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1

PROBLEM SOLUTIONS: Chapter 1

Problem 1.1
Part (a):
R
c
=
l
c
A
c
=
l
c

0
A
c
= 0 A/Wb
R
g
=
g

0
A
c
= 1.017 10
6
A/Wb
part (b):
=
NI
R
c
+R
g
= 1.224 10
4
Wb
part (c):
= N = 1.016 10
2
Wb
part (d):
L =

I
= 6.775 mH
Problem 1.2
part (a):
R
c
=
l
c
A
c
=
l
c

0
A
c
= 1.591 10
5
A/Wb
R
g
=
g

0
A
c
= 1.017 10
6
A/Wb
part (b):
=
NI
R
c
+R
g
= 1.059 10
4
Wb
part (c):
= N = 8.787 10
3
Wb
part (d):
L =

I
= 5.858 mH
2
Problem 1.3
part (a):
N =

Lg

0
A
c
= 110 turns
part (b):
I =
B
core

0
N/g
= 16.6 A
Problem 1.4
part (a):
N =

L(g +l
c

0
/)

0
A
c
=

L(g +l
c

0
/(
r

0
))

0
A
c
= 121 turns
part (b):
I =
B
core

0
N/(g +l
c

0
/)
= 18.2 A
Problem 1.5
part (a):
part (b):

r
= 1 +
3499
_
1 + 0.047(2.2)
7.8
= 730
I = B
_
g +
0
l
c
/

0
N
_
= 65.8 A
3
part (c):
Problem 1.6
part (a):
H
g
=
NI
2g
; B
c
=
_
A
g
A
c
_
B
g
= B
g
_
1
x
X
0
_
part (b): Equations
2gH
g
+H
c
l
c
= NI; B
g
A
g
= B
c
A
c
and
B
g
=
0
H
g
; B
c
= H
c
can be combined to give
B
g
=
_
_
NI
2g +
_
0

__
Ag
Ac
_
(l
c
+l
p
)
_
_
=
_
_
NI
2g +
_
0

__
1
x
X0
_
(l
c
+l
p
)
_
_
Problem 1.7
part (a):
I = B
_
_
g +
_
0

_
(l
c
+l
p
)

0
N
_
_
= 2.15 A
part (b):
=
0
_
1 +
1199

1 + 0.05B
8
_
= 1012
0
I = B
_
_
g +
_
0

_
(l
c
+l
p
)

0
N
_
_
= 3.02 A
4
part (c):
Problem 1.8
g =
_

0
N
2
A
c
L
_

_
l
c
= 0.353 mm
Problem 1.9
part (a):
l
c
= 2(R
o
R
i
) g = 3.57 cm; A
c
= (R
o
R
i
)h = 1.2 cm
2
part (b):
R
g
=
g

0
A
c
= 1.33 10
7
A/Wb; R
c
= 0 A/Wb;
part (c):
L =
N
2
R
g
+R
g
= 0.319 mH
part (d):
I =
B
g
(R
c
+R
g
)A
c
N
= 33.1 A
part (e):
= NB
g
A
c
= 10.5 mWb
Problem 1.10
part (a): Same as Problem 1.9
part (b):
R
g
=
g

0
A
c
= 1.33 10
7
A/Wb; R
c
=
l
c
A
c
= 3.16 10
5
A/Wb
5
part (c):
L =
N
2
R
g
+R
g
= 0.311 mH
part (d):
I =
B
g
(R
c
+R
g
)A
c
N
= 33.8 A
part (e): Same as Problem 1.9.
Problem 1.11
Minimum
r
= 340.
Problem 1.12
L =

0
N
2
A
c
g +l
c
/
r
Problem 1.13
L =

0
N
2
A
c
g +l
c
/
r
= 30.5 mH
Problem 1.14
part (a):
V
rms
=
NA
c
B
peak

2
= 19.2 V rms
part (b):
I
rms
=
V
rms
L
= 1.67 A rms; W
peak
= 0.5L(

2 I
rms
)
2
= 8.50 mJ
6
Problem 1.15
part (a):
R
3
=
_
R
2
1
+R
2
2
= 4.27 cm
part (b):
L =

0
A
g
N
2
g +
_
0

_
l
c
= 251 mH
part (c): For = 260 rad/sec and
peak
= NA
g
B
peak
= 0.452 Wb:
(i) V
rms
=
peak
= 171 V rms
(ii) I
rms
=
V
rms
L
= 1.81 A rms
(iii) W
peak
= 0.5L(

2I
rms
)
2
= 0.817 J
part (d): For = 250 rad/sec and
peak
= NA
g
B
peak
= 0.452 Wb:
(i) V
rms
=
peak
= 142 V rms
(ii) I
rms
=
V
rms
L
= 1.81 A rms
(iii) W
peak
= 0.5L(

2I
rms
)
2
= 0.817 J
Problem 1.16
part (a):
7
part (b):
E
max
= 4fNA
c
B
peak
= 345 V
Problem 1.17
part (a):
N =
LI
A
c
B
sat
= 99 turns; g =

0
NI
B
sat

0
l
c

= 0.36 mm
part (b): From Eq.3.21
W
gap
=
A
c
gB
2
sat
2
0
= 0.207 J; W
core
=
A
c
l
c
B
2
sat
2
= 0.045 J
Thus W
tot
= W
gap
+ W
core
= 0.252 J. From Eq. 1.47, (1/2)LI
2
= 0.252 J.
Q.E.D.
Problem 1.18
part (a): Minimum inductance = 4 mH, for which g = 0.0627 mm, N =
20 turns and V
rms
= 6.78 V
part (b): Maximum inductance = 144 mH, for which g = 4.99 mm, N =
1078 turns and V
rms
= 224 V
Problem 1.19
part (a):
L =

0
a
2
N
2
2r
= 56.0 mH
part (b): Core volume V
core
(2r)a
2
= 40.0 m
3
. Thus
W = V
core
_
B
2
2
0
_
= 4.87 J
part (c): For T = 30 sec,
di
dt
=
(2rB)/(
0
N)
T
= 2.92 10
3
A/sec
v = L
di
dt
= 163 V
Problem 1.20
part (a):
A
cu
= f
w
ab; Vol
cu
= 2ab(w +h + 2a)
part (b):
8
B =
0
_
J
cu
A
cu
g
_
part (c):
J
cu
=
NI
A
cu
part (d):
P
diss
= Vol
cu
_
J
2
cu
_
part (e):
W
mag
= Vol
gap
_
B
2
2
0
_
= gwh
_
B
2
2
0
_
part (f):
L
R
=
_
1
2
_
LI
2
_
1
2
_
RI
2
=
W
mag
_
1
2
_
P
diss
=
2W
mag
P
diss
=

0
whA
2
cu
gVol
cu
Problem 1.21
Using the equations of Problem 1.20
P
diss
= 115 W
I = 3.24 A
N = 687 turns
R = 10.8
= 6.18 msec
Wire size = 23 AWG
Problem 1.22
part (a):
(i) B
1
=

0
N
1
I
1
g
1
; B
2
=

0
N
1
I
1
g
2
(ii)
1
= N
1
(A
1
B
1
+A
2
B
2
) =
0
N
2
1
_
A
1
g
1
+
A
2
g
2
_
I
1
(iii)
2
= N
2
A
2
B
2
=
0
N
1
N
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
I
1
9
part (b):
(i) B
1
= 0; B
2
=

0
N
2
I
2
g
2
(ii)
1
= N
1
A
2
B
2
=
0
N
1
N
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
I
2
(iii)
2
= N
2
A
2
B
2
=
0
N
2
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
I
2
part (c):
(i) B
1
=

0
N
1
I
1
g
1
; B
2
=

0
N
1
I
1
g
2
+

0
N
2
I
2
g
2
(ii)
1
= N
1
(A
1
B
1
+A
2
B
2
) =
0
N
2
1
_
A
1
g
1
+
A
2
g
2
_
I
1
+
0
N
1
N
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
I
2
(iii)
2
= N
2
A
2
B
2
=
0
N
1
N
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
I
1
+
0
N
2
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
I
2
part (d):
L
11
= N
2
1
_
A
1
g
1
+
A
2
g
2
_
; L
22
=
0
N
2
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
; L
12
=
0
N
1
N
2
_
A
2
g
2
_
Problem 1.23
R
A
=
l
A
A
c
; R
1
=
l
1
A
c
; R
2
=
l
2
A
c
; R
g
=
g

0
A
c
part (a):
L
11
=
N
2
1
R
1
+R
2
+R
g
+R
A
/2
=
N
2
1
A
c
l
1
+l
2
+l
A
/2 +g (/
0
)
10
L
AA
= L
BB
=
N
2
R
A
+R
A
||(R
1
+R
2
+R
g
)
=
N
2
A
c
l
A
_
l
A
+l
1
+l
2
+g (/
0
)
l
A
+ 2(l
1
+l
2
+g (/
0
))
_
part (b):
L
AB
= L
BA
=
N
2
(R
1
+R
2
+R
g
)
R
A
(R
A
+ 2(R
1
+R
2
+R
g
))
=
N
2
A
c
l
A
_
l
1
+l
2
+g (/
0
)
l
A
+ 2(l
1
+l
2
+g (/
0
))
_
L
A1
= L
1A
= L
B1
= L
1B
=
NN
1
R
A
+ 2(R
1
+R
2
+R
g
)
=
NN
1
A
c
l
A
+ 2(l
1
+l
2
+g (/
0
))
part (c):
v
1
=
d
dt
[L
A1
i
A
+L
B1
i
B
] = L
A1
d
dt
[i
A
i
B
]
Q.E.D.
Problem 1.24
part (a):
L
12
=

0
N
1
N
2
2g
[D(w x)]
part (b):
v
2
=
d
2
dt
= I
0
dL
12
dt
=
_
N
1
N
2

0
D
2g
_
dx
dt
=
_
N
1
N
2

0
D
2g
_
_
w
2
_
cos t
Problem 1.25
part (a):
H =
N
1
i
1
2(R
o
+R
i
)/2
=
N
1
i
1
(R
o
+R
i
)
part (b):
v
2
=
d
dt
[N
2
(tn)B] = N
2
tn
dB
dt
part (c):
v
o
= G
_
v
2
dt = GN
2
tnB
11
Problem 1.26
R
g
=
g

0
A
g
= 4.42 10
5
A/Wb; R
c
=
l
c
A
g
=
333

A/Wb
Want R
g
0.05R
c
1.2 10
4

0
. By inspection of Fig. 1.10, this will be
true for B 1.66 T (approximate since the curve isnt that detailed).
Problem 1.27
part (a):
N
1
=
V
peak
t(R
o
R
i
)B
peak
= 57 turns
part (b):
(i) B
peak
=
V
o,peak
GN
2
t(R
o
R
i
)
= 0.833 T
(ii) V
1
= N
1
t(R
o
R
i
)B
peak
= 6.25 V, peak
Problem 1.28
part (a): From the M-5 magnetization curve, for B = 1.2 T, H
m
= 14 A/m.
Similarly, H
g
= B/
0
= 9.54 10
5
A/m. Thus, with I
1
= I
2
= I
I =
H
m
(l
A
+l
C
g) +H
g
g
N
1
= 38.2 A
part (b):
W
gap
=
gA
gap
B
2
2
0
= 3.21 Joules
part (c):
= 2N
1
A
A
B = 0.168 Wb; L =

I
= 4.39 mH
Problem 1.29
part (a):
12
part (b): Area = 191 Joules
part (c): Core loss = 1.50 W/kg.
Problem 1.30
B
rms
= 1.1 T and f = 60 Hz,
V
rms
= NA
c
B
rms
= 46.7 V
Core volume = A
c
l
c
= 1.05 10
3
m
3
. Mass density = 7.65 10
3
kg/m
3
.
Thus, the core mass = (1.05 10
3
)(7.65 10
3
) = 8.03 kg.
At B = 1.1 T rms = 1.56 T peak, core loss density = 1.3 W/kg and rms
VA density is 2.0 VA/kg. Thus, the core loss = 1.3 8.03 = 10.4 W. The total
exciting VA for the core is 2.0 8.03 = 16.0 VA. Thus, its reactive component
is given by

16.0
2
10.4
2
= 12.2 VAR.
The rms energy storage in the air gap is
W
gap
=
gA
c
B
2
rms

0
= 3.61 Joules
corresponding to an rms reactive power of
VAR
gap
= W
gap
= 1361 Joules
Thus, the total rms exciting VA for the magnetic circuit is
VA
rms
= sqrt10.4
2
+ (1361 + 12.2)
2
= 1373 VA
and the rms current is I
rms
= VA
rms
/V
rms
= 29.4 A.
Problem 1.31
part(a): Area increases by a factor of 4. Thus the voltage increases by a
factor of 4 to e = 1096cos377t.
part (b): l
c
doubles therefore so does the current. Thus I = 0.26 A.
part (c): Volume increases by a factor of 8 and voltage increases by a factor
of 4. There I
,rms
doubles to 0.20 A.
part (d): Volume increases by a factor of 8 as does the core loss. Thus
P
c
= 128 W.
Problem 1.32
From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for samarium-cobalt occurs at
(approximately) B = 0.47 T and H = -360 kA/m. Thus the maximum energy
product is 1.69 10
5
J/m
3
.
Thus,
A
m
=
_
0.8
0.47
_
2 cm
2
= 3.40 cm
2
and
13
l
m
= 0.2 cm
_
0.8

0
(3.60 10
5
)
_
= 0.35 cm
Thus the volume is 3.40 0.35 = 1.20 cm
3
, which is a reduction by a factor
of 5.09/1.21 = 4.9.
Problem 1.33
From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for neodymium-iron-boron
occurs at (approximately) B = 0.63 T and H = -470 kA/m. Thus the maximum
energy product is 2.90 10
5
J/m
3
.
Thus,
A
m
=
_
0.8
0.63
_
2 cm
2
= 2.54 cm
2
and
l
m
= 0.2 cm
_
0.8

0
(4.70 10
5
)
_
= 0.27 cm
Thus the volume is 2.540.25 = 0.688 cm
3
, which is a reduction by a factor
of 5.09/0.688 = 7.4.
Problem 1.34
From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for samarium-cobalt occurs at
(approximately) B = 0.47 T and H = -360 kA/m. Thus the maximum energy
product is 1.69 10
5
J/m
3
. Thus, we want B
g
= 1.2 T, B
m
= 0.47 T and
H
m
= 360 kA/m.
h
m
= g
_
H
g
H
m
_
= g
_
B
g

0
H
m
_
= 2.65 mm
A
m
= A
g
_
B
g
B
m
_
= 2Rh
_
B
g
B
m
_
= 26.0 cm
2
R
m
=
_
A
m

= 2.87 cm
Problem 1.35
From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for neodymium-iron-boron oc-
curs at (approximately) B
m
= 0.63 T and H
m
= -470 kA/m. The magnetization
curve for neodymium-iron-boron can be represented as
B
m
=
R
H
m
+B
r
where B
r
= 1.26 T and
R
= 1.067
0
. The magnetic circuit must satisfy
14
H
m
d +H
g
g = Ni; B
m
A
m
= B
g
A
g
part (a): For i = 0 and B
g
= 0.5 T, the minimum magnet volume will occur
when the magnet is operating at the maximum energy point.
A
m
=
_
B
g
B
m
_
A
g
= 4.76 cm
2
d =
_
H
g
H
m
_
g = 1.69 mm
part (b):
i =
_
B
g
_
dAg
RAm
+
g
0
_

Brd
R
_
N
For B
g
= 0.75, i = 17.9 A.
For B
g
= 0.25, i = 6.0 A.
Because the neodymium-iron-boron magnet is essentially linear over the op-
erating range of this problem, the system is linear and hence a sinusoidal ux
variation will correspond to a sinusoidal current variation.