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1. METAL INERT GAS (MIG) / (GMAW) WELDING 1.

1MIG Fundamentals

Metal inert gas is a welding process in which metal joined by heating them with a welding arc between the base metal and a continuous consumable electrode. A shielding gas or gas mixture is use to prevent the atmosphere from contaminating the weld. Another term that is often used to describe MIG is GMAW. GMAW is stands for gas metal arc welding.

Gas metal arc welding uses a wire as an electrode. A welding arc is struck between the electrode and the base metal. Direct current is always used for GMAW. Direct current electrode positive (DCPE) or direct current reverse polarity (DCRP) is use for GMAW.

A constant voltage power supply is used for MIG. On this type of machines, the welder sets the required voltage. A constant voltage tries to maintain a constant voltage during the welding operation. Although the voltage is constant, the current varies.

Fig. 1 illustrates the GMAW process.

1.1Modes of MIG transfer

There are 5 type of mode MIG transfer : Metal transfer Spray transfer Globular transfer Pulsed spray transfer Short circuiting transfer

Metal transfer

Filler metal from the electrode must leave the electrode and enter the weld. This is called metal transfer. Metal transfer can occur in three different ways: short circuiting transfer, globular transfer and spray transfer. In short circuiting transfer the electrode contacts the base metal and some molten metal is transferred. In globular and spray transfer, the wire does not touch the base metal. In these transfer method, drops of molten metal leave the end of the electrode and enter the weld pool through the arc. These drops travel between the end of the wire and base metal. The size of the drop in globular transfer is much larger than the size of the drop in spray transfer. Voltage, current, shielding gas, and other factors determine the type of metal transfer you will obtain.

Spray transfer

Spray transfer requires higher voltages and current setting than globular transfer. In spray transfer, hundreds of small droplets are formed every second. They travel at a high rate of speed directly into the weld. Spray penetration can produce the good penetration. Very little spatter is produced. The weld pool is very fluid; spray transfer is used primarily for welding in the flat position or horizontal fillet welds. Metal that is 3.2 mm and thicker can be welded using the spray transfer process. Spray transfer only occur when the current setting is above the transition current. The transition current is the amount of current required to convert from globular transfer to spray transfer.

Globular transfer

Globular transfer uses slightly higher voltage and current setting than those used for short circuiting transfer. In globular transfer, the arc melts the end of

the electrode and the base metal. The size of the molten metal, globule or ball on the end of the electrode increases until it is larger than the diameter of the electrode. It continues to grow in size until the globule falls off the electrode due to its own weight.

The molten globule does not fall straight into the weld. Forces acting on the arc cause the globule to travel across the arc and land on the base metal in random patterns. A large amount of spatter usually occurs. Globular transfer is difficult to perform for out of position welding, because gravity is used to transfer the molten globules to the base metal.

Pulsed spray transfer

Pulsed spray transfer is very similar to standard spray transfer. However, two different current are used; background current and peak current. The background current is an amount of current that is less than the transition current that is less than the transition current. Background current maintains the arc but no metal transferred across the arc during the background current period. Peak current is a preset current level that is above the transition current. Spray transfer occurs during period of peak current.

The peak current and background current alternate, with current flowing for a short time at each level. Less heat is applied to the base metal in pulsed spray transfer because the weld pool cools during the period og background current. Peak current pulse ( turn on and off) approximately sixty to several hundred times per second. Pulsed spray transfer allow for good penetration. It can be performed in all position since the weld pool has time to cool during the background current period.

Short Circuiting Transfer

Short circuiting transfer is called short arc. Short circuiting transfer uses a low welding current and voltage. A small-diameter electrode, .030 to .045(.76mm to 1.14mm), is used. Short circuiting transfer method does not add much heat to the base metal. Therefore, short circuiting transfer is used to joint thin sheets of metal. It also used for out-of-position welding and for welding parts that have larger gaps. In circuiting transfer, the base metal and the end of the electrode are heated by an arc. When the electrode touches the base metal it is called short circuit. The welding machine must maintain the preset voltage, that because it can increase the current to the electrode. The increased current, results in a pinch force. The pinch force caused the end of the electrode separate from the base metal. After the end of the electrode separate from the weld pool , the arc reignites and the step are repeated.

The electrode is continuously fed into the weld and contacts the base metal at 20200 time per second. Inductance is an electrical means of controlling the rate of current change in circuit. The inductance is very importance very importance in short circuiting transfer because it can control how fast the welding machine increases the welding current. The increasing inductance help make the weld pool flatter and more fluid.

2. IMPLEMENT OF OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MIG

2.1 Setting Up MIG Welding Equipment.

Before we do welding MIG, we must setting up their equipment first. The equipment of MIG welding: A welding machine A wire feeder A welding gun Shielding gas supply and controls

Welding Machine GMAW power supply is a very important in process welding MIG. That because this machine supply the current while doing a process welding. These GMAW machines are difference between metal arc and gas tungsten arc, which because this power supply provide the constant current to MIG. The power supply also can be a transformer rectifier. The transformer rectifier made the voltage stays about the same even thought the current varies. The relationship between voltage and current is the slope

To setup the welding machine, firstly you must turn on their switch. After that turn on the switch of GMAW power supply. After the GMAW power supply had turn on, push the button setting of weld or gas to gas mode. The gas mode, help us to setting how much gas pressure that we needed. Setting the pressure gauge into 2 kPa and flow meter between 15 or 10 meter. After setting, push the button setting into mode weld. Before do a welding, you must set the voltage in adjustment voltage knob. Set the voltage into volt. The volt is a volt ideal for help make the weld pool become flatter and more fluid.

Wire Feeder The wire feeder is used to feed electrode wire to the gun. GMAW electrode wire available in coils or spools. The coils or spools generally contain several hundred

feet of wire. On a wire feeder that has two drive rolls, only one drive roll is driven. A center drive gear engages two drive rolls, which in turn drive remaining two rolls. The roll or drive gear is powered by DC motor. To setup the wire feeder, Firstly you must pressing the inch switch. The inch switch caused the electrode to feed out. The electrode will feed slowly as long as the inch switch is pressed. It is often used when loading new coil or spool of wire. Used purge switch if you want to manually control the flow of shielding gas. Press the purge switch and the shielding gas will flow.

Welding Gun Equipment of welding guns is GMAW gun, shielding gas carrier and nozzle and wire carrier. This combination cable assembly on a gun carries electricity, electrode and shielding gas. To setup the welding gun, firstly make a electrical contact with the electrode. If the contacts make a spark then you direct the shielding gas to the work piece. Use the switch to control the movement of wire feeder. Press the switch, the electrode wire will begins to feed. Shielding gas, electrical current and water will also turn on when the switch is pressed. When you released the switch, the wire and current stop immediately.

Shielding Gas Include argon, helium and carbon dioxide. Argon and helium are inert gases. The inert gas does not combine with the weld metal. Carbon dioxide and oxygen are active gas. Active gas will combine with the metal if given the chance. To setup the shielding gas, first check the gas. If the gas is finish, chance the gas with the new one. After that setting the shielding gas pressure, make the pressure of gas in 2000 psi (13.79MPa.). After setting the pressure of shielding gas, setting the meter of flow meter in 10-15 m.

2.2 Shutting Down MIG Welding Station.

The proper sequence must be followed to properly shut down a GMAW welding station: 1. Adjust the flow meter so that shielding gas does not flow. 2. Close the cylinder valve by turning clockwise or close the valve on the manifold. 3. Readjust the flow meter to allow shielding gas to flow. 4. Press the purge switch on the wire feeder to remove all shielding gas from the hose. 5. Turn off the wire feeder. 6. Turn off the welding machine. 7. Coil the connected cable to the welding gun, then the ground cable. Place cable where they will not get damaged.

2.3 Fix Adjustment Of Welding, Wire Root And Shielding Gas.

Welding Machine
a constant voltage welding machine is used for MIG. The machine is plugged into an electrical outlet. Shielding gas is connected to the welding machine. Connect the host from the flow meter to the proper place on the welding machine. Placed on top

of the welding machine when use a separate wire feeder. The wire feeder is then connected to the machine. Connect the wire feeder to the remote contactor control on the welding machine, using the correct cable.

Wire Root
Step to adjustment the wire root or wire feeder. First, select the type of electrode wire to be used. Mount the spool of electrode wire on the write spool hub. Secure the spool on the hub so it does not fall off during operation. Next check that the groove in the drive rolls are the correct size for diameter of the electrode wire. Install the proper size drive rolls so that the correct size groove align with electrode wire. Swing the pressure roll of the wire. Push the end of the electrode wire through the inlet wire guide. Feed the wire into the grooves of the drives roll, then through the outlet wire guide directly in front of the drive roll. Swing the pressure roll back into position to complete the adjustment. Removing the bird nest, firstly raising the pressure roll and cutting the wire both sides of it. After that, put your hand over the wire as you cut to prevent it from flying and causing injury. Pull all the electrode wire out of the cable connected to the gun. Check the wire coming from the spool to make sure it is not bent or twisted. Remove any twisted wire. Feed new electrode wire through the wire guides and into cable connected to the welding gun. Secure the pressure roll into position . pull the gun trigger the inch switch to feed the electrode wire to the gun. When the wire comes out the contact tube, you can continue your welding again.

Shielding Gas
Adjusting shielding gas, first open the valve. Turn the adjusting screw on the flow meter so no gas flows. The screw turned counterclockwise. Then slowly open the cylinder valve. If the flow meter is open when the cylinder valve is opened, high pressure from the gas in the cylinder may damage it. Set the flow rate after opening the rate after opening the cylinder valve. Shielding gas must be following when adjusting the flow meter. Press the purge switch if the welding machine has one. this cause the gas to flow. Another way to start gas flowing is to set the post flow adjustment for 15-20 second and pull the gun trigger for one second or less. Do not strike an arc. Shielding gas will flow for a while so the flow rate can be adjusted. While gas is flowing, turn the adjusting screw until the flow meter indicates the correct flow rate. The flow rate is indicated by the top of the ball on a ball-float flow meter, or by a needle on a gauge flow meter.

3. Perform of Technique for MIG welding for mine steel.

There are four techniques that we use in welding MIG. First make a two run in the flat welding position, second welding a butt joint in the horizontal welding position, third welding fillet in the horizontal welding position and lastly welding a T joint in horizontal welding position.

Two running weld in the flat welding position.

1. Take the mine steel and put them in flat position on the table.
2. Made a one running weld on the surface of mine steel. Make sure the distance

between area of weld and the side of mine steel are 5cm. 3. repeat step 2. 4. Let the mine steel cold.

Welding Butt Joint In The Horizontal Position

1. Tack weld the two mine steel. Make sure tack weld at the last side of the joint.
2. The joint of two mine steel must have a small distance or key hole. Thats

because the small distance can make a full penetration at the backside of mine steel. 3. After tack weld, clam the butt joint mine steel in position horizontal. 4. Weld it. And make sure the welding is penetrating at backside of mine steel.
5. After finish, let them cold in a few minute.

Welding fillet in the horizontal welding position

1. Tack weld the butt joint mine steel with another one mine steel. Make sure tack

at the lap position. Tack weld at the last side of joint. The distance must be at 5 cm from side to side.

2. After tack weld, clam the lap joint mine steel in position horizontal. 3. Weld it in horizontal position. 4. After finish weld, let them cold in a few minute.

Weld a T Joint In Horizontal Welding Position

1. Clean an edge on one piece and a surface on other piece. 2. Set the voltage, wire feed speed and shielding gas flow rate. 3. Place the clean edge on the clean surface to form T joint. Tack weld the joint in 3 places on each side of joint. 4. Clam position the piece in a welding positioned for horizontal welding. 5. Make a fillet weld in the horizontal welding position. 6. After finish let the mine steel cold in few minutes.

1. TUNGSTEN INERT GAS (TIG/GTAW)

1.1 Fundamentals of TIG

A process that join metals together by heating them with an arc between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the work. The electrode and weld area are shielded with the inert gas. Filler metals are used.

The arc struck is produce in this TIG process. The tungsten electrode does not melt and become part of the weld. The tungsten electrode and the molten weld pool must be protected from the atmosphere while welding. Oxygen in atmosphere cause the electrode and base metal to oxide. An inert gas is used to shield the arc area from atmosphere. Inert gas do not react with the electrode, arc or molten weld metal. GTAW is considered to be a very clean process, since oxygen kept away from the electrode and the molten metal.

2.

IMPLEMENT OF OPERATION & MAINTENANCE

2.1 setting up welding equipment MIG

GTAW Machine

To setup the welding machine, firstly you must turn on their switch. After that turn on the switch of GTAW power supply and choose the DC mode. After the GTAW power supply had turn on, push the button setting of weld or gas to gas mode. The gas mode, help us to setting how much gas pressure that we needed. Setting the pressure gauge into 2 kPa and flow meter between 15 or 10 meter. After setting, push the button setting into mode weld. Before do a welding, you must set the voltage in adjustment voltage knob. Set the voltage into volt. The volt is a volt ideal for help make the weld pool become flatter and more fluid.

Torches

To set up the torches firstly separate collect and collect body are needed for each diameter. Choose the correct size collet and collet body for the electrodes diameter. Thread the collect body into the torch body. Slide the collect into the collet body from the top of the torch. Thread an end cap with an O-ring loosely into the torch body. Do not tighten the end cap yet. Select the gas nozzle you will be using. Thread it into the torch body. A noozle is also called cup. Insert the electrode into the collet. When correctly inserted, the electrode will extend past the end of the gas cup only a short distance. The distance depends on the type of joint weld.

Shielding gas
inert gas does not react with weld . two types of shielding gas are used : argon and helium. Each gas can be used by itself. The argon is easier to start and maintain an arc with argon. Helium provide for faster travel speeds. To setup the shielding gas, first check the gas. If the gas is finish, chance the gas with the new one. After that setting the shielding gas pressure, make the pressure of gas in 2000 psi (13.79MPa.). After setting the pressure of shielding gas, setting the meter of flow meter in 10-15 m.

2.2 Shutting Down TIG Welding Station

The proper sequence must be followed to properly shut down a GMAW welding station: 1. Adjust the flow meter so that shielding gas does not flow.

2. Close the cylinder valve by turning clockwise or close the valve on the manifold. 3. Readjust the flow meter to allow shielding gas to flow.

4. Press the purge switch on the wire feeder to remove all shielding gas from the hose.

5.

Turn off the cooling water inlet. Turn off the welding machine.

6.

7. Coil the connected cable to the welding gun, then the ground cable. Place cable where they will not get damaged

2.3 Fix Adjustment Of Welding, Torch and Fillet Rod And Shielding Gas.

Welding machine
To make a welding first you must plugged the machine into an electrical outlet. Shielding gas is connected to the welding machine. Adjust the voltage of machine about to 115 V or 220 V. That because this voltages are the ideal voltages. After that threaded the water and shielding gas connection. The Threaded connection help prevent leaks. Use the proper size wrench to tighten these connection

Torch and Fillet Rod


There are many problems in torch will during the welding. Such example, the collet is not sharp. So to make them more efficient, the collet must be sharpener in the collet sharpener. The torch or nozzle must use coolant nozzle. That because it can cold the nozzle from be hotter. Fillet metal is need to make joint. To make joint with the fillet rod, first you must make a spark first. Then after a spark immersed take a fillet. The position of fillet rod must in 175 degree. Thats can help easier the filler rod become melt with the pool.

Shielding gas

Adjusting shielding gas, first open the valve. Turn the adjusting screw on the flow meter so no gas flows. The screw turned counterclockwise. Then slowly open the cylinder valve. If the flow meter is open when the cylinder valve is opened, high pressure from the gas in the cylinder may damage it. Set the flow rate after opening the rate after opening the cylinder valve. Shielding gas must be following when adjusting the flow meter. Press the purge switch if the welding machine has one. this cause the gas to flow. Another way to start gas flowing is to set the post flow adjustment for 15-20 second and pull the gun trigger for one second or less. Do not strike an arc. Shielding gas will flow for a while so the flow rate can be adjusted. While gas is flowing, turn the adjusting screw until the flow meter indicates the correct flow rate. The flow rate is indicated by the top of the ball on a ball-float flow meter, or by a needle on a gauge flow meter

3. Perform of Technique for MIG welding for mine steel.

There are four techniques that we use in welding MIG. First make a two run in the flat welding position, second welding a butt joint in the horizontal welding position, third welding fillet in the horizontal welding position and lastly welding a T joint in horizontal welding position.

Two running weld in the flat welding position.

5.
6.

Take the mine steel and put them in flat position on the table.

Made a one running weld on the surface of mine steel with fillet rod. Make sure the distance between area of weld and the side of mine steel are 5cm. 7. 8. repeat step 2. Let the mine steel cold.

Welding Butt Joint In The Horizontal Position

1.

Tack weld the two mine steel. Make sure tack weld at the last side of the joint.

2. The joint of two mine steel must have a small distance or key hole. Thats because the small distance can make a full penetration at the backside of mine steel. 3. After tack weld, clam the butt joint mine steel in position horizontal.

Weld it with fillet rod. And make sure the welding is penetrating at backside of mine steel.
4.

5.

After finish, let them cold in a few minute.

Welding fillet in the horizontal welding position

1. Tack weld the butt joint mine steel with another one mine steel. Make sure tack at the lap position. Tack weld at the last side of joint. The distance must be at 5 cm from side to side. 2.
3.

After tack weld, clam the lap joint mine steel in position horizontal. Weld it with fillet rod in horizontal position. After finish weld, let them cold in a few minute.

4.

Weld a T Joint In Horizontal Welding Position

1. 2.

Clean an edge on one piece and a surface on other piece. Set the voltage, wire feed speed and shielding gas flow rate.

3. Place the clean edge on the clean surface to form T joint. Tack weld the joint in 3 places on each side of joint. 4. Clam position the piece in a welding positioned for horizontal welding. 5. Make a fillet weld in the horizontal welding position. 6. After finish let the mine steel cold in few minutes.