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The client requires a 20 000m storage warehouse for a Trade Centre in order to store stocks and act as a distribution center for the greater Durban area. Thus the warehouse is to be located in the industrial area of Durban. The site that has been chosen by the client will only allow for a structural steel structure with a length of 250m and 80m wide in order for all the necessary services to fit on the chosen land. Refer to the image below for the chosen location.

DESIGN LIMITATIONS: The following points have been pointed out by the client, which may possibly be considered as design limitations of the structure: The clear height of the eaves are to be 6m Roller shutter door openings to be provided along the one side of the structure, along the greater dimension, in order for deliveries to be possible.

The structure is to be cladded with a masonry wall from surface bed level up to a height of 3m and the remaining opening until the eaves are to be covered with vertical sheeting. The structure is required to have a minimum clear head height dimension on the inside of 4.5m. The client also requires that the structure has large open spaces on the inside of the structure on a minimum grid of 15m x 15m. The surface bed of the structure must be able to handle a heavy traffic flow throughout the structure and must also be able to handle the stacking of heavy items without failing. The structure needs to be ventilated but there is no need for A.C units, as the items that will be stored in the warehouse will either not be items that spoil or be items that will be kept in cooling rooms. The roof the structure needs to be isolated. There must also be an allowance for a sprinkler system in the structure for fire prevention. Due to the fact that the warehouse is located at the coast it is essential that all structural steel members be galvanized in order for rust prevention.

CONSEPTUAL DESIGN: Due to the site`s limitations it was decided that the most suitable dimensions for the structure would be 80m wide and 250m long which provides a structure of 20 000m2 as required. The bearing capacity of the soil is at current unknown but it would be safe to assume a bearing capacity of 150 Kpa on which the foundation footings of the structure may be supported apon. Once a geotechnical report is done on the site the true bearing capacity will be known and the design will be adapted. In order to create the open spaces internally as required it is decided that a internal column grid of 20m x 20m would be used. This means that there will be a total of 3 girder trusses which will be supported on a column every 20m and a roof truss every 10m supported on a perimeter column and spanning to the provided girder trusses. The layout below indicates the possible layout of the structures.

The roof of the structure is to be at a slope of 5degrees with a 0.5mm IBR sheeting with a weight of 7.3kg/m2. The same sheeting is also to be used for the vertical cladding of the structure. The support purlins for the sheeting are to be placed at a spacing of 1.666m because the allowable end span that the sheeting can span is 1.6m and the internal span is 1.8m, so it is desided to go for an equal spacing for practical purposes for the fabrication of the trusses that caters both for the end and internal parameters of the sheeting. The purlins to be used in the structure are to be a 250 x 75 x 20 x 2.5 CFLC which is based on the span of the purlin divided by 45. Which is:

Depth = span / 45 =10m / 45 = 222mm deep section required. As shown above the purlins must be able to span 10m clear and are to be simply supported. The purlins would also have a double sag angle system. The sag angle will be a 50 x 50 x 5 angle. Allow for a 1kg/m2 isolation panel in the roof structure as well as a 5kg/m2 for the sprinkler system and services. Allowance also to be made for the 90 continuous ridge mounted ventilator units with a unit length of 2.7m. A top chord for the truss is to be assumed as a 70 x 70 x 6 back-to-back angles and the assumed bottom chord for the truss would be a 60 x 60 x 8 back-to-back angles with a 60 x 60 x 6 angle for the diagonals and verticals of the truss based on the following:

In order to keep the deflections of the truss to a minimum the trusses would be designed as continues over the supports. By doing this the total weight of the structure will also be kept to a minimum than that of a truss designed simply supported between supports. The depth of the girder truss will be kept to 2m in order to provide the required clear head room of 4.5m that the client requested. The assumed top chord size of the girder truss is to be assumed as a 120 x 120 x 8 back-to-back angles and an assumed bottom chord of 100 x 100 x 8 back-toback angles with a PFC 200 channel for the verticals and diagonals. The trusses are to be supported on a 500 x 500 R.C column that is from foundation level to a height of 3m with a 203 x 203 x 46 H column bolted to the top of the concrete column with a castin-item and to the truss at the top. The columns on the perimeter are to be at 10m c/c and the internal columns supporting the girder truss are to be at 20m c/c. The decision the go for a concrete column up to a height of 3m is in order to keep the steel column size down and to provide a possible cost saving because if a steel column is to be taken down to foundation level the column size would be much greater due to the slenderness of the column. It is therefore cheaper to have a concrete column up to a height of 3m. The size of the column was decided on by the fact that it should be able to resist a possible bump-in by the vehicles used within the warehouse, so it should be quit a strong element. The warehouse exterior will be cladded with a 3m high masonry wall on all four sides, which would make the instillation of the roller shutter door easier and the finishing there of a better quality. The remainder of the structure form the top of the masonry wall to the eaves height will be cladded with the same sheeting as the one used for the roof with girds to support the sheeting vertically spaced at 1.5m c/c. the size of the girds would be the same size as the purlins used, a 250 x 75 x 20 x 2.5 CFLC, in order to span the required 10m and also to limit the purlin sizes to be ordered by the contractor to one for practical reasons. The girds will also have a double sag angle system as specified on the roof purlins. The size of the sag angles would be a 50 x 50 x 5 angle. The support columns of the structural steel roof will be supported on reinforced concrete pad footings with a concrete strength of 25 Mpa. The footings on the perimeter of the structure will be 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.4m deep, the footings supporting the internal column will be 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.5m deep and the footings supporting the columns on the girder truss ends will be 3 x 3 x 0.4m deep. The masonry wall around the perimeter of the structure will be supported on a 600mm wide by 300mm deep reinforced concrete strip footing with a concrete strength of 25 Mpa. The masonry wall that is to build around the perimeter of the warehouse is to be tied into the concrete support columns with hoop irons in order to support the wall panels. The walls are also to be build to specifications. The flooring of the warehouse structure will be a 125mm THK concrete surface bed slab reinforced with a mesh ref# 193. The slab will have a power float finish with saw cut joints every 5m, the saw cuts are to be as per the detail below. The surface bed is not to be casted in panels exceeding a size of 15m2 in order to prevent shrinkage cracks. The following construction joint details are to be followed.

Because of the movement of the structural steel structure it would be necessary to control the cracks in the surface bed around the internal columns. The following detail is to be applied.

Internal brick work will be build on a thickening in the surface bed slab as per the detail below.

All bolts used in the erection of the structural steel structure to be grade 8.8 unless specified otherwise. All cleat plates used in the construction of the structural steel structure to be 10mm THK unless specified otherwise.

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