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Sika Injection Systems for

Concrete Structures

Sika is a globally active company in the speciality and construction chemicals business. It has subsidiary manufacturing,
sales and technical support facilities in over 70 countries around the world. Sika is THE global market and technology leader
in waterproofing, sealing, bonding, dampening, strengthening and the protection of buildings and civil engineering structures.
Sika has approx. 12 000 employees worldwide and is therefore ideally positioned to support the success of its customers.

Also available from Sika

Sika Injection Systems for


®

Concrete Structures
Sika Services AG
Business Unit Construction
Speckstrasse 22
CH-8330 Pfäffikon
S&W 10.07 / 07SIC 5.7 / © Sika Services AG, Switzerland

Switzerland
Phone +41 44 403 13 64
Fax +41 44 403 13 77
www.sika.com

Our most current General Sales Conditions shall apply. Please


® consult the Product Data Sheet prior to any use and processing. IS
O 9001
IS
O 9001 ®
Sika Injection Systems for Concrete Structures
®

Typical Problems in Concrete Structures:

Typical Problems in Concrete Structures

Waterproofing of Construction Surface Sealing of leaking Waterproofing of Cracks Structural Crack and Void Waterproofing of damaged Waterproofing of Foundation
Joints Concrete Structures Repair Membranes Pits

Sealing of construction joints in concrete Remedial surface sealing by curtain Closing, sealing and flexible bridging of Bridging and filling of cracks and voids Repair by injection of damaged water- Sealing of water-bearing cracks and joints
structures. injection of defects in underground leaking cracks in new and existing where structural strength is required. proofing membranes (single and double in retaining walls of foundation pits.
building components. structures. layer systems).
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The Sika Injection Technology
®
Polyurethane Foams Microfine Binders Polyacrylic Resins/Gels
Epoxy Resins Polyurethane Resins

Injection Material Parameters Reasons Injection System Requirements Sika’s Injection Solution 1. Viscosity of different Injection Materials at 10 °C and 20 °C

10 °
Viscosity Better crack penetration due to low Different viscosities of injection resins Very low Viscosity Low Viscosity Sika® Injection-105 20 °
viscosity for different crack widths (see table 1) Sika® Injection-201 Sika® Injection-101/-105 10 °
Reduction of high injection pressure Low particle size of microfine binder for Sika® Injection-451 Sikadur®-52 Injection Sika® Injection-101 20 °
due to low viscosity fine cracks Sika® Injection-29/-304/-305 Low Particle Size 10 °
Sikadur®-52 Injection N 20 °
Sika® InjectoCem-190
10 °
Sika® Injection-451 20 °
Expansion Better sealing result due to the self- Fast expansion High and fast Expansion
10 °
injecting effect of expansion High foaming factor Sika® Injection-101/-105 Sika® InjectoCem-190 20 °
Complete filling of fissures and voids Stable expansion with no shrinkage 10 °
Sika® Injection-201
Low actual material consumption due later during curing of the system 20 °
to increased volume after expansion Temporary sealing due to high foaming factor 10 °
Sika® Injection-29 20 °

Reaction Time Short reaction times prevent washing Variable reaction times (see table 2) Short and variable Reaction Times Sika® Injection-305
10 °
20 °
out of the resin No reaction takes place unless the Sika® Injection-101/-105
10 °
Short waiting times during the works resin is in direct contact with water Sika® Injection-AC10/-AC20 Sika® Injection-304
20 °
Reaction only takes place when needed or moisture Sika® Injection-304/-305 10 °
Water
20 °
Potlife Long potlife means as pumpable as Variable potlife for different require- Long Potlife
Viscosity [mPa 3 s] 0 300 600 900 1200
single component system ments (see table 3) Sika® Injection-101/-105/-201
Sika® Injection-29
Sikadur®-52 Injection and Sika® Injection-451 2. Free Expansion Factor of different Injection Materials
Sika® InjectoCem-190
100
Flexibility Ability to accommodate limited Long-term flexibility after curing Flexible Sika® Injection-101
40

Free expansion factor


movement Permanent sealing Sika® Injection-105/-201 Polyurethane
Sika® Injection-29 Sika® Injection-105 foams
15

Water contact
High Flexibility
Sika® Injection-304/-305
10
Adhesion/Bond Structural bonding of cracks Excellent adhesion High Adhesion Sika® Injection-201 Polyurethane
resins
Better sealing due to good adhesion Full bond at contact surfaces Sikadur®-52 Injection Sika InjectoCem-190, Sikadur -52,
® ®

1
No shrinkage Sika® Injection-451 Sika® Injection-304/-305/-451/-29 1)
Sika® Injection-201 0 10 100 1000
Time [min]
Durability/Permanent Sealing High durability of the repaired structure No shrinkage with ageing High Durability 1) 
Microfine binders, epoxy resins, polyacrylic resins
Little ageing Long-term flexibility Sika® Injection-201
3. Potlife in Minutes of different Injection Materials at 20 °C
Permanent repair Permanent sealing Sikadur®-52 Injection and Sika® Injection-451
Two-component Single-component
Sika® Injection-29/-304/-305 Processing Processing
Sika® InjectoCem-190
Sika® Injection-105 120

Resistance High resistance to aggressive Injection systems with high chemical High chemical Resistance Sika® Injection-101 360
chemicals resistance Sika® Injection-201
Sikadur®-52 Injection and Sika® Injection-451 Sikadur®-52 Injection N 35
Sika® Injection-29/-304/-305
Sika® InjectoCem-190 Sika® Injection-451 65

Sika® InjectoCem-190 120


Environmental Hazard/Toxicity Allows injection in ecologically sensitive Solvent-free systems Environmentally friendly
environments Environmentally friendly raw materials Sika® Injection-101/-105/-201 Sika® Injection-201 5 
2)
135
Non-toxic and non-hazardous in Systems tested for ground water Sikadur®-52 Injection and Sika® Injection-451
application contact Sika® Injection-29/-304 Sika® Injection-29 10  25
2)

Sika® InjectoCem-190
Sika® Injection-305 7 12

Sika® Injection-304 0.5 1.5

® Time [min] 0 1 10 100 1000


 2) with accelerator
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The Sika Injection Systems for the different Applications
®

Waterproofing of Construction Surface Sealing of leaking Waterproofing of Cracks Structural Crack and Void Waterproofing of damaged Waterproofing of Foundation
Joints Concrete Structures Repair Membranes Pits

Sealing of construction joints in Remedial surface sealing by curtain Closing, sealing and flexible bridging Bridging and filling of cracks and voids Repair by injection of damaged water- Sealing of water-bearing cracks and
concrete structures injection of defects in underground of leaking cracks in new and existing where structural strength is required proofing membranes (single and double joints in retaining walls of foundation
building components structures layer systems) pits
Sika® Injection-29 Sikadur®-52 Injection2)
Low viscous, flexible and solvent-free poly- Sika Injection-304
®
Sika Injection-101
®
Low viscous, solvent-free, high strength Sika® Injection-305 Sika® Injection-105
acrylic injection resin with a high solids Flexible, very low viscous and very quick- Fast foaming, low viscous and solvent-free epoxy resin for structural bonding of cracks Flexible, very low viscous and quick- Fast foaming, low viscous and solvent-free
content. It is used for the injection of the gelling polyacrylic injection gel for perma- water-reactive polyurethane injection foam and voids in dry and damp concrete struc- gelling polyacrylic injection gel for per- water-reactive polyurethane injection foam
Sika® Injectoflex Hose System. nent watertight sealing of leaking surfaces. resin for temporary waterstopping. The tures. manent watertight sealing of damaged resin for flexible waterproof sealing of leak-
The material reacts to form a waterproof, material cures to a very dense hard-elastic membranes (single and double layer ing foundation pits. The material cures to
Sika® Injection-2011) flexible but solid gel with good adhesion to foam with a very fine cellular structure. Sika® Injection-451 systems). The material reacts to form a very dense flexible foam with a very fine
Low viscous, flexible and solvent-free poly- both dry and wet substrates. The reaction time of Sika®Injection-101 can Ultra low viscous, solvent-free, high strength a waterproof, flexible but solid gel with cellular structure.
urethane injection resin for permanent water- be accelerated with Sika® Injection-AC10. epoxy resin for structural bonding of cracks good adhesion to both dry and wet
proof sealing of cracks and construction joints. and voids in dry and damp concrete struc- substrates.
It forms, in contact with water, a uniform, Sika® Injection-2011) tures.
closed and therefore watertight pore structure. Low viscous, flexible and solvent-free
The reaction time of Sika® Injection-201 can polyurethane injection resin for permanent Sika® InjectoCem-190
be accelerated with Sika® Injection-AC20. waterproof sealing of cracks and construc- Two-component injection grout for sealing
tion joints. It forms, in contact with water, and structural strengthening of cracks and
Sika® InjectoCem-190 a uniform, closed and therefore watertight construction joints, based on microcement
Two-component injection grout for sealing pore structure. The reaction time of Sika® with added admixtures and corrosion inhi-
and structural strengthening of cracks and Injection-201 can be accelerated with bitors.
construction joints, based on microcement Sika® Injection-AC20.
with added admixtures and corrosion in-
hibitors. It is also used for the injection of 1)
other formulation available (Sika® Injection-203) that is tested and approved according to ZTV-ING (RISS) and registered with the BASt-List
the Sika® Injectoflex Hose System. 2)
other formulation available for underwater injection (Sikadur®-53)

Sika’s Ecologically Advanced Injection Systems


Sika® Injection systems have been tested by independent institutes with respect to the potential risks
concerning water quality, working safety and toxicology. These tests give information on how the liquid
materials i.e. immedately after injection, or the hardened /cured material affects the quality of water.

Sika® provides full environmental reports on Sika® Injection-101/-201/-203/-304/-29.

®
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Criteria for Selection of the Sika Injection Systems ®

Selection Criteria for Injection Systems Polyurethane Foams Polyurethane Epoxy Resins Polyacrylate Resins/Gels Microfine Binders
Resins

to be used in the Repair and Waterproofing

Sika® Injection-201/-203 *

Sikadur®-52 Injection

Sika® InjectoCem-190
Sika® Injection-101 *
of Concrete Structures:

Sika® Injection-105

Sika® Injection-451

Sika® Injection-304

Sika® Injection-305
Sika® Injection-29
Structural strengthening = S Durable elastic sealing = E Temporary sealing = T
1 The rheological properties of the injection system and damaged concrete structures determine the most suitable application system.
T T E S S E E E S

Can accommodate movement after curing


2 Non-elastic injection systems can cause subsequent cracking elsewhere.
X X X X X

Durable waterproof sealing


3 Long-term effectiveness and reliable protection against ground water pressure.
X X X X X X X

Improvement in matrix quality


4 The injection system strength is appropriate for repairs to weaker concrete and mortar.
X X X X

Penetrates into fine cracks (e.g. >0.2 mm)


5 The low viscosity of the injection material determines the crack penetration and reduces the injection pressure.
X X X X X X X X X

Not durable
6 Suitable for temporary waterproofing against water under pressure.
X X

Reacts only in contact with water


7 The reaction only takes place when needed.
X X

For watertight compartment injection


8 Repair by injection of waterproofing membranes (single and double layer systems).
X X

Pumpable as a single component system


9 Injection systems with long potlifes (>20 min) can be pumped with a single-component pump.
X X X X X X X

Only suitable for low pressure injection (<10 bar)


10 Low injection pressure prevents separation of microfine cement suspensions.
X

Drinking water approval


11 Allows injection in ecologically sensitive environments.
X X X X

Can be accelerated
12 Acceleration of the reaction time reduces waiting times during works (especially at cold temperatures) and prevents washing out of the resin.
X X X X

* tested and approved by ZTV-Riss and registered with the BASt-List

The free expansion rate of Due to the low viscosity of Sikadur®-52 Injection achieves a strength of up to 50 N/mm2. Sika® Injection-304 reacts to form a waterproof, flexible but solid polyacrylic gel.
Sika® Injection-101 Sika® Injection-201
is up to 40 times. it can penetrate into cracks
>0.2 mm in width.

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Application of the Sika Injection Systems ®

Crack Injection with Mechanical Packers


d/2

5. Repeat this procedure from packer to


packer.

d/2 6. If necessary, a secondary injection


procedure is carried out to ensure the

Always work by injecting from the bottom to the top


The surfaces of voids and cracks need to be clean
crack is completely filled and sealed.
d

1. Drill packer holes at a 45° angle to 2. Install the mechanical packers. Tighten 3. Fix the non-return valve on the first 4. When the injection material flows out of the second packer during the
the concrete surface as shown in the figure. the mechanical packers so that they can packer and start the injection process. injection process, fix the non-return valve on it as quick as possible. Stop

Important Notes for the Application of Sika Injection Systems:


 of drill hole =  of packer + 2 mm. withstand the maximum injection pressure. injection at the first packer and continue at the second packer.

Crack Injection with Surface Packers


5. Continue the injection procedure as for
crack injection with mechanical packers
(points 4, 5 and 6).
d

Make sure that there is no drainage pipe in or behind the surface


Always start injection with low pressure
1. Prepare the substrate by blast cleaning 2. Place a steel nail through the packer into 3. Patch the surface of the crack with 4. As soon as the adhesive has cured, remove the nail and fix the
or mechanically by grinding etc., then clean the crack to prevent the injection canal from Sika® Injection-490. Ensure that the button head fittings (non-return) on the first packer and start the injection
by brush and vacuum. being blocked by the Sika® Injection-490 packer and the crack on the surface are process.
adhesive and then install the surface packers fully covered by the adhesive filler.
as shown in the figure.

Curtain Injection
5. Continue the injection procedure as for
crack injection (points 5 and 6).

1. Drill holes for the mechanical packers 2. Install the mechanical packers. Tighten 3. Fix the button head (non-return) fittings 4. When the injection material flows out of the second packer during
through the leaking building component at the mechanical packers so that they can on the first packer and start the injection the injection process, fix the non-return valve on it as quickly as possible.
a distance of 30 – 50 cm apart as shown in withstand the maximum injection pres- process at the lowest row of drill holes. Stop injection at the first packer and continue at the second packer.
the figure. sures.
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Injection Pumps and Packers for Sika Injection Materials ®

Injection Equipment for Sika® Injection Resins Sika® Injection Packers for different Applications
and Microfine Cement Suspension
Single-component Pumps Two-component Pumps Mixing and Pumping Sika® Injection Packers are filler necks used as connection pieces between the injection pump
for Polyurethane, Polyacrylate for Polyacrylate Gels Equipment for Microfine and the structure. Sika provides a full range of injection packers. There are two different types
and Epoxy Resins Cement Suspension of packers:

Sika® single-component injection pumps Sika® Injection Pump PN-2C The colloidal mixer Sika® Injection Mechanical Packers Surface Packers
are universal injection devices suitable is specially designed for curtain injection. Mixer C-1 is needed for the complete for high and low pressure injection where hole drilling for low pressure injection, where drilling
for a wide range of applications. They are A two-component pump is required for and thorough mixing of Sika® microfine is possible is not possible
designed for professional use in crack these fast reacting polyacrylate gels. cement suspensions. Sika® Injection
and Sika® Injectoflex-System injection. The individual components are introduced Pump MFC-1 is used for the pumping
Sika® Injection Pump EL-1, to the mixing head separately. The actual of Sika® microfine cement suspensions.
Type SP
EL-2, Hand-1 and Hand-2 are mixing process takes place in a static It provides continuous pumping without Type MPS
suitable for Sika polyurethane, epoxy and mixer located in the mixing head. separation of the suspension.
polyacrylate resins.

Type EL-1 Type PN-2C Type MFC-1


Type MPR

Type MPC
Type C-1

Sika Injection Pump/Mixer Polyurethane Polyurethane


Epoxy Resins Polyacrylate Resins/Gels Microfine
Foams Resins Binders Sika® Injection Packer

Mechanical Surface
Sika® Injection-101/-105

Sika® Injection-201/-203

Sika® Injection-304/-305

Sika® InjectoCem-190
Sikadur ®-52 Injection
Sika® Injection-451

Application Concrete Quality Injection Pressure MPS MPC 2 SP


Sika® Injection-29

MPR 1

Drilling not possible


X
(steel reinforcement)
Crack and Void Injection
1 – 10 bar X X X X
Good and poor quality
EL-1/-2 X X X X (drilling possible!)
Injectoflex Injection X 3 X 3 X 3
Hand-1/-2 X X X X

PN-2C X Curtain Injection X 4

C-1 X Good and poor quality


Crack and Void Injection 10 – 200 bar X X
(drilling possible!)
MFC-1 X

Equipment Cleaning Sika® Colma® Cleaner Water Injectoflex Injection X 3 X 3

1)
Recommended for high pressures and high flow rates 2)
Specially designed for injection with microfine binders 3)
Just 13 mm diameter 4)
Only with button head (non-return) fitting

®
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Case Studies

Surface Sealing Sealing of Cracks Sealing of Damaged Structural Crack Repair


of a Leaking Shaft in a Basement Membranes in an of a Bridge
Problem Problem Open-cut Tunnel Problem
An inadequate waterproofing system had been selected for a A basement garage which is built up of watertight concrete Cracks with the potential to become a problem for the structural
concrete shaft standing in groundwater. Water was infiltrating with waterbars, suffered settlement cracks in the structure Problem integrity occurred in the support piers of a motorway bridge due
the shaft from several construction joints and damaging the after construction. Water was infiltrating because the garage An open-cut tunnel below groundwater level was sealed with to the dynamic loads.
electrical installations. was exposed to groundwater pressure. sheet waterproofing membranes and waterbars. Damage
occurred during the construction period and went unnoticed Injection Material Requirements
Injection Material Requirements Injection Material Requirements until the tunnel began leaking. Fortunately the damage location Different low viscosities for different crack widths
Very fast reacting injection material First phase: was easily identified as the membrane and waterbars were High mechanical and adhesive strengths
Able to form a new permanent watertight sealing surface Fast foaming injection foam formed into compartments. Suitable for both dry and damp substrate conditions
Environmentally friendly Reacts only in contact with water
Second phase: Injection Material Requirements Sika Solution
Sika Solution Low viscosity Permanently elastic Crack injection with
Curtain injection with No shrinkage in subsequent dry conditions Able to form a new permanent watertight sealing surface Low viscous epoxy resin Sikadur®-52 Injection
Fast reaction polyacrylate gel Sika® Injection-304 Good adhesion to concrete Gel time able to be adapted to the specific requirements for cracks > 0.3 mm
Environmentally friendly and chemically resistant Capable of reversibly absorbing (swelling) and releasing Ultra low viscous epoxy resin Sika® Injection-451
Injection Equipment (shrinking) moisture for cracks 0.1 – 0.3 mm
Sika® Injection Pump PN-2C and Sika Solution Epoxy patching material Sika® Injection-490
Sika® Injection Packer MPR with Crack injection with Sika Solution
button head fittings Fast reacting polyurethane foam Sika® Injection-101 Compartment injection through injection pipes with Injection equipment
for temporary waterstopping polyacrylate gel Sika® Injection-305 Sika® Injection Pump EL-2 and
Elastic polyurethane resin Sika® Injection-201 for Sika® Injection Packer SP
permanent waterproof sealing Injection Equipment
Sika® Injection Pump PN-2C and
Injection Equipment Sika® Injection Packer MPR with
Sika® Injection Pump EL-2 and button head fittings
Sika® Injection Packer MPS

®
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