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Section A [60 marks] Answer all questions in this section. 1.

Diagram 1 shows the apparatus set-up to study the electrolysis of copper(II) sulphate solution using carbon electrodes P and Q.

Diagram 1 (a) Write the formula of all the ions present in copper(II) sulphate solution. ... [1 mark] (b) State the observation at carbon electrode Q. ... [1 mark] (c) Explain the change in the colour intensity of the copper(II) sulphate solution as the reaction progresses. ... ... ... [2 marks] (d) Write the half equation for the reaction that takes place at electrode P and Q. ... ... [2 marks]

(e) If the experiment is repeated using copper electrodes, state the changes that occurs at the (i) Anode .. (ii) Cathode .. [2 marks] (f) A student wants to electroplate a spoon with copper metal by electrolysis. Draw a labeled diagram to show the apparatus arrangement used by the student.

[2 marks]

2. Diagram 2 shows the experimental set-up for the reaction where electrons are transferred through a distance.

Diagram 2 (a) What is the function of the galvanometer in the experiment? ... [1 mark]

(b) Draw the direction of electron flow in the diagram. Label electrodes A and B as positive or negative terminals. [1 mark] (c) State the colour change that takes place at the (i) Acidified potassium dichromate(VI) solution .

(ii) Potassium iodide solution . [2 marks] (d) Write the half-equation for the reaction that takes place at (i) Electrode A (ii) Electrode B [2 marks] (e) State the oxidizing and reducing agent in this reaction. Oxidizing agent: ........................................................................................................................ Reducing agent: [2 marks] (f) (i) What is the function of dilute sulphuric acid? [2 marks] (ii) If 0.05 mol dm-3 potassium sulphate solution is used to replace dilute sulphuric acid, what is the change that takes place with respect to the reading of the galvanometer? Explain why. .... [2 marks]

3. Diagram 3 shows the apparatus set-up for the heating of lead(II) carbonate powder. The gas released in this experiment turns limewater milky.

Diagram 3 (a) What is the gas released in this experiment? .. [1 mark] (b) State the colour of the residue in the test tube when it is hot and when it is cold in the table below. Colour of residue Hot Cold

[2 marks] (c) Write a balanced chemical equation for the heating process shown in Diagram 3. .. .. [1 mark] (d) 5.34 g of lead(II) carbonate, PbCO3 are heated during this experiment. Calculate the volume of gas released at room conditions. [Relative atomic mass: C, 12; O,16; Pb, 207; 1 mole of gas occupies 24 dm3 at room conditions]

[2 marks] 5

(e) The residue in the test tube is reacted with substance Y to produce lead(II) nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, solution. (i) What is substance Y? .. [1 mark] What is the number of moles of ions in one mole of lead(II) nitrate? .. [1 mark] (iii) State the anions that are present in lead(II) nitrate solution. . [1 mark] 4. Diagram 4 shows the symbols of the atoms of element X and element Y. The letters used are not the actual symbols of the elements.

(ii)

Diagram 4 (a) State the proton number of the atom of element Y. ... [1 mark] (b) (i) Identify the position of element Y in the Periodic Table of Elements. . [1 mark] (ii) Explain why element Y is placed at the position identified in 5(b)(i). . . [1 mark] (c) (i) The reaction between element Y and oxygen is more vigorous than the reaction between element X and oxygen. Explain this using ideas about valence electron. . . . [2 marks] 6

(ii)

Draw a labeled diagram to show the apparatus set-up that can be used to determine the reactivity of the reaction between element X or element Y and oxygen gas.

[2 marks] (d) 2.3 g of element X reacted completely with oxygen. The following equation represents the reaction. [Relative atomic mass: X, 23; O, 16] 4X (s) + O2 (g) (i) Calculate the number of moles of element X. 2X2O (s)

[1 mark]

(ii)

Calculate the maximum mass of X2O formed.

[3 marks] 5. (a) What is the meaning of heat of combustion of an alcohol? . . [1 mark] (b) Table 5.1 shows the heat of combustion of three types of alcohol. The number of carbon atoms and the attractive force between the molecules are among the factors that affect the value of the heat of combustion.

Name of alcohol Methanol Ethanol Propanol

Molecular formula CH3OH C2H5OH C3H7OH Table 5.1

Heat of combustion/kJ mol-1 725 1376 2015

(i)

Use data from Table 5 to draw the graph of the heat of combustion against the number of carbon atoms on the graph below. [2 marks]

2000

(ii)

Based on the graph in (b)(i), the value of heat of combustion increases with the number of carbon atoms. Explain why. [2 marks]

(iii)

Calculate the heat released when 2.3 g of ethanol is completely burnt in air. Use the formula given below: Heat released = Number of moles X heat of combustion [Relative atomic mass: C, 12; H, 1; O, 16]

[2 marks] (c) Methanol and ethanol do not have isomers. Propanol has two isomers. Draw the structures of the two isomers of propanol and name the isomers.

[3 marks] (d) Table 5.2 shows the freezing points and the boiling points of mercury, methanol, ethanol and butanol. Substance Mercury Methanol Ethanol Butanol Freezing point/C -39 -97 -117 -90 Table 5.2 9 Boiling point/C 357 64 79 117

A thermometer may contain mercury or an alcohol. A mercury thermometer cannot be used to measure temperatures around 100C. Name a suitable alcohol that can be used in a thermometer to measure temperatures around -100C. Give one reason for your choice. Name of alcohol : .. Reason : ...................................................................................................................... [2 marks] 6. Diagram 6 shows how ammonium sulphate is produced. Process X

Sulphuric acid Reaction P Ammonium sulphate

Process Y

Ammonia Diagram 6

(a) Process X and process Y are industrial processes. What are the names of each of these processes? Process X: Process Y: [2 marks] (b) What are the three raw materials needed for process X? ... [3 marks] (c) (i) Write a balanced chemical equation for reaction P. ... [2 marks]

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(ii) Use the answer in 2(c)(i) to determine the number of moles of sulphuric acid and the number of moles of ammonia used to produce 1 mol of ammonium sulphate. Sulphuric acid: Ammonia : [2 marks]

(d) State one use of ammonium sulphate. [1 mark]

Section B [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. 7 (a) Table 7 shows some information about three members of a homologous series. Member of homologous series Ethanol Propanol Butanol Boiling point/C 78 97 118 Preparation C2H4 + H2O C3H6 + H2O C4H8 + H2O Table 7 Based on Table 7, explain three characteristics of a homologous series. [6 marks] (b) The following information is about an organic compound X. Empirical formula is CH2O Relative molecular mass is 60 Reacts with calcium carbonate to produce a type of gas that turns limewater chalky C2H5OH C3H7OH C4H9OH Oxidation product Ethanoic acid Propanoic acid Butanoic acid

Based on the information given: (i) Determine the molecular formula of X. [Relative atomic mass: C, 12; H, 1; O, 16] [2 marks] (ii) State the name of the homologous series for X and explain your answer. [2 marks] 11

(iii) Write a balanced chemical equation for the reaction of compound X with calcium carbonate. [2 marks] (c) Diagram 7 shows the structural formulae of hydrocarbon of compounds P and Q. H H C H C H H

H C

H C H

Compound P

H H Compound Q

Diagram 7 (i) Compare and contrast compound P and compound Q based on their structures. [4 marks] (ii) Compound P can be converted into compound Q. Name the chemical reaction that transforms compound P into compound Q and write the balanced chemical equation for the reaction. [4 marks] 8. (a) The reactivity of alkali metals increases down the group in the order: lithium < sodium < potassium Explain this trend in terms of atomic size and ease of losing the valence electron. [7 marks] (b) Rubidium(Rb) is placed below potassium in the Periodic Table of Elements. It has the electron configuration 2.8.18.8.1. Predict three physical properties and three chemical properties of rubidium. Include relevant chemical equations to explain the chemical properties. [10 marks] (c) The nucleon number and the neutron number of sodium and chlorine are as follows: Element Sodium Chlorine Nucleon number 23 35 Number of neutrons 12 18

Prove that sodium and chlorine belong to the same period in the Periodic Table of Elements. [3 marks]

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Section C [20 marks] Answer any one question from this section. 9. (a) Diagram 9 shows the apparatus and observations for a redox reaction between iron(III) chloride solution and a metal.

Yellow solution of iron(III) chloride Metal

Green solution

At the beginning of the experiment

After 30 minutes

Diagram 9 Based on the observation shown in Diagram 9, suggest a suitable metal to be used in the experiment. Predict the ion present in the green solution and explain the answer based on the following aspects: The change in oxidation number for both the reactants The type of reaction that has occurred to each reactant The role of each reactant in the redox reaction The half-equations involved in the redox reaction [10 marks] (b) Using suitable examples, explain why precipitation reaction in the preparation of insoluble salts and neutralisation reaction in the preparation of soluble salts are not redox reactions. [3 marks] (c) With the aid of diagram and equations, explain how rusting of iron occurs in the presence of water and oxygen gas. Include the half-equations for the oxidation process and reduction process of rusting and the equations to describe the formation of rust. [7 marks] 10. (a) Hydrochloric acid and zinc metal was used to prepare hydrogen gas in the laboratory. Suggest two ways to speed up the preparation of gas. [2 marks] Name one chemical process and its catalyst used in industry. 13 [2 marks]

(b)

(c)

Two experiments were carried out to investigate the rate of reaction between hydrochloric acid and zinc. Experiment 1 2 Zinc Granulated, excess Granulated, excess Hydrochloric acid 20 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm-3 20 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm-3 Temperature /C 30 30 Copper(II) sulphate None A few drops

(i) Write the chemical equation for the reaction between zinc and hydrochloric acid. Calculate the maximum volume of hydrogen gas produced in both experiments. [Molar volume: 24 dm3 mol-1 at room conditions] [4 marks] (ii) Sketch the graphs of volume of hydrogen gas collected over time for Experiment 1 and Experiment 2 using the same axes. Label the graphs. [4 marks] (iii) Compare the rate of reactions between the two experiments. Use the collision theory to explain the difference between the rate of reactions for both experiments. [4 marks] (d) For further investigation, another two experiments are carried out. Experiment 3 4 Zinc Granulated, excess Granulated, excess Hydrochloric acid 20 cm3 of 0.05 mol dm-3 20 cm3 of 0.10 mol dm-3 Temperature /C 30 40 Copper(II) sulphate None A few drops

Sketch the graphs of volume of hydrogen gas collected over time for Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 using the same axes. Label the graphs. [4 marks] --------------------------------------------End of question paper-------------------------------------------Prepared by, .. (Ms Lau Lyn Xi) Chemistry teacher Endorsed by, (Pn Khoo Gek Ean) Head of Science

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