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# INT

What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to the nearest whole number. Syntax =INT(Number) Example Table 1 calculates the age of four people but the decimal points are unsightly Table 1 Birth Date Today's Date 1-Jan-80 6-Jul-07 5-Feb-81 6-Jul-07 20-Oct-79 6-Jul-07 1-Nov-81 6-Jul-07

## Age 27.50992 26.41205 27.70979 25.67556

Table 2 shows the same calculation formatted to zero decimals The issue is that certain ages are rounded up, giving us incorrect ages Table 2 Birth Date Term Start Age 1-Jan-80 6-Jul-07 28 5-Feb-81 6-Jul-07 26 20-Oct-79 6-Jul-07 28 1-Mar-81 6-Jul-07 26 Table 3 shows the age calculation with the INT function

## Term Start 6-Jul-07 6-Jul-07 6-Jul-07 6-Jul-07

Age 27 26 27 26

ROUND
Places To Rounded Round Number 0 1 1 1.5 2 1.48

## Number 1.47589 1.47589 1.47589

What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number to a specified amount 0f decimal places. If 0 is used the number is rounded to the nearest whole number. Syntax =ROUND(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)

ROUNDDOWN
Places To Rounded Round Down 0 1 1 1.4 2 1.47 -1 13640 -2 13600 -3 13000

## Number 1.47589 1.47589 1.47589 13643.48 13643.48 13643.48

What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number down to a specified amount of decimal places. Syntax =ROUNDDOWN(NumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)

ROUNDUP
Places To Rounded Round Up 0 2 1 1.5 2 1.48 -1 13650 -2 13700 -3 14000

## Number 1.47589 1.47589 1.47589 13643.48 13643.48 13643.48

What Does It Do ? This function rounds a number up to a specified amount of decimal places. Syntax =ROUNDUPNumberToRound,DecimalPlacesToUse)

ABS
What Does it Do ? This function calculates the value of a number, irrespective of whether it is positive or negative. This means that a number can be usually negative or positive, depending on its position from 0. In some operations, the number considered will need to be only positive even if it is provided in a negative format. Syntax =ABS(CellAddress or Number) Example In calculating the difference between the Required Length and the Actual Length, it does not matter if length is too long or short, the measurement needs to be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 shows the original calculations. Whether length is too long or short, the percentage should still be expressed as an absolute value. Table 1 Required Length 120 120 120

## Actual Length 120 90 150

Difference 0 -30 30

## Error Percentage 0% -25% 25%

Table 2 shows the same data but using the =ABS() function to correct the calculations. Table 2 Required Length 120 120 120

## Actual Length 120 90 150

Difference 0 -30 30

## or negative. ng on its position positive even if it

SUBTOTAL
What Does it Do ? Returns a subtotal for a filtered list or database based on a designated function number. Syntax =SUBTOTAL(Function Number, Cell Reference,...) Example Apply a filter to the table below. You will note that the SUBTOTAL functions reflect the correct calculations for the visible items. The standard functions reflect the calculations for the entire table, regardless of filtering. Function_num Function (includes hidden values) SubTotal Function Standard Functions 1,754 1,754 1 AVERAGE 42 42 2 COUNT 3,661 3,661 4 MAX 868 868 5 MIN 73,662 73,662 9 SUM

Market Asia Australia Northern Europe South America Southern Europe United Kingdom United States Asia Australia Northern Europe South America Southern Europe United Kingdom United States Asia Australia Northern Europe South America Southern Europe United Kingdom United States Asia Australia Northern Europe South America Southern Europe United Kingdom United States Asia

SalesPeriod P01 P01 P01 P01 P01 P01 P01 P02 P02 P02 P02 P02 P02 P02 P03 P03 P03 P03 P03 P03 P03 P04 P04 P04 P04 P04 P04 P04 P05

Revenue \$301,051.09 \$311,228.17 \$744,090.63 \$346,466.06 \$461,854.86 \$845,890.51 \$519,995.71 \$540,548.06 \$500,139.54 \$1,439,830.91 \$474,503.66 \$904,641.77 \$1,331,700.63 \$918,489.77 \$302,328.69 \$307,911.83 \$721,271.54 \$379,841.89 \$398,861.77 \$802,043.83 \$447,976.91 \$376,819.20 \$402,739.31 \$1,092,356.80 \$371,578.74 \$679,377.03 \$1,008,749.49 \$702,796.97 \$496,905.26

UnitsSold 893.00 875.00 1921.00 1001.00 1253.00 2182.00 1420.00 1508.00 1442.00 3661.00 1329.00 2490.00 3388.00 2495.00 885.00 868.00 1855.00 1097.00 1073.00 2051.00 1237.00 1070.00 1151.00 2813.00 1058.00 1889.00 2593.00 1915.00 1396.00

Australia Northern Europe South America Southern Europe United Kingdom United States Asia Australia Northern Europe South America Southern Europe United Kingdom United States

P05 P05 P05 P05 P05 P05 P06 P06 P06 P06 P06 P06 P06

\$407,883.89 \$1,081,709.09 \$467,107.60 \$766,770.74 \$1,028,679.26 \$762,330.23 \$389,131.14 \$429,182.97 \$1,116,716.97 \$409,870.74 \$729,371.54 \$1,064,273.20 \$642,634.69

1181.00 2761.00 1339.00 2091.00 2618.00 2066.00 1098.00 1195.00 2869.00 1165.00 2004.00 2714.00 1752.00

IF
What Does It Do? This function tests a condition. If the condition is met it is considered to be TRUE. If the condition is not met it is considered as FALSE. Depending upon the result, one of two actions will be carried out. Syntax =IF(Condition,ActionIfTrue,ActionIfFalse) The Condition is usually a test of two cells, such as A1=A2. The ActionIfTrue and ActionIfFalse can be numbers, text or calculations. Example 1 The following table shows the Sales figures and Targets. The =IF() function is used to compare the Sales with the Target. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target the result of Achieved is shown. If the Sales do not reach the target the result of Not Achieved is shown. Note that the text used in the =IF() function needs to be placed in double quotes "Achieved". Name Rep 1 Rep 1 Rep 1 Rep 1 Sales 1000 6000 2600 2000 Target 5000 5000 2500 4000 Result Not Achieved Achieved Achieved Not Achieved

Example 2 The following table is similar to that in Example 1. This time the Commission to be paid to the sales rep is calculated. If the Sales are greater than or equal to the Target, the Commission is 10% of Sales. If the Sales do not reach Target, the Commission is only 5% of Sales. Name Rep 1 Rep 1 Rep 1 Rep 1 Sales 1000 6000 2600 2000 Target 5000 5000 2500 4000 % of Target Achieved Commission -80% No Commision 20% 900 4% 260 -50% No Commision

AND
What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if they are all true. It can be used to test that a series of numbers meet certain conditions. It can be used to test that a number or a date falls between an upper and lower limit. Normally the AND() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Syntax =AND(Test1,Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Example 1 The following example shows a list of people and their hair/eye color Can you find the person with your Hair and Eye Color? Name Allen Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Mark Mike Hair Blonde Red Blonde Brown Red Black Red Blonde Black Black Brown Brown Eyes Blue Brown Brown Blue Blue Brown Blue Blue Blue Blue Brown Blue Brown Hair and Blue Eyes FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE FALSE TRUE

Name Allen Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Mark Mike

Hair Blonde Red Blonde Brown Red Black Red Blonde Black Black Brown Brown

Eyes Blue Brown Brown Blue Blue Brown Blue Blue Blue Blue Brown Blue

Brown Hair and Blue Eyes No Match No Match No Match Match No Match No Match No Match No Match No Match No Match No Match Match

OR
What Does It Do? This function tests two or more conditions to see if any of them are true. It can be used to test that at least one of a series of numbers meets certain conditions. Normally the OR() function would be used in conjunction with a function such as =IF(). Syntax =OR(Test1,Test2) Note that there can be up to 30 possible tests. Example The following example shows a list of people and their hair/eye color

Name Allen Bob Carol David Eric Fred Gail Harry Ian Janice Mark Mike

Hair Blonde Red Blonde Brown Red Black Red Blonde Black Black Brown Brown

Eyes Blue Brown Brown Blue Blue Brown Blue Blue Blue Blue Brown Blue

Red Hair or Brown Hair FALSE TRUE FALSE FALSE TRUE TRUE TRUE FALSE TRUE TRUE FALSE FALSE

## ertain conditions. on such as =IF().

LEFT
What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the left hand side of a piece of text. Syntax =LEFT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired) Example Convert these 9 digit postal codes into 5 digit postal codes. Zip 70056-2343 75023-5774 55403-9986 90210-8867 Zip 70056 75023 55403 90210

RIGHT
What Does It Do ? This function displays a specified number of characters from the right hand side of a piece of text. Syntax =RIGHT(OriginalText,NumberOfCharactersRequired) Example Extract the phone number without the area code Phone (214)887-7765 (703)654-2180 (504)887-7767 (514)887-7768 Phone 887-7765 654-2180 887-7767 887-7768

MID
What Does It Do ? This function picks out a piece of text from the middle of a text entry. The function needs to know at what point it should start, and how many characters to pick. If the number of characters to pick exceeds what is available, only the available characters will be picked. Syntax =MID(OriginalText,PositionToStartPicking,NumberOfCharactersToPick) Example Convert these phone numbers into the correct format (xxx)xxx-xxxx.

## Job Code 2901105 4351006 2214001 5542075 4431443 1113543

Job Level 1 1 4 2 1 3

UPPER
What Does It Do ? These functions change the case of a given text string Syntax =UPPER(Cell Reference or Text) =LOWER(Cell Reference or Text) =PROPER(Cell Reference or Text) Example Name MiKe's CoFFee Upper Case MIKE'S COFFEE

LOWER

PROPER

## Proper Case Mike'S Coffee

TRIM
What Does It Do ? This function removes unwanted spaces from a piece of text. The spaces before and after the text will be removed completely. Multiple spaces within the text will be trimmed to a single space Syntax =TRIM(TextToTrim)

Example Original Text ABCD A B C D Alan Jones ABCD Trimmed Text ABCD ABCD Alan Jones ABCD

COUNT
What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric entries in a list. It will ignore blanks, text and errors. Syntax =COUNT(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30) Example Item Bricks Wood Glass Metal Count Jan 1000 2000 1000 3 Feb 5000 1000 2 0 Mar

COUNTA
What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of numeric or text entries in a list. It will ignore blanks. Syntax =COUNTA(Range1,Range2,Range3... through to Range30) Example The =COUNTA() function has been used because of its ability to count text and numeric entries.

English

Art 1 3 1 Fail 2

History

1 1 3

1 Fail

## Exams Taken By Each Student 2 3 3 2 4

How many students passed each exam. Math English Art History 4 3 5 2

COUNTBLANK
What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of blank cells in a range. Syntax =COUNTBLANK(RangeToTest) Example Admin Y Accounts N Y Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y Personnel N N N Y Y 16

Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10

N Y Y N Y

Y N N N

## Departments with no Surveys

Departments Surveyed 2 1 4 1 2 0 2 0 3 1

COUNTIF
What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of items which match criteria set by the user. Syntax =COUNTIF(RangeOfThingsToBeCounted,CriteriaToBeMatched) The criteria can be typed in any of the following ways. To match a specific number type the number, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,100) To match a piece of text type the text in quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,"Hello") To match using operators surround the expression with quotes, such as =COUNTIF(A1:A5,">100") Example Count If Entries for Monday Entries Not equal to Monday Count number of entries for Mr. Black Less than 200 Counts numbers greater than the average Counts numbers equal to 255

Employee Redd Yellow Black Whyte Redd Yellow Black Whyte Redd Yellow Black Whyte Redd Yellow Black Whyte Redd Yellow Black Whyte

Weekday Mon Mon Mon Mon Tue Tue Tue Tue Wed Wed Wed Wed Thur Thur Thur Thur Fri Fri Fri Fri

Production 200 251 240 175 255 180 230 195 202 215 176 199 150 200 220 230 240 260 245 255

4 16 5 6 11 2

1:A5,">100")

COUNTIFS
What Does It Do ? This function counts the number of cells within a range that meet multiple criteria. Syntax =COUNTIFS(RangeToTest, CriteriaToBeMatched) Example Admin Y Accounts N Y

Factory 1 Factory 2 Factory 3 Factory 4 Factory 5 Factory 6 Factory 7 Factory 8 Factory 9 Factory 10

N Y Y N Y How many departments in Factory 6 said yes. How many departments said yes in both Factory 6 and 8. How many departments said no in Factory 6, 8, and 10

Y N N N 3 1 0

Production Y N Y Y Y Y Y

Personnel N N N Y Y

VLOOKUP
What Does It Do ? This function scans down the row headings at the side of a table to find a specified item. When the item is found, it then scans across to pick a cell entry. Syntax =VLOOKUP(ItemToFind,RangeToLookIn,ColumnToPickFrom,SortedOrUnsorted) The ItemToFind is a single item specified by the user. The RangeToLookIn is the range of data with the row headings at the left hand side. The ColumnToPickFrom is how far across the table the function should look to pick from. The Sorted/Unsorted is whether the column headings are sorted. TRUE for yes, FALSE for no. Example 1 Match products with price in order to calculate the Total Amount

Invoice Date
37988 37988 37988 37988 37990 37990 37991 37991 37991 37991 37991 37991 37992 37992 37992 37992 37992 37992 37993 37993 37993 37993 37993 37993 37994 37994 37994 37994 37994 37994 37995 37995 37995 37995 37995 37995 37996

Product_Number
16000 30300 70700 87000 16000 30300 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 30300

Product_Description
Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Landscaping/Grounds Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Fleet Maintenance

37996 37998 37998 37998 37998 37998 37998 37999 37999 37999 37999 37999 37999 38000 38000 38000 38000 38000 38000 38001 38001 38001 38001 38001 38001 38002 38002 38002 38002 38002 38002 38003 38004 38005 38005 38005 38005 38005 38005 38006 38006 38006 38006 38006 38006 38007 38007 38007 38007 38007 38007 38008 38008 38008 38008

90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 16000 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150

Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Facility Maintenance and Repair Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services

38008 38008 38009 38009 38009 38009 38009 38009 38010 38010 38010 38012 38012 38012 38012 38012 38012 38013 38013 38013 38013 38013 38013 38014 38014 38014 38014 38014 38014 38015 38015 38015 38015 38015 38015 38016 38016 38016

87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830 16000 30300 70700

Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance

Price Table

## Qty Price per Svc Total Amount

41 10 24 37 13 21 551 507 742 72 340 329 540 625 653 271 255 453 621 486 700 87 224 408 729 646 681 181 228 321 605 504 583 207 529 327 21

Product_Number
16000 30300 70700 81150 87000 90830

13 453 644 728 108 399 337 415 547 716 52 297 281 413 619 710 168 408 284 438 497 643 124 302 167 606 515 446 102 353 307 8 5 260 244 292 28 168 132 304 395 283 73 239 185 321 491 324 78 229 193 511 457 465 71

135 80 249 274 328 57 201 120 27 12 24 269 481 253 89 161 210 398 382 356 109 154 133 348 394 344 33 162 133 423 406 289 22 202 170 483 290 133

Product_Description
Facility Maintenance and Repair Fleet Maintenance Predictive Maintenance/Preventative Maintenance Cleaning & Housekeeping Services Landscaping/Grounds Care Green Plants and Foliage Care