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Practical 3

Aim: Study of mini EPBX exchange by observing various signaling waveforms for operation. Equipment: EPBX kit, DSO, telephone handsets. Theory:
Need of EPBX: EPBX (Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange) is used for handling high volume of calls with great ease in order to serve telephone equipment in offices. The EPBX facility is widely used in private offices and organizations to enhance the operation of the telephony in them. The traditional electromechanical switchboard or exchange has given a way to SPC (Stored Program Controlled) EPBX. It provides a wide range of voice communication, data switching facilities. Each telephone handset connected to EPBX is effectively as powerful as a voice or data terminal. Enhanced services provided by EPBX: Abbreviated Dialing, Recorded number calls, Call back, Call forwarding, Operator answer, Call waiting, Conference calls, Automatic alarm, STD barring, Malicious call tracing etc. Automatic Exchange System: The automatic exchange system provides the base for telephone communication. When a subscriber makes a call, the exchange has to do following things: Locate & identify the calling line. Give the signal to proceed. Determine how and where to get access to it. Locate & test numerous transmission paths leading to it. Select & link up the most appropriate combination of these paths. Then, if it is not in the use, ring the called telephone.

Block Diagram:

Figure 1.EPBX Block Diagram

Description of Hardware:
Power Supply: Battery Feed: It provides 24V dc power supply to subscribers telephone, signaling to and from the telephone set, low dc resistance & high ac impedance. Over voltage protection: It prevents damage to the equipment & personnel due to lightening surges of around 1000V or induced voltages from (or short circuits to) utility electrical lines. Ringing Generator: It provides ringing signal to the subscriber. The EPBX applies ringing signal to the line after switching has completed the connection. This is normally done by hybrid coil that energized by using semiconductor circuit. The ringing signal is 135V rms at 20Hz. Supervision: It detects the service requests by detecting the presence or absence of current in the loop.

DTMF Tone Generator: DTMF tone generator is responsible for generating the appropriate tones. This is connected to the DTMF tone receiver. Tones & Signals Generated by EPBX: Different types of tones are used for control & status indication. These tones may be single frequency or combination of frequencies which are analog signals, either continuous tones or tone bursts. The call progress tones are sent by the exchange to the calling phone to inform the caller about the status of the call.

For example, dial tone is a continuous tone made by combining 350Hz & 440Hz frequencies. Busy tone is a combination tone that appears in bursts of 0.5 seconds on timeseparated by an off time of 0.5 seconds. DTMF Receiver and Decoder: Receiving & decoding DTMF tones at EPBX is not as easy as generating DTMF tones. But since these tones are used for low-speed data transmission, this drawback is not that much serious. The DTMF receiver does the following things: Detect the tone-pair signal properly. Make sure that one & only one tone is present from each group of duration of at least 40ms. Detect two separate signals having duration difference of 35ms or greater. Detect the tone-pair signal as one. Differentiate DTMF tones from speech & noise.

Switching System: The switching in EPBX system is done automatically by the processor. Stored Program Control: The switching of connections is done by the program stored in the central processor. This is known as Stored Program Control (SPC). Almost all the logical functions of EPBX are converted into processor software. This helps in minimization of hardware. Switching Matrix: It connects one peripheral to another one. Under the control of dialed digits, it routes the call to its final destination. In crossbar switching, electromechanical switches like relays were used. Electronic switching is achieved by thyristors (SCR). Its cost effectiveness allowed non-blocking matrices to be produced and thus reduced need of matrix engineering.

EPBX system makes use of PCM time division multiplexed switching. The heart of the system is microprocessor with general computing in the form of SPC.

Procedure:
1) Connect the handsets to different EXT lines (EXT 20 to EXT 23). 2) Connect the probe at different test points on the kit. And observe the waveforms on DSO. 3) For observing some waveforms, call has to be made. For making a call, observe which line the handset to be called is connected to and dial the necessary number.

Observations: The different waveforms were observed and are plotted. Conclusion:
Thus, different types of signaling tones are observed.