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Problem 1.1

Part (a):

R

c

=

l

c

A

c

=

l

c

0

A

c

= 0 A/Wb

R

g

=

g

0

A

c

= 1.017 10

6

A/Wb

part (b):

=

NI

R

c

+R

g

= 1.224 10

4

Wb

part (c):

= N = 1.016 10

2

Wb

part (d):

L =

I

= 6.775 mH

Problem 1.2

part (a):

R

c

=

l

c

A

c

=

l

c

0

A

c

= 1.591 10

5

A/Wb

R

g

=

g

0

A

c

= 1.017 10

6

A/Wb

part (b):

=

NI

R

c

+R

g

= 1.059 10

4

Wb

part (c):

= N = 8.787 10

3

Wb

part (d):

L =

I

= 5.858 mH

2

Problem 1.3

part (a):

N =

Lg

0

A

c

= 110 turns

part (b):

I =

B

core

0

N/g

= 16.6 A

Problem 1.4

part (a):

N =

L(g +l

c

0

/)

0

A

c

=

L(g +l

c

0

/(

r

0

))

0

A

c

= 121 turns

part (b):

I =

B

core

0

N/(g +l

c

0

/)

= 18.2 A

Problem 1.5

part (a):

part (b):

r

= 1 +

3499

_

1 + 0.047(2.2)

7.8

= 730

I = B

_

g +

0

l

c

/

0

N

_

= 65.8 A

3

part (c):

Problem 1.6

part (a):

H

g

=

NI

2g

; B

c

=

_

A

g

A

c

_

B

g

= B

g

_

1

x

X

0

_

part (b): Equations

2gH

g

+H

c

l

c

= NI; B

g

A

g

= B

c

A

c

and

B

g

=

0

H

g

; B

c

= H

c

can be combined to give

B

g

=

_

_

NI

2g +

_

0

__

Ag

Ac

_

(l

c

+l

p

)

_

_

=

_

_

NI

2g +

_

0

__

1

x

X0

_

(l

c

+l

p

)

_

_

Problem 1.7

part (a):

I = B

_

_

g +

_

0

_

(l

c

+l

p

)

0

N

_

_

= 2.15 A

part (b):

=

0

_

1 +

1199

1 + 0.05B

8

_

= 1012

0

I = B

_

_

g +

_

0

_

(l

c

+l

p

)

0

N

_

_

= 3.02 A

4

part (c):

Problem 1.8

g =

_

0

N

2

A

c

L

_

_

l

c

= 0.353 mm

Problem 1.9

part (a):

l

c

= 2(R

o

R

i

) g = 3.57 cm; A

c

= (R

o

R

i

)h = 1.2 cm

2

part (b):

R

g

=

g

0

A

c

= 1.33 10

7

A/Wb; R

c

= 0 A/Wb;

part (c):

L =

N

2

R

g

+R

g

= 0.319 mH

part (d):

I =

B

g

(R

c

+R

g

)A

c

N

= 33.1 A

part (e):

= NB

g

A

c

= 10.5 mWb

Problem 1.10

part (a): Same as Problem 1.9

part (b):

R

g

=

g

0

A

c

= 1.33 10

7

A/Wb; R

c

=

l

c

A

c

= 3.16 10

5

A/Wb

5

part (c):

L =

N

2

R

g

+R

g

= 0.311 mH

part (d):

I =

B

g

(R

c

+R

g

)A

c

N

= 33.8 A

part (e): Same as Problem 1.9.

Problem 1.11

Minimum

r

= 340.

Problem 1.12

L =

0

N

2

A

c

g +l

c

/

r

Problem 1.13

L =

0

N

2

A

c

g +l

c

/

r

= 30.5 mH

Problem 1.14

part (a):

V

rms

=

NA

c

B

peak

2

= 19.2 V rms

part (b):

I

rms

=

V

rms

L

= 1.67 A rms; W

peak

= 0.5L(

2 I

rms

)

2

= 8.50 mJ

6

Problem 1.15

part (a):

R

3

=

_

R

2

1

+R

2

2

= 4.27 cm

part (b):

L =

0

A

g

N

2

g +

_

0

_

l

c

= 251 mH

part (c): For = 260 rad/sec and

peak

= NA

g

B

peak

= 0.452 Wb:

(i) V

rms

=

peak

= 171 V rms

(ii) I

rms

=

V

rms

L

= 1.81 A rms

(iii) W

peak

= 0.5L(

2I

rms

)

2

= 0.817 J

part (d): For = 250 rad/sec and

peak

= NA

g

B

peak

= 0.452 Wb:

(i) V

rms

=

peak

= 142 V rms

(ii) I

rms

=

V

rms

L

= 1.81 A rms

(iii) W

peak

= 0.5L(

2I

rms

)

2

= 0.817 J

Problem 1.16

part (a):

7

part (b):

E

max

= 4fNA

c

B

peak

= 345 V

Problem 1.17

part (a):

N =

LI

A

c

B

sat

= 99 turns; g =

0

NI

B

sat

0

l

c

= 0.36 mm

part (b): From Eq.3.21

W

gap

=

A

c

gB

2

sat

2

0

= 0.207 J; W

core

=

A

c

l

c

B

2

sat

2

= 0.045 J

Thus W

tot

= W

gap

+ W

core

= 0.252 J. From Eq. 1.47, (1/2)LI

2

= 0.252 J.

Q.E.D.

Problem 1.18

part (a): Minimum inductance = 4 mH, for which g = 0.0627 mm, N =

20 turns and V

rms

= 6.78 V

part (b): Maximum inductance = 144 mH, for which g = 4.99 mm, N =

1078 turns and V

rms

= 224 V

Problem 1.19

part (a):

L =

0

a

2

N

2

2r

= 56.0 mH

part (b): Core volume V

core

(2r)a

2

= 40.0 m

3

. Thus

W = V

core

_

B

2

2

0

_

= 4.87 J

part (c): For T = 30 sec,

di

dt

=

(2rB)/(

0

N)

T

= 2.92 10

3

A/sec

v = L

di

dt

= 163 V

Problem 1.20

part (a):

A

cu

= f

w

ab; Vol

cu

= 2ab(w +h + 2a)

part (b):

8

B =

0

_

J

cu

A

cu

g

_

part (c):

J

cu

=

NI

A

cu

part (d):

P

diss

= Vol

cu

_

J

2

cu

_

part (e):

W

mag

= Vol

gap

_

B

2

2

0

_

= gwh

_

B

2

2

0

_

part (f):

L

R

=

_

1

2

_

LI

2

_

1

2

_

RI

2

=

W

mag

_

1

2

_

P

diss

=

2W

mag

P

diss

=

0

whA

2

cu

gVol

cu

Problem 1.21

Using the equations of Problem 1.20

P

diss

= 115 W

I = 3.24 A

N = 687 turns

R = 10.8

= 6.18 msec

Wire size = 23 AWG

Problem 1.22

part (a):

(i) B

1

=

0

N

1

I

1

g

1

; B

2

=

0

N

1

I

1

g

2

(ii)

1

= N

1

(A

1

B

1

+A

2

B

2

) =

0

N

2

1

_

A

1

g

1

+

A

2

g

2

_

I

1

(iii)

2

= N

2

A

2

B

2

=

0

N

1

N

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

I

1

9

part (b):

(i) B

1

= 0; B

2

=

0

N

2

I

2

g

2

(ii)

1

= N

1

A

2

B

2

=

0

N

1

N

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

I

2

(iii)

2

= N

2

A

2

B

2

=

0

N

2

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

I

2

part (c):

(i) B

1

=

0

N

1

I

1

g

1

; B

2

=

0

N

1

I

1

g

2

+

0

N

2

I

2

g

2

(ii)

1

= N

1

(A

1

B

1

+A

2

B

2

) =

0

N

2

1

_

A

1

g

1

+

A

2

g

2

_

I

1

+

0

N

1

N

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

I

2

(iii)

2

= N

2

A

2

B

2

=

0

N

1

N

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

I

1

+

0

N

2

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

I

2

part (d):

L

11

= N

2

1

_

A

1

g

1

+

A

2

g

2

_

; L

22

=

0

N

2

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

; L

12

=

0

N

1

N

2

_

A

2

g

2

_

Problem 1.23

R

A

=

l

A

A

c

; R

1

=

l

1

A

c

; R

2

=

l

2

A

c

; R

g

=

g

0

A

c

part (a):

L

11

=

N

2

1

R

1

+R

2

+R

g

+R

A

/2

=

N

2

1

A

c

l

1

+l

2

+l

A

/2 +g (/

0

)

10

L

AA

= L

BB

=

N

2

R

A

+R

A

||(R

1

+R

2

+R

g

)

=

N

2

A

c

l

A

_

l

A

+l

1

+l

2

+g (/

0

)

l

A

+ 2(l

1

+l

2

+g (/

0

))

_

part (b):

L

AB

= L

BA

=

N

2

(R

1

+R

2

+R

g

)

R

A

(R

A

+ 2(R

1

+R

2

+R

g

))

=

N

2

A

c

l

A

_

l

1

+l

2

+g (/

0

)

l

A

+ 2(l

1

+l

2

+g (/

0

))

_

L

A1

= L

1A

= L

B1

= L

1B

=

NN

1

R

A

+ 2(R

1

+R

2

+R

g

)

=

NN

1

A

c

l

A

+ 2(l

1

+l

2

+g (/

0

))

part (c):

v

1

=

d

dt

[L

A1

i

A

+L

B1

i

B

] = L

A1

d

dt

[i

A

i

B

]

Q.E.D.

Problem 1.24

part (a):

L

12

=

0

N

1

N

2

2g

[D(w x)]

part (b):

v

2

=

d

2

dt

= I

0

dL

12

dt

=

_

N

1

N

2

0

D

2g

_

dx

dt

=

_

N

1

N

2

0

D

2g

_

_

w

2

_

cos t

Problem 1.25

part (a):

H =

N

1

i

1

2(R

o

+R

i

)/2

=

N

1

i

1

(R

o

+R

i

)

part (b):

v

2

=

d

dt

[N

2

(tn)B] = N

2

tn

dB

dt

part (c):

v

o

= G

_

v

2

dt = GN

2

tnB

11

Problem 1.26

R

g

=

g

0

A

g

= 4.42 10

5

A/Wb; R

c

=

l

c

A

g

=

333

A/Wb

Want R

g

0.05R

c

1.2 10

4

0

. By inspection of Fig. 1.10, this will be

true for B 1.66 T (approximate since the curve isnt that detailed).

Problem 1.27

part (a):

N

1

=

V

peak

t(R

o

R

i

)B

peak

= 57 turns

part (b):

(i) B

peak

=

V

o,peak

GN

2

t(R

o

R

i

)

= 0.833 T

(ii) V

1

= N

1

t(R

o

R

i

)B

peak

= 6.25 V, peak

Problem 1.28

part (a): From the M-5 magnetization curve, for B = 1.2 T, H

m

= 14 A/m.

Similarly, H

g

= B/

0

= 9.54 10

5

A/m. Thus, with I

1

= I

2

= I

I =

H

m

(l

A

+l

C

g) +H

g

g

N

1

= 38.2 A

part (b):

W

gap

=

gA

gap

B

2

2

0

= 3.21 Joules

part (c):

= 2N

1

A

A

B = 0.168 Wb; L =

I

= 4.39 mH

Problem 1.29

part (a):

12

part (b): Area = 191 Joules

part (c): Core loss = 1.50 W/kg.

Problem 1.30

B

rms

= 1.1 T and f = 60 Hz,

V

rms

= NA

c

B

rms

= 46.7 V

Core volume = A

c

l

c

= 1.05 10

3

m

3

. Mass density = 7.65 10

3

kg/m

3

.

Thus, the core mass = (1.05 10

3

)(7.65 10

3

) = 8.03 kg.

At B = 1.1 T rms = 1.56 T peak, core loss density = 1.3 W/kg and rms

VA density is 2.0 VA/kg. Thus, the core loss = 1.3 8.03 = 10.4 W. The total

exciting VA for the core is 2.0 8.03 = 16.0 VA. Thus, its reactive component

is given by

16.0

2

10.4

2

= 12.2 VAR.

The rms energy storage in the air gap is

W

gap

=

gA

c

B

2

rms

0

= 3.61 Joules

corresponding to an rms reactive power of

VAR

gap

= W

gap

= 1361 Joules

Thus, the total rms exciting VA for the magnetic circuit is

VA

rms

= sqrt10.4

2

+ (1361 + 12.2)

2

= 1373 VA

and the rms current is I

rms

= VA

rms

/V

rms

= 29.4 A.

Problem 1.31

part(a): Area increases by a factor of 4. Thus the voltage increases by a

factor of 4 to e = 1096cos377t.

part (b): l

c

doubles therefore so does the current. Thus I = 0.26 A.

part (c): Volume increases by a factor of 8 and voltage increases by a factor

of 4. There I

,rms

doubles to 0.20 A.

part (d): Volume increases by a factor of 8 as does the core loss. Thus

P

c

= 128 W.

Problem 1.32

From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for samarium-cobalt occurs at

(approximately) B = 0.47 T and H = -360 kA/m. Thus the maximum energy

product is 1.69 10

5

J/m

3

.

Thus,

A

m

=

_

0.8

0.47

_

2 cm

2

= 3.40 cm

2

and

13

l

m

= 0.2 cm

_

0.8

0

(3.60 10

5

)

_

= 0.35 cm

Thus the volume is 3.40 0.35 = 1.20 cm

3

, which is a reduction by a factor

of 5.09/1.21 = 4.9.

Problem 1.33

From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for neodymium-iron-boron

occurs at (approximately) B = 0.63 T and H = -470 kA/m. Thus the maximum

energy product is 2.90 10

5

J/m

3

.

Thus,

A

m

=

_

0.8

0.63

_

2 cm

2

= 2.54 cm

2

and

l

m

= 0.2 cm

_

0.8

0

(4.70 10

5

)

_

= 0.27 cm

Thus the volume is 2.540.25 = 0.688 cm

3

, which is a reduction by a factor

of 5.09/0.688 = 7.4.

Problem 1.34

From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for samarium-cobalt occurs at

(approximately) B = 0.47 T and H = -360 kA/m. Thus the maximum energy

product is 1.69 10

5

J/m

3

. Thus, we want B

g

= 1.2 T, B

m

= 0.47 T and

H

m

= 360 kA/m.

h

m

= g

_

H

g

H

m

_

= g

_

B

g

0

H

m

_

= 2.65 mm

A

m

= A

g

_

B

g

B

m

_

= 2Rh

_

B

g

B

m

_

= 26.0 cm

2

R

m

=

_

A

m

= 2.87 cm

Problem 1.35

From Fig. 1.19, the maximum energy product for neodymium-iron-boron oc-

curs at (approximately) B

m

= 0.63 T and H

m

= -470 kA/m. The magnetization

curve for neodymium-iron-boron can be represented as

B

m

=

R

H

m

+B

r

where B

r

= 1.26 T and

R

= 1.067

0

. The magnetic circuit must satisfy

14

H

m

d +H

g

g = Ni; B

m

A

m

= B

g

A

g

part (a): For i = 0 and B

g

= 0.5 T, the minimum magnet volume will occur

when the magnet is operating at the maximum energy point.

A

m

=

_

B

g

B

m

_

A

g

= 4.76 cm

2

d =

_

H

g

H

m

_

g = 1.69 mm

part (b):

i =

_

B

g

_

dAg

RAm

+

g

0

_

Brd

R

_

N

For B

g

= 0.75, i = 17.9 A.

For B

g

= 0.25, i = 6.0 A.

Because the neodymium-iron-boron magnet is essentially linear over the op-

erating range of this problem, the system is linear and hence a sinusoidal ux

variation will correspond to a sinusoidal current variation.

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