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No. 1 Solution of Problem 1

Karabuk University, Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Prof. Mihai Cernat Physics (PHY 188), Middterm-exam - April 25th, 2012

1. Three particles with electric charge q A =+16 nC, q B =-12,5nC, and q C =+20 nC are arranged in vacuum in points A, B, C on the corners of a right triangle. Point A is at the 90º corner, at a distance d AB =30 cm from point B and at a distance of d AC =40 cm from point C. Arrange a Cartesian coordinate system with point A as origin, point B on the Ox axis and point C on the Oy axis and the determinate the Cartesian components, the magnitude and the direction of the force acting on particle situated in point C.

)
F
C
= q
C =
q
C (
E
A
+
E
C E
B
1
q
r
q
A
AC
B
 
E
C
=
E
A
+
E
B
=
+
r
BC
4 π ε
2
r
3
r
r
 
0
AC
AC
BC
r
AC
r
AC
= j d
=
j
AC
r
AC
(
)
2
2
2
r
BC
=
i
d
+
j d
r
=
d
+
d
AB
AC
BC
AB
AC
 
 
1
q
q
B [(
)
]
E
C
=
A j +
i
d
+
j d
AB
AC
4 π ε
2
0  d
2
2
d
+ d
AC
AC
AB
9
− 9
1
16
×
10
12.5
×
10
[(
)
E
C
=
j
+
i
30
×
10
1
(
)
2
3
− 2
4
π
40
×
10
− 2
) 2
9
4
π
9
×
10
( 30
× 10
2 ) 2
+
( 40
×
10
9
16
12.5
(
)
2 (
)
(
)
V
E
C
=
j
+
3
i
4
j
=
9
×
10
j
+
0.3
i
0.4
j
=
270
i
+
2
j
− 2
(
)
2
3
m
10
4
5
9
2 )
6
F
C
=
q
E
C
=
20
×
10
×
270 ( i
+
j
=
5.4
×
10
N
C

Notations:

2

+

j

40

×

10

2

]

 q - free electric charge, Coulomb, C E - electric field strength, Volt per meter, V/m F - Force, Newton, N r - position vector, distance, meter, m ε - permittivity, Farad per meter, F/m

No. 1 Solution of Problem 2

Karabuk University, Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Prof. Mihai Cernat Physics (PHY 188), Middterm-exam - April 25th, 2012

2. Develop the equation which expresses the electric field strength in a certain point produced by a uniform surface distribution of electrical charge q of a spherical shell, in terms of the surface charge density ρ S (or σ).

 Ψ el Σ = q Σ observation point : N ( r ) ρ S = q 4 π R 2 Ψ el Σ = ∫ ε E ⋅ d S Σ Σ = sphere of radius r E = E ( r ) r d S = d S r r r Ψ el Σ = ∫ E ⋅ d S = ε E ∫ d S = ε E 4 π r 2 Σ Σ  0 r < R q Σ =  2  q = ρ S 4 π R r > R 2  0 r < R ε E 4 π r =  2  q = ρ s 4 π R r > R  0 r < R E =   q = ρ S R 2 > R   4 π ε r 2 ε r 2 r  0  2 r < R E =  q r = ρ S R r > R   4 π ε r 2 r ε r 2 r r

Notations:

Ψ elΣ

Σ

q Σ

N(r)

r

ρ S

R

dS

ε - permittivity, Farad per meter, F/m

- electric flux through a closed surface, Coulomb, C

- closed surface, unity vector of the normal is directed outside - free electric charge placed inside of the closed surface Σ, Coulomb, C - observation point

- position vector, distance, meter, m - surface density of the free electric charge, Coulomb per square meter, C/m 2

- radius of the sphere, meter, m - surface element, square meter, m 2

No. 1 Solution of Problem 3

Karabuk University, Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Prof. Mihai Cernat Physics (PHY 188), Middterm-exam - April 25th, 2012

3. Using the expression of the electric field strength deduced above, express the potential difference between two points on the symmetry axis. What is the potential of the point on the spherical surface of radius R?

  0 r < R > E A E =     q r = ρ S R 2 r > R 4 π ε r 2 r ε r 2 r r = ( A r A ) B = ( B r B ) N r A , r B > R = − grad V V = V 0 − ∫ E ⋅ d l N 0 V A V A − − = V B V 0 A ∫ E N 0 − V B = r B ∫ r A q 4 π ε r ⋅ d 2 l r r − ⋅ V r r 0 + d r B ∫ E N 0 ⋅ d l = B ∫ A E ⋅ d r d r r = r d r = q 1 =  −   4 π ε r  q 4 π ε r B ∫ r A d r r 2 r B r A    

=

 

N can be expressed as :

 

 

q

1

1

4 π ε

r

A

r

B

Considering zero the potential at infinity, the potential of a certain point

V

=

V

N

N

E

d

l

=

E

d

l

The potential of the points on the spherical surface of radius

V =

0

R

q r

r

4 π ε r

2

r

r

d r

=

q
d
r
q
1
=
2
4 π ε
4 π ε
r
R r

R  

=

R :

q

4 π ε R

Notations:

q - free electric charge, Coulomb, C

E

N(r)

r

ρ S

R - radius of the sphere, meter, m

dl - length element, meter, m

ε - permittivity, Farad per meter, F/m

- electric field strength, Volt per meter, V/m - observation point

- position vector, distance, meter, m - surface density of the free electric charge, Coulomb per square meter, C/m 2

V - potential of the electric field, Volt, V

No. 1 Solution of Problem 4

Karabuk University, Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Prof. Mihai Cernat Physics (PHY 188), Middterm-exam - April 25th, 2012

4. Suppose a parallel-plate capacitor is charged and then disconnected from the charging battery.

Next the plate separation is doubled. Describe any change in each of the following quantities as a result of the change in plate separation (neglected edge effects):

a) the charge of the plates

b) the capacitance

c) the potential difference across the capacitor

d) the field between the plates

e) the energy of the capacitor

f) the energy density between the plates.

 q = C U = const . d ' d = S = S ' ' ε = ε 2 a ) q = q ' q ' = q b ) C = ε S ' C = ε ' S ' ε S = = C d d ' 2 d 2 c ) U = q U ' = q ' = q = 2 U C C ' C / 2 d ) E = U E ' = U ' = 2 U = E d d ' 2 d 1 ' 1 1 C ( 1 e ) W e = C U 2 W e = ' C U ' 2 = 2 U ) 2 = C U 2 = W e 2 2 2 2 2 ' ' f ) = We = We ' W e = W e = W e = 1 W e = 1 w e V S d w e = V ' S ' d ' S 2 d 2 S d 2 w e Notations: q - free electric charge, Coulomb, C C - capacitance, Farad, F E - electric field strength, Volt per meter, V/m d - distance, meter, m U - potential difference, voltage, electric tension, Volt, V ε - permittivity, Farad per meter, F/m V - volume, cubic meter, m 3 - energy of electric field, Joule, J - volume density of the energy of the electric field, Joule per cubic meter, J/m 3 W e w e

No. 1 Solution of Problem 5

Karabuk University, Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Prof. Mihai Cernat Physics (PHY 188), Middterm-exam - April 25th, 2012

5. Constructing an ammeter. Suppose we will construct an ammeter that reads a current I m when the pointer of the current-detecting device is at full-scale position. We do this by placing a resistor (called a shunt resistor) of resistance R para in parallel with the current-detecting device, so that part of the current in the ammeter is shunted through the parallel resistor. The current-detecting device has a resistance R d and the current I fs in the device causes a full-scale deflection of its pointer. The circuit diagram is to draw. The expression of resistance of the shunt resistor R para is to be expressed. Evaluate R para for the case where I m =10 mA, R d =19 and I fs =50 µA. What is the resistance of the ammeter R Am in this case?

(

I

R

R

R

R

m

I

para

Am

=

para

Am

=

 fs ) R para = I fs R d = I I fs m − I fs R para R para R d R para + R d = 50 × 10 − 6 10 × 10 − 3 − 50 × 10 − 6 R para R d = 1 19 ⋅ = R para + R d 1 + 19

Notations:

19 =

0.95

50

950

19

=

1

 I - intensity of the electric current, Ampere, A R - electrical resistance, Ohm, Ω U - potential difference, voltage, electric tension, Volt, V

No. 1 Solution of Problem 6

Karabuk University, Faculty of Engineering Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering Prof. Mihai Cernat Physics (PHY 188), Middterm-exam - April 25th, 2012

6. Charging a capacitor. Consider a capacitor of capacitance C placed in series with a switch S, a resistor of resistance R and with an ideal DC voltage source (battery) of electromotive force U e (or E). At t<0, the capacitor is uncharged and the switch is open. At t=0, the switch is closed.

a) The diagram of the circuit is to be drawn.

b) The equation of the time variation of the voltage across the capacitor, the equation of the time variation of the electric charge of the capacitor and the equation of the time variation of the current are to be developed. Alternatively, the equation of the time variation of the electric charge of the capacitor, the equation of the voltage across the capacitor and the equation of the time variation of the current are to be developed.

c) Numerical application: U C0 =0, U e =20 V, R=30 k, C=2 µF.

i. What is time constant of the circuit.

ii. The time variation functions developed above are to be drawn.

iii. What are the initial values (immediately after the switch is closed) of quantities: voltage across the capacitor, the charge of the capacitor, the current in the circuit and the voltage across the resistor?

iv. What are the values at t=60 ms of same quantities?

b) developing equations

t

t

<

U

e

0

0

=

u

R

S

S

+

is open

is closed

=

no current flows

current flows

=

u

C

=

i R

+

u

C

u

C

=

i

d

t

U

e

=

u

S

+

u

C

d

(

u

C

)

C u

i

d

q

C

=

=

d

t

d t

=

U

C 0

= C

d u

C

d t

C

d u

C

U

e =

d u

C

+

u

d t

C

=

R +

U

e

d t

T

T

u

C =

R C

d u

C

d t

+

u

C =

T

d u

C

d t

+

u

C T

=

linear differential equation of first order;

R C

initial condition u

the general solution of the homogenous equation

d

u

1

u

1

C

+

C

d

t

T

= 0

differential equation with separable variables

d u

C

1 d t

= −

u C 1

T

ln

u C

1

= −

t

T

+

const

u

C

1

=

k e

particular solution of the non

a

d u

C

2

+

u

C

2

=

U

e

t

→ ∞

d

t

T

homogenous equation (for

d u

C

2

=

0

u

C

2

=

U

e

T d t

the general solution of the non

homogenous equation

u

C

( t )

=

u

C

1

+

u

C

2

=

U

e

+

k

exp

t

T

t

T

t

=

k

exp

→ ∞

)

t

T

1

C

=

U

C 0

second

q

C

u

u

commutation law (conservation of electric charge)

(0) =

( )
t
t =
0
u
( )
t
C
t
=
( )
t
C
t
=
0

= q t

( )

t =

0

−ε

C

t

=

k

q

=

0

= C u

U

= u

=

0

C

( )

t

U

+

( )

t

0

t

−ε

=

0

−ε

(

exp 0

)

=

exp

C C

u

C e

( )

t

=

U

(

U

e

e

U

C

0

)

(0)

U

u

e

C

+

q

C u

(0) =

0

k

C

(0) =

U

C

0

k

C U

=

U

t   =

T

U

e

U

C

0

+

U

C

C 0

e

0

U

C

0

(

U

e

U

C

0

)

exp

t

T

u

( ) =

C C

t

U

0

+

(

U

e

U

C

0

( )

q t

=

i t

(

) =

C u

C

( )

t

=

CU

C

d u

C

d t

=

C

(

U

C

e

0

+

U

)

(

t  

)

0

1

exp

T

1

t   =

T

exp

U

e

U

t  

C U

e

C 0

)

1

T

C U

C

exp

T

C 0

=

q

0

+

exp

t

T

(

R

C U

e

q

0

)

1

exp

t  

T

if

q

0

u

C

( )

t

=

=

CU

U

e

(

q t

)

= C u

C

C

0

=

0

1

exp

( )

t

=

C U

e

t  

T

1

exp

 

t  

 

T

( ) =

i t

C

d u

C

d t

=

C U

e

1

T

exp

 

t   =

T

e

U

R

exp

t

T

Alternatively:

< 0

t 0

t

U

e

=

C U

e

u

R

=

 S is open = no current flows S is closed = current flows

+

u

C

i R C

=

+

i R

+

C u

C

u

C

u

C

C Ue

=

=

q

C

R C

d

i

q

d

t

U

e

=

u

S

+

=

d

q

d

t

+

q

=

T

d

q

d

t

u

+

C

q

u

C

=

T

d

q

+

q

C U

e

=

d

t

T

T

linear differential equation of first order;

U

C 0

=

R C

initial condition q

homogenous equation

d

q

+

q

d

t

T

= 0

differential equation with separable variables

d q

1

q

1

= −

d t

T

ln

q

1

= −

t

T

non

homogenous equation

q ( t )

=

q

1

+

q

2

=

C U

e

+

k

exp

+

const

q

1

=

k e

t

T

=

k

exp

t

T

d q

2

+

q

2

=

U

e

t

→ ∞

d q

2

t

d t

T

T

R d t

=

0

q

2

=

C U

e

second

( )

q t

t =

0

commutation law (conservation of electric charge)

(0) =

( )

= q t

t =

0

−ε

q

q

0

2

=

q

0

=

C U

C

0

q

(0)

q ( t )

=

=

q

0

=

C U

e

C U

e

+

(

C U

e

k

exp 0

q

0

(

)

)

=

exp

C U

e

+

t

T

=

k

C U

e

q

0

k

=

+

q

C U

e

q

0

0

(

C U

e

q

0

)

exp

t

T

 − q 0 )    1 −  exp   + −    U e ) − 1 q 0 C        −  − t       T 1 − exp   −  t   = U e t       = − U C 0 q  0 T exp t    T  R −    − T    t      i ( t ) =

q ( t ) =

q

0

+

(

C U

e

u

C

( ) =

t

q ( t )

q

0

=

C

C

( ) =

i t

d

q

d t

=

(

C U

e

Particular case:

if

q

( )

q t

0

=

CU

=

C U

e

u C

( t

)

= U

e

C

0

=

0

exp

1

1

exp

T

T

U

C

0

+

exp

d q

C

d t

= −

U

e

t

1

(

T

q

0 T

U

C 0

)

1

exp

t  

T

exp

 

t   = −

T

U e

R

exp

c) Numerical application

(i)

(ii)

T

=

R C

=

drawing

×

30 10

3

2 10

×

if

q

0

=

CU

C

0

=

0

6

u

C

( )

t

( )

q t

=

=

20

40

×

1

10

exp

6

1

t

t

60

exp

10

×

3

60

×

10

3

=

60

×

10

3

=

( ) =

i t

60 ms

2

3

×

10

3

exp

t

60

×

10

3

t

T

(iii) Initial values

q 0 =0, U C0 =0, i 0 =0,66 mA, U R0 =U e =R i 0 =20 V

(iv) after 60 ms

1-exp(-1)=1-1/e1-1/2,718281828…1-0.36787955

0.632120

q(60 ms)40×10 -6 ·0.632120 25,284818 µC, u C (60 ms)20·0.632120 12,6424 V, i(60 ms)0,66/2,720,2426 mA u R (60 ms)0,2426×10 -3 ·30×10 3 7,278 V

Notations:

 q - (free) electric charge, Coulomb, C i, I - intensity of the electric current, Ampere, A R - resistance, Ohm, Ω C - capacitance, Farad, F T - time constant, second, s u, U - potential difference, voltage, electric tension, Volt, V

U e

- electromotive force, electromotive tension, Volt, V

3