNN, Algebraic completeness results for R-mingle and its extensions, Journal Logic 35 (1970), pp. 1-13. of Symbolic Birkhauser Verlag, Basel, 1978. Lattice Theory, [4] G. GRXTZER, General 2nd expanded ed., Springer Verlag, 1979. Universal Algebra, [5] G. G0RXTZER, [6] M. Toi:ARz, Degrees of maximality of three- and four-valued RIM-extensions, Reports Logic 9 (1978), pp. 63-69. on Mathematical









Received May

15, 1985


Logica XLV,