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Version 11.

Module 6
Basic Steelwork Design

Training Manual

PLEASE NOTE: AVEVA has a policy of continuing product development: therefore, the information contained in this document may be subject to change without notice. AVEVA MAKES NO WARRANTY OF ANY KIND WITH REGARD TO THIS DOCUMENT, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. While every effort has been made to verify the accuracy of this document, AVEVA shall not be liable for errors contained herein or direct, indirect, special, incidental or consequential damages in connection with the furnishing, performance or use of this material.

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Contents
Session 1 ...................................................................... 1-1
Setting Up the Database Hierarchy for Steelwork ..................................... 1-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 1-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 1-1 How PDMS Stores Design Data................................................................. 1-2 PDMS Names............................................................................................. 1-3 Starting the Structural Application .............................................................. 1-5 Exercise 1................................................................................................... 1-6

Session 2 ...................................................................... 2-1


Beams and Columns .................................................................................... 2-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 2-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 2-1 Design to Catalogue Cross-Referencing .................................................... 2-2 How PDMS Represents Structural Sections............................................... 2-2 Commonly Used Plines .............................................................................. 2-3 Initial Settings ............................................................................................. 2-4 Creating Sections ....................................................................................... 2-9 Connecting Sections ................................................................................ 2-16 Exercise 2A .............................................................................................. 2-20 Exercise 2B .............................................................................................. 2-25

Session 3 ...................................................................... 3-1


Modifying Structural Sections ..................................................................... 3-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 3-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 3-1 Positioning.................................................................................................. 3-2 Joint Freedom .......................................................................................... 3-10 Orientation................................................................................................ 3-11 Copying .................................................................................................... 3-15 Copying with Multiple Attached ................................................................ 3-18 Lists .......................................................................................................... 3-21 Exercise 3A .............................................................................................. 3-25 Exercise 3B .............................................................................................. 3-28 Exercise 3B .............................................................................................. 3-28

Session 4 ...................................................................... 4-1


Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging.................................................... 4-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 4-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 4-1 Bracing Configurations ............................................................................... 4-2 Bracing Gaps.............................................................................................. 4-6 Splitting Sections........................................................................................ 4-9 Splicing Sections ...................................................................................... 4-11

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Contents

Merging Sections...................................................................................... 4-14 Exercise 4A .............................................................................................. 4-16 Exercise 4B .............................................................................................. 4-19

Session 5 ...................................................................... 5-1


Regular Structures ....................................................................................... 5-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 5-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 5-1 Creating a Regular Structure...................................................................... 5-2 Exercise 5A .............................................................................................. 5-10 Exercise 5B .............................................................................................. 5-13

Session 6 ...................................................................... 6-1


Section Fittings and Joints.......................................................................... 6-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 6-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 6-1 Section Fittings........................................................................................... 6-2 Joints .......................................................................................................... 6-5 Exercise 6A ................................................................................................ 6-9 Exercise 6B .............................................................................................. 6-12

Session 7 ...................................................................... 7-1


Panels and Plates ......................................................................................... 7-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 7-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 7-1 How PDMS represents Panels & Plates..................................................... 7-2 Panel Hierarchy and Attributes................................................................... 7-3 Initial Settings ............................................................................................. 7-4 Panel Creation............................................................................................ 7-6 Modifying a Panel..................................................................................... 7-10 Splitting a Panel ....................................................................................... 7-17 Connecting Panels ................................................................................... 7-18 Exercise 7A .............................................................................................. 7-22 Exercise 7B .............................................................................................. 7-31

Session 8 ...................................................................... 8-1


Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings ..................................................... 8-1 Objectives................................................................................................... 8-1 Must Know Points....................................................................................... 8-1 Negative Extrusion Hierarchy and Attributes .............................................. 8-2 Creating a Negative Extrusion.................................................................... 8-3 Modifying a Negative Extrusion .................................................................. 8-4 Creating a Panel Fitting .............................................................................. 8-5 Modifying a Panel Fitting ............................................................................ 8-8 Exercise 8A .............................................................................................. 8-10 Exercise 8B .............................................................................................. 8-14

Appendix A .................................................................... 9-1


AVEVA Catalogue Profiles........................................................................... 9-1 Generic Type BOX ..................................................................................... 9-2
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Generic Type ANG ..................................................................................... 9-3 Generic Type TUBE ................................................................................... 9-4 Generic Type BEAM................................................................................... 9-5 Generic Type DINI...................................................................................... 9-6 Generic Type BSC ..................................................................................... 9-7 Generic Type DINU .................................................................................... 9-8 Generic Type TEE...................................................................................... 9-9 Generic Type DINT .................................................................................. 9-10

Appendix B .................................................................. 10-1


Drawings for Onshore Exercises .............................................................. 10-1 Pipe Rack Drawings ................................................................................. 10-2 Equipment Support Structure Drawings ................................................... 10-7

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Session

Setting Up the Database Hierarchy for Steelwork


PDMS operates by using a number of related hierarchical databases that require certain administrative elements to store the components of the 3D model created by the users. The Structural Design Applications have their own administrative elements which must be created prior to commencement of modelling.

Objectives
At the end of this session you will be able to: Enter the Steelwork Design Application. Create administrative database elements to organise and store the structural design model data in a logical way.

Must Know Points


At the end of this session you will be able to explain: How PDMS stores Structural Design data. How to start the Structural Design Application. How to create appropriate administrative database elements.

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How PDMS Stores Design Data


All PDMS data is stored in a hierarchical or tree format similar to the way you use a hierarchy of directories and sub-directories to access your computer files. In the case of a PDMS Design database, the topmost data level is called the WORLD (usually represented by the symbolic name /*), below which are the administrative sublevels SITE and ZONE. The names used to identify database levels below Zone depend on the specific engineering discipline for which the data is used. In the case of Structural Design data, the lower administrative levels, and their PDMS abbreviations, are:

Structure - STRU Framework- FRMW Subframework- SBFR

The SBFR element is optional. The data that defines the physical design of structural components, that is SCTN, PANE, GENSEC, etc., may be created beneath a FRMW or SBFR (or a combination of both).

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All data is represented in the database as follows:


Each identifiable item of data is known as a PDMS element. Each element has a number of associated pieces of information that, together, completely define its properties. These are known as attributes.

Every element is identified within the database structure by an automatically allocated reference number and, optionally, by a user-specified name. Additional items of information that could be stored as attribute settings include:

Its type Its physical dimensions and technical specifications Its physical location and orientation in the design model Its connectivity.

Some attribute settings are defined automatically by PDMS whilst you may enter others during or after creation of the element. The vertical link between two elements on adjacent levels of the database hierarchy is defined as an owner-member relationship. The element on the upper level is the owner of those elements directly below it. The lower level elements are members of their owning element. Each element can have many members, but it can only have one owner. When you are modifying a database, for example when you are creating new elements or changing the settings of their attributes, you can consider yourself to be positioned at a specific point in the hierarchy. The element at this location is called the current element, often abbreviated to CE. You can navigate from any element to any other, thereby changing the current element, by following the owner-member links up and down the hierarchy as displayed in the Members List.

PDMS Names
Any element in the PDMS database may be named. Names enable you to identify elements and to produce meaningful reports from the database. Which elements you attach names to is a matter of choice, but in general you would be expected to name all major design items such as SITE, ZONE, STRU, FRMW, and SBFR. Names in PDMS are case sensitive and always begin with a forward slash (/). Generally, most design items give you the opportunity to name them from the element creation form, however, SCTNs are a notable exception. You do not have to enter the forward slash on forms as it is added automatically when the name is entered. If you do not enter a name at this stage, PDMS allocates a default name consisting of the element type suffixed by a sequential number. The last element of a particular type created is always at the top of the Design Explorer for that element type beneath its owner:

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If you forget to name an element, or want to change a name, then select Modify>Name. . . from the main menu or right click over the element in Design Explorer to display the Name form:

Enter your name for the element, note the addition of the forward slash and dismiss the form.

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Starting the Structural Application


The PDMS Structural Design module consists of four different applications:

Beams & Columns Panels & Plates Walls & Floors ASL Modeller (Access, Stairs and Ladders)

Note: Walls & Floors and ASL Modeller are not covered in this module. The administrative elements of SITE and ZONE may be created from the Design General application, however, the remaining administrative elements for Structural Design must be created from one of the first three applications listed above. To access these applications, select Design>Structures>Beams & Columns (or other structural application) from the main menu bar. When loading is complete, the main menu bar and toolbars will display some additional options:

Once the desired application has loaded, the other two applications may be started by selecting from the main menu again or by selecting one of the application buttons on the tool bar: The current application button will be greyed out. Beams & Columns Panels & Plates Walls & Floors The ASL Modeller may only be started by selecting Design>Structures>ASL Modeller from the main menu.

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Exercise 1
Creating Administrative Elements The object of this exercise is to create a simple hierarchy to the storage of structural elements in forthcoming exercises. Check that you are at World level (WORL) in the Members List, select Create>Site from the main menu to display the Create Site form and enter the name STRUCT_SITE in the Name text box.

Press the Return (Enter) key to confirm the name; note how the system adds a / prefix automatically to conform to PDMS naming conventions. Click OK on the form to create the SITE element. Notice that the new element appears in the Members List as the current element. Repeat this process using the appropriate options from the Create menu to create a ZONE named STRUCT_ZONE, a STRUCTURE named STRUCT_STRU, a FRAMEWORK named STRUCT_FRMW and a SUBFRAME named STRUCT_SBFR. Your Design Explorer should now look like this:

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Beams and Columns

The Beams & Columns application allows you to create steelwork sections, for example I-beams, T-sections, Channels, Angles, Circular Hollow Sections, etc., into the design model and connect them together. The application also allows you to insert Catalogue fitting components, for example stiffeners, lifting lugs, etc, onto sections and apply Catalogue defined joints to connected sections.

Objectives
At the end of this session you will be able to: Make initial settings in PDMS to control your structural design. Create beams and columns from a catalogue of components. Use Explicit and Positioning Control methods. Specify the section you desire from a catalogue of components.

Must Know Points


At the end of this session you will be able to explain: How to specify a section profile. How nodes and joints are created. How to connect / disconnect section and use Pline rules to trim elements. How to use Positioning Control to snap to points of interest. The affect that justification has on the position of created sections. The difference between and use of Primary and Secondary Nodes.

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Design to Catalogue Cross-Referencing


To ensure design consistency and conformity with published or company standards, the basic definitions of all items that you use in Structural Design are held in a Catalogue database. This holds definitions of all available profiles and materials for structural sections, standard types of joints and auxiliary section fittings, for example stiffeners, lifting lugs, etc. When you add an item to your design model, you store the position, orientation, etc., for the item in the Design database. However, you specify the physical properties of the item by setting a cross-reference, called a Specification Reference or SpecRef, which points to an appropriate entry in the Catalogue database.

How PDMS Represents Structural Sections


Each individual structural member (column, beam, etc.) is represented in PDMS by a Section (SCTN) element. The 2D cross-sectional geometry of a particular SCTN (I-beam, T-section, Channels, Angles, etc.) is defined in the Catalogue and the elements SpecRef attribute is set to that profile. All other aspects of the SCTN geometry are defined by setting specific design attributes. Most of these attributes are set automatically by PDMS as the element is specified or manipulated graphically. Two of the most important attributes are the Position Start (POSS) and Position End (POSE) which effectively determine the length and orientation of the element. These positions are determined from graphical picks, explicit co-ordinates, direction and distance or a combination of these methods. The 2D cross-section is extruded from the POSS to the POSE. To provide a method of referring to individual edges and faces of the SCTN, each is identified by a named line running along the length of the profile. These lines, which are specified within the 2D geometry in the Catalogue, are called Plines. A section has a number of Plines that have a two, three or four letter abbreviation set to its PKEY attribute. As an example, some of the most commonly used Plines for an I-shaped profile might be positioned and named as shown:

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Commonly Used Plines


See Appendix A for complete details of Plines and Parameters for profiles in AVEVA Profile Catalogues.

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Initial Settings
Before we can start creating sections in the model some initial default settings must be made to suit our planned method of working. Section Specification The default section specification, together with its justification line, member line and joint line settings (these terms will be explained later), is displayed on the left hand side of the Beams & Columns toolbar:

The section specification is shown unset. Clicking the Section Specification (Default) form:

button displays the

The default profile is selected by clicking the Specification button and selecting the required standard from the Catalogue entries displayed. Following selection of the standard, the required profile is selected from the Generic Type list (which shows the range of profile types available in the Catalogue). Having selected the profile type, a list of available serial sizes is displayed in the window below. Use the cursor to select the desired size from the scrollable list. PDMS provides several standard specifications, for example British, American, Japanese, DIN, etc., which may be augmented or replaced by specific company standards.

Below the Specification Data area of the form, the Pline Settings lists allow the following attributes for the chosen section to be set:

Justification - sets the justification of the section, see diagram below.

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Member line - sets the position of the line to be displayed in Draft, e.g. the section centreline.

Joint line - sets the Pline for joint geometry (normally NA).

Note: The Joint line is not within the scope of this module. Clicking the Apply button on the Section Specification (Default) form to uses the settings, and the section specification and Pline settings are displayed on the Beams & Columns toolbar.

Note: The Pline settings are displayed in the order Justification/Member line/Joint line.

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Storage Areas The design database storage areas specify which Framework or Subframe SCTNs and PNODs (see Structural Connections) will be stored when created. The storage areas should be specified prior to commencement of creating components for that particular area of the model. The current storage areas are displayed on the toolbar:

Navigating to the Framework or Subframe you wish to store the components, I.e. make the Framework or Subframe the CE, and clicking the button to left of the appropriate storage area makes the current element the storage area and displays the CE in the toolbar.

The settings may also be made by selecting Settings>Storage Areas to display the Storage Areas form:

Navigating to the Framework or Subframe in which you wish to store the components and clicking on the storage area required sets it. Automating Profile and Primary Node Allocations

By default, each time you create a new SCTN, it will automatically be associated with a profile from the catalogue, that is the default profile specification. Also by default, Primary nodes will not be created automatically at unconnected section ends. These defaults are controlled by the following check boxes on the toolbar:

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Pline Rules The final setting to be made before commencing creation of profiles is the Pline Rule. When you create a section connected to an existing section, the end points of the new section are usually positioned automatically by reference to the current Pline Rule. If this rule has not been set-up properly, the geometry at the point of connection may not be appropriate. Pline Rules determine which Pline of the existing section will be used to trim the new section to. With no Pline rule set, which is the default setting, the new section is trimmed to the extremities of the existing section:

In this example, the new section has terminated at the extremity of the existing section instead of the web, i.e. the NARO Pline. With an appropriate Pline rule set the new section will trim to the required Pline, i.e. the NA Pline, and give the desired result:

PDMS provides one predefined Pline rule named Normal and cannot be modified. The Normal Pline rule is: PKEY EQ NA OR CCON EQ ANY This means that a new section will connect to the NA Pline unless it first encounters a Pline whose CCONNECTION (abbreviated to CCON) is set to ANY. Pline rules are also used to determine the availability of Plines for graphical picks when creating or positioning panels, fittings, etc. The Pline is available if it meets the criteria set out in the Pline Rule.

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Plines rules are set by selecting Settings>Pick Filters>Plines from the main menu to display the Pline Filter form:

Available Pline Filters are displayed. Selecting the required rule with the cursor sets the rule and the form is dismissed. Defining Pline rules is covered later in this manual.

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Creating Sections
Sections are created by selecting Create>Sections>Straight from the main menu to display the Section form and the Positioning Control toolbar:

Section Form String Method On the Section form, the method by which sections will be created can be specified by clicking one of the three option buttons. Single Start and End Points are individually defined for each section.

Continuous Start point of subsequent sections is the end point of previous.

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Radial Start position for subsequent sections is the same as first.

Create Option Initially, when the Section form is displayed, there is only one active button under Create Option to define the start of the section explicitly, which is the only practical option at this stage:

You can use this button to define the start of the section explicitly, that is by entering X, Y and Z co-ordinates. It should be noted that the start position of the section may also be defined by other options under Create Option or by the Positioning Control toolbar if the context is right, for example there is a least one existing section. These options are explained later. Clicking the Explicit button displays the Define section start form:

The required East (X), North (Y) and Up (Z) co-ordinates may now be entered and the Start position will be shown in the graphical view. The default wrt World, meaning with respect to the World, defines the co-ordinate system by which the position is specified. Clicking OK on the Define section start form confirms the entered co-ordinates and change the Creation Option display by activating a second button:

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The end position may now be defined by using either of the two buttons. Clicking the Explicit button again will display the Define section end form which is used in exactly the same way as the Define section start form:

Clicking the Direction & Distance button will display a different Define section end form:

A direction, with respect to the World or other co-ordinate system, is entered together with the required distance from the section start position. As the distance is entered and return pressed the End position will be shown in the graphical view and an aid line drawn from the start position to the end position. It should again be noted that the end position of the section may also be defined by other options under Create Option or by the Positioning Control toolbar if the context is right. The other buttons available under Creation Option are:

Perpendicular From - creates a section perpendicular to the section specified for the new section start.

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Perpendicular To creates a section perpendicular to a selected section.

By default, Secondary Nodes are automatically created. This facility may be switched off by un-checking the Secondary Nodes check box under Creation Option. For an explanation of Secondary Nodes see Structural Connections. Verification

The Verification section of the Section form contains a Confirm check box that allows you to check the position of each new section before it is added to the database. If the Confirm box is checked the Accept and Reject buttons become active to accept or reject the section creation in the displayed location. The Redefine Start button may be clicked at any time during section creation to start the definition of the section again. Positioning Control toolbar The Positioning Control toolbar is a dockable toolbar that may be displayed permanently, however, if not displayed, it is displayed automatically whenever you need to pick positions using the cursor. The toolbar lets you specify how your cursor picks are to be interpreted as positions. The toolbar has two option lists from which you can make the required selections: Type

The Positioning Control Type lets you control the types of items to which cursor picking will respond. As you move the cursor over the 3D View, only items of the specified type will be highlighted. The identities of highlighted elements are shown in the prompt bar, immediately above the graphical view. The choices for Type are:

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Any - You can pick any element, aid, Pline or P-point. Element - Picking is restricted to elements Aid - Picking is restricted to drawing aids. Pline - Picking is restricted to structural Plines. Ppoint - Picking is restricted to p-points or panel vertices. Screen - Lets you pick anywhere in the graphical view, which identifies two coordinates, the third co-ordinate being taken from the current Working Plane or normal to the view direction if there is no active Working Plane. Graphics - Lets you pick any graphical element (including aids, construction pins, etc.) that is displayed in the view.

Method

The Positioning Control Method determines how the position will be derived from subsequent cursor picks. The Methods are:

Snap - Selects the snap point nearest to the cursor pick point. This means nearest start, end or other valid snap point on a SCTN.

Distance -Applies the offset value that you enter in the adjacent text-box (for example, a value of 20 gives a point 20 in from the nearest snap point, measured towards the cursor position; a value of 20 gives a point 20 in from the nearest snap point, measured away from the cursor position).

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Mid-Point - Derives the mid-point between two snap points along a linear item.

Fraction - Subdivides the distance between two snap points into a specified number of parts (as entered in the adjacent text-box), and then derives the fractional position closest to the cursor pick. For example 6 gives a point at the nearest sixth of the distance along the line joining the first snap point to the second snap point.

Proportion - Derives the point whose proportional position between two snap points has been entered in the adjacent text-box, for example 0.25 gives a point 25% along the line joining the first snap point to the second snap point.

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Intersect - Lets you to pick two lines (any directional items) or three planes and then derives their intersection point.

Cursor - Places the derived point exactly where the cursor picks on the element.

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Connecting Sections
A connection between two SCTN elements is facilitated by a Secondary Joint (SJOI) element. The SJOI is owned by a Secondary Node (SNOD), which is positioned on the justification line of the Owning section at the intersection between the Attached and Owning sections:

Sections are connected automatically when they are created, providing the Secondary Nodes check box on the Section form is checked. When SCTN elements are connected the SJOI element is created, owned by the SNOD element of the Owning section. The SJOI has a Cref (connection reference) attribute that points to the name of the Attached member. The Attached member has two attributes Joistart (joint start) and Joiend (joint end) that point to the name of the SJOI element by which they are attached to their respective Owning members, thus creating a two-way reference:

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If two sections connect to the same Owning section at the same point, a second SJOI element is created owned by the same SNOD as the first. Each SJOIs Cref attribute will point the name of the relevant Attached section. SCTN elements may also be connected explicitly by selecting Connect from the main menu:

Selecting Connect>Connect will prompt you to choose the section to attach to and the section end(s) to be attached. SNODs and SJOIs will be created at each Owning/Attached intersection. Where two or more attached members connect to the owning member at the same point, a single SNOD is created which owns two or more SJOI elements. Connections may be updated following position changes to the owning or attached sections by using one of the following selections from the Connect menu:

Connect>Trim to Pline - Trims the section to a Pline selected by the system in accordance with current Pline rule, i.e. the POSL attribute of the SJOI element is modified.

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Connect>Trim to Section - Trims the section according to the current POSL setting of the PJOI element. This may result in the attached member not being correctly connected, e.g. if the Beta Angle of the Owning SCTN has changed.

Secondary Node (SNOD) elements are positioned along the justification line of the owning section at the POSS or POSE position of the attached member(s). An SNOD elements primary function is to own an SJOI element and allow one section to connect part way along another. SNOD elements are owned by the Owning section. Secondary Joint (SJOI) elements are used to connect two sections where they intersect at an SNOD and their primary functions are: providing connectivity to the structural model; trimming attached members; holding the Specification Reference for a joint.

SJOI elements are owned by an SNOD. Primary Node (PNOD) elements have two main functions:

as analytical points when using PDMS data for structural analysis; to own a Primary Joint for referencing a catalogue joint element on an unconnected section end.

A PNOD element may be created automatically, see Initial Settings, or explicitly at section ends by selecting Create>PNode at SCTN end from the main menu. PNOD elements are owned by FRMW or SBFR elements, and sit at the same level in the hierarchy as SCTN elements. PNOD elements may own more than one PJOI elements. Primary Joint (PJOI) elements are used for referencing a catalogue joint element on an unconnected section end, for example a baseplate for a stanchion. PJOI elements are owned by a PNOD. Checking Connectivity The connectivity of sections in the model can be checked by navigating to a suitable element in the hierarchy, e.g. a FRMW or SBFR, selecting Query>End Connections from the main menu to display the Highlight Connections form:

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The form will show all SCTN elements in the CE that have Both ends connected, Neither end connected and One end connected. Checking the appropriate check box will graphically highlight the SCTN elements of the CE in each category in the colour shown on the form. The default colours can be changed by clicking on the colour button to display a colour form for that selection:

Clicking a colour button will set that colour for the selected category. For the One end unconnected category the SCTN will display a tag at the unconnected end as well as being displayed in the highlight colour.

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Exercise 2A
The object of this exercise is to construct some initial frames for a simple pipe rack and equipment support structure using different section sizes. The text gives you a step-by-step guide to creating the pipe rack together with sketches, where appropriate. See Appendix B for drawings of the Pipe Rack and Equipment Support Structure. Creating a Pipe Rack Frame 1. Ensure you are in the Beams & Columns application by selecting Design>Structures>Beams & Columns from the main menu. 2. Navigate to the FRMW you created in Exercise 1 and rename it PIPERACK by selecting Modify>Name from the main menu. Rename the SBFR to ROW_1 in the same way.

3. Make your initial settings. For the Storage Areas, make sure that the ROW_1 is the current element and click the Set Section Storage Area and Set Node Storage Area buttons on the tool bar and note that the storage areas change from unset to /ROW_1. For the default Profile Specification, click the Set Default Profile Specification button on the tool bar, set the specification to American Standard and the Generic Type to AISC W Profiles. Select W8x31 from the displayed list, set the Justification Line to NA, leaving the Member Line and Joint Line at NA, and click Apply and Dismiss on the form. Your tool bar should now look like this:

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4. Set the Pline rule to Normal by selecting Settings>Pick Filters>Plines from the main menu and selecting Normal from the displayed Pline Filter form. 5. Create the first section by selecting Create>Sections>Straight from the main menu. Make sure that the String Method is set to Single and that the Create Secondary Nodes check box is checked. Click the Explicit button on the form enter the following values for East, North and Up (X, Y & Z) co-ordinates and click the OK button.

6. Click the Direction and Distance button on the Section form and enter the direction as U wrt /* and a distance of 208 before clicking the OK button:

7. With the Section form still displayed click the Explicit button again, noting on the define section start form that the co-ordinates have changed to those defining the end position of the previously created SCTN. Enter the X,Y,Z co-ordinates as 672, 848, 4 respectively. After clicking the OK button on the Define section start form, click the Direction and Distance button and enter the same information used to create the first section. Set the drawing limits to the Draw List and the view direction to Iso 3. You should now have two parallel W8x31 sections in the graphical view:

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8. You will now create the two horizontal beams for the piperack frame using the cursor to select the start and end positions of the sections rather than enter explicit co-ordinates. Change the Default Section Specification to AISC W profiles Wx31, the Justification Line to TOS and create the horizontal sections using the Positioning Control toolbar. Set the Pick Type to Element and Pick Method to Snap.

9. Click the first column you created near to its Upper end to define the Start position of the new section, noting that the Start label is displayed adjacent to your click. Click the Upper end of the second column you created to define the End position of the new section. A new Wx31 section is created spanning between the two columns. 10. Set the Positioning Control toolbar Pick Method to Distance and enter a distance of 5. Click again near the Upper end of the first column and then near the Upper end of the second column to create a new horizontal beam. Note that the beams have been trimmed to the TOS or BOS Pline of the columns. Toggle wire frame display mode on by pressing F8 on the keyboard, zoom in to one of the connections and note the SNOD that has been created:

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11. You will now create the 33 long stub on the southern column. Set the Pick Method on the Positioning Control toolbar back to Snap and click near the top of the southern column. Use the Direction & Distance button with a direction of S WRT /* and a distance of 33 to create the beam. Your frame should now look like this:

Creating an Equipment Support Structure Frame 1. Create a new FRMW named EQUIP_SUPPORT and a new SBFR named ROW_C. Reset the storage areas to this SBFR. Set the default Profile Specification to W8x31 with a justification of NA. 2. Create the two columns for Frame C in accordance with the drawings. Note: the columns will not be orientated correctly but you will modify them in the next Session. 3. Change the default Profile Specification to W8x18, ensure the Pline rule is set to Normal and create the two beams between the columns. 4. Check all sections are connected by navigating to the STRU element, selecting Query>End Connections and highlighting the categories in turn. Saving Your Work To save the work you have just completed either select Design>Save Work from the main menu or click the Save Work button on the toolbar:

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Beams and Columns

Save Work allows you to save your work without leaving the Design module, however, if you leave Design without saving your work, PDMS will ask you if you wish to save or not:

Whenever you complete a significant amount of work it is recommended that you use Save Work.

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Exercise 2B
The object of this exercise is to construct a simple deck framing using different section sizes. The text gives you a step by step guide to creating the deck framing together with sketches, where appropriate. 1. Ensure you are in the Beams & Columns application by selecting Design>Structures>Beams & Columns from the main menu. 2. Navigate to the SBFR you created in Exercise 1 and rename it MAIN_DECK by selecting Modify>Name from the main menu.

3. Make your initial settings. For the Storage Areas, make sure that the MAIN_DECK is the current element and click the Set Section Storage Area and Set Node Storage Area buttons on the tool bar and note that the storage areas change from unset to /MAIN_DECK. For the default Section Specification, click the Set Default Profile Specification button on the tool bar, set the specification to DIN Standard and the Generic Type to HEA Profiles. Select HE600A from the displayed list, set the Justification Line to TOS, leaving the Member Line and Joint Line at NA, and click Apply and Dismiss on the form. Your tool bar should now look like this:

4. Set the Pline rule to Normal by selecting Settings>Pick Filters>Plines from the main menu and selecting Normal from the displayed Pline Filter form. 5. Create the first section by selecting Create>Sections>Straight from the main menu. Make sure that the String Method is set to Single and that the Create Secondary Nodes check box is checked. Click the Explicit button on the form

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enter the following values for East, North and Up (X, Y & Z) co-ordinates and click the OK button.

6. Click the Direction and Distance button on the Section form and enter the direction as E wrt /* and a distance of 22 before clicking the OK button:

7. With the Section form still displayed click the Explicit button again, noting on the define section start form that the co-ordinates have changed to those defining the end position of the previously created SCTN. Enter the X,Y,Z co-ordinates as 10, 28, 10 respectively. After clicking the OK button on the Define section start form, click the Direction and Distance button and enter the same information used to create the first HE600A section. Set the limits to Draw List and the viewing direction to Iso 3. You should now have two parallel HE600A sections in the graphical view:

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8. You will now create the east and west boundary beams for the deck using the cursor to select the start and end positions of the sections rather than enter explicit co-ordinates. Change the Default Section Specification to HE300A, leaving the Justification Line as TOS and create the boundary sections using the Positioning Control toolbar. Set to Type Element and Method Distance, using a distance of 6 (half the width of an HE300A flange).

9. Click the first HE600A section you created near to its West (left hand) end to define the Start position of the new section, noting that the Start label is displayed adjacent to your click. Click the West end of the second HE600A section you created to define the End position of the new section. A new HE300A section is created spanning between the two HE600A sections. Repeat the process, clicking near the East end of the HE600A sections. Note that the boundary sections have been trimmed to the NAR or NAL Pline of the HE600A sections. Toggle wire frame display mode on by pressing F8 on the keyboard, zoom in to one of the connections and note the SNOD that has been created:

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10. Finish the deck steelwork in accordance with the drawing below:

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11. For the angle stringers use Specification: DIN Standard Generic Type: LU Profiles. Set the Justification and Member Lines to TOAX and leave the Joint Line set to NA. You will end up with a structure as shown below:

12. Check all sections are connected by navigating to the MAIN_DECK subframe, selecting Query>End Connections and graphically highlighting the categories. Saving Your Work To save the work you have just completed either select Design>Save Work from the main menu or click the Save Work button on the toolbar: Save Work allows you to save your work without leaving the Design module, however, if you leave Design without saving your work, PDMS will ask you if you wish to save or not:

Whenever you complete a significant amount of work it is recommended that you use Save Work.

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Session
Modifying Structural Sections

The preceding session described the process of creating elements. In this module you will learn how to manipulate and adjust of these elements to suit you design.

Objectives
At the end of this session you will able to:

Modify the position of section elements in a variety of ways. Orientate section elements in a variety of ways. Copy elements using various methods. Use lists to perform modifications on multiple elements.

Must Know Points


By the end of this module you will be able to explain:

How to move items both with respect to the world and other items. How the Angle and Flip affect the direction of a section element. How to realign secondary nodes. How to create and use lists.

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Modifying Structural Sections

Positioning
Elements that have position attributes, for example SCTNs, can be re-positioned in a variety of ways, however, the two main methods are Explicitly and Relatively. Explicitly (AT) Positioning explicitly allows you to position elements at specific co-ordinates with respect to the WORLD or other design elements. Selecting Position>Explicitly (AT) from the main menu will display the Positioning Control toolbar and the Explicit Position form:

By default the Start position of the current element is displayed showing East/West, North/South and Up/Down co-ordinates with respect to the world. The Datum list allows you to specify the point on the element to which the position co-ordinates will apply. You may specify Start, End, Centre or Designate Position. Depending on the option specified applying modified co-ordinates will have the following effect on the element:

Start - Relocates the start position of the element to the specified co-ordinates, leaving its end position unchanged. End Relocates the end position of the element to the specified co-ordinates, leaving its start position unchanged. Centre Relocates the entire element, locating its centre at specified coordinates and modifying the start and end positions. Designate Position used in conjunction with the Positioning Control toolbar you can specify a point on the element for re-positioning. The entire element is relocated, or re-orientated, with the Designated Position at the specified coordinates and the start and end positions modified.

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On opening the Explicit Position form a bounding box is displayed around the element together with an axes aid showing cardinal directions and a label showing the start position, i.e. the section origin.

Changing the Datum will redisplay the axes aid and label to the chosen option. To define a position explicitly, enter the required co-ordinates in the East/West, North/South and Up/Down text boxes, using the lists to set the appropriate direction in each case. If necessary, use the wrt (with respect to) text box to identify the element whose co-ordinate system is to be used for the position data. The bounding box will adjust to show the new position and clicking the Apply button on the form will re-position the element. To define a position by reference to existing design items, use the Positioning Control toolbar and the cursor to identify the required positions by picking them in the graphical view. If required, use the Lock buttons to fix the current co-ordinate along any axis. To position another section, use the Select menu options on the form to change the focus of the form. Use the CE or Owner option if you have already navigated to the required item, or use the Pick or Pick Owner option and then select the required item with the cursor when prompted. The form will display the current position and you can then change any part of this by entering new values.

Relatively (BY) Positioning relatively allows you to position elements by a specified distance, along one or more axes, from its current position. The directions can be with respect to the world or other design elements. Selecting Position>Relatively (BY) from the main menu will display the Positioning Control toolbar and the Position By form:

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The form allows you to specify a distance along a single axis or varying distances along any combination of the three axes. By default the axes directions are with respect to the world although any valid design element may be used. An axes aid is displayed at the start position of the current element:

Entering distances against any of the axes will display a New Position label at the entered distance(s) from the current position, thus enabling you to see if the new location for you element is correct. Clicking the Apply button on the form will move the entire element to its new location. You can also use the Positioning Control toolbar and the cursor to define distances graphically. Having picked the two points the distances will be entered against the relevant axes on the form. If required, use the Lock buttons to fix the current coordinate along any axis. An alternative method of re-positioning the start or end of a SCTN element is to use Extend Through or Extend By.

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Extend Through Extend Through allows you to specify a plane, position and orientation, to extend either end of the section to. The section will only extend along its Z axis, i.e. its extrusion direction, as the plane is infinite in its planar dimensions. In PDMS a planes direction is defined by the direction of a vector normal (that is perpendicular) to the plane. The position of the plane is defined by the start position of that vector. Selecting Position>Extend>Through will display the Extend Section Relative form:

The End of Section list allows you to specify which end of the section will be extended (or trimmed) to the plane. The choices are:

Nearest end This is the default setting. The end of the section nearest to the plane will be repositioned. Start The start position of the section will be moved. End The end position of the section will be moved. Pick On clicking Apply you will be prompted to pick which end of the beam is to be re-positioned.

When the Extend Section - Relative form is displayed, a label is placed at each end of the section so you know which end is the Start and which is the End. You can define the plane position explicitly by entering co-ordinates in the Plane Direction East/West, North/South and Up/Down boxes, or by using the Cursor and Intersection options from the forms menu and graphically selecting the position. The Plane Direction is set by default to Up, however you can enter any direction to orientate the plane:

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In this picture the plane has been positioned using the Cursor>Element option. The plane is positioned at the start or end position of the selected section, whichever is nearest to the cursor pick. The Plane Direction has been set to N, note the plane aid and direction vector displayed to help you visualise the position and direction of the plane.

Clicking Apply on the form will extend the end of the current element to the plane. Checking the Cut end(s) to plane check box on the form will orientate the end of the section to the plane direction after it has been extended or trimmed.

The position of any Secondary Nodes owned by the section is measured from its start position. If you want the Secondary Nodes to stay in their current position when you move the start position of the section then check the Maintain Sections Node
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Positions check box on the form, otherwise the Secondary Nodes will move with the start position, that is their Zdistance attribute will be maintained. Extend By Extend By allows you to lengthen or shorten the section by moving its Start or End position through a specified amount. Selecting Position>Extend>By from the main menu displays the Extend Section - Explicit form:

When the form is displayed a label is placed at either end of the section to let you know which is the Start and which is the End. The Extend pulldown allows you to select which end of the section is to be extended, the choices being Start, End or Pick. If you select the Pick option you will be prompted to pick which end of the section to re-position when you click the Apply button. You can choose to move the chosen end of the section either by Distance or by a Proportion of the sections current length by selecting the appropriate option button and entering the desired amount. Entering a positive amount will lengthen the section whilst a negative amount will shorten it. To maintain the position of any Secondary Node owned by the section, click the check box on the form. Drag Explicitly Drag Explicitly allows you to re-position a section and have any attached sections lengths adjust and the Secondary Nodes realign automatically. It is, therefore, equivalent to using three operations, that is Position>Explicitly (AT), Connect>Trim to Pline>all attached and Position>Align Secondary Nodes, in one. Selecting Position>Drag Explicitly from the main menu displays the Positioning Control and Drag Explicitly form:

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The Datum list allows you to select the element Origin or an ID Design point as the point for the dragging operation, however, the Origin co-ordinates with respect to the world are displayed by default. Any valid design element may be used to define the axis system for the direction boxes by entering the appropriate element in the wrt box. The Positioning Control toolbar may be used to determine the new position by graphical pick, as described earlier. A bounding box and axes aid at the start position are also displayed. Entering new co-ordinates in the axes boxes will move the bounding box to the new location and clicking the Apply button will move the section. All connected sections will trim to the new position of the owning section, adjusting their length as necessary. The behaviour of the attached sections depends on whether the joint is dominant or subordinate, as described in Joint Freedom later in this session.

Bounding box displayed at the new position after entering the new Origin coordinates.

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After clicking Apply the section is re-positioned and all attached sections trimmed to the new joint positions.

Align Secondary Nodes When you reposition a section that owns Secondary Nodes subordinate joints, see Joint Freedom later in this module, it is possible that the Secondary Nodes will be misaligned from the attached section(s). Selecting Position>Align Secondary Nodes from the main menu will realign the node(s) with the attached member(s). Align Secondary nodes may be executed from SCTN, STRU, ZONE or SITE.

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Joint Freedom
Where two sections are connected via a joint, the joint may be defined as either dominant or subordinate. This setting, which is determined by the Jfree attribute of the SJOI, controls how the attached section behaves when the section owning the joint is moved. If the joint is subordinate, i.e. the attached section is dominant and Jfree is set to false, the attached sections will extend or trim, maintaining their original orientation, to the Pline that they were trimmed to on creation. If the joint is dominant, i.e. the attached section is subordinate and Jfree is set to true, the attached sections will realign to the new joint position: The column is the owning section with two beam sections attached.

Joint is subordinate. Column moved, beams extended to original Plines but maintain original orientation.

Joint is dominant. Column moved, beams extended and realigned to new joint position and cut planes are automatically re-aligned.

The standard default is for joints to be subordinate. This default can be changed by selecting Settings>Tolerances from the main menu. It should be noted that this setting is not applied when creating Regular Structures. To change a joints setting once it has been created, select Connect>Joint Subordinate or Connect>Joint Dominant from the main menu. You will be prompted to select the section ends to which you wish to apply the chosen setting.

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Orientation
Like positioning, orientating elements in PDMS can be performed in a number of ways. Section elements in PDMS do not have a direct orientation attribute, however, a pseudo-attribute for orientation can be queried, the information is derived from other attributes such as the Start and End positions and the Angle (Beta Angle). Sections in PDMS catalogues are defined with the NA Pline always pointing in a positive Y direction, i.e. Up, and the extrusion direction as positive Z, in accordance with the Left Hand Rule: The Beta Angle default is 0 which is North, i.e. Up,for the profile.

Axes Selecting Orientate>Axes from the main menu will display the Orientate form:

This form allows you to change which axis is East, North and Up, with respect to the world or other design element, by using the lists or entering the appropriate direction in the data entry boxes. This form only works with elements that have a direct orientation attribute. If you attempt to use it with an element that does not have a direct orientation attribute, e.g. a SCTN, SBFR or FRMW, the following warning message will be displayed:

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For this reason, this command is not frequently used in the structural discipline. Rotate Selecting Orientate>Rotate from the main menu will display the Rotate form:

By default, the Rotation Axis direction is U and positioned at the Start position of the element. The Rotation Axis direction may be changed by entering another direction or its reference altered by modifying the wrt data. The centre of rotation, that is the start of the rotation axis vector may be positioned by entering a distance against one or more directions. The Angle by which the element is to be rotated must be entered prior to clicking Apply. An axis direction aid is displayed, positioned at the centre of rotation, together with an axes aid showing the rotation angles at 90 degree intervals:

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In this picture the default Rotation Axis of U is shown, that is the extrusion direction of the section, and the centre of rotation is positioned at the default position of Start Position, that is at the justification Pline TOS.

The centre of rotation can also be set graphically by using the Cursor and Intersection pulldowns from the forms menu bar. The results of the rotate command may be simply reversed by entering a minus sign to the Angle value used and clicking Apply again. Angle (Beta Angle) The Angle of a section defines the rotation around its Z axis. The effect of changing the Angle are shown in the diagram below:

In this diagram the Justification Line is set to TOAX. Modifying the Angle rotates the section around its Z axis defined by the Justification Line. Selecting Orientate> Angle from the main menu allows you to modify the Angle in positive or negative increments of 90 degrees. If you wish to set any other value it must be done via the Command Line. Selecting Display>Command Line from the main menu displays the command line window. Entering BANG <value> on the data entry line and pressing the Return key will set the Angle to the entered value. Flip Flip allows you to change the orientation of sections by exchanging the Start and End positions, that is the Z direction of the section is orientated through 180. This only really affects asymmetrical sections such as angles and channels although it may be applied to all section profiles.

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After selecting Orientate>Flip from the main menu you will be prompted to select, using the cursor, the elements you wish to Flip. Having made the selection, pressing the Esc key will flip the chosen sections.

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Copying
PDMS provides three methods to create copies of elements; Copy Offset, Copy Rotate and Copy Mirror. Copy Offset Copy Offset allows you to create one or more copies of an element at a specified distances along one or more axes. Selecting Create>Copy>Offset from the main menu displays the Copy with Offset form:

A separate offset distance may be entered against the three axes. The axes, by default, are with respect to the world, however, another design element may be used for the axis system by navigating to it in the Members list and entering CE in the Axes data entry box. The offset distances may be chosen graphically by using the Offset menu on the form. An axes aid is placed at the start position of the element to help you orientate the model. The to options box allows you to select the storage area for the copy element. The Rel. option will give the new element the same owner as the copied element, that is adjacent to it in the Members list. To choose a different storage area, navigate to the desired storage area in the database and select CE from the options box. In this way copies can be placed in different Frameworks or Subframes.

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Having set the Number of Copies, clicking Apply will carry out the copy process. As with all copy commands you will be prompted to confirm retention of the copies: Copy Rotate Copy Rotate allows you to create one or more copies of an element, rotating the copies around a specified centre of rotation. The copies may also be offset from each other, along one or more axes, as they are copied. Selecting Create>Copy>Rotate from the main menu displays the Copy and Rotate form:

The rotation Angle is specified in degrees, positive entries giving counter-clockwise rotation and negative entries giving clockwise rotation. By default, the Rotation Axis direction is U and positioned at the world origin. The Rotation Axis position may be entered explicitly by entering distances against one or more axes with respect to the world or other design element , or graphically by using the Cursor and Intersection options from the forms menu bar. An offset for the copied elements may be specified explicitly or by selecting from the Offset options on the forms menu bar. These offsets are the distances by which the start position of a copied and rotated element will be offset from the previous copys start position (in the case of the first copy this is the original element). The axes used for this offset are those of the previous copy.

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As with the Copy Offset form, the to option list can be used to specify the storage areas for the copied elements.

In this picture the section has been Copy Rotated four times at an angle of 45 with an offset in the Y direction of the section of 30. Copy Mirror Copy Mirror allows you to create a copy of an element and reflect the copy through a specified plane. Selecting Create>Copy>Mirror from the main menu displays the Mirror form:

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Modifying Structural Sections

As with the other Copy forms the to option box allows you to specify the storage area for the copied element. The Type of mirror gadget gives you the option to copy the mirrored element or simply mirror it. As with the Extend Through command described earlier in this module, Copy Mirror displays a plane aid and an axis aid to help you orientate the mirror plane. By default, the Plane Direction is U and its position set at the world origin. The position may be entered explicitly or by using the Cursor or Intersection options from the forms menu bar.

In this picture the plane position has been set using the Cursor>Element option from the forms menu. The Plane Direction and position are set wrt the current element, hence the Plane Direction is D.

Copying with Multiple Attached


If you copy a connected section using any of the methods previously described, the newly created section will not be connected. There are often times when a multiple copy of a section needs to be made at regular centres, for example stringers in a deck or floor panel. This could be achieved by using a multiple Copy Offset, however, each end would need to be connected after copying. The appware provides a utility that copies a selected member and produces multiple copies with connection details the same as the original. Selecting Create>Sections>Multiple Attached prompts you to select the section to be copied if you are not at an SCTN element in the Members list. Having selected the section the Copy Section form is displayed.

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You can change the section to be copied by navigating to the required section in the Members list and clicking the CE button. The Number of copies text box will show the maximum amount of members that can be fitted to the shortest owning section at the current Spacing, shown in the spacing text box. If you change the spacing from the default (3) to the required distance and click the Max button, PDMS will recalculate the maximum number of copies that can be fitted. A graphical aid will show you the direction for +ve or ve spacing with aid lines representing the positions of the new sections to help you visualise the results of the copying.

In this picture the maximum number of sections has been calculated based on the length of the shortest owning section. When you are happy with the arrangement clicking the Apply button will copy the sections and connect them to the owning member(s). Any end preparations, see Structural Detailing, will also be applied. However, if you specify a Number of copies greater than the maximum, i.e. beyond the length of the shortest owning section, the copies will be made but the free ends will not be connected or end preparations applied:

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Lists
Lists are a temporary collection of elements on which operations can be performed that affect all the members of the list. Lists only last for the duration of Design session unless Forms & Display are saved. The current list is displayed on a pull-down on the main toolbar:

If there is no current list defined the pull-down will show No list. The pull-down also lets you select the current list if more than one list has been defined in the current session. Selecting Utilities>Lists from the main menu displays the Lists/Collections form:

The List/Collections form may also be accessed by clicking the Create/Modify Lists button adjacent to the current list pull-down on the main toolbar.

The first step is to create a list by selecting Add>List from the form menu bar. A Create List form is displayed that allows you to name the list. The name of the list will appear in the List pull-down on the form.

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Modifying Structural Sections

Elements may be added to the list by using the Add menu on the form:

The Add menu allows you to select members to add to the list. The options are:

CE Adds the current element CE Members Adds the elements whose owner is the current element. Identified Adds elements by identifying them with the cursor. Pressing the Esc key ends the selection. Selection - Adds elements selected by use of the Add to List form:

One or more PDMS element types, for example SCTN, PANE, may be entered in the Selection text box to filter the elements you wish to add to the list. The selection may be further refined by adding a valid PML expression to the with Rule text box. Examples of with Rule might be:

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SPREF EQ /DIN-SPEC/HE300A will add all HE300A sections in the selection source to the list. GTYP NE ANG will add all SCTN elements whose Gtype is not equal to ANG in the selection source to the list. For Element enter an element, e.g. STRU or FRMW, name in the text box or navigate to an element in the Members List and type CE in the text box. The option box on the right allows you to select the current DB or All DBs. From List select a list name from the pull-down.

The source of the selection is made by clicking one of the following radio buttons:

The selection may also be made by specifying a volume, either explicitly or with a 3D cursor, and selecting whether part of or the entire element is within the volume by checking the appropriate check box. Whatever method is chosen to select the items to add to the list, the selected items will appear in the main window of the Lists/Collections form. The format of the displayed list is controlled by the Format pull-down. The list may be displayed as element Name only, Description only or Name + Description. The elements in the list may be highlighted in the graphical view by checking the Highlight check box at the top of the form. PDMS commands may be directly applied to the list by entering valid PDMS syntax in the text box at the bottom of the form and clicking the Action button. It is recommended that you use this option only if you have a good understanding of PDMS syntax, otherwise use the list in conjunction with the appware. Examples of entries in the Action text box might be:

BY E 2 will move each element in the list by 2 East. SPREF /DIN-SPEC/HE200A will change the Specification Reference of all SCTN elements in the list to /DIN-SPEC/HE200A.

The contents of the list may be manipulated by removing elements from it. Selecting Remove from the Lists/Collections form menu bar gives you the same options as the Add menu described above, with the following additions:

From List Removes the highlighted element from the list All Removes all elements from the list

Choosing the Selection option from the menu displays the Remove from List form which operates in the same way as the Add to List form described above. List may be used where element selection is available on the appware forms, usually via an options box. For example, the Position By form previously described, allows you to select a List as an option to apply the repositioning to:

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In this case the entered distances would be applied to all members of the current list, which is selected from the Lists pull-down box on the main toolbar.

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Exercise 3A
The object of this exercise is to create the other frames to the Pipe Rack and Equipment Support Structure you started in Exercise 2A using some of the techniques that have been described in this Session. Modifying the Pipe Rack 1. Make the Pipe Rack ROW_1 the CE and select Create>Copy>Offset from the main menu to display the Copy with Offset form. Change the to pull-down to Rel., set the number of copies to 3 and enter a figure of 17 in the X direction text box before clicking the Apply button. Click the Yes button on the subsequent Confirm message. Note that the PIPERACK FRMW now owns three additional SBFRs. 2. Rename the appropriate new SBFR elements to ROW_2, ROW_3 and ROW_4 respectively. 3. Make ROW_4 the CE and move it 1/2 West using Position>Relatively(BY). 4. Extend the two southern columns on frames 2 and 3 using a list and Position>Extend>Through. 5. Create two new SBFR elements named ROW_A and ROW_B and create the horizontal beams in their correct subframes in accordance with the drawings. Your Pipe Rack should now look like this:

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Modifying Structural Sections

Modifying the Equipment Support Structure 1. Orientate the two columns in ROW_C using Orientate> Angle>90 Degrees. Update the beam connections to these columns and trim the attached sections, using Connect>Trim to Pline>all attached. 2. Copy ROW_C by South 9 and rename the new SBFR to ROW_D. Create new SBFRs for Row E and Row F in a similar way. 3. Create the column at E7 as part of ROW_E by copying column E6 and shortening it by 10 using Position>Extend>By from the main menu. Ensure that you select the correct end to modify and that you enter a negative distance to shorten, rather than lengthen the column. 4. Create two new SBFR elements named EL(+)158_TOS and EL(+)258_TOS. 5. Make EL(+)158_TOS the CE, set the storage areas and create the remaining horizontal beams at this level in accordance with the drawings, including the 33 long stubs south of columns F5 and F6 and the stair half landing east of Row 6. Make sure to change the default Profile Specification before creating the landing. 6. Create a list of all W8x18 beams in SBFR EL(+)158_TOS and copy them by 10 in the Up (Z) direction, using the List option on the Copy with Offset form, to SBFR EL(+)258_TOS, ensuring that you make the SBFR EL(+)258_TOS the CE and select CE from the to pull-down on the form to copy the SCTN elements into the correct SBFR. 7. Connect the copied SCTN elements to the columns using Connect>Connect from the main menu. 8. Create the top stair landing at EL.(+) 258 T.O.S. adjacent to column C6. 9. Check the end connections for the whole FRMW. Your Equipment Support Structure should now look like this:

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10. Save Work.

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Exercise 3B
The object of this exercise is to modify the deck structure you created in Exercise 2B using some of the techniques that have been described in this Session. You will make the necessary changes, following the instructions below, such that your deck reflects the drawing below:

1. Move the southern-most HE600A by 3 north using Position>Relatively (BY). 2. Update the connections to this beam, and trim the attached sections, using Connect>Trim to Pline>all attached. 3. Move the eastern most HE300A by 6 east using Position>Explicitly (AT), editing the co-ordinates to suit. 4. Extend the eastern end of the northern most HE600A by 6 using Position>Extend By 5. Extend the eastern end of the southern most HE600A using Position>Extend Through specifying a Pline on the eastern most HE300A as the plane position. 6. Realign the Secondary Nodes on each of the HE600As in turn using Position>Align Secondary Nodes. 7. Create a list containing all of the angles and change their Beta Angle to 180 by using the Action button on the Lists/Collections form.

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8. Move the angles down by 8 in using Position>Relatively (BY) and the list option. 9. Create three new angles on the right hand side of the deck using Create>Copy>Offset 10. Connect the new angles to the HE600As using Connect>Connect. 11. Re-orientate all the angles, except the three new ones, using Orientate>Flip. 12. Your deck should now look like this:

13. Navigate to the MAIN_DECK subframe in the Members list and create a new deck 12 above the existing deck using Copy>Offset 14. Rename the new subframe to MEZZ_DECK. 15. Create a new subframe named COLUMNS and create six columns using DIN Standard RHS 250x250x10 sections (NA/NA/NA) as shown in the picture below. Use Element and Intersect on the Positioning Control toolbar and select the larger section first when choosing the sections for the intersection.

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Modifying Structural Sections

16. Save Work.

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Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Session

Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging


In previous modules you have learnt to create sections and manipulate them to modify your design. This module features some useful appware to help you model more efficiently and effectively.

Objectives
At the end of this session you will able to:

Create bracing using pre-set configurations. Modify bracing gaps. Split sections into two or more parts

Must Know Points


By the end of this module you will be able to explain:

How to create bracing using pre-defined configurations. How to adjust bracing gaps to suit your design. What effects the different options of splitting sections have.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Bracing Configurations
PDMS provides appware that allows you to create bracing from pre-defined configurations which may be adapted to suit most situations you will come across. The advantages of using the pre-defined configurations to create your bracing, rather than create sections piecemeal are:

All sections in the configuration are created simultaneously. Initial gaps can be set so that geometry is realistic. Created sections are automatically connected.

Selecting Create>Sections>Bracing configurations from the main menu displays the Bracing form:

The Storage area and Section Data parts of the form allow you to specify a storage area and profile for you bracing in a similar manner to setting the default section specification and storage areas, however, the settings you make via this form override the default settings. If the bracing configuration you select has more than one element, all sections will be modelled using the section you specify, however, any of the elements that make up the configuration may subsequently have their specification or other attributes modified in the usual way.

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The Available Bracing Configurations list displays the available configurations. Clicking on a configuration text in the list displays a picture of the configuration. There is more than one choice for some of the configuration styles, for example A/K Bracing, which cover the majority of possible scenarios. The configurations may be used where the members are in different orientations to those shown providing the configuration is the same. The Bracing Plane options box allows you to specify the plane in which the bracing will be created. The choices are: Derived by Section This is the default and the most commonly used option. The bracing plane direction is orthogonal to both the first section picked and the incoming section nearest to the first pick point. Derived by Points This option is useful for adding bracing between two sections that do not have a third section connected directly between them. The bracing plane is constructed by projecting the second picked point onto the first picked section. Defined - This option allows you to define the bracing plane explicitly and projects the picked points onto the defined plane. Selecting this option displays the Bracing Plane form and Positioning Control toolbar:

The plane origin may be entered explicitly or by use of the Positioning Control toolbar. Having made the appropriate settings on the Bracing form, clicking Apply will display a bracing dimensioning form which will differ depending on the bracing configuration you have chosen, for example:

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

A distance may be entered in A or B to make an initial gap, as shown on the corresponding diagram of the Bracing form. Having entered the distances, the sections used to define the bracing configuration are picked in the sequence indicated in the diagram on the Bracing form. If you have checked the Confirm check box aids representing the bracing plane and bracing elements will be displayed. Clicking the Accept or Reject button will create or discard the bracing. If Confirm is unchecked, the bracing is created without further input:

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Available Bracing Configurations The diagrams below show the currently available bracing configurations. The dimensions marked A and B correspond to the A and B on bracing dimensioning forms. The ballooned numbers indicate the sequence of picks. The sections must be picked in the order shown to ensure the bracing is configured correctly.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Bracing Gaps
Having created bracing sections either as individual sections or using the standard configurations, gaps between the bracing members may be adjusted to suit your design. Selecting Modify>Bracing Gap from the main menu displays the Brace Gaps form: The Available Gapping list displays a description of the gap types that may be adjusted. Clicking on a text option displays a picture of the gap configuration. These gap configurations may be used in different orientations to suit a specific situation, provided that the basic configuration is the same. The Bracing Plane option is not used in this release. A Default Gap may be specified to save entering a distance each time. Having selected the appropriate configuration, clicking Apply displays the Brace Gaps(s) form:

The Gap A text box displays the default gap. The appropriate input, that is Plines or section selection, is made in the order shown on the corresponding diagram of the Brace Gap(s) form. If you have checked the Confirm check box a dimension aid will be displayed showing the current gap dimension which will be repeated in the Gap A text box on the Brace Gap(s) form. The gap may be changed to the correct distance before clicking the Accept or

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Reject button to modify or discard the gap change. If Confirm is unchecked, the gap will be modified to that shown in the Gap A text box. This picture shows the apex of A Bracing configuration with a large gap between the two bracing sections.

A bracing gap configuration No.6 has been used and the appropriate Plines selected. The aids show the current gap and the selected Plines. The gap is also displayed in the Brace Gap(s) form:

The gap has been modified on the Brace Gap(s) form and the aids reflect the change:

Clicking the Accept button will modify the gap.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Available Gapping Configurations The diagrams below show the currently available bracing gap configurations. The ballooned numbers indicate the sequence of picks for sections or Plines.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Splitting Sections
Where a section crosses one or more other sections, it can be split at one or all of the sections it crosses to form separate sections. Selecting Modify>Sections>Split from the main menu displays the Split Sections form:

The Elements to be split on and Elements to be split may be picked using the cursor or from a list. Clicking the pull-down adjacent to the appropriate label displays a list of all the current lists, thus several elements to be split on or to be split may be selected in one operation. The Connections at split: option buttons offer you three methods of handling the sections and connectivity when the section is split:

None The section is split at the Justification Line of the section it crosses, creating a new section, however, there is no connectivity between the sections.

Nodes The section is split at the Justification Line of the section it crosses, creating a new section. SNOD and SJOI elements are created connecting the existing section and new section to the crossed section.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Trimmed The section is split at the section it crosses, SNOD and SJOI elements are created as described above and the existing section and new sections are trimmed to the Pline at the extremity of the crossed section. After selecting the required connections method, clicking the Apply button you will be prompted to select the elements to be split on and the elements to split if the Pick using cursor option has been selected, or the splits will be made immediately if the list options have been selected

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Splicing Sections
Splicing allows you to divide sections into smaller lengths at any point along their length and, optionally, connect the abutting ends created by the splice.

Selecting Modify>Sections>Splice displays the Splice Section on Plane form: This form lets you set a plane, in much the same way as Extend Through and Copy Mirror described earlier in this manual. The splice may be applied to the CE, a list or elements picked from the graphical view. If you choose List or Pick from the option box, all of the sections selected will be spliced at their intersection with the plane. If you require the abutting sections to be connected, ensure that the PNOD creation check box on the toolbar is checked. A PNOD will be created at the splice position with a Primary Compound Joint (PCOJ) and two Sub Joints (SUBJ), one having a connection reference to the existing SCTN(s) and the other having a connection reference to the newly created SCTN(s):

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

If you have checked the Confirm before splicing check box you will be prompted to confirm the splice. This can be useful if you have applied the splice to a list or pick selection.

Initial situation a column with two connected beams.

Plane defined initially using Cursor>Element option from the Splice Section on Plane form menu bar and adjusted to a set distance above the TOS of the beams. PNOD creation turned on.

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PNOD

Column spliced at plane and PNOD created.

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Merging Sections
As well as splitting and splicing a section into more than one element, sections may be joined together to form a single element, provided they are co-linear and of the same specification reference. Any number of sections may be merged, however, one must be selected to be dominant, that is the section that all the other selected sections will be merged into and whose attributes the merged sections will inherit. Sections for merging may be identified by graphical pick or a list of sections used. Selecting Modify>Sections>Merge from the main menu displays the Merge Sections form:

Navigating to the element that is to be the dominant section and clicking the CE button will highlight the section in the graphical view. The Merge from options box allows you to select Identified Sections, the default, or Sections in List. If you select Identified Sections and click Apply, you will be prompted to select the sections using the cursor. If you select Sections in List and click Apply, the sections in the current list will be used. Whichever selection method you choose, you will be prompted to confirm the merge. If you have picked non co-linear sections they will be ignored. An aid will be displayed and all valid sections will be highlighted whilst the confirm prompt is displayed.

Dominant section

Dominant section made the CE and highlighted.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Sections to be merged selected and highlighted. Aid shows all sections that will be merged into the dominant section.

Merged section

All sections merged to create a single section. New section inherits attributes, that is specification, justification, Angle, material, etc., from dominant section.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Exercise 4A
In this exercise you will create bracing to the Pipe Rack and Equipment Support Structure you modified in Exercise 3 by using the standard bracing configurations and modifying the gaps. You will also split diagonal bracing sections around a horizontal beam. Pipe Rack Bracing 1. Navigate to the PIPERACK FRMW, create a new SBFR named ROW_A_BRACING and make it the CE. 2. Create the K bracing between Row 1 and Row 2, as detailed on the drawings with the sections justified on NA, using the A/K Bracing (3), 3 picks option. Use the Derived by Section option for the bracing plane and set the gaps to A 8 and B 6. Make sure you select the sections in the order specified on the Bracing form diagram.

3. Repeat the procedure for the K bracing between Row 3 and Row 4. 4. Adjust the bracing gaps for both sets of K bracing to comply with the drawings. 5. Create a single bracing member on Row A between Row 2 and Row 3. Modify the bracing gaps to comply with the drawings. Mirror the single bracing member to create a cross bracing configuration. Connect the new bracing using

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

Connect>Connect from the main menu and then split the appropriate cross brace on the through brace section using the Trimmed method. 6. Create a list of the K bracing members on Row A. Create a new SBFR named ROW_B_BRACING and mirror copy the K bracing on Row A to this SBFR. Connect the K bracing on Row B to the appropriate beams and columns. 7. Create the knee bracing on Row 1 using the Knee Bracing (2) option. Copy the knee bracing to Row 2, Row 3 and Row 4 and connect the bracing to the appropriate beams and columns. Your Pipe Rack bracing should now look like this:

Equipment Support Structure Bracing 1. Create the diamond bracing at EL(+) 258 T.O.S. using the Defined option for the bracing plane. Set the Justification and Member Line for the channel bracing to LTOC. Use a value of 2in for both A and B gaps of the diamond bracing. 2. Repeat the procedure for the diamond bracing on EL(+) 158 T.O.S. 3. Create the three sets of cross bracing on Row 5 in a new SBFR named ROW_5_BRACING. Adjust the gaps for all Row 5 bracing and then copy it to a new SBFR named ROW_6_BRACING. Connect the Row 6 bracing to the appropriate columns.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

4. Create the knee bracing on Row C, Row D, Row E and Row F. Your Equipment Support Structure bracing should now look like this:

5. Save Work.

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Exercise 4B
In this exercise you will create bracing to the deck structure you modified in Exercise 3 by using the standard bracing configurations and modifying the gaps. You will also split diagonal bracing sections around a horizontal beam. 1. Create a new subframe named COLUMN_BRACING and make it the CE. 2. Create some K bracing on the western end of the structure using the A/K Bracing (2), 4 picks option with a section specification of DIN Standard RHS 200x200x10 (NA/NA/NA). Use the Derived by Section option for the bracing plane and set the gaps to A 8 and B 6. Make sure you select the sections in the order specified on the Bracing form diagram.

3. Create a single bracing member on the south face of the structure between the west and central columns using the Single Bracing (2) configuration with a specification of DIN Standard RHS 250x250x10 (NA/NA/NA). Use the Defined option for the Bracing Plane and the plane origin and set gaps A and B to 8. Be careful with the selection positions for the top and bottom sections.

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Bracing, Splitting, Splicing and Merging

4. Adjust the bracing gaps between the bracing member and the columns to 3in, mirror the brace around the central column and connect the new brace to the top and bottom beams 5. Create A bracing on the eastern end of the structure using the A/K Bracing (1) configuration with a specification of DIN Standard 150x150x10 RHS (NA/NA/NA) and set gap A to 7 and gap B to 6. 6. Adjust the top and bottom bracing gaps on the sloping bracing members to 3in. Disconnect the horizontal bracing member from the sloping bracing members using Connect>Disconnect from the main menu. Connect the horizontal bracing member to the two corner columns using Connect>Connect and then split the two sloping bracing members on the central horizontal member using the Trimmed option.

7. Create bracing on the north face of the structure using a configuration of your choice with a specification of DIN Standard RHS 250x250x10 (NA/NA/NA). 8. Save Work.

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Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Session
Regular Structures

It can sometimes be quicker to build parts of a model using predefined configurations and then alter them to suit your design. PDMS provides a facility to model regular structures that may be used in this way.

Objectives
At the end of this session you will able to:

Create regular structures using the predefined configurations.

Must Know Points


By the end of this module you will be able to explain:

How to create regular structures using the GUI.

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

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Regular Structures

Creating a Regular Structure


A Regular Structure is a regular array of fully connected beams and columns. Selecting Create>Sections>Specials from the main menu displays the Section Creation form:

In this release of PDMS there are three predefined configurations that may be selected:

Jacket Legs This configuration creates a basic tapering structure similar to an offshore platform jacket structure. Regular Structures This configuration creates a structure based on a 3D orthogonal grid where the grid spacing may be separately specified. Tower This is basically the same as the Jacket Legs configuration for those who may not be familiar with offshore terminology.

Selecting the desired configuration will display the appropriate form to define your regular structure.

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Regular Structures

Regular Structure Selecting Regular Structure from the Section Creation form displays the Regular Structure form:

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Regular Structures

Column Data & Beam Data The form allows you to specify storage areas and section specifications for column and beam data. These settings override the default settings made on the main menu. The storage areas may be specified by navigating to the required FRMW or SBFR in the Members List and entering CE in the Storage area text box on the form. Grid Origin The default Datum is the WORLD (/*) origin, however, another element may be used as the grid origin by navigating to it in the Members List and entering CE in the Datum text box. The Underside of Base Plate may be specified by entering an elevation in the text box. The columns in the regular structure will be trimmed to this elevation regardless of the grid origin, however, if 0 is entered the columns will be trimmed at the grid origin elevation.

Grid Spacings The three columns at the bottom of the form allow you to specify the North, East and Elevation spacings for the grid. The East and North spacings are relative, i.e. the spacing is measured from the last position in the list.

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Regular Structures

The Elevation spacing is absolute, i.e. each spacing is measured from the grid origin.

Checking the Trim sections to Plines check box will trim the beams where they connect to the columns using the current Pline rule. Clicking the Preview button will display a single line representation of the regular structure prior to clicking the Apply button to generate the structure. The resulting structure using the entries in the form above are shown in the following picture:

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Regular Structures

Tower / Jacket Legs Selecting Jacket Legs from the Section Creation form displays Create Jacket Legs form:

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Regular Structures

Storage Areas The form allows you to specify storage areas for Legs, Horizontals and Primary Nodes that override the default settings made on the main menu. The storage areas may be specified by navigating to the required FRMW or SBFR in the Members List and entering CE in the relevant Storage area text box. Positioning Data The default Datum is the World (/*) origin, however, another element may be used as the grid origin by navigating to it in the Members List and entering CE in the Datum text box.
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Regular Structures

Elevations The Top of Jacket and Mudline elevations are the start and end elevations for the jacket legs and are relative to the datum origin. The Horizontals list gives the elevations at which horizontal members connecting the legs will be created. Any elevations in the list outside the Top of Jacket and Mudline elevations will be ignored. The elevations are absolute, that is, each spacing is measured from the datum origin. Upper S.O.P. & Lower S.O.P. The Upper and Lower Setting Out Points (S.O.P.) are the points that specify the vectors on which the legs will be constructed. The elevations of the S.O.P.s do not necessarily need to coincide with the Top of Jacket and Mudlines. The East and North spacings are relative, that is the spacings are measured from the last position in the list (or datum for the first entry) Checking the Split at horizontal check box will cause the legs to be split at each horizontal elevation specified in the Horizontal list. Clicking the Preview button will display a single line representation of the regular structure prior to clicking the Apply button to generate the structure. Using the data from the form show above the structure will preview as shown in the picture below:

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Regular Structures

Clicking the Apply button will create the sections without a specification reference and they will, therefore, be displayed as dashed lines. The specification references may be added individually or by utilising a list. Creating a Tower is exactly the same as the Jacket Legs creation described above. The Create Tower form is the same as the Create Jacket Legs form except that Top of Jacket and Mudline are replaced by Top of Tower and Base of Tower respectively.

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Regular Structures

Exercise 5A
1. Remove all elements except column F5 from the Draw List and create a new FRMW named NEW_EQUIP_SUPPORT. Using the Regular Structure form, create a new version of Equipment Support Structure, setting the storage areas to the new FRMW. 2. Select column F5 as the Datum, keep the Underside of Baseplate at 0 and use the following spacings for the grid:

3. Remove column F5 from the Draw List, make sure that your Pline Rule is set to Normal and that the Trim sections to Plines check box on your form is checked. Click the Preview button to ensure that the structure will be created in the correct orientation before clicking the Apply button to create the structure.

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Regular Structures

4. Note that the columns will have to be orientated correctly and that the beams and columns would need to me moved to the appropriate SBFRs, if required. 5. Create a new FRMW named VENT_TOWER and create a Tower structure using the following settings:

6. Use column F6 as the datum for the tower and set the Horizontals at 12, 27, 45 and 596. Ensure the Split at horizontal checkbox is un-checked prior to clicking the Apply button. 7. Note that the SCTN elements are created without a Specification Reference, i.e. the Spref attribute is Unset, which means the elements are displayed as dashed lines. Create a list of the four tower legs and change the Specification Reference,

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Regular Structures

using the list option, to 219.10x10.0 (NA/NA/NA) CHS. Create a new list containing all horizontal members of the jacket and change the specification reference to 114.3x5.0 (NA/NA/NA) CHS.

8. To finish your tower model create some vertical bracing with Section Specifications to suit your design. 9. Save Work.

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Exercise 5B
1. Create a new SBFR named ACCESSTOWER. 2. Create a Regular Structure setting the storage areas to the new SBFR and the Section Specifications as follows: DIN Standard RHS 100x100x6.3 (NA/NA/NA) for the columns and : DIN Standard RHS 200x100x6.3 (TOS/NA/NA) for the beams. 3. Select the centre column on the south face of your structure as the Datum, keep the Underside of Baseplate at 0 and use the following spacings for the grid:

4. Make sure that your Pline Rule is set to Normal and that the Trim sections to Plines check box on your form is checked.

5. Having created the structure reposition the SBFR by 12 in the Z direction.

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Regular Structures

6. Create a new SBFR named JACKET_LEGS and create a jacket structure using the following settings:

7. Horizontals are set at -18, -6, 6 and 18. 8. Create a list for the four legs and change the Specification Reference, using the list option, to OD610x25 (NA/NA/NA). Create a new list containing all horizontal members of the jacket and change the specification reference to OD355.6x12.2 (NA/NA/NA). Position deck and structure relative to jacket using lists 9. To finish your jacket model create some vertical bracing using standard bracing configurations and section specifications to suit your design. 10. Save Work.

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Regular Structures

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5-15

Session
Section Fittings and Joints

Details, such as stiffeners, base plates, lifting lugs, joints and end preparations, may be added to structural sections in PDMS Design by the use of catalogue defined fittings and joints.

Objectives
At the end of this session, you will able to:

Create a section fitting. Change the specification of a joint. Manipulate the position and direction of fittings and joints.

Must Know Points


By the end of this module the trainees will be able to explain:

How to modify the specification reference on fittings and joints. The importance of justification when the joint or fitting is created. How to copy a joint specification from section end to section end.

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

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Section Fittings and Joints

Section Fittings
Section fittings are catalogue items, defined in Paragon, which are referenced in Design by FITT elements, which are owned by SCTN elements. Each fitting is designed to be associated with one or more appropriate Plines for the particular section profile it is to be associated with. Due to catalogue parameterisation, one fitting type may be applied to all section sizes of a particular profile category it was designed for. A section fitting is positioned relative the start position of a SCTN element along its extrusion direction, i.e. its Z direction. In the Beams & Columns application with an SCTN element as the CE, selecting Create>Fitting>Single from the main menu displays the Create Fitting form:

The Specification Data area of the form allows you to select the exact fitting you require.

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The Specification pull-down allows you to select the type of fitting required, e.g. web stiffeners, lifting lugs, fire insulation, etc. The Section Type pull-down shows the generic type (GTYPE) of the current element. The Sub-Type pull-down allows you to select the sub-type of fitting e.g. a particular style or thickness of web stiffener. The scrollable window displays all available fittings for the Specification, Section Type and Sub-Type selected. The Settings area of the form is where the fitting is orientated and positioned with respect to the owning section. The Justification pull-down allows you to select the Pline which will be the origin of the fitting. The button can be used to select the required Pline graphically rather than selecting from the pull-down list. The Zdistance box is where the distance from the section start to the fitting, along the selected Pline, is entered. Clicking the button will display the Positioning Control toolbar that can be used to determine the Zdistance graphically. The Beta Angle box is used to specify the rotation of the fitting around the owing sections Z axis. The Properties button is used to specify any Design Parameters that may have been used in the catalogue definition of the fitting. If no Design Parameters have been used the following error message will be displayed:

The Plotfile button is used to display a sketch of the fitting, if one has been supplied in the catalogue data set. If no plotfile has been supplied for the fitting the following error message will be displayed:

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Section Fittings and Joints

As settings information is entered on the Create Fitting form, an aid is show in the graphical display representing the position along the selected Pline where the fitting will be placed:

Having positioned the aid at the correct Zdistance, clicking the Apply button will display the fitting at the selected location. Clicking the Dismiss button after the Apply button will remove the aid.

The standard catalogue provides simple examples of section fittings that are used for demonstrations and training. It is important for companies to develop their own catalogues for all section fitting requirements.

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Joints
Like section fittings, joints are catalogue items that may be referenced by SJOI or PJOI elements. Joints may have positive geometry, to represent stiffeners, haunch plates, flange inserts, end plates, etc., or negative geometry to represent section end cutbacks, rat holes, bolt holes, etc., or a combination of positive and negative geometry. The positive and negative geometry definitions are held by the catalogue component and are, generally, parameterised so that the joint may be applied to any combination of similar shaped owning and attached sections. The joint is referenced by the Spref attribute of the SJOI or PJOI element. Selecting Modify>Joints>Specification prompts you to Identify end of section joint is connected to. Although the SJOI is owned by an SNOD element, which is a member of the owning section, you must select the attached section end. PDMS will determine the attached an owning section generic types via the attached section attributes and present you, via the specification, with relevant joints based on these values.

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Section Fittings and Joints

The Specification Data area of the form allows you to select the exact joint you require. The Specification pulldown allows you to select the general type of joint required, e.g. column connections, tubular connections, end preparations, etc. The Sub-Type pulldown allows you to select the sub-type of joint e.g. a joint with a certain number of bolt holes or specific stiffener thickness. The scrollable window displays all available joints for the Specification and Sub-Type selected. The Settings area of the form allows you to orientate the joint around the attached section. The Justification pulldown shows the Plines defined in the joint. This is commonly only one Pline, the NA. This Pline exists as a default alignment for the joint as it is aligned with the NA Pline of the attached section. The Beta Angle box is used to specify the rotation of the joint around the attached sections Z axis. The Properties button is used to specify any Design Parameters that may have been used in the catalogue definition of the joint. If Design Parameters have been used and a plotfile has been specified in the joint data set, a combined sketch and Design Parameter input form will be displayed:

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Section Fittings and Joints

If no Design Parameters have been used the Properties button is greyed out. Similarly, if no plot file is available the Plotfile button will be greyed out. Having selected the required joint from the list, clicking the Apply button on the Joint Specification form will create the joint using the parameters of the owning and attached sections together with any design parameters used. How negative geometry, if applicable, defined for the joint is displayed in the Graphical View depends on the Representation setting. Clicking Settings>Graphics from the main menu displays the Graphics Settings form and clicking the Representation tab displays the Representation settings.

If the Holes Drawn checkbox is unchecked, negative geometry will be displayed a black lines defining the outline of the negative shape, however, if Holes Drawn is checked steelwork will be negated in accordance with settings made in the catalogue. The Arc Tolerance setting on the Representation form sets the faceting, i.e. smoothness, of arcs and circles displayed in the graphical view. The default value is 10 and the minimum value, which produces the smoothest curves, is 1. Checking the Holes Drawn checkbox and clicking the OK button on the Representation form will update the graphical view with the changed settings. Joints may be applied to ends of section individually; however, if there are a number of sections which have the same Owning and Attached generic types and require the same end connections, a previously applied joint may be copied and applied to these section ends. Selecting Modify>Joints>Joint Like>Maintain Pline from the main menu prompts you to Identify end of section to be copied like. Selecting an appropriate section end will then prompt you to Identify end of section to be modified. Any number of ends may be selected and pressing the Esc key will end the selection process.

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The Spref attribute for each valid SJOI element in the selected section ends will be set to the same value as the copied section end and the geometry displayed in the graphical view. It should be noted that the joint geometry is adjusted to suit the section sizes of each joint. In cases where a joint is copied from one of a section to the other end, the Beta Angle of the new joint(s) may be orientated incorrectly by 180 degrees. Adjusting the Beta Angle value will easily rectify this.

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Exercise 6A
In this exercise you will create some simple section fittings and joints based on the standard supplied catalogues. Placing Section Fittings 1. On the Pipe Rack horizontal beams of Row B, between Rows 1 & 2 and Rows 3 & 4, place 8mm Double Full Depth stiffeners to align with the outer edges of the RHS bracing members. 2. On Pipe Rack columns B2 and B3 place 8mm Single Full Depth Stiffeners to align with the flanges of the connected W8x31 at EL(+) 237 T.O.S.

3. At each end of the Pipe Rack beam between columns B2 and B3 at EL.(+) 237 T.O.S., place an 16mm Welded Lifting Lug. The lifting lugs are to be 10in from each end of the beam. Use NA to justify the fittings.

4. On the Equipment Support Structure beam on Row 6 at EL.(+) 258 T.O.S. between Rows C & D, place a 8mm Single Partial Depth stiffener to align with the centreline of the W8x18 stair landing beam. The partial depth stiffeners should be positioned in the upper part of the beam. Use a value of 6 for the Long length and 3.5 for the Short length.

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5. Repeat the procedure for the stair half landing beam at EL.(+) 158 T.O.S. 6. Save Work Applying Joints 1. Where the Pipe Rack horizontal beam on Row B, between Rows 3 & 4, connects to column B4, apply a 4M16 web joint. The joint is found by selecting a Specification of Column Connections and a Sub-Type of Column Web. Click the Properties button and set the Design Parameters to the following values:

2. Copy the joint to other beam - column web connections. 3. Apply similar joints to beam column flange connections.

4. Modify the serial size of one of the beams to see the effect of the beam size change on the joint.

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5. On the Equipment Support Structure create a PNOD at the bottom of all the columns. Apply a 20mm thick attached baseplate joint to the bottom of the column.

6. Copy the joint to all Equipment Support Structure columns. 7. Save Work

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Exercise 6B
In this exercise you will create some simple section fittings and joints based on the standard supplied catalogues. Placing Section Fittings 1. On the southern most HE600A of the Mezzanine Deck place 10mm Single Full Depth stiffeners to align with the outer edges of the RHS columns and vertical bracing members. 2. On the same beam place 10mm Single Partial Depth stiffeners to align with the centrelines of the HE300A cross beams. The partial depth stiffeners should be positioned in the upper part of the HE600A. Use a value of 11 for the Long length and 7 1/2 for the Short length.

3. At each end of the northern most and southern most RHS sections on the top level of the Accesstower, place an M16 Bolted Lifting Lug. Orientate the lugs such that the bolts lay on the centreline of the RHS.

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Applying Joints 8. Apply a Flush_p_cutback_with_snipe joint, using a Rat Hole radius of 1 1/4, to one end of the western most HE300A on the Mezzanine deck. Copy the joint so that both ends of each HE300A have the joint applied, adjusting the Beta Angle as necessary.

9. Copy the joint so that both ends of each HE300A have the joint applied, adjusting the Beta Angle as necessary. 10. Modify the serial size of one of the HE300As to see the effect of the beam size change on the joint.

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11. Apply a Stringer_cutback joint, using a Rat Hole radius of 0, to one of the L200x100x10 stringers. You may need to switch to wire-line representation (F8) to see the joint correctly.

12. Copy the joint so that all ends of the angle stringers have the joint applied. 13. Save Work.

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Session
Panels and Plates

The Panels & Plates application allows you to create panels to represent all kinds of plate, grating and other forms of sheet material. The application also allows you to insert suitable Catalogue fittings into the panels.

Objectives
At the end of this session, you will able to:

Create a panel in your Design Modify a panel after it has been created. Use a panel specification. Connect a panel to sections or other panels.

Must Know Points


By the end of this module the trainees will be able to explain:

How panel information is stored. How to create simple and complex shaped panels. How to create cut-outs and holes in panels. How to change the shape, thickness and justification of panels.

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How PDMS represents Panels & Plates


A panel (PANE element) can be used to represent any sheet material in a structural model. Using a similar principal to that for representing a section (which is an extruded 2D catalogue profile), a panel is represented by extruding a user defined 2D shape. Two types of data define the panel geometry: 1. The panels planar area is defined by a Panel Loop (PLOO) element, which itself is defined by a set of Panel Vertex (PAVE) elements, each of which has a specific position in the panels 2D geometry system. A line joining adjacent vertices defines each panel edge. 2. The panel thickness is defined by the Height attribute of the PLOO element. This represents the distance through which the 2D PLOO is extruded to form the 3D panel.

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Panel Hierarchy and Attributes

Each element in the panel hierarchy has specific attributes that combine to define the panel geometry: PANE element The Position attribute of the PANE holds the position of the panel origin with respect to the WORLD. The Orientation attribute of the PANE holds the orientation of the panel with respect to the cardinal axes. The Y (North) direction of a panel is defined as the direction from the first panel vertex to the second panel vertex. The Height attribute of the PLOO element holds the thickness of the panel. The Sjustification attribute of the PLOO element holds the justification, i.e. top, centre or bottom, of the panel. The Position attribute of each PAVE element gives the vertex position with respect to the panel origin.

PLOO element

PAVE element

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Initial Settings
As with Beams & Columns, before we create a panel some initial default settings must be made to suit our planned method of working. Panel Specification A panel specification can be set so that a range of thickness or an explicit panel thickness can be used. As panels are not catalogue items the Specification Reference (SPREF) does not have a Catalogue Reference (CATREF) and the selected thickness may be overwritten when creating the panel. The specification may be left unset and the panel thickness specified during panel creation.

The panel specification is shown unset. Clicking the Specification (Default) form:

button displays the Plate The default panel specification is selected by clicking the Specification button. Following specification selection, the default panel thickness may be selected from the range of values displayed. Selecting Unset will not set the specification. Having selected the thickness click the Apply button sets the specification and default thickness.

Storage Areas The design database storage areas for panels is similar to the Section and Node storage areas discussed in Beams and Columns. The storage areas specify the

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Framework or Subframe where Panels and Primary Linear Joints (see Connecting Panels) will be placed when created.

Navigating to the Framework or Subframe in which you wish to store the components and clicking the button to the left of the appropriate text box sets the storage area to the CE. If storage areas are not set the elements will be created under the current element. The storage areas may also be set by selecting Settings>Storage Areas from the main menu to display the Storages Areas form, in the same way as described in Beams & Columns.

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Panel Creation
Panels are created by selecting Create>Panel from the main menu to display the Create Panel form:

Name and Description Individual panels may be named or a given a description for additional information processing or model data extraction. Thickness Where a panel specification has been selected the default thickness will appear in the Thickness text box. The default thickness may be overridden by entering a new value, however, the following message will be displayed: Clicking Yes will override the thickness value and set the PANE Spref attribute to Unset. Clicking No will disregard the entered thickness value and leave the Spref set to PANE Spref set to the default value.

If no panel specification has been set a thickness must be entered in the Thickness text box. This value is the distance the panel loop will be extruded through.

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Justification A panel may be justified Top, Centre or Bottom. The justification determines which direction the panel loop will be extruded: Top Centre Bottom Representation As panels are not catalogue items, where Drawing Levels and Obstruction values are normally set, they may be set via the Create Panel form. The explanation of these settings is outwith the scope of this module. Create Methods Various methods of defining panel vertex positions or fillet arcs, which determine the vertex positions, are provided: Derive points from graphic picks, lets you pick a point graphically using the Positioning Control toolbar. Derive points from centres & plines, lets you construct a point using the intersection of two Plines with an existing panel. Trace boundary of another extrusion/panel, lets you create vertices which follow the shape of an existing panel. Explicitly defined position, lets you specify a position by entering explicit co-ordinates. Point offset from previous, lets specify a distance and direction which define a point relative to the position of the preceding vertex. Define arc fillet, lets you construct a fillet arc with a specified radius between two picked tangent lines. Derived arc passing through three points, lets construct a fillet arc passing through three picked points.. The panel loop will be extruded downwards by the panel thickness. The panel loop will be extruded downwards by half the panel thickness and upwards by half the panel thickness. The panel loop will be extruded upwards by the panel thickness.

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Fixed radius arc, passing through 2 points, lets you construct a fillet arc with a specified radius, passing through two picked points, which curves towards a picked direction. Below the Create Methods area of the form a message displays the number of vertices that have been created for the panel loop:

As a panel loop requires a minimum of three vertices to be valid, after the definition of the first vertex the message changes to display whether the panel has been created. The Remove Previous Point button becomes active, which allows you to delete previous vertex definition. In the graphics view an aid will show the location of the first vertex, i.e. the default panel origin.

The panel will not be displayed in the graphics view until the third vertex is defined, at which time the message will change to show that the panel has been created.

As each vertex is defined an aid showing the position of the last vertex will be displayed in the graphics view.

Once the third vertex has been defined and the panel created, an axis aid is displayed at the default panel origin. The aid shows the panel axis system, the Y (North) direction being defined by the direction from vertex 1 to vertex 2.

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Hints on Creating Panels A minimum of three vertices are required to create a panel. Panel vertices should always be created in a clockwise direction, as view from above. Anti-clockwise creation will give the wrong justification and direction. Vertices should maintain a clockwise numbering sequence, i.e. the loop should not self intersect.

If several smaller panels are required, it is often quicker to create a large panel and split it as required. If edge cut-outs are required, it is often quicker to create the main panel and modify it for the cut-outs.

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Modifying a Panel
Having created a panel, the PLOO geometry can be modified by moving, adding and deleting vertices, edges and arcs. With the panel to be modified as the CE, selecting Modify>Extrusion/Panel from the main menu displays the Loop Vertex Editor form:

Form menu Control>CE When the form is displayed, the CE name is displayed beneath the form menu. Navigating to another panel and selecting this option makes the new CE the panel being edited by the form. The new CE name is displayed on the form. Control>Close This option dismisses the form. Settings>Confirm This is a toggle option. When set On, you must click the Modify/Create button, at the bottom of the form, to implement each creation or modification. When set Off, each creation or modification is implemented immediately.

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Settings>Confirm on delete This is a toggle option. When set On, you must confirm each deletion before it is actioned. When set Off, deletions are implemented immediately. Settings>Tag edges This is a toggle option. When set On, each edge is tagged with the number of the vertex at its start. Note that edges are tagged automatically, regardless of this setting if the panel has incorrect geometry for any reason (e.g. zero thickness). Settings>Free rotate This is a toggle option. When set On, this option allows groups of vertices to be oriented automatically when they are positioned relative to, say, one edge and are then moved to a different edge. Utilities>Remove coincident This option deletes redundant vertices in situations where two or more vertices have the same position. Mode Selection The options in the Mode Selection area of the form enable you to select a single vertex, an edge or a group of vertices to be modified or create a new vertex: Select all, selects all vertices in the loop, so that you can modify them as a group. Select group to modify, lets you select any number of individual vertices so that you can modify them as a group. Select edge to modify, lets you pick an edge to be modified. The adjacent Edge gadget shows the current edge number (i.e. the number of the vertex at its start). Select point to modify, lets you pick a vertex to be modified. The adjacent Vertex gadget shows the current vertex number. Create points, lets you create a new vertex, which will be allocated the next number in the sequence after the current vertex.

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Vertex/Edge The Vertex/Edge area of the form contains a Select button and a counter that shows the current vertex or edge, depending on the mode. If you click the Select edge to modify button the counter label will change to Edge and the counter will show the current edge. The Select vertex/edge button allows you pick a vertex in the 3D View. The adjacent Vertex counter shows the current vertex number, which is also tagged in the 3D View. You can navigate to a specific vertex by typing its number in the text box or by using the up/down arrows to step through the vertex list. The Select vertex/edge button allows you pick a vertex in the 3D View. The adjacent Edge counter shows the current edge number, which is also tagged in the 3D View. You can navigate to a specific vertex by typing its number in the text box or by using the up/down arrows to step through the vertex list Group When you are modifying a group of vertices, the buttons in the Group area of the form become active. The options let you modify the current group in the following ways: Reverse group definition, reverses the group definition by implicitly renumbering all of the group vertices in the opposite sense (i.e., clockwise or anticlockwise). The origin moves to the other side of the gap. The sense of the current vertex sequence is shown by the aid arrow in the 3D View. Note that this change affects only the groups behaviour; it does not affect the vertex numbering for the panel loop. Move start forwards, moves the open-side of the group, and the origin, one position forwards; that is, in the sense of the vertex numbering. Move start backwards, moves the open-side of the group, and the origin, one position backwards; that is, in the opposite sense to the vertex numbering. Expand group, expands the group area by moving each edge outwards, by the distance specified in the adjacent Expand/Contract text-box, normal to its own direction. Note that this applies to all edges, including those within cut-outs etc., so excessive expansion can lead to invalid loop geometry. Contract group, contracts the group area by moving each edge inwards, by the distance specified in the adjacent Expand/Contract text-box, normal to its own direction. Note that this applies to all edges, including those on panel protrusions etc., so excessive contraction can lead to invalid loop geometry.

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Line When you are modifying an edge, the buttons in the Line area of the form become active. The options enable you to modify the current edge in the following ways: Extend start of line, moves the Start vertex along the edge direction to align it through a picked position. Use the Positioning Control options to pick the required position. Alternatively, if you pick a line, the Start vertex will be moved along the edge direction until it intersects the picked line. These operations can change the edge length. Extend end of line, moves the End vertex along the edge direction to align it through a picked position. Use the Positioning Control options to pick the required position. Alternatively, if you pick a line, the End vertex will be moved along the edge direction until it intersects the picked line. These operations can change the edge length. Make line parallel, moves the free vertex (lowercase tagging) around the reference vertex to align the edge with a picked line (another edge, a pline etc.). This operation maintains the edge length. Rotate anti-clockwise, rotates the edge anticlockwise, through the Rotate Angle specified in the adjacent text-box, about the reference end (uppercase tagging). This operation maintains the edge length. Rotate clockwise, rotates the edge clockwise, through Rotate Angle specified in the adjacent text-box, about the reference end (uppercase tagging). This operation maintains the edge length. Rotate The options in the Rotate area of the form enable you to rotate groups of vertices in the following ways: Rotate group anti-clock-wise, rotates the group anticlockwise, through the Rotate Angle specified in the adjacent text-box, about its origin. Rotate group clock-wise, rotates the group clockwise, through the Rotate Angle specified in the adjacent text box, about its origin.

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Modify The Modify buttons enable you to carry out the following operations on the current selection: Insert selected, lets you move a vertex group by inserting it at a different position in the loop sequence. Use the Vertex selector to navigate to the required point in the sequence; the group will be inserted after the current vertex. Mirror, moves the current vertex, edge or group such that the new positions are derived by reflecting the original positions about a picked line (an edge, pline, etc.). Delete selection, deletes the group, edge or vertex from the loop definition. Define/Modify arc, lets you manipulate a fillet arc at the current loop vertex. When you click this button the Modify Arc form will be displayed and the Loop Vertex Editor form will become temporarily inactive.

Co-ordinates The bottom area of the Loop Vertex Editor form displays co-ordinate data about the current vertex or edge, depending on the Selection Mode, together with radius information where applicable. Vertex For a vertex the X and Y (East and North) co-ordinates, with respect to the panel origin, are displayed. There is no Z co-ordinate as the panel loop is a 2D object. The Radius text box allows you to specify a radius to be applied to the loop at that vertex. This value is applied to the Fradius attribute of the vertex and may a be positive or negative value. A value of 0, the default, will produce a sharp corner at the vertex. A positive value will produce a convex radius at the vertex. A negative value will produce a concave radius at the vertex.

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Edge For an edge the co-ordinates are given for the start or end of the edge. An aid is displayed in the 3D View showing which is the start and which is the end. By default the START will be shown in uppercase letters and the end shown in lowercase. This means that any modifications made to the currently displayed co-ordinates will affect the start only.

Using the selection gadget the end of the edge may be selected, in which case the start is shown in lowercase in the graphic view and the END shown in uppercase. Modifications made will apply to the end of the edge only. It should be noted that modifying the Length in either of these cases will move the edge start or end accordingly. Selecting the Aligned option will allow both the START and the END of the edge to be modified simultaneously. Both the start and the end are shown in uppercase in the graphic view. Generally you will only be able to modify an orthogonal edge in a direction normal to the edge itself. Care should be taken when modifying a nonorthogonal edge as unexpected results may occur. Modify/Create button The context of the button at the bottom of the form will depend on the mode. In Modify mode clicking the button will change the current vertex or edge using the values in the X, Y, Radius or Length text boxes. In Create mode, i.e. when adding a new vertex, clicking the button will create a new vertex with the values displayed in the X, Y or Radius text-boxes. Moving the Panel Origin When creating a panel the Origin will be placed at the first vertex by default and the XY co-ordinates of all other vertices in the panel relate to this position. Selecting Position>Panel Origin from the main menu and selecting a different vertex when prompted enables you to use a different vertex in the PLOO as the panel origin. When you redefine the origin in this way, the coordinates of all vertices owned by the current panel loop are recalculated relative to the new origin such that their positions in the design model remain unchanged.

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Modifying Panel Thickness and Justification Thickness Although the panel thickness is set during creation it can be modified at any time. With the panel you wish to modify as the CE, selecting Modify>Thickness from the main menu displays the Panel Thickness form:

Entering a value in the text box and clicking the Apply button modifies the panel thickness. Justification Although the panel justification is set during panel creation it can be modified at any time. With the panel you wish to modify as the CE, selecting Modify>Justification from the main menu displays the Set Justification form:

Selecting Bottom, Centre or Top from the Justification list and clicking the Apply button modifies the panel justification. The in/out checkbox enables you to set the direction relative to the plane used to justify the panel as shown in the following diagram:

The significance of outward and inward is covered in Panel Fittings later in this manual.

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Splitting a Panel
A panel may be split into two smaller panels along specified lines. It is often easier to model an overall panel and then split it up into smaller areas for, say, fabrication or assembly purposes. Selecting Modify>Split Panel from the main menu will prompt you to select a valid element for the panel to be split on. This will usually be a SCTN or PANE element, but may be soft types of these elements, e.g. STWALL, GWALL, FLOOR & SCREED that are not covered by this manual. Having selected an appropriate element the existing panel will be modified and a new panel created in the hierarchy If you wish to continue splitting the panel, ensure that the correct element is selected as a new panel is created at every split.

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Connecting Panels
Specified panel vertices or panel edges can be connected to other panels or section profiles in a variety of ways. Selecting Connect>Connect from the main menu displays the Panel Connection form:

The form contains the following buttons to facilitate connections: Vertex to vertex, connects a vertex from a panel to a vertex of another panel. Edge to surface, connects an edge of a panel to the surface of another panel. Edges to surface, connects selected edges of a panel to the surface of another panel. Drag edge to surface, drags selected edge of a panel to surface of another panel. Edge to edge, connects selected edge of a panel to an edge of another panel. Edges to edge, connects selected edges of a panel to an edge of another panel. Drag edge to edge, drags selected edge of a panel to the edge of another panel. Edge to section, connects selected edge of a panel to selected pline of a section. Edges to section, connects selected edges of a panel to selected pline of a section. Drag edge to section, drags selected edge of a panel to selected pline of a section. Trim all edges, trims all edges of current panel to suit current connections.

The way the panel geometry is modified depends on the selected option and is depicted graphically on the button of the selector buttons.

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There are three principle modes of operation for connecting panels: 1. Connect edge These options connect a single edge to the selected item to be connected to. If the vertices describing the edge do not align with the selected item they are modified to align. Other edges adjacent to the selected edge remain at their previous locations.

2. Connect edges These options connect selected edges to the selected item to be connected to. If the vertices describing the edges do not align with the selected item they are modified to align. Relative geometry between the selected edges is not maintained.

3. Drag/connect edges These options drag the selected edges such that the nearest edge connects to the selected item but maintains the relative geometry of the selected edges.

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Panel to Section Connections Connecting a panel to a section creates a Section Linear Joint (SELJ) element owned by the selected section. The SELJ owns two Section Vertex (SEVE) elements that have Zdistance attributes to fix their position along the section. Two PAVE elements of the PLOO have logical connections, via their Mvertex attributes, to the SEVE elements.

Where the panel edge being connected is shorter than the section, the two PAVE elements describing the edge have their Mvertex attributes set to the name of the SEVE elements. Where the panel edge is longer than the section the SEVE elements are set at the extremities of the section and two new PAVE elements are created in the PLOO whose positions correspond to the SEVE elements and have their Mvertex attributes set to the name of the SEVE elements.

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Panel to Panel Connections Connecting a panel to another panel creates a Panel Linear Joint (PALJ) element. The PALJ owns two PAVE elements whose positions, generally (see below), coincide with the start and end positions of the connected panel edge. Two PAVE elements of the Attached panel have logical connections, via their Mvertex attributes, to the PAVE elements of the Owning panel.

When connecting a panel to the surface of another panel, the PALJ element is owned directly by the PANE element, even if the storage area for Panel Linear Joints has been set.

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Exercise 7A
Creating a Panel 1. Empty the Draw List and add back only the /EQUIP_SUPPORT element. Set the limits to the Draw List and view direction to Iso 3. 2. Create a new SBFR named EL(+)258_TOS_PLATE under the EQUIP_SUPPORT element, make it the CE and set the Storage Areas by clicking the buttons on the toolbar. 3. Select Create>Extrusion/Panel from the main menu and set the Thickness to 3/8 and the Justification to Bottom. 4. Make sure the Pline rule is set to Normal and click the Derive points from graphic picks button in the Create Methods area of the form. Set the Positioning Control toolbar to Pline and Intersect. Zoom into the top of column F5 and select the outer top of steel (LTOS or RTOS) Plines of the two connecting beams. A text aid will be displayed at the intersection of the Plines showing the Origin of the panel. Note that the message on the form now reads: 1 Vertices defined (no Panel created).

5. Pan the view to the top of column C5 and again select the outer top of steel (LTOS or RTOS) Plines of the two connecting beams. Another text aid will be displayed at the intersection of these Plines at the position of the new vertex. Note that the message on the form now reads: 2 Vertices defined (no Panel created).

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6. Pan the view to the top of column C6 and again select the outer top of steel (LTOS or RTOS) Plines of the two connecting beams. Another text aid will be displayed at the intersection of these Plines at the position of the new vertex. Note that the message on the form now reads: 3 Vertices defined (Panel created).

7. Select the LTOS Pline on outer edge of the parallel stair landing beam. Another text aid will be displayed at this end of the Pline at the position of the new vertex. Note that the message on the form now reads: 4 Vertices defined (Panel created). 8. Finish the panel by panning to the top of column F6 and selecting the outer top of steel (LTOS or RTOS) Plines on the two connecting beams. Note that the message on the form now reads: 4 Vertices defined (Panel created). 9. Click the OK button on the Panel Creation form to create the panel. Your deck plate should look like this:

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10. Query the attributes of the PANE, PLOO and PAVE elements in turn and note the values of the relevant attributes. Modifying the Panel 1. Make sure the panel is the CE. Select Modify>Extrusion/Panel from the main menu to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. Note that an axis aid, showing the axes with respect to the panel, is placed at Vertex 1, the panel origin. 2. First you will add new vertices to the PLOO to make a cut-out around the top of column F5. In order to do this you need to know the distance between Vertex 1 of the panel and the edges of the column section. Click the Measure button on the main toolbar and set the Positioning Control Pick Type and Pick Method to Ppoint and Snap respectively. Select the panel with the left mouse button and, holding the mouse button down, find the Ppoint at Vertex 1 before releasing the mouse button. Change the Pick Type to Pline, select the Pline on the northwest corner of the column and note the Y value from the Measure form. Repeat the procedure but this time select the Pline on south-east corner of the column and note the X value from the Measure form.

3. Make sure you are at Vertex 1 of the panel and click the Create points button in the Mode Selection area of the form. Enter the Y value you noted from the Measure and click the Create button to create a new vertex. Note that this new vertex has been numbered 2 and that the numbers of all the other vertices following this have been incremented by 1. 4. Make Vertex 4 current and enter the X value you noted from the Measure form. Click the Create button to create a new vertex. You now have this situation:

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5. Click the Select point to modify button in the Mode Selection area of the form and select Vertex 1 by clicking and holding down the left mouse button until the pointer changes shape and the vertex is shown in the Prompt Area. You may find it easier to zoom in closer and put the 3D View into wire-line mode. Note that the Loop Vertex Editor form is now in Modify mode rather than Create mode. 6. You will now move Vertex 1 to create the cut-out around the column. Enter the X value and the Y value you obtained from the Measure form into the appropriate boxes and click the Modify button. Note that Vertex 1 has now moved to a new position to make a cut-out in the corner of the panel around the column. The corner of the panel now looks like this:

7. Create a similar cut-out around the C6 column. 8. Create a cut-out around the top of column E5, using the Positioning Control toolbar to select the positions for the new vertices where appropriate. You will need to set the Pline rule to Normal and the Positioning Control toolbar to Pline and Snap.

9. You will now copy the cut-out you have just made to other columns requiring the same cut-outs. Click the Select group to modify button in the Mode Selection area of the form and use the crosshairs to define a polygon that encompasses all four of the vertices that make the cut-out around the column. Pressing the Esc key ends the polygon point selection.

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Panels and Plates

10. Having drawn the polygon the defined group is highlighted with a text aid showing the Group origin.

11. Make Vertex 6 the current vertex. The Group needs to be moved 2870 in the Y direction (wrt the panel), the distance between Row E and Row D, therefore, modify the Y value in the Group co-ordinates area of the form. Do not click the Modify button. Note that the Group is now located around column D5. Click the Insert selected button in the Modify area of the form to insert the Group into the PLOO.

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12. The Group can also be used on columns D6 and E6. Modify the X co-ordinate of the Group to 12-4 1/32 (The distance between Rows 5 & 6 plus the flange with of a W8x18). Note that the Group is now positioned over column D6, however, it needs to be modified prior to insertion.

13. Click the Mirror button in the Modify area of the form, noting the Pick line to mirror about prompt in the Prompt Area. Click the left mouse button near the panel edge so that the group is mirrored to form a cut-out.

14. Click the Reverse group definition button in the Group area of the form to move the group origin. The group is now in the correct sequence, i.e. clockwise numbering is maintained.

15. Make sure you are at the vertex before the Group origin and click the Insert selected button in the Modify area of the form to insert the Group into the PLOO.

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Panels and Plates

16. Use the Group to make a cut-out at column E6. 17. Press the Esc key to end the Group activity. Click the Select all button in the Mode Selection area of the form to select all vertices. Enter a value of 1/2in in the Expand/Contract text box and click the Contract group button adjacent too the text box followed by the Modify button. Zoom in to one of the cut-outs and note that the PLOO has been contracted away from the edge of the supporting beams. 18. Finish the panel by modifying it to include the stair landing. Connecting Panels 1. Create a centre justified gusset plate between column F5 and the beam on Row F at EL.(+) 258 T.O.S., using the dimensions below:

2. Your gusset plate should look like this:

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3. Select Connect>Connect from the main menu to display the Panel Connection toolbar. Click the Edge to Section button from the toolbar and select the top edge of the panel when prompted. The next prompt asks you to Identify pline on section to be connected to. Select the BOS Pline on the beam and click the Yes button on the Confirm message when prompted. Press the Esc key to end the connection process. 4. Make the beam the CE and note the SELJ element and the two SEVE elements created by the connection. Query the attributes of each SEVE element and note the Zdistance and Posline values. Make the gusset plate the CE and query the attributes of PAVE 1 and PAVE 2, noting that the Mvertex attributes contain the name of one of the SEVE elements of the SELJ. 5. Go to the Beams and Columns application by clicking the Beams & Columns button on the main toolbar. Modify the Specification Reference of the beam to W6x15 by selecting Modify>Section>Specification from the main menu and selecting the new section size from the Section Specification form. Your gusset plate and beam will now look like this:

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Panels and Plates

6. Go back to the Panels & Plates application and select Connect>Trim from the main menu. Select the gusset plate when prompted and press the Esc key to end the selection process and update the connection.

7. Reset the Specification Reference of the beam to W8x18 and update the connection again. 8. Save Work.

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Exercise 7B
Creating a Panel 1. Empty the Draw List and add back only the MEZZ_DECK element. Set the limits to the Draw List and the view direction to Iso 3. 2. Create a new SBFR named MEZZ_DECK_PLATE under STRUCT_FRMWK element, make it the CE and set the Storage Areas by clicking the buttons on the toolbar. 3. Select Create>Panel from the main menu and set the Thickness to 3/8 and the Justification to Bottom. 4. Make sure the Pline rule is set to Normal and click the Derive points from graphic picks button in the Create Methods area of the form. Set the Positioning Control toolbar to Pline and Snap. Zoom into the western end of the most northerly HE600A and select the Pline RTOS. A text aid will be displayed at the end of the Pline showing the Origin of the panel. Note that the message on the form now reads: 1 Vertices defined (no Panel created).

5. 6. Pan the view to the eastern end of the northern HE600A and select the RTOS Pline again. Another text aid will be displayed at this end of the Pline at the position of the new vertex. Note that the message on the form now reads: 2 Vertices defined (no Panel created).

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7. Pan the view to the eastern end of the southern HE600A and select the LTOS Pline . Another text aid will be displayed the end of the Pline at the position of the new vertex. The panel has now been created and is displayed in the 3D view. Note that the message on the form now reads: 3 Vertices defined (Panel created).

8. 9. Pan the view to the western end of the southern HE600Aand select the LTOS Pline again. Another text aid will be displayed at this end of the Pline at the position of the new vertex. Note that the message on the form now reads: 4 Vertices defined (Panel created).

10. The deck plate panel is now complete. Click the OK button on the Panel Creation form to create the panel. Your deck plate should look like this:

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11. Query the attributes of the PANE, PLOO and PAVE elements in turn and note the values of the relevant attributes. Splitting the Panel 1. Make sure the panel is the CE and select Modify>Split Pan from the main menu. Rotate the view so that you can see the underside of the panel and the deck beams. Select one of the HE300As in the middle of the deck. Note the new panel has been created. 2. Make the panel that has not been split the CE and split it on the other HE300A. Your deck plate will now consist of three panels. Modifying the Panels 1. Make the western most MEZZ_DECK deck panel the CE. Select Modify>Extrusion/Panel from the main menu to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. Note that an axis aid, showing the axes with respect to the panel, is placed at Vertex 1, the panel origin (the north west corner of the panel wrt WORLD). 2. In the bottom Vertex area of the form enter 3/4 in the Y text box and click the Modify button. Note that Vertex 1 has now moved 3/4in North wrt the panel (East wrt /*). 3. Click the vertex counter round to Vertex 4 and modify this vertex in the same way.

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4. Click the Select edge to modify button in the Mode Selection area form and select the northern edge of the panel. In the Edge area of the form select Aligned from the list and note that the text aid at the START and END positions of the edge are now both shown in upper case letters. 5. Enter 3/4 in the X text box and click the Modify button. Note that the edge has now moved 3/4in East wrt the panel (South wrt /*). 6. Move the southern edge of the panel 3/4in North wrt /* in the same way. 7. Add the ACCESSTOWER to the Draw List, make sure the western most panel is still the CE and zoom in to the north eastern corner (wrt /*) of the panel. 8. Make sure you are at Vertex 1 of the panel and click the Create points button in the Mode Selection area of the form. Enter an X value of 3/4 and a Y value of 78 and click the Create button to create a new vertex. Note that this new vertex has been numbered 2 and that the numbers of all the other vertices following this have been incremented by 1. 9. Make Vertex 3 current and enter an X value of 11 1/2 and a Y value of 78 and click the Create button to create a new vertex. You now have this situation:

10. 11. Click the Select point to modify button in the Mode Selection area of the form and select Vertex 3 by clicking and holding down the left mouse button until the pointer changes shape and the vertex is shown in the Prompt Area. You may find it easier to zoom in closer and put the 3D View into wire-line mode. Note that the Loop Vertex Editor form is now in Modify mode rather than Create mode. 12. Enter an X value of 11 1/2 and a Y value of 11 1/2 and click the Modify button. Note that Vertex 3 has now moved to a new position to make a cut-out in the corner of the panel around the 100x100 RHS column of the ACCESSTOWER. The corner of the panel now looks like this:

13.

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14. Create a similar cut-out for the RHS column at the other end of the same panel edge. 15. Make the centre MEZZ_DECK panel the CE. Create a cut-out with a 3/4in clearance for the west central RHS column of the ACCESSTOWER, using the Positioning Control toolbar to select the positions for the new vertices and adjusting them on the Loop Vertex Editor form to achieve the clearance. You will need to set the Pline rule to Normal and the Positioning Control toolbar to Pline and Snap. You will now have 8 vertices in the PLOO.

16. 17. Click the Select group to modify button in the Mode Selection area of the form and use the crosshairs to define a polygon that encompasses all four of the vertices that make the cut-out around the RHS column. Pressing the Esc key ends the polygon point selection.

18. 19. Having drawn the polygon the defined group is highlighted with a text aid showing the group origin.

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Panels and Plates

20. 21. Make Vertex 2 the current vertex. Select the Pline on the southern face of the east central RHS column, the group will be copied to this location with the origin located at the end of the selected Pline, i.e. at an X co-ordinate of 810 (wrt the panel). Reposition the group by adjusting the X co-ordinate to 810.3/4 to maintain the clearance; do not click the Modify button. Click the Reverse group definition button in the Group area of the form to move the group origin. The group is now in the correct sequence, i.e. clockwise numbering is maintained.

22. 23. Click the Mirror button in the Modify area of the form, noting the Pick line to mirror about prompt in the Prompt Area. Click the left mouse button near the panel edge so that the group is mirrored to form a cut-out.

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24. 25. Click the Insert selected button in the Modify area of the form to insert the group into the PLOO and press the Esc key to end the group operations. You will now have 12 vertices in the PLOO.

26. 27. Create a new SBFR named MAIN_DECK_PLATE, reset the storage area to the new SBFR and create an 3/8in thick panel across the whole deck structure. Before clicking the OK button on the Create Panel form check the Display modification form check box to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. 28. Click the Select all button in the Mode Selection area of the Loop Vertex Editor form to select the four vertices in the PLOO. The buttons in the Group area of the form are now active. Enter a value of 3/4 in in the Expand/Contract text box and click the Contract group button adjacent to the text box. Zoom in to one corner of the panel and note the sphere aid showing the new location of then vertex at that corner. Click the Modify button at the bottom of the form to contract the whole PLOO by 3/4in. Connecting Panels 1. Create a centre justified gusset plate between the southern most HE600A of the MEZZ_DECK and the south west 250x250 RHS corner column using the dimensions below:

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Panels and Plates

2. Your gusset plate should look like this:

3. Select Connect>Connect from the main menu to display the Panel Connection toolbar. Click the Edge to Section button from the toolbar and select the top edge of the panel when prompted. The next prompt asks you to Identify pline on section to be connected to. Select the BOS Pline on the HE600A and click the Yes button on the Confirm message when prompted. Press the Esc key to end the connection process. 4. Make the HE600A the CE and note the SELJ element and the two SEVE elements created by the connection. Query the attributes of each SEVE

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Panels and Plates

element and note the Zdistance and Posline values. Make the gusset plate the CE and query the attributes of PAVE 1 and PAVE 2, noting that the Mvertex attributes contain the name of one of the SEVE elements of the SELJ. 5. Connect the gusset plate to the RHS column. 6. Go to the Beams and Columns application by clicking the Beams & Columns button on the main toolbar. Modify the Specification Reference of the HE600A to HE400A by selecting Modify>Section>Specification from the main menu and selecting the new section size from the Section Specification form. Your gusset plate and beam will now look like this:

7. Go back to the Panels & Plates application and select Connect>Trim from the main menu. Select the gusset plate when prompted and press the Esc key to end the selection process and update the connection.

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Panels and Plates

8. Reset the Specification Reference of the beam to HE600A and update the connection again. 9. Save Work.

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Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Session

Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings


In this session we will introduce the concept of negative extrusions and Panel Fittings. Negative extrusions are negative geometry created in design to represent a hole or a cut-out in the body of the panel away from the edges. A panel fitting is a predefined catalogue element consisting of positive and/or negative geometries.

Objectives
At the end of this session, you will able to:

Create and position a negative extrusion. Use the Loop Vertex Editor to modify an extrusion. Specify a panel fitting. Justify a fitting.

Must Know Points


By the end of this module the trainees will be able to explain:

How to create a negative extrusion using key features on the GUI. How to create a panel fitting.

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

Negative Extrusion Hierarchy and Attributes


A negative extrusion (NXTR element) is an extruded 2D polygonal shape that creates a cut-out in the owning panel. Negative extrusions are owned by PANE elements and have a similar hierarchy structure to them.

The planar area of the negative extrusion is defined by a LOOP element, which itself is defined by a set of vertices (VERT elements). The elements of the negative extrusion contains attributes that combine to create the cut-out in the owning panel. NXTR element The Position attribute of the NXTR holds the position of the negative extrusion origin with respect to the PANE. The Orientation attribute of the NXTR holds the orientation of the panel with respect to the PANE. The Height attribute of the NXTR holds the thickness of the extrusion. The LOOP element holds no attributes affecting the extrusion geometry. The Position attribute of each VERT element gives the vertex position with respect to the extrusion origin.

LOOP element VERT element

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

Creating a Negative Extrusion


As negative extrusions are owned by PANE elements, the panel in which you wish to create the cut-out must be the CE. Selecting Create>Negative Extrusion from the main menu displays the Create Negative Extrusion form:

The form is similar to the Create Panel form, however, there are some significant differences Name Individual extrusions may be named, however, it is not usual to do so. Representation As negative extrusions are not catalogue items, where Drawing Levels and Obstruction values are normally set, they may be set via the Create Negative Extrusion form. The explanation of these settings is not within the scope of this module. Settings The Settings area of the form enables you to select a surface of the panel, i.e. top or bottom, on which the LOOP will be created and the depth of the negative extrusion. Clicking the Surface button prompts you to Pick a surface to be used as a datum. Clicking on a surface of the panel automatically sets the orientation for the negative extrusion, e.g. if the panel is bottom justified and you pick the top surface, the LOOP will be created on the top of the panel and extruded downwards.

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

Entering a value in the Hole depth text box will set the depth of the negative extrusion. If you wish to penetrate the panel completely, enter a hole depth slightly greater than the thickness of the panel. This will avoid any co-planar conflicts with the graphics display. Entering a Hole depth value less than the panel thickness will create a partial depth hole. Create Methods The Create Methods area of the form is similar to the Create Panel form except that there are fewer options. All of the buttons work in exactly the same way as described in Panel Creation. The same rules apply to creating a negative extrusion as to creating a panel, i.e. A minimum of three vertices is required to create the extrusion. Vertices should always be created in a clockwise direction Vertices should maintain a clockwise numbering sequence.

Modifying a Negative Extrusion


Modifying a negative extrusion is accomplished by using the Loop Vertex Editor form. Selecting Modify>Extrusion/Panel from the main menu will display the form. A negative extrusion may be modified in exactly the same way as panel.

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

Creating a Panel Fitting


Panel fittings, are catalogue items defined in Paragon that are referenced in Design by PFIT elements. Panel fittings are similar to section fittings, described earlier, but are owned directly by PANE elements. With the panel you wish to create the fitting on as the CE, selecting Create>Fitting>Single from the main menu displays the Create Panel Fitting form:

The Specification Data area of the form allows you to select the exact fitting you require. The Specification pull-down allows you to select the type of fitting required, e.g. standard access, standard doors, standard windows, etc. The Generic Type pull-down enables you to select the generic type of fitting described in the specification.
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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

The Sub-Type pull-down allows you to select the sub-type of fitting e.g. a particular style of standard access. The scrollable window displays all available fittings for the Specification, Generic Type and Sub-Type selected. The Settings area of the form is where the fitting is justified, orientated and positioned with respect to the owning panel. The Justification pull-down enables you to specify the positioning within the thickness of the panel and the direction of the fitting with respect to the panel.

The origin of the fitting, as defined in the catalogue, can be positioned on the Top, Centre or Bottom of the panel. Inwards and outwards relates to the plane direction used to justify the panel, see Creating a Panel. If the selected direction is incorrect it may easily be modified to ensure the fitting is in the correct orientation. The Beta Angle text box is used to specify the rotation of the fitting around its Z axis. The Position box displays the current position of the fitting origin. By default the position is set to the origin of the owning panel and is displayed wrt /*. Clicking the button displays the Positioning Control toolbar and the Pick Fitting Position form:

The form shows the default fitting origin position, i.e. the panel origin, wrt the WORLD. The position may be specified wrt the owning panel by entering CE in the wrt text box and pressing the Return key. The position co-ordinates may then be adjusted to correctly position the fitting origin. You must take into account the orientation of the panel when specifying the co-ordinates. A graphical aid shows the position of the fitting as the co-ordinates are adjusted:

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

The Properties button is used to set any Design Parameters that may have been used in the catalogue definition of the fitting. The Plotfile button is used to display a sketch of the fitting, if one is supplied in the catalogue data set. Having selected, positioned and oriented the fitting, clicking the Apply button on the form creates the fitting. The standard catalogue provides simple examples of panel fittings that are used for demonstration and purposes. It is important for companies to develop their own catalogues for all panel fitting requirements.

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

Modifying a Panel Fitting


Selecting Modify>Fitting from the main menu to displays the Modify Panel Fitting form:

Modify Panel Fitting form operations are the same as the Create Panel Fitting form except that altering the settings modifies an existing panel. The position of a panel fitting may be modified by selecting the Position>Explicitly (AT) or Position>Relatively (BY) options from the main menu. It should be noted that you cannot re-position the panel fitting in the Up or Down directions, i.e. Z wrt panel, using these options.

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The orientation of a panel fitting may be modified by selecting the Orientate>Rotate or Orientate> Angle options from the main menu. The Angle may also be modified from the Command Line.

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

Exercise 8A
Creating a Negative Extrusion 1. Make the panel at EL.(+) 258 T.O.S. the CE. Select Settings>Graphics>Representation from the main menu to display the Representation form. Un-check the Holes Drawn check box, make sure the update all graphics check box is checked and click the OK button on the form. 2. Select Create>Negative Extrusion from the main menu to display the Create Negative Extrusion form. 3. Click the Surface button in the Settings area of the form and pick the top surface of the panel, note that the surface direction now reads D WRT /*. As the panel is 3/8 in thick set the Hole depth to 1/2in. 4. Click the Explicitly Defined Position button in the Create Methods area of the form to display the Define Vertex form, note that the default co-ordinates are set to 0, 0, 0 wrt WORLD. Enter CE in the wrt text box and press the Return key. The co-ordinates now show the panel origin position. Enter 0 for all three coordinates and note that a text aid, Vertex position, has now appeared at the panel origin.

5. Enter co-ordinates of East 20, North 20 and Down 0. Note that the Vertex position text aid has moved to the co-ordinates specified. Click the Apply button on the form and note that a new text aid, Origin, has appeared at the coordinates. Dismiss the Define Vertex form. 6. Click the Point offset from previous button in the Create Methods area of the Create Negative Extrusion form to display the Define Vertex form. As this form uses directions wrt /*, enter N WRT /*, i.e. N wrt panel, in the Direction text box and 12 in the Distance text box. Click the Apply button on the form and note that a new text aid, Last Vertex, appears at the new co-ordinates and that the Vertex position text aid has moved to reflect the direction and distance specified on the Define Vertex form. 7. Enter E WRT /* and 20 respectively in the Direction and Distance text boxes of the Define Vertex form and click the Apply button again. This creates the third
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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

vertex, i.e. the extrusion is defined, and the extrusion shape appears as black lines on the surface of the panel.

8. Define the last vertex by entering s WRT /* and 12 respectively in the Direction and Distance text boxes of the Define Vertex form and click the Apply button again. Dismiss the Define Vertex form and click the OK button on the Create Negative Extrusion form. 9. Query the attributes of the NXTR, LOOP and VERT elements you have just created and note any relevant values attributes, particularly Position. Modifying a Negative Extrusion. 1. Make the NXTR you have just created the CE. Select Modify>Extrusion/Panel from the main menu to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. 2. Add a 50mm radius to each of the four vertices of the extrusion. Close the Loop Vertex Editor form. Turn Holes Drawn on, set Arc Tolerance to 1 and update all graphics using the Representation form. Your negative extrusion should look like this:

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

3. Create a circular negative extrusion of 3 diameter at another location in the panel.

Creating a Panel Fitting 1. Select Create>Fittings>Single from the main menu to display the Create Panel Fitting form. The form shows the default Specification, Generic Type and Sub-type of Standard Access, Access Cover and Standard Manhole A respectively. Click the Pick Position button to display the Pick Fitting Position
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form and enter CE in the wrt text box. Modify the co-ordinates to 0, 0, 0 and note a text aid, Through Position, appears at the panel origin. 2. Enter co-ordinates of East 6, 26 and Up 0 and note that the text aid has moved to the new co-ordinates. Click the OK button on the Pick Fitting Position form and note that the Position co-ordinates have changed on the Create Panel Fitting form. 3. Click the Apply button on the Create Panel Fitting form to create the fitting:

Modifying a Panel Fitting 1. Make the panel fitting the CE. Select Modify>Fitting from the main menu to display the Modify Panel Fitting form. Try each of the Justification options and note the changes to the position and orientation of the fitting. 2. Modify the Beta Angle and note the changes in orientation of the fitting about its Z axis. 3. Move the fitting using the Position>Explicitly (AT) and Position>Relatively (BY) options from the main menu. 4. Save Work.

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Exercise 8B
Creating a Negative Extrusion 1. Clear the Draw List, add back the MAIN_DECK and MAIN_DECK_PLATE elements and make the panel covering the deck steelwork the CE. Select Settings>Graphics>Representation from the main menu to display the Representation form. Un-check the Holes Drawn check box, make sure the update all graphics check box is checked and click the OK button on the form. 2. Select Create>Negative Extrusion from the main menu to display the Create Negative Extrusion form. 3. Click the Surface button in the Settings area of the form and pick the top surface of the panel, note that the surface direction now reads D WRT /*. As the panel is 3/8in thick set the Hole depth to in. 4. Click the Explicitly Defined Position button in the Create Methods area of the form to display the Define Vertex form, note that the default co-ordinates are set to 0, 0, 0 wrt WORLD. Enter CE in the wrt text box and press the Return key. The co-ordinates now show the panel origin position. Enter 0 for all three co-ordinates and note that a text aid, Vertex position, has now appeared at the panel origin.

5. Enter co-ordinates of East 6, North 3 and Down 0. Note that the Vertex position text aid has moved to the co-ordinates specified. Click the Apply button on the form and note that a new text aid, Origin, has appeared at the co-ordinates. Dismiss the Define Vertex form. 6. Click the Point offset from previous button in the Create Methods area of the Create Negative Extrusion form to display the Define Vertex form. As this form uses directions wrt /*, enter E WRT /*, i.e. N wrt panel, in the Direction text box and 20 in the Distance text box. Click the Apply button on the form and note that a new text aid, Last Vertex, appears at the new co-ordinates

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and that the Vertex position text aid has moved to reflect the direction and distance specified on the Define Vertex form. 7. Enter S WRT /* and 3 respectively in the Direction and Distance text boxes of the Define Vertex form and click the Apply button again. This creates the third vertex, i.e. the extrusion is defined, and the extrusion shape appears as black lines on the surface of the panel.

8. Define the last vertex by entering W WRT /* and 20 respectively in the Direction and Distance text boxes of the Define Vertex form and click the Apply button again. Dismiss the Define Vertex form and click the OK button on the Create Negative Extrusion form. 9. Query the attributes of the NXTR, LOOP and VERT elements you have just created and note any relevant values attributes, particularly Position. Modify a Negative Extrusion. 1. Make the NXTR you have just created the CE. Select Modify>Extrusion/Panel from the main menu to display the Loop Vertex Editor form. 2. Add a 2in radius to each of the four vertices of the extrusion. Close the Loop Vertex Editor form. Turn Holes Drawn on, set Arc Tolerance to 1 and update all graphics using the Representation form. Your negative extrusion should look like this:

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Negative Extrusions and Panel Fittings

3. Move the negative extrusion East wrt /* so that it is between the deck angle stringers using the Position>Relatively (BY) option from the main menu. 4. Create a circular negative extrusion of 3 diameter at another location in the panel.

Creating a Panel Fitting 1. Make the MAIN_DECK panel element the CE. Select Create>Fittings>Single from the main menu to display the Create Panel Fitting form. The form shows the default Specification, Generic Type and Sub-type of Standard Access, Access Cover and Standard Manhole A respectively. Click the Pick Position button to display the Pick Fitting Position form and enter CE in the wrt text box. Modify the co-ordinates to 0, 0, 0 and note a text aid, Through Position, appears at the panel origin. 2. Enter co-ordinates of East 1000, North 9 and Up 0 and note that the text aid has moved to the new co-ordinates. Click the OK button on the Pick Fitting Position form and note that the Position co-ordinates have changed on the Create Panel Fitting form. 3. Click the Apply button on the Create Panel Fitting form to create the fitting:

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Modifying a Panel Fitting 1. Make the panel fitting the CE. Select Modify>Fitting from the main menu to display the Modify Panel Fitting form. Try each of the Justification options and note the changes to the position and orientation of the fitting. 2. Modify the Beta Angle and note the changes in orientation of the fitting about its Z axis. 3. Move the fitting using the Position>Explicitly (AT) and Position>Relatively (BY) options from the main menu. 4. Save Work.

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Appendix
AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

This appendix gives the Plines and Parameters for each Generic type (Gtype) shape used to construct the AVEVA Standard Profile Catalogues.

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AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type BOX

PARA 2 LTOS TOS PARA 4 RTOS

PARA 7

PARA 3

NA LEFT PARA 1 RIGH

PARA 6

LBOS BOS

RBOS

Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length

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AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type ANG

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

9-3

AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type TUBE

HH II JJ

GG

FF EE DD

KK NAII NAKK MM NAMM NAOO NAQQ OO PP QQ RR

NA & NAGG NAEE NACC NAAA NAWW NASS NAUU

CC

LL

BB

AA

PARA 1

NN

XX

WW VV UU SS TT PARA 2

There are three types of Pline: S AA-XX every 15 degrees round the circumference S NAAA-NAWW every 30 degrees from the centre S NA equivalent to NAGG Other Parameters: PARA 3 = Weight per unit length

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AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type BEAM

PARA 2 LTOS TOS TLW TRW PARA 4 RTOS

LTBS

TBHL TLWB PARA 6 TRWB

TBHR

RTBS

PARA 3 NA NALO NAL NAR

PARA 8 NARO PARA 1

LBTS

BBHL

BLWT

BRWT BBHR RBTS

LBOS

BLW BOS

BRW PARA 12

RBOS

Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length PARA 7 = Cross Sectional Area PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Nominal Width PARA 11 = Surface Area per unit length

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

9-5

AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type DINI

PARA 2 LTOS PARA 4 TOS PARA 7 RTOS

TBHR TBHL

PARA 6 PARA 3 NA PARA 8 NALO NAL NAR NARO PARA 1

BBHL

BBHR PARA 10 (as percentage)

LBOS

BOS PARA 11

RBOS

PARA 4 measured midway between TOS and LTOS

Other Parameters: PARA 5 = Weight per unit length PARA 9 = Nominal Depth

9-6

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type BSC

PARA 2 LTOC TOC PARA 4 RTOC

TBH

PARA 5

NA PARA 10 FOC IOC ROC PARA 1

PARA 3 PARA 7 BBH PARA 9 (degrees)

LBOC

BOC PARA 13

PARA 8

RBOC

PARA 4 measured midway between LTOC and RTOC

Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 11 = Nominal Depth PARA 12 = Nominal Width

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

9-7

AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type DINU

PARA 2 PARA 14 LTOC TOC = PARA 4 = RTOC

TBH

PARA 5

NA PARA 10 FOC IOC ROC PARA 1

PARA 3 PARA 7 BBH PARA 9 (as percentage)

LBOC

BOC PARA 13

PARA 8

RBOC

PARA 4 measured midway between the PARA 14 limit and RTOC PARA 14 is usually either zero or equal to PARA 3

Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 11 = Nominal Depth PARA 12 = Nominal Width

9-8

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type TEE

PARA 1 LTOS TOS PARA 4 RTOS

PARA 5

LTBS

TBHL TLWB PARA 7 NA TRWB NAR

TBHR

RTBS

NALO

NAL

NARO

PARA 3

PARA 2

LBOS BOS

RBOS

Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 8 = Nominal Width PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Original Depth PARA 11 = Original Width PARA 12 = Original Weight

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

9-9

AVEVA Catalogue Profiles

Generic Type DINT

PARA 2 PARA 13 TOS

LTOS

PARA 4

RTOS

PARA 14

PARA 17 (as percentage)

TBHL

NA

TBHR PARA 7 NAR PARA 3

PARA5

NALO

NAL

NARO PARA 1

PARA 15

BOS PARA 16 (as percentage)

PARA 3 measured midway between TOS and BOS PARA 4 measured midway between LTOS and TOS Other Parameters: PARA 6 = Weight per unit length PARA 8 = Nominal Width PARA 9 = Nominal Depth PARA 10 = Original Depth PARA 11 = Original Width PARA 12 = Original Weight

9-10

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Appendix
Drawings for Onshore Exercises
This appendix contains the drawings for the Track A Onshore Exercises.

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

10-1

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

Pipe Rack Drawings

10-2

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

10-3

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

10-4

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

10-5

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

10-6

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

Equipment Support Structure Drawings

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

10-7

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

10-8

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design

10-9

Drawings for Onshore Exercises

10-10

Module 6 Basic Steelwork Design