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1

PROCESSING SOLUTIONS AND THEIR EFFECTS


Figure 1-2
Exposing Light

OVERVIEW OF PROCESSING KODAK EKTACHROME FILMS


KODAK EKTACHROME films are reversal, subtractive color materials. When properly exposed and processed, they yield positive color images, i.e., transparencies. The general structure of EKT ACHROME Films is shown in Figure 1-1, enlarged to show detail. The transparent film support is at the bottom of the illustration. Reversal films contain three emulsion layers that are light-sensitive. The red-sensitive emulsion layer is located at the bottom of the film closest to the support material. The green-sensitive layer is located in the middle, and the blue-sensitive layer is at the top. Although the red-sensitive layer is primarily sensitive to red light and the green-sensitive layer is primarily sensitive to green light, both of these layers are somewhat sensitive to blue light. The yellow filter layer absorbs blue light and prevents blue light from exposing the red- and green-sensitive layers. When reversal film is exposed, latent images are formed in each of the three emulsion layers. The blue-sensitive layer contains a record of the images formed by the blue component of the exposing light; the green-sensitive layer contains the image formed by the green component; and the red-sensitive layer contains the image formed by the red component. The images are formed simultaneously and are superimposed. Figure 1-2 shows the formation of the color image during processing. For more information about each processing step in Process E-6, see the descriptions on page 1-2. Figure 1-1

~
LL LL
88

~
LL
88

--Ra(j;;.;+ Gf,eEin

;r~~Iu;iti;11~;WfMI:I:::;E!la:cR.' I
88

Exposed

LL LL

LL LL

88 LL -8'8 LL 88 LL

After FirtsDeveloper Step


'-

LL LL
~

Dye Clouds After ColorDeveloper Step

+ LL LL LL I ,.
I

LL ---,-LL LL @@ @@ @@

@@ @@
~

LL

@@

--

@@ @@
LL

After Bleach Step

LL

f::,L

LL
Dye Onl v

LL

After Fixer Step

I=0~O===O=O===:::;;:::;~====O 0 rO~O~~_~O~O~ O~_ _ CL 00 00 00


[\ = unexposed silver halide grains = exposed silver halide grains

8
Exposing Light

t t t t t

. = developed metallic silver = dye cloud

Film support

1-1

.(

PROCESSE6
Understanding Solution Functions
Use the following descriptions to become familiar with the function of each processing solution. This understanding, along with the information in section 14, "Diagnostic Charts," and section 15, "Control-Chart Examples," will help you analyze process problems.

PreBleach1
The pre-bleach prepares the metallic silver developed in the first and color developers for oxidation to silver halide in the bleach step. It helps preserve the acidity of the bleach solution by reducing carryover of color developer into the bleach. The pre-bleach also enhances dye stability. Prebleach that is too concentrated can cause leuco-cyan dye to form, resulting in low red D-max. If the pre-bleach is too dilute, the dye stability could be substandard. Do not use a wash between the pre-bleach and the bleach; pre-bleach carry-in is necessary for proper bleaching.

First Developer
The chemical reducing action of the first developer converts exposed silver halide grains (the latent image) into metallic silver (the silver image). This is a negative image. The first developer step is the most critical step of Process E-6. The amount of silver formed depends on developer activity. Time, temperature, agitation, developer concentration, and utilization affect first-developer activity. In Process E-6, increased first-developer activity causes too little dye to form; decreased activity causes more dye than normal to form.

Bleach
The bleach converts the metallic silver image back to silver haJide; the silver halide is later removed in the fixer. During bleaching, iron III is reduced to iron H. Iron Il must be converted back to iron III by aeration so that satisfactory bleaching can continue. Aerate the bleach by bubbling air through it. Inadequate aeration, underreplenishment, too little time, low temperature, and over-dilution by pre-bleach can cause silver retention, low red D-max, high blue D-max (and to a lesser degree, high green D-max), and yellow D-min.

First Wash
The first wash stops the action of the first developer and removes first developer solution from the film. Insufficient water flow, incorrect temperature, or too little wash time will affect density (speed) and color balance.

Fixer
The fixer converts all of the silver halide into soluble silver compounds. Most of the silver compounds are removed in the fixer and can be recovered. You must aerate any bleach carried into the fixer (by bubbling air into the fixer or with manual agitation) to prevent exhausted bleaching agent from causing leuco-cyan dye to form. However, too much air will oxidize the fixer; aerate the fixer only when film is in the fixer. Too little time, underreplenishment, or fixer dilution will cause silver-halide retention, increased blue sensitivity, or yellow D-min.

Reversal Bath
The reversal bath prepares the film for the color-developer step. A chemical reversal agent is absorbed into the emulsion and prepares the remaining silver halide for the chemical reversal that occurs in the color developer. Do not use a wash between the reversal bath and the color developer; the reversal agent must be in the emulsion when the film enters the color developer. Incorrect replenishment, excessive oxidation, incorrect mixing, and utilization can affect overall density and color balance.

Final Wash Color Developer


When film enters the color developer, the reversal agent absorbed by the emulsion in the reversal bath chemically "exposes" the remaining silver halide. The color developing agent then reacts with the silver halide to form metallic silver. As this metallic silver image is formed, the oxidized color developer agent reacts with the color couplers in each of the three dye layers (yellow, magenta, and cyan) of the film to form colored dyes. The dye forms only at the sites where the image was converted to metallic silver. Changes in the color developer pH, agitation, time, temperature, developer concentration, utilization, and replenishment rate affect color balance, contrast, maximum density, minimum density, and uniformity. The final wash removes chemicals remaining in the film emulsion. Complete washing at this stage is important for image stability; any chemicals remaining in the film may deteriorate the image dyes. For best results, use a 2-stage countercurrent-flow wash.

Final Rinse
The final rinse contains a wetting agent to reduce water spotting and provide uniform drying. To help prevent water spots and streaks, maintain solution cleanliness by replacing the final rinse once a week or more frequently.

l.KODAK Pre-Bleach is supplied in the lO-litre size only. KODAK Pre-Bleach 1I is supplied in all other sizes.

1-2

CHEMICALS AND CHEMICAL MIXING


KODAK CHEMICALS, PROCESS E-6
Sizes
These chemicals are available in sizes to meet the needs of all types of processing operations. When selecting chemicals, choose sizes that are economical for your setup and appropriate for your chemical-keeping conditions.

INTRODUCTION
To help you understand the terms we've used to describe the chemicals and solutions in this manual, here are some

definitions:
Chemical Concentrates: Chemicals that must be diluted to make replenisher or tank processing solutions, or chemicals that are added to other solutions. Fresh Solution Newly mixed, unused solutions prepared from chemical concentrates. Replenisher Solution used to restore the chemical components ofthe tank solution to maintain photographic performance over time. Seasoned Solution A tank solution that has been used and replenished for a period of time. The chemical components and seasoning byproducts are at an optimum level for processing. Starter Concentrate added to a replenisher solution to prepare a fresh tank solution so it yields results similar to those provided by a seasoned tank solution. Tank Solution The solution used in the processor tank; often referred to as "working solution."

Chemicals for Small- Volume Processing


The following sizes are appropriate for use with small tanks, sink lines, and rotary-tube processors. For larger volumes, use the 5- or 25-gaIlon sizes of these chemicals. Prepare the solutions according to the instructions packaged with the chemicals.

i, .'. .

;~'j'Produ5r.;,

......"c . ;,

"toM~ke," . .Cf\T"No.
5 litres 1 gallon 8396210 1564632 1566850 1162510 1646058 1562461 1566082 195 1128 8825911 8783201 8578734 8038416 8192395 8021370 8281602

KODAK Professional Single-Use Chemistry Kit, Process E-6 KODAK First Developer, Process E-6t KODAK Reversal Bath, Process

E-6

1 gallon 1 gallon

KODAK Col or Developer, Process E-6:j: KODAK KODAK KODAK KODAK KODAK Process Pre-Bleach, Bleach, Process

E-6

1 gallon

Process

E-6 E-6 E-6

1 gallon 1 gallon 1 gallon 10 litres 10 litres 10 litres 10 litres 10 litres 10 litres


10 litres

Fixer, Process

Final Rinse, Process First Developer

Replenisher,

E-6

KODAK Reversal Bath and Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Color Developer Process E-6 KODAK Pre-Bleach Process E-6 KODAK Bleach Replenisher,

and Replenisher, Process

Replenisher,

E-6
KODAK Fixer and Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Final Rinse and Replenisher, Process E-6

* Catalog numbers listed are for sizes available in the U.S. and Canada.

t *

Other regions may supply these chemicals in different sizes. For more information, contact Kodak in your country. Use as mixed; no starter is required. Use as mixed; no starter is required.

2-1

Chemicals for Cost-Saving Replenishment: Small- and Medium-Volume Processing


If you process a large amount of film in a replenished sinkline process, these may be the best sizes for you to use. They are also appropriate for large rotary-tube processors or larger automatic processors that have low utilization. For larger volumes, use the 25-gallon or larger size of chemicals. Prepare the solutions according to the instructions packaged with the chemicals. To prepare first- and calor-developer and bleach tank solutions, mix the replenisher with starter according to the instructions.

Chemicals for Large-Volume Automatic Processors and Processors with In-Line Dilution! Blender Systems
The following sizes are appropriate for rack-and-tank, continuous, and roller-transport processors. Prepare the solutions according to the instructions packaged with the chemicals. To prepare first- and color-developer and bleach tank solutions, mix the replenisher with starter according to the instructions.

i,

......"./\ R~6dugf

""'. <':""~~:.

i ..

':'

loMake
25 gallons 25 gallons

CAjNo.* .~:
~;~

KODAK First Developer Replenisher, Process E-6ARt KODAK First Developer Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK First Developer Starter, Process E-6 (1-pint concentrate) KODAK Reversal Bath and Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Color Developer Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Color Developer Starter, Process E-6 (1-pint concentrate) KODAK Pre-Bleach 11 and Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Bleach Replenisher, Process E-6AR KODAK Bleach Starter, Process E-6 (Yz-gallon concentrate) KODAK Fixer and Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Final Rinse and Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Defomer, Process E-6 (4-ounce bottle) 5 gallons 25 gallons 1564814 1564817 KODAK First Developer Starter, Process E-6 (1-pint concentrate) KODAK Reversal Bath and Replenisher, Process E-6 5 gallons 5 gallons 25 gallons 1278076 1001886 1564012 KODAK Reversal Bath and Replenisher, Process E-6ARt KODAK Color Developer Replenisher, Process E-6ARt Part A Part B (Part A and Part B are needed to make a replenish er solution) KODAK Color Developer Starter, Process E-6 (1-pint concentrate) KODAK Pre-Bleach II and Replenisher, Process E-6ARt KODAK Bleach Replenisher, Process E-6AR 5 gallons 5 gallons 1278019 1770890 1253566 KODAK Bleach Starter, Process E-6 eh-gallon concentrate) KODAK Fixer and Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Fixer and Replenisher, Process E-6ARt
KODAK Final Rinse and

1564830 1564871

25 gallons 100 gallons

1237593 121 3636

25 gallons 25 gallons

1007384 1007509

5 gallons 5 gallons 25 gallons

8026569 1965623 177 9792

25 gallons

1564012

50 gallons 5 gallons 25 gallons

1038660 1965623 177 9792

25 gallons 50 gallons 25 gallons 320 gallons

1237619 121 3677


8060709

Catalognumberslistedare for sizes availablein the U.S.and Canada.


Other regions may supply these chemicals in different sizes. For more

information,contactKodakin your country.

Replenisher, Process E-6 KODAK Final Rinse and Replenisher, Process E-6ARt KODAK Defoamer, Process E-6 (4-ounce bottle)
*

1803527 1252466

Catalognumberslistedare for sizes availablein the U.S.and Canada. Other regionsmay supplythese chemicalsin diHerent sizes. For more information,contact Kodakin your country. t E-SARsizes are suppliedin flexibleplastic containersfor usewith processorswith in-linedilution/blendersystemsor to preparelarger amountsof solutionsfor use with other processors.

2-2

Table 2-1 Processing Capacity of Process E-6AR Chemicals

Water Quality
Water can have a significant effect on photographic quality. Generally, most municipal water supplies are satisfactory for mixing solutions and for use as wash water. Note that the quality of water supplies can vary seasonally. It is a good idea to have the quality of your water supply tested. Water used for washes should have less than 1,000 ppm of total dissolved solids and be free of color, suspended material, hardness, and heavy metals. The pH should be 7.0 to 8.5, and the water should not be highly buffered. The water supplied by most municipalities is satisfactory for preparing processing solutions. Practical limits for common water impurities for photographic processing are listed in Table 2-2. if you use well water, be sure that you test it for the impurities listed in Table 2-2. Poor plumbing materials (old, rusty pipes, or pipes made out of the wrong materials) can be a source of dirt and contamination. Check your plumbing and replace it if necessary.

First Developer Reversal Bath Color Developer Pre-Bleach 11 Bleach Fixer Final Rinse

25 100 25 50 5 50 320

200 100 200 100 20 100 100

475 3,780 475 1,890 950 1,890 12,110

CHEMICAL MIXING
Procedures
The liquid concentrates supplied by Kodak make it easy to prepare processing solutions for Process E-6. However, to avoid errors that can affect process quality and control, mix these solutions carefully according to the instructions supplied with the chemicals. This section gives you tips to help you use proper mixing procedures. Prepare all solutions with water between 68 and 104F (20 and 40"c). However, it is best to use water that is close to your processing temperature to avoid unnecessary delays waiting for the solution to come to temperature, and to avoid using a replenisher with a temperature that is drastically different from the temperature of your tank solution.

Table 2-2 Practical Limits of Impurities for Water Used in Photographic Processing
, ". :(Ppii;I))
None 1,000 (for washes) 250 (for preparing solutions) 7.0 to 8.5 40 (preferable) to 150 0.10 each

Agt;~ptal:>leLiffiii()t~il~g~
.... ."
Color, suspended material Dissolved solids pH Hardness, as CaC03 Cooper, iron, manganese Chlorine, as free hypochlorous acid Chloride Bicarbonate Sulfate Sulfide

Note: For consistent results, always use water at the same


temperature when preparing solutions. For information on diagnosing mixing errors, see section 5, "Corrective Actions for Processing Solutions."

2
100 150 200 0.10

Note: The values in Table 2-2 are from Water Quality


Criteria by West (pSE V.9, pp. 398-413 [1965]).

2-3

Table 2-3 Characteristics


'::,:':::,':..""

of Process E-6 Chemical Concentrates

Table 2-4 Mixing KODAK Chemicals,

Process E-6

, :: ,:i':::,:" , '","', "" ',',"


""~

ji:je':",':"

,,:':,

nca:'

First Developer First Developer Replenisher

Clear, light yellow to light brown; mild odor

Chemicals darknen with age. Do not use solution that is dark brown or opaque or that contains precipitates. Haze in concentrate is not unusual. Age has little effect on concentrate. No change in appearance with age. Good keeping properties. Chemical darkens with age. Do not use solution that is dark brown/purple or that contains precipitates.

First Developer First Developer Replenisher Color Developer Color Developer Replenisher

Reversal Bath Reversal Bath and Replenisher Color Developer Color Developer Replenisher Color Developer Color Developer Replenisher A A

Clear to slightly hazy, colorless to light yellow; rancid color Clear, pale yellow; mild sulfite odor; viscous Clear, pale yellow to light pink; odor of strong sulfurous acid gas (strong pungent odor) Caution: Smell carefully; smell the cap of the container of any photographic concentrate or solution-never smell concentrates or solutions directly. Clear, colorless; odor of organic sulfur

Start with water at 68 to 104F (20 to 40C); preferably near 1OOF(37.8"C). Add the concentrate while stirring. Mix until the solution is uniform, Do not overmix. Excessive mixing oxidizes the developer and reduces storage life. For the first developer, it is very important that your mixing equipment is clean. Immediately after mixing, the color developer will appear deep blue or purple. The color will change to pale yellow after a short time. Mixing order is important for developers. Do not agitate so vigorously that air is mixed into the solution. When you prepare a tank solution from replenish er solution, be sure to add starter. Start with water at 68 to 104F (20 to 40C); preferably near 1OOF(37.8C). The mixing order is not critical. The chemicals mix easily. Do not agitate so vigorously that air is mixed into the solution.

B B

Reversal Bath Reversal Bath Replenisher Pre-Bleach Pre-Bleach 11 and Replenisher Bleach

Start with water at 68 to 104F (20 to 40C); preferably near 1OOF(37.8C). The mixing order is not critical. The chemicals mix easily. Agitation provides beneficial aeration; vigorous or lengthy agitation does not harm the bleach. The bleach and replenisher should appear dark red after mixing. When you prepare a tank solution from replenisher solution, be sure to add starter. Start with water at 68 to 104F (20 to 40C); preferably near 1OOF(37.8C). Use moderate agitation so that mixing is complete in approximately 5 minutes. Although fixers are not as sensitive to oxidation as developers, too much aeration will cause sulfurization. The solution will appear clear and colorless. Start with water at 68 to 104F (20 to 40C); preferably near 1OOF(37.8C). The mixing order is not critical. The chemicals mix easily. Although agitation is not critical, the final rinse will foam if the agitation is too vigorous. The solution should appear clear and colorless.

Pre-Bleach Pre-Bleach 11 and Replenisher

Solution does not change appearance with age. Organic sulfur odor will be absent if product is badly oxidized.

Fixer Fixer and Replenisher

Bleach Bleach Replenisher Bleach Bleach Starter Fixer Fixer and Replenisher

Clear, dark red

Final Rinse Final Rinse and Replenisher

A B Clear, colorless Clear, colorless; very mild ammonia odor Extremely stable Age or exposure to air may cause sulfurization (white or yellow sediment).

Note: For consistent results, always use water at the same temperature when preparing solutions.

Contamination of Solutions
Keep your mixing. storage. and processing equipment clean; their cleanliness can affect the quality and performance of processing solutions. Be careful not to contaminate one solution with another. If possible, mix and use only one type of solution with one set of mixing equipment, and wash all equipment thoroughly before reusing it. The illustration which follows shows how to use your tanks to minimize contamination.

Final Rinse Final Rinse and Replenisher First Developer Starter Color Developer Starter

Clear, colorless

Colorless to yellow Light red to dark red

Calor darkens with age; usefulness is not affected by solution col or.

2-4

If you have one tank:


Reduce the chance of chemical contamination by using four separate mixing tanks, If you cannot use four separate tanks, do the followino before mixino diHerent batches of chemicals~ Thoroughly rinse tanks and mixing equipment with room-temperature water ~ Flush tubing and lines \...~ Thoroughly clean transfer pumps

--

Using Your Mixing Tanks to Reduce Solution Contamination: Minute amounts of contaminants can
seriously affect a processing solution. To reduce the possibility of contamination during mixing, keep different solutions from coming in contact with each other; use separate mixing tanks for each solution whenever possible, and clean all mixing equipment thoroughly after each use. If you don't have separate mix tanks, use the previous illustration as a guide for using your mixing tanks to reduce the possibility of contamination. If mixing only chemicals for reversal processes, you can use two mixing tanks: one for the first and color developers and one for all other solutions. However, we recommend using three mixing tanks: one for the developers, one for the bleach and fixer solutions, and one for all other solutions. If you mix chemicals for both negative and reversal processes, use four mixing tanks: one for the first developer and black-and-white developers, one for the calor developers, one for the bleach and bleach-fix solutions, and one for all other solutions.

If you have two tanks:

1
Use this tank for~ black-and-white developers ~ first developers for Processes E-6, R-3, and EA-5 ~ calor developers for Processes E-6, C-41, and R-3, and developer for Process RA-4

2
Use the second tank for~ calor developer for Process EA-5 ~ all stop baths and stabilizers ~ reversal bath, pre-bleach, and final rinse for Process E-6 ~ all bleaches, fixers, and bleach-fixes

.A If you have three tanks:

-,

1
Use this tank for~ black-and-white developers . first developers for Processes E-6, R-3, and EA-5 ~ calor developers for Processes E-6 and G-41, and developer for Process RA-4

2
Use the second tank for~ calor developers for Processes EA-5 and R-3 ~ all stop baths and stabilizers ~ reversal bath, ore-bleach, and final rinse for Process E-6

-,

3
Use the third tank for~ all bleaches, fixers, and bleach-fixes

.L

If you have four tanks:

1
Use this tank 10r~ black-and-white developers ~ first developers for Processes R-3, and EA-5 E-6,

2
Use the second tank for~ color developers for Processes E-6, C-41, and R-3, and davslopsr for Process RA-4

-,
3
Use the third tank for~ stop baths and stabilizers ~ reversal bath, pre-bleach, and final rinse for Process E-6

.Al

-,
4
Use the fourth tank for~ all bleaches, fixers, and bleach-fixes

-,

2-5

Checking Your Mixes with Specific-Gravity Measurements


You can easily check your mixes for mixing errors by measuring the specific gravity of the solution. For information on measuring specific gravity or for specificgravity aims for Process E-6 solutions, see section 3, "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions."

SAFE HANDLING OF PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMlCALS


Handle photographic chemicals and processing solutions with care. See Safe Handling oj Photographic Chemicals, KODAK Publication No. J-4. Packages of Kodak photographic chemicals have precautionary labels. Al ways read the labels and follow the instructions carefully. Also read the Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) for the chemicals for precautionary information. I Keep the darkroom, precessing area, and mixing room clean. Clean up spilled chemicals promptly. protective equipment, such as a waterproof apron and impervious gloves made of a material such as Neoprene or nitrile, when you handle solutions. Always wear goggles or safety glasses when you mix solutions from concentrates.

Storage of Solutions
For best results, do not use solutions that have been stored longer than the following times:

".';.SS~~~~:<I~~t~I~~~~~~iC,~~G~:~i ... I'~&t~::~:~~ed;:~ personal ' .... Use


"0'.(Tankor

Repleni,~.b~~Y ..Unused
First Developer, Reversal Bath, Pre-Bleach, Pre-Bleach 11 Color Developer Bleach, Fixer, Final Rinse 8 weeks

i.,

lf~gcl:ortinuse'djj lJseds.~h.HI()ris.'
1 week

4 weeks

8 weeks 24 weeks

4 weeks 24 weeks

1 week 24 week

A void skin contact with chemicals. Some photographic solutions, especially developers, can cause allergic skin reactions. See The Prevention of Contact Dermatitis in Photographic Work, KODAK Publication No. J-4S. Keep chemical solutions out of your mouth. Never start a siphoning action with your mouth. Do not eat or drink in a room where chemicals are mixed or used . Maintain proper ventilation in the mixing room and processing area. Store chemicals and processing solutions safely. Keep them out of the reach of children. Dispose of solutions safely. See Disposal and Treatment of Photographic Effluent-In Support of Clean Water. KODAK Publication No. J-55.

Or full, tightly stoppered glass bottles.

Don't store chemicals at high temperatures. Use floating lids and dust covers on the replenisher storage tanks to reduce oxidation and dirt.

LIn the USA, you can obtain MSDSs for Kodak chemicals by calling 1-800-2422424 or writing to Eastman Kodak Company, 343 State Street. Dept. 841, RI Riverwood, Rochester, NY 14650-0811. Outside of the USA, contact Kndak in ynur country. ]'Iease supply the cataloe (CAT) numbers for the chemicals when you request MSDSs. MSDSs are also available via the internet. You can download them from the Kodak web site: www.kodak.com

2-6

MONITORING AND CONTROLLING PROCESSING SOLUTIONS

CONTROL OF PROCESS VARIABLES


Introduction
Process variables include process time, temperature, agitation, and replenishment and wash rates. Changing these variables affects the process in specific ways. Being aware of how each of these variables affects your process will help you to troubleshoot any problems, and to use these variables to make small adjustments in your process. The specifications for these process variables are given in Table 3-1. Table 3-1 Process E-6 Specifications

36.7 (98.0) First Wash Reversal Bath Color Developer Pre-Bleach 11 Bleach Fixer Final Wash' Final Rinse
*

1:00 1:00 5:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 4:00 0:30

2:00 2:00 6:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 4:00 1:00

4:00 4:00 7:00 4:00 8:00 6:00 8:00 2:00

33.3 (92.0) 24.0 (75.0) 36.7 (98.0) 24.0 (75.0) 33.3 (92.0) 33.3 (92.0) 33.3 (92.0) 24.0 (75.0) 38.0 (100.4)

39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0) 39.4 (103.0)

2,153 (200) 7.5 Umin (2 gal/min) 916 (85) 1,938 (180) 916 (85) 1,076 (100) 2,153 (200) 1,076 (100) 215 (20) 916 (85) 1,076 (100) 7.5 Umin (2 gal/min) 1,076 (100) 1:63 1,236 (115) 1,236 (115) 2.368 (220) 1,236 (115) 1:1:3
1 :9

No dilution 1:9

For best results,use a countercurrent-flow final wash.

Process Temperature
Slight variations in developer solution temperature can affect process control. In other processing solutions, temperature variations of a few degrees are not as critical. Once you have established the first- and color-developer temperatures, maintain them within these limits: First Developer O.2C (O.3F) Calor Developer O.3'C (OSF)

Process Time
Time affects process control in about the same way that temperature does. It is particularly critical for the developers that you use the correct time. Use a stopwatch to
measure the time that the film is in a solution from the time

the film enters the solution to the time it enters the next solution (or wash). Once you have established the first- and color-developer times, maintain them within these limits: First Developer 5 seconds Color Developer 5 seconds

3-1

Agitation
Agitation increases solution activity by removing used solution from the film surface and replacing it with fresh solution. Too little agitation causes streaks or spots on the film. Too much agitation mixes air into the solution, causing some of the chemicals to oxidize. Oxidation is particularly harmful tu the first and calor developers. Two common methods of producing solution agitation are: 1) moving the film through the solution, and 2) moving the solution over the film surface. The first method is used in continuous, roller-transport, and rotary-tube processors, and in sink-line processes (with manual agitation). The second method is used in rack-and-tank processors and in some continuous processors, as well as in sink-line processes. It consists of bubbling an inert gas (i.e., nitrogen for developers, air for other solutions) through the solution. Table 3-2 Methods of Agitation

Recirculation
Recirculation keeps the processing temperature uniform throughout the processing solution. To maintain uniform

temperature, concentration, and solution cleanliness, you


must recirculate the first developer, calor developer, bleach, and fixer solutions. Recirculate the reversal bath, pre-bleach, and final rinse only as needed.

Filtration
Processing solutions and wash water may contain some insoluble solids and tars. If you don't remove this material, it can adhere to the film and to tank walls, rollers, and lines, and damage the film. Filters should be able to remove 10- to 30-micron-size particles from processing solutions and 5- to 25-micron-size particles from wash water. Table 3-3 lists the filter materials available; it also lists if they are recommended for use with KODAK Chemicals, Process E-6. Table 3-3 Filter Materials

Bleached cotton First Developer Wash -------/ Reversal Bath Color Developer Pre-Bleach 11 BleachFixer Wash Final Rinse Aerationis requiredfor all typesof processing. Movement of film through the solution provides some agitation; slow speed machines may require supplemental agitation Nitrogen Air
1-_

Fiberglass with phenolic binder Polyester with phenolic resin binder Wool with phenolic resin binder Viscose rayon with phenolic resin binder Viscose rayon

Cellulose with phenolic resin binder Polyester fiber Polypropylene Spun polypropylene

None Nitrogen None Air Air Air None

Polypropylene is the most acceptable filter-core material and one of the least expensive. However, many polypropylene yarns are produced by using surfactants. While polypropylene itself appears to have no photographic effect, some of these surfactants may; therefore, monitor your process carefully when you first change filters.

3-2

Replenishment
During processing, some chemicals in the processing solution are used up, and some chemicals in the film dissolve into the solution. These changes exhaust the solution. To compensate for these changes, and restore the solution's normal activity, you add replenish er solution. The rate at which you add replenisher solution affects the solutions's composition and activity. You can add replenisher in one of four ways: By replenishing for a batch of film processed; add replenisher in a single amount after processing a batch of film. By feeding concentrate and water in simultaneously as a batch of film is processed. By continuously feeding replenisher in at a set rate during processing. By continuously feeding concentrate and water in simultaneously at a set rate during processing. This is similar to the third method, but the concentrate and the water are metered in separately instead of mixing the chemicals beforehand. It is important that you calibrate and check all replenisher pumps and flowmeters frequently to be sure they are providing the correct amount of solution (or water). Use only the rates recommended, especially with the developers. Initially, incorrect replenishment rates may not appear to affect your control plot, but eventually the effect will be significant. Also, image structure (graininess, sharpness, calor quality, etc) can be affected without much change in the control plots. The problem may be more apparent in your production than in the control strip.

Drying
Film drying is influenced by the design of the dryer, time in the dryer. the pattern of air flow, the amount of final rinse carried into the dryer, and the humidity and temperature of the air in the dryer. Film drying can also be influenced by the ambient temperature and relative humidity. You must determine the optimum conditions for drying film for each processor. When your dryer is set correctly, the film will be dry when it is approximately one-half to three-quarters of the way through the dryer. Do not use drying temperatures higher than 63C (145"F). High drying temperatures cause excessive film curl. Filter the air in the dryer to reduce dirt. If the film has spots or streaks after drying, check for problems in the final rinse solution.

Checklists
Routine use of a start-up and shutdown checklist will help you keep your processor in good operating condition. Also, use your process maintenance checklist to follow a regular processor-maintenance schedule. For information about maintenance, see section 11.

COLOR-BALANCE CONTROL
Adjusting the pH
If your process is in control for the LD step, but has a blue or yellow spread in the HD step, you can correct it by adjusting the pH of the calor-developer tank solution with 5N NaOH or 5N H2S04; see Table 3-4. Table 3-4 Color-Developer pH Adjustments Color-Balance Change . <Cblot>

Wash-Water Control
Maintain the wash-water temperature and flow rate according to the recommended steps and conditions for your processor. A low flow rate or incorrect temperature in the first wash can cause speed and calor-balance changes, and poor dye stability. Do not use a wash between the reversal bath and color developer or between the pre-bleach and bleach. Replace water filters regularly to reduce dirt in the wash water. Use a flowmeter to be sure that you are using the correct water flow rate. To minimize algae formation, drain the wash tanks each night (or at the end of the final shift), and especially over weekends and holidays.

for

Cqmp-are(j
Blue

BalanCe ...

it ....O:lb~ t

~i~~e~~~f~~~ .
Blue density plots 1 mUL of 0.05

belowthe red and


green densities for the HO step Yellow Blue density plots above the red and green densities for the HD step

sodium
hydroxide (5N NaOH) 1 mUL of sulfuric acid (5N H2S04) 0.05

3-3

Calculations
Calculate the amount of 5N sodium hydroxide or sulfurie acid needed to cOITecL out-of-control calor balance by an using this formula:
mL of 5N acid or base calor spread 0.05 x litres of tank solution

Preparing Sulfuric Acid Solution

Follow the precautions on the container label. Sulfuric acid is corrosive; avoid contact with skin and clothing. Wear safety goggles, rubber gloves, and protective clothing. To prevent a violent reaction (boiling and splattering), always add the sulfuric acid to the water; never add the water to the sulfuric acid. With extreme caution and constant stirring, slowly add 139 mL sulfuric acid H2S04 (36N) to 700 mL of cold water in a 2-litre glass beaker. Cool the solution to room temperature and add water to make 1 litre. Store this solution in a glass bottle with a glass stopper, and label the bottle clearly.

Warning

For example, to decrease the calor-balance spread by 0.14 density units to correct a blue calor balance, add 2.8 mL of 5N sodium hydroxide to each litre of calor developer in the tank. mL of 5N NaOH = 0.14 + 0.05 = 2.8 mL of 5N NaOH x litres of tank solution If the acid or base solution that you have is not 5N, you will first need to calculate the amount of your normality (N) acid or base required. To do that, use this equation: mLlL of your N = (5N + your N) x mLlL of 5N required Then find the total volume of acid or base you need for your tank volume. Volume of your acid or base needed (mL) = Tank volume (L) x mLlL of your acid or base

MONITORING WITH SPECIFIC-GRA V1TY MEASUREMENTS


Definition
Measuring specific gravity is a quick way of checking for proper mixing of your solutions. You can also make adjustments to your solutions by using specific-gravity measurements. Specific gravity is the ratio of the mass of a liquid to the mass of an equal volume of water. It is a convenient way to measure the total dissolved material in a solution and check the concentration of processing solutions. Use specificgravity measurements to check for mixing errors or water evaporation from solutions. There are three ways that you can use specific-gravity measurements for process control. To check for errors in mixing fresh tank and replenisher solutions (see section 2, "Chemicals and Chemical Mixing"). To check tank solutions for evaporation (see section 4, "Starting Up Your Process"). To adjust the concentration of your calor-developer tank solution to optirnize the process for contrast (see section 4, "Starting Up Your Process"). Table 3-5 lists the specific-gravity aims for Process E-6 replenisher solutions and fresh tank and seasoned tank solutions.

Preparing Sodium Hydroxide Solution

Awarning
Follow the precautions for safe handling on the container label. Sodium hydroxide is corrosive; avoid contact with skin and clothing. Wear safety goggles, rubber gloves, and protective clothing. Do not weigh sodium hydroxide in an aluminum dish. To prevent a violent reaction (boiling and splattering), always add the sodium hydroxide to the water; never add the water to the sodium hydroxide. With extreme caution and constant stirring, slowly add 200 grams of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) to 500 mL of cold water in a 2-litre glass beaker. Cool the solution to room temperature and add water to make 1 litre. Store this solution in a glass bottle with a rubber stopper or in a plastic (polyethylene) bottle, and label the bottle clearly.

Table 3-5 Specific-Gravity

Aims

First Developer Reversal Bath

1.062 0.003 1.011 0.003 1.039 0.003 1.043 0.003

1.059 0.003 1.008 0.003 1.033 0.003 1.043 0.003 1.019 0.003 1.130O.010 1.041 D.003

1.063 0.003 1.010 0.003 1.038 0.003 1.043 0.003 1.021 0.004 1.190 0.070 1.065 0.025

1.059 0.003 1.008 0.003 1.036 0.003 1.040 0.003 1.016 0.003 , .257 0.01 0 1.038 O.OO3

1.056 0.003 1.005 0.003 1.030 0.003 1.040 0.003 1.016 0.003 1.127 0.010 1.038 0.D03

Calor Developer Pre-Bleach Pre-Bleach Bleach Fixer "

1.019 0.003 1.260O.O10 1.041 D.D03

3-4

Measuring Specific Gravity


You can make specific-gravity measurements of your solutions with any hydrometer that meets the standard ANSII ASTM ElOO-72. The hydrometer should be marked in increments of at least 0.001 for an accuracy of iO.0005. Although most hydrometers are calibrated at lS.6'C (60'F), they are useful at olher temperatures. To measure the specific gravity of Process E-6 solutions, you will need the standard hydrometers listed in Table 3-6. Table 3-6 Hydrometers

1. Fill a clean, dry 250 mL graduated cylinder to within 2.5 cm (1 inch) of the top with the solution you are measuring. 2. Adjust the solution to the proper temperature (see the specifications given in Table 3-5). Proper solution temperature is very important. 3. Place the cylinder in a sink or tray to catch overflow. 4. Choose the correct hydrometer to match the approximate specific gravity of the solution. (See the hydrometer ranges listed in Table 3-6.)

for Process E-6 Solutions

5. Be sure that the hydrometer is clean and dry.


Carefully lower the hydrometer into the solution. Let it bob up and down slightly. When it stops, read the number at the top of the MENISCUS.

.~t:fd~~n~;d~~~!;B~;:n
First developer and replenisher Reversal bath and replenisher Color developer and replenisher 1.050 to 1.100 1.000 to 1.050 126H 125H

Reading is 1.063 Pre-Bleach Pre-Bleach 11 and replenisher Bleach- and replenisher 1.100 1.150 1.200 1.250 to 1.150 to 1.200 to 1.250 to 1.300 127H 128H 129H 130H 125H 126H
60

Fixer" and replenisher

1.000 to 1.050 1.050 to 1.100

More than one hydrometer is listed for bleach and fixer because the acceptable ranges of the specific-gravity measurements for these solutions are large.

Note: You should not need all six standard hydrometers listed in Table 3-6 for anyone type of machine running Process E-6.

Hydrometer

6. After making the measurement, discard the sample. To avoid contaminating solutions, do not return the sample to the tank. 7. Rinse the hydrometer and graduated cylinder thoroughly with water. Note: Never take specific-gravity readings of solutions in the tanks. If you use the wrong hydrometer, it can sink to the bottom of the tank and break, or bob on the surface, where the stem may hit the edge of the tank and break. Label hydrometer boxes to avoid confusion. Do not use tape labels on the hydrometers.

3-5

Adjusting Your processing Solutions by Using Specific-Gravity Measurements First and Color Developers: The first and color developers
are the most critical solutions in Process E-6; it is especially important to maintain proper concentrations. You can use specific-gravity measurements to correct for overconcentration or underconcentration, A sample calculation for overconcentration is given below. In the example, the calculation is done by using the difference between the specific gravity of an overconcentrated solution and the specific-gravity aim. With this type of calculation, you can determine the amount of overconcentration. Or, you can use the values in Table 3-1 instead of making a calculation for overconcentrated first developer. To adjust the solution, remove and discard 8.3 litres of solution. Replace that amount of solution with the same amount of water. After the water is added, the specific gravity of the solution should be 1.063 0.003 (at 27C [80F]). Example of a Specific-Gravity Calculation: You suspect that your first-developer tank solution is overconcentrated. You measure its specific gravity at 27C (80F); the specific gravity is 1.069. When you check Table 3-5, you note that the specific-gravity aim for a seasoned tank solution is 1.063 0.003. To correct the solution, you need to know the volume of the tank to calculate the amount of adjustment required. In this case, the tank volume is 95 litres. Sample calculations are as follows:

Table 3-1 Addition of Water to Correct for Overconcentration First Dcvclopcr-Scasoncd Tank Solution

of

~llf~iEt14;!;1!~
1.063 0 1.060 0 1.064 1.065 1.066 1.067 1.068 1.069 1.070 1.071 1.072 1.073 1.074 1.075 1.076 1.077 1.078 1.079 1.080 16 31 45 60 74 87 100 113 125 137 149 160 171 182 192 203 212 1.061 1.062 1.063 1.064 1.065 1.066 1.067 1.068 1.069 1.070 1.071 1.072 1.073 1.074 1.075 1.076 16 31 45 60 74 87 100 113 125 137 149 160 171 182 192 203

Table 3-2 Addition of KODAK First Developer Concentrate, Process E-6AR, to Correct for Underconcentration of Seasoned Tank Solution
ecific

Specific

gravity of first-developer aim

tank solution

1.069 1.0630.006

Specific-gravity A minus B

A minus 1.000 (the specific Amount Volume of overconcentration of tank solution

gravity of water) (C divided by D)

0.069 0.087t 95 L 8.3 L

Z7:~'~~~.Lt$~~'~..ori. ;:~8;:(100.4 r ;raO F


1.063 1.062 1.061 1.060 1.059 1.058 1.057 1.056 1.055 1.054 1.053 1.052 1.051 1.050 1.049 1.048 1.047 1.046 1.045 1.044 0 4 9 13 18 22 26 30 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 67 71 75 79 1.060 1.059 1.058 1.057 1.056 1.055 1.054 1.053 1.052 1.051 1.050 1.049 1.048 1.047 1.046 1.045 1.044 1.043 1.042 1.041
First Developer Starter, Process

ty~t

0 4 9 13 18 22 26 30 35 39 43 47 51 55 59 63 67 71 75 79
E-S

Volume of water to add to tank solution (E multiplied by F) * From Table 3-5 t 0.087 equals 8.7 percent overconcentration.

You can also adjust underconcentrated solutions by using specific-gravity measurements. If your first-developer tank solution is diluted by a water leak, you can adjust the solution by adding undiluted KODAK First Developer Concentrate, Process E-6AR. To make the adjustment, measure the specific gravity. Then use Table 3-2 to determine the amount of first developer replenisher concentrate you need to add for each litre of tank solution. (Table 3-4 has information for adjusting seasoned calor developer for underconcentration.) Finally, remove the amount of the underconcentrated solution you have determined in your calculation, and replace it with undiluted replenisher.

For each 40 mL of undiluted First Developer Replenisher, Process


E-SAR, add 1 mL of KODAK

3-6

Table 3-3 Addition of Water to Correct for Overconcentration of Color DeveloperSeasoned Tank Solution

.',mJ~\litY';:Wat~iper:/~
o
26 50 73 95 116 136 156 174 191 208

"';:Spe'cific':

::.:mLiof~ '.'L~~~~f." '


Solu.liori 0 26 50 73 95 116 136 156 174 191

:~t\a:~~~;~i' = ,;~100.:f!~J;W.... ....


1,035 1,036 1,037 1.038 1,039 1,040 1.041 1.042 1.043 1,044

1,038 1,039 1,040 1.041 1,042 1,043 1,044 1,045 1,046 1,047 1,048

Table 3-4 Addition of Undiluted KODAK Color Developer Replenisher, Process E-6AR, to Correctfor Underconcentration of Seasoned Tank Solution

Con.
1.038 1,037 1,036 1.035 1,034 1,033 1.032 1,031 1,030 1.029 1,028

te:~j{r ...Concentrat
Litre of Ta So)'ufiorr'

rf;( 'mL9fJ~prtB

fPari,B '.
ra,eper re:pf Solu~i()n>

,,'LitreofTank

':s9t~t!oi!;;;,s1f:~ ' "'.


o
4 8
13

Ta.ok

0 4 8
13

1,035 1,034 1,033 1.032 1.031 1,030 1,029


1,028

0 4 8 13

o
4 8 13 16 20 24 28 31 34

16 20
24
28

16 20
24
28

16
20 24
28

31 34 38

31 34 38

1.027 1.026

31 34

For each 40 mL of undiluted KODAK Col or Developer Replenisher, Process E-6AR, Parts A and B, add 1 mL of KODAK Color Developer Starter, Process E-6

3-7

APPENDIX 1
HYDROMETER CROSSOVER PROCEDURE
Like other measuring instruments, hydrometers have an inherent variability. Although the variability from hydrometer to hydrometer is usually small, you should run a crossover lest when you use a "new" hydrometer. To run a crossover test, follow these steps: 8. Make specific-gravity measurements of at least four different samples of the same tank solution with both the "old" and the "new" hydrometer. 9. Determine the average measurement for each hydrometer by adding the measurements and dividing the result by the number of readings. 10. To calculate the difference between the hydrometers, subtract the smaller average from the larger average. If the difference between the average readings for the hydrometers is greater than 0.002, contact your Kodak account executive to help you determine which hydrometer is correct. If the difference is less than or equal to 0.002, start using the "new" hydrometer. Note: Sample calculations are shown at the right.

Table 3-1 Example 1

::!iy~roti!gter,.:
1.062 '.062 3 4 5 Total Average Reading"old" hydrometer 1.063 1.062 1.064 5.314 1.063 1.063 1.064 5.314

5.314

1.0628

5
Average Reading"new" hydrometer 5.314

1.0628

5
Difference

= 1.0628 -

1.0628

= 0; use the "new" hydrometer.

Table 3-2 Example 2

1.063 1.062 1.061 1.062 1.064 5.312

1.066 1.065 1.064 1.066 1.066 5.327

2 3 4 5 Total Average Reading"old" hydrometer Average Reading"new" hydrometer

5.312 5 5.327 5

1.0624

= 1.0654

Difference = 1.0654 - 1.0624 = 0.003 > 0.002; contact your account executive to determine which hydrometer is correct.

3-8

STARTING UP YOUR PROCESS


OPTIMIZING YOUR PROCESS
Once your process is stable (i.e., the process variables are at [or close to] aim), you can optimize your process to obtain optimum film quality. We recognize that you may have to make some minor adjustments from aim for some of the process variables (due to differences in machine design) to obtain optimum speed, contrast, and calor balance. It is important to understand that in most situations you will not have to make adjustments from aim to obtain optimum film quality. If you determine that your process requires adjustments, follow the steps given below. Do not make these adjustments to your process to optimize it until it is stable and the process variables are at (or close to) aim. 1. Adjust to obtain optimum density (film speed). 2. Adjust to obtain optimum film contrast. 3. Adjust to obtain optimum col or balance.

BEFORE YOU BEGIN PROCESSING


To produce consistently high-quality transparencies with EKT ACHROME Films, your processor must be in good mechanical operating condition, and the processing solutions must be within specifications. Check that the steps and conditions that you are using for your processor type match those given in sections 6 through 10. Processing conditions, chemicals, and mechanical operation may vary slightly for each processor. Solution Mixing: Be sure that your tank and replenisher solutions have been mixed correctly. Choose the correct chemical sizes for your needs, and mix them according to the instructions supplied with the chemicals. Check for any mixing errors by measuring the specific gravity. For information on specific gravity, see page 3-4. When you prepare developer and bleach solutions, be sure to add starter. Processor Operation: Check that your processor is operating according to the specifications given in this manual. Be sure that the agitation, recirculation, and filtration systems are working properly. Set replenishment and wash rates according to the specifications given in the section for your processor type. Do not adjust these rates to control process speed, contrast, or color balance. Evaporation: Evaporation can cause an increase in specific gravity, so you may need to add water to your first-and colordeveloper tank solutions. Making specific-gravity measurements daily is a good way to detect and prevent processing problems.

Perform these steps in the order given, because the effects of some of the adjustments may be additive.

Important

To obtain optimum density (film speed), adjust either the first-developer temperature or the first-developer time. Base your adjustments on the green density of the LD step of your control strip. If the green LD density is on aim, the density (film speed) is acceptable; your process does not require adjustments for density. Proceed directly to "To obtain optimum film contrast ... " (page 4-2). If the green LD density is lower than aim and the specific gravityireplenishment rate are on aim (film speed is "fast"), decrease the first-developer temperature to slow down the reaction or decrease the time to shorten the development reaction and increase film densities. * If the green LD density is higher than aim (film speed is "slow"), increase the first-developer temperature to speed up the reaction or increase the time to lengthen the development reaction and decrease film densities. * After you have adjusted the first-developer temperature or time, and the green LD density is on aim, maintain the time or temperature within the specified tolerances.
Before making these adjustments, verify that the replenishment rate and specific gravity are on aim.

4-1

To obtain optimum film contrast, adjust the concentration of the calor developer. Base your adjustments on the green density of the HD step of your control strip. (Make sure that the green LD density is on aim before you adjust the concentration of the calor developer.) If the green lID density is on aim, the contrast is acceptable; your process does not require adjustments for optimum film contrast. Proceed directly to "To obtain optimum calor balance ... " (page 4-2). If the green HD density is lower than aim, the contrast is low. To raise the contrast (increase the green lID density), dilute the color developer. If the green lID density is higher than aim, the contrast is high. To lower the contrast (decrease the green lID density), increase the concentration of the color developer. Note: Any adjustment to the concentration of the calor developer must be within the specific-gravity range of 1.032 to 1.043 at 2TC (80F). Keep the adjusted aim as close as possible to the recommended aim, 1.038 at 2TC (80'F). After you have adjusted the concentration of the calor developer, and the green lID density is on aim, measure the specific gravity of the tank solution. Use the specific-gravity measurement as your new aim. Make the same adjustment and aim change to your replenisher.

Most labs will not have to adjust the concentration of the color developer to obtain optimum contrast. For labs that must make an adjustment, it is important to maintain the color-developer replenishment rate at 2,153 mL/m2 (200 mL/f(2). The best way to do this is to adjust the concentration (specific gravity) of the calor developer replenisher and maintain the recommended replenishment rate. (If you adjust only the tank concentration, and do not adjust the replenisher concentration, your process will become unstable.) Do not adjust the ratio of Part A to Part B from the specified ratio of 1 to 1 for Process E-6AR chemicals.

Important

To obtain optimum color balance, adjust the first-wash temperature to alter the cyanlred color balance; adjust the pH of the calor developer to alter the yellowlblue calor balance. Base your adjustments on the calor balance of the HD and LD steps of your control strip. Adjust the cyan/red calor balance first. Changing the temperature of the first wash will affect developer activity in the film as the wash removes the developer. Be sure that the agitation and flow rate of the first wash are correct before you adjust the temperature. If the color balance requires a shift in the cyan or red direction, make a one-time change to the first-wash temperature. Increasing the first-wash temperature within the acceptable range of 33.3 to 39.4 C (92 to 103OF)will increase the activity of the developer and cause more development in all layers of the film, but it will have a greater effect in the bottom (cyan) layer. This shifts the color balance in the red direction. Reducing the first-wash temperature will decrease the activity of the developer and shift the color balance in the cyan direction. Use the adjusted temperature as your new aim. Remember to maintain and monitor the first-wash temperature to detect changes before they affect the film you process. Adjust the yellow/blue calor balance second. Adjusting the pH of the calor developer will shift the calor balance toward the yellow or blue direction. This should be the last adjustment that you make to your process. To increase the pH of the calor developer, add sodium hydroxide (5N NaOH) to shift the calor balance in the yellow direction. To decrease the pH of the calor developer, add sulfuric acid (5N H2S04) to shift the color balance in the blue direction. If you adjust the pH of the color-developer tank solution, you must also make the same adjustments to the calor developer replenisher. Add sodium hydroxide (5N NaOH) or sulfuric acid (5N H2S04) to the replenisher in the same proportion that you use to modify the tank solution. For inline dilution systems, add sodium hydroxide to Part A (high pH); add sulfuric acid to Part B (low pH). Do not adjust the ratio of Part A to Part B. Note: If you make process adjustments to optimize your process for density, contrast, and calor balance, you may have to make a small adjustment to the first-developer temperature or time to adjust the LD back to aim.

4-2

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS FOR PROCESSING SOLUTIONS


First Developer Starter in the Color Developer: If 5 mL/L of first developer starter is mixed with the color developer, add 2 mL/L of 5N H2S04 and process a control strip to determine if you need to correct the color balance. See "Color-Balance Control" on page 3-3. Substitute for Color Developer Starter: If color developer starter is temporarily unavailable, you can use 3 mL/L of first developer starter and 3 mLlL of 5N H2S04 in place of the color developer starter. Color Developer Replenisher-Part A Omitted: Determine how much Part A was left out of the mix, and add that amount to the solution. If you can't determine the amount omitted, replace the calor developer. Color Developer Replenisher-Part B Omitted: Determine how much Part B was left out of the mix, and add that amount to the solution. If you can't determine the amount omitted, replace the color developer.

OVERVIEW
It may be possible to correct some improperly mixed or treated KODAK Chemicals, Process E-6, by using the corrective actions given in this section. This section also provides a procedure for compensating for low utilization. Use the corrective actions only when you have determined the cause of the problem. These corrective actions will work only in some cases. Use any method that involves "doctoring" the solutions at your own risk; there is no guarantee that a corrective action will correct the problem. Apply these corrective actions only to remedy an out-ofcontrol condition.

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS FOR MIXING ERRORS


First or Color Developer Too Dilute: Add concentrate until the specific gravity is correct; see Tables 3-2 and 3-4 in section 3, "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions." With KODAK Calor Developer Replenisher, Process E-6AR, use equal volumes of Parts A and B. Do not mix Parts A and B together directly; a precipitate will form. If the solution is a fresh tank, be sure that you added the correct amount of starter. First or Color Developer Too Concentrated: Try to determine the amount of overconcentration by reviewing the mixing procedures; then dilute the solution with water until the specific gravity is correct. See Tables 3-1 and 3-3 in section 3, "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions." First Developer-Too Much Starter Added .. Process a control strip to check the process. If it is in control, allow it to return to aim during normal operation. If it is not in control, replace the solution. Color Developer-Too Much Starter Added: Process a control strip to determine if the blue color balance can be corrected by using no more than 3 mL/L of 5N NaOH (see "Color-Balance Control" on page 3-3). If the blue color balance cannot be brought into control, replace the tank solution. First or Color Developer-Too Little Starter Added: If you can determine how much starter was omitted from the fresh tank mix, add that amount to the tank. With calor developer, you can use 5N H2S04 to adjust the color balance. See "Color-Balance Control" on page 3-3. Color Developer Starter ill the First Developer: If color developer starter was mixed with the first developer, replace the tank solution.

CORRECTIVE ACTIONS FOR TANK SOLUTIONS


First or Color Developer Underreplenished: Replace approximately 10 percent of the tank volume with replenisher. Process and evaluate a control strip. If the problem persists, make one more lO-percent replacement. If this does not correct the condition, replace the solution. Alternate Procedure-If you can determine the amount of replenisher that should have been added, replace that volume of tank solution with replenisher. First Developer Overreplenished: Turn off replenishment for about 5 square feet of film processed per gallon of tank solution. Monitor the change with control strips. You will need to wait and tolerate the results or replace the solution. It is difficult to guess the amount of overreplenishment by using control strips; therefore, no exact guidelines exist. Sulfurized Fixer: Replace the solution. Underreplenished Bleach: You can salvage an underreplenished bleach by determining the amount of replenisher left out of the tank solution, and replacing that amount of tank solution with replenisher. Overreplenished Bleach: While an overreplenished bleach solution does not adversely affect the process, it is costly and increases the amount of chemicals discharged to the sewer. See "Overconcentrated Bleach" below. To compensate for overconcentration due to evaporation. use a replenisher made from 2 parts KODAK Bleach Replenisher, Process E-6AR, and 1 part water.

5-1

Overconcenirated Bleach: A high specific gravity of the bleach solution indicates excessive overreplenishment or evaporation. If the specific gravity of your bleach solution exceeds 1.260, replace approximately one-third of the bleach-tank solution with fresh tank solution or with replenisher that is diluted 2: l. Keep the specific gravity below 1.260 to help prevent crystals from forming. Do not add water directly to a seasoned bleach; it will produce a precipitate of silver bromide.

COMPENSATING

FOR LOW UTILIZATION

You can compensate for low utilization by following the procedure described below; the procedure is based on the theory that you must complete one first-developer tank turnover every three weeks for efficient process operation. Before starting this procedure, set your replenishment rates according to the specifications given in the table in the section for your processor type. This procedure establishes a minimum daily square footage requirement for the amount of film processed. You can follow the procedure for any processor type that uses replenishment. 1. To determine the minimum daily square footage requirement, multiply the first-developer tank volume (in litres) by 5; then divide by the number of days the processor is operated during a three-week period. For example, a processor with a first-developer tank volume of 70 litres operated for 15 days over a threeweek period would have a minimum daily square footage requirement of 23 ([70 x 5] + 15 = 23). 2. Throughout the day, record the amount of film you process. 3. At the end of each day, compare the amount of film processed (in square feet) to the minimum daily square footage requirement. If the amount of film processed meets or exceeds the minimum daily square footage requirement, no additional replenishment is required. If the amount of film processed is less than the minimum requirement, replenish all of your tank solutions for the difference in square footage. You will also need to add 1 mL of first developer starter to your first-developer tank solution for every square foot of film processed below the minimum daily requirement. Do not add calor developer starter to the calor-developer tank; additional starter will lower calor-developer activity. The first time you use this procedure, you may have to reoptimize your process by adjusting the activity of the calor developer replenisher as described under "Optimizing Your Process" on page 4-1.

Exampie- Your minimum daily square footage requirement is 23 ft2, but you only processed 18 ft2 of film. The difference between the minimum requirement and the amount offilm processed is 5 ft2 Based on a replenishment rate of 200 mLlft2, you need to add an additional 1,000 mL (5 x 200 mL) of first developer replenisher to your firstdeveloper tank solution and 1,000 mL of color developer replenisher to your calor-developer tank solution. For processors that have a 1 ft2 replenishment cycle, you need an additional 5 replenishment cycles. You also need to add 1 mLlft2 (l mL/cycle) or 5 mL of first developer starter to the first-developer tank solution. Replenish all other solutions for the difference between the minimum requirement and the amount of film processed.
Note: If your processor has very low utilization, you may want to divide your minimum daily square footage requirement in half, and compare the amount of film processed with the minimum requirement twice during the day (i.e., at midday and at shutdown), and make any adjustments required.

5-2

CONTINUOUS PROCESSORS

STEPS AND CONDITIONS


Table 6-1 Steps and Conditions-Continuous Processors

Perform these steps in total darkness. First Developer Wash Reversal Bath 5:00t 1:00 1:00 6:00t 2:00 2:00 7:00t 4:00 4:00 36.7 to 39.4t (98 to 103)t 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 36.7 to 39.4 (98 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) Ambient Up to 63 (145) R, F, S (exit) None S (exit) None S R, F, S (exit) None S (exit) Air R, F, S (exit) Air R, F, S (exit) None None S (exit) None S (exit)

Remaining steps can be performed In room light . Calor Developer Pre-Bleach 11 Bleach Fixer Wash Wash Final Rinse Dry 5:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 1:00 1:00 0:30 6:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 2:00 2:00 1:00 As needed 7:00 4:00 8:00 6:00 4:00 4:00 4:00

. .

F ~ Filtration R = Recirculation S = Squeegees t Adjust the first-developer time and/or temperature to match the aim value for the LD step densities. Once you select a first-developer time and temperature, maintain the time within S seconds and the temperature within 0.2C (0.3F). If possible, keep transfer times to 30 seconds or less.

TIME AND TEMPERATURE


Adjust the developer times and temperatures until the densities of your KODAK Control Strips, Process E-6, plot within the control limits. Do not exceed the ranges given in Table 6- L If you do not need to adjust the temperatures, use the midpoint of the ranges; 6 minutes at 38C (lOO.4F) for both developers. Once you have selected the times and temperatures, keep them within the following tolerances.
..
..CCCC

RECIRCULATION
Recirculate and filter the first and calor developers, bleach, and fixer to remove any dirt; even small particles of dirt can cause abrasions on the film. Recirculation also provides more uniform temperature in the developers. Recirculate the reversal bath, pre-bleach, and final rinse only as needed. For more information on recirculation and filtration, see section 3, "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions." For the bleach pumps, piping, and filter container, use Type 316 stainless steel or PVC materials. For any equipment that comes in contact with the fixer, use PVC or titanium. Do not use copper or brass with any processing solutions.

0',

....

.. }',C;olorDey~loper Time: 5 seconds Temperature: 0.2C (0.3F) Time: 5 seconds Temperature: 0.3C (O.SF)

6-1

AGITATION
In sinusoidal- or helical-path processors, in which the top rollers are submerged, supply air to the bleach and fixer at 0.06 m3/m2 Cl cubic foot per 6 square feet) offilm processed or 0.23 m3/hr (8 standard cubic feet per hour), whichever is
greater.

LEADER
You can use acetate leader, such as EASTMAN Processing Machine Leader 2988 lEST AR Base (CAT No. 1597269). You can also use KODAK FLEXICOLOR Machine Test Leader 5976 (35 mm x 400 ft, CAT Nu. 167 1536; 70 mm x 400 ft, CAT No. 1524925) or EASTMAN Blackand- White Opaque Leader 7981 if you haven't used them in a process other than E-6 (these types of leaders absorb chemicals that can contaminate Process E-6 solutions). For physical quality requirements, you may need to use other types of leaders. For more information, contact your technical sales representative.

Operate the gaseous-burst agitation unly while film is being processed. You may not need air agitation for the bleach and fixer in continuous processors in which the top rollers are above the solution level. A low red density in the D-max control plot indicates insufficient bleach aeration; determine the amount of air agitation that is best for your processor.

SILVER RECOVERY
You can recover silver from used fixer or fixer overflow by collecting the solution, and then passing it through a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Junior Model IT (3Yz-gallon size, CAT No. 1669431), a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Model 11(5-gallon size, CAT No. 173 4953), or an equivalent cartridge.

REPLENISHMENT

RATES

See Table 6-2 for the replenishment rates for continuous processors.

FINAL WASH
Use two 2-minute countercurrent-flow washes. You can use a single 4-minute wash if it is well agitated and has a waterflow rate of 80 Llm2 (2 gal/ft").

Table 6-2 Replenishment

Rates-Continuous

Processors

First Developer Reversal Bath Color Developer Pre-Bleach 11 Bleach Fixer Final Rinse

2,153 (200) 1,076 (100) 2,153 (200 1.076 (100)


215 (20)

1,076 (100) 1,076 (100)

Note: First wash rates for film and leader are40 Llm2 (l gal/ft2) or 400 mUft for 135-size film and 800 mUft for 120- and 70-mm sizes. Final wash rates for film and leader are80 Llm2 (2 gal/ft'') or 800 mL/ft for 135-size film or 1,600 mL/ft for 120- and 70-mm sizes. The replenishment rate for leader film is1.25 mL/linear foot.

6-2

ROLLER-TRANSPORT PROCESSORS

STEPS AND CONDITIONS


Table 7-1 Steps and Conditions-RoUerTransport Processors

First Developer Wash

5:00t 1:00

6:00t 2:00 2:00 Remammg steps can be performed

7:00t 4:00 4:00 In room light. 7:00 4:00 8:00 6:00 4:00 4:00 4:00

36.7 to 39.4t (98 to 103)t 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 36.7 to 39.4 (98 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103)
Ambient Up to 63 (145)

R, F None None

Reversal

Bath

1:00

..

Color Developer

5:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 2:00 2:00 0:30

6:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 2:00 2:00 1:00


As needed

R,F

Pre-Bleach Bleach Fixer Wash

"

None Air R, F R,F None

Wash

None None

Final Rinse Dry

F = Filtration R = Recirculation t Adjust the first-developer time and/or temperature to match the aim value for the LD step densities. Once you select a first-developer time and temperature. maintain the time within 5 seconds and the temperature within OZC (0.3'F). If possible, keep transfer times to 30 seconds or less.

TIME AND TEMPERATURE


Adjust the developer times and temperatures until the densities of your KODAK Control Strips, Process E-6, plot within the control limits. Do not exceed the ranges given in Table 7 -1. If you do not need to adjust the temperatures, use the midpoint of the ranges; 6 minutes at 38'C (lOO.4'F) for both developers. Once you have selected the times and temperatures, keep them within the following tolerances.

RECIRCULATION
Recirculate and filter the first and color developers, bleach, and fixer to remove any dirt; even small particles of dirt can cause abrasions on the film. Recirculation also provides more uniform temperature in the developers. Recirculate the reversal bath, pre-bleach, and final rinse only as needed. For more information on recirculation and filtration, see section 3, "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions." For the bleach pumps, piping, and filter container, use Type 316 stainless steel or PVC materials. For any equipment that comes in contact with the fixer, use PVC or titanium. Do not use copper or brass with any processing solutions.

Time: 5 seconds Temperature:

Time: 5 seconds Temperature: 0.3'C (O.5'F)

0.2'C (0.3'F)

7-1

AGITATION
In roller-transport processors, the rollers provide any agitation needed. Unless the rollers are completely submerged, they may also provide the necessary aeration for the bleach and fixer. Aerate a fresh bleach tank solution by bubbling air through it for one hour before processing film. If the processor is shut down for longer than 3 days, you may need to bubble air through the bleach before processing film to prevent leuco-cyan dye from forming.

BLEACH AERATION
In many roller-transport processors, recirculation and movement of the top rollers provide solution agitation, and bleach and fixer aeration. You may have to provide more aeration if the rollers in your processor do not provide adequate aeration. A low red density in the D-max control plot indicates insufficient aeration; high densities of the transparencies will appear red. We strongly recommend that you aerate the bleach in roller-transport processors.

FINAL WASH
Use two 2-minute countercurrent-flow washes. You can use a single 4-minute final wash if it is well agitated and has a water-flow rate of 80 L/m2 (2 gal/ft-).

REPLENISHMENT

RATES

See Table 7-2 for the replenishment rates for roller-transport processors.

SILVER RECOVERY
You can recover silver from used fixer or fixer overflow by collecting the solution, and then passing it through a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Junior Model II (3Yz-gallon size, CAT No. 1669431), a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Model 11 (5-gallon size, CAT No. 1734953), or an equivalent cartridge.

Table 7-2 Replenishment Rates-Roller-Transport

Processors

135-24 135-36 120 220 4 x 5-in. sheets 5 x 7-in. sheets

0.395 0.556 0.550 1.090 0.134 0.238 0.549 1.064

79.0 111.0 110.0 218.0 27.0 48.0 110.0 213.0

7.9 11.1 11.0 21.8 2.7 4.8 11.0 21.3

8 x , a-in. sheets 11 x 14-ln. sheets

Note: Wash rates are 7.5 Llmin (2 gal/min).

7-2

RACK-AND-TANK PROCESSORS

STEPS AND CONDITIONS


Table 8-1 Steps and Conditions-Rack-andTank Processors

First Developer; First Wash Reversal Bath

5:00* 1:00 1:00

6:00* 2:00 2:00

7:00* 4:00 4:00

36.7 to 39.4* (98 to 103)* 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 36.7 to 39.4 (98 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) Ambient Up to 63 (145)

Nitroqeru R, F AirJ None

Remaining steps can be done In room light. Calor Developer* Pre-Bleach 11 Bleach Fixer Wash Wash Final Rinse Dry 5:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 2:00 2:00 0:30 6:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 2:00 2:00 1:00 As needed 7:00 4:00 8:00 6:00 4:00 4:00 4:00 NitrogenJ R, F None AirJ R. F AirJ R, F AirJ AirJ None

..

Transfer time and agitation will affect solution times. Adjust the first-developer time and/or temperature to match the aim value for the LD step densities. Once you select a first-developer time and temperature. maintain the time within 5 seconds and the temperature within 0.2'C (O.3'F). If possible. keep transfer times to 30 seconds or less. t F = Filtration R = Recirculation ! Use KODAK Defoamer. Process &6, to control foaming, if necessary. Do not splash or drip defoamer into the processing solutions: it can cause grease SpOlSon transparencies. J Oue 2-secoud burst with an 8-second rest. See "I mproving Film Uniformity in Rack-and- Tank Processors," on page 8-4.

TIME AND TEMPERATURE


Adjust the developer times and temperatures until the densities of your KODAK Control Strips, Process E-6, plot within the control limits. Do not exceed the ranges given in Table 8-1. If you do not need to adjust your time or temperature, use the midpoint of the ranges; 6 minutes at 38C (IOO.4F) for both developers. Once you have selected yOW'time and temperature, keep them within the following tolerances:
Co"""""

RECIRCULATION
Recirculate and filter the first and calor developers, bleach, and fixer to remove any dirt; even small particles of dirt can cause abrasions on the film. Recirculation also provides more uniform temperature in the developers. Recirculate the reversal bath, pre-bleach, and final rinse only as needed. For more information on recirculation and filtration, see section 3, "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions," For the bleach pumps, piping, and filter container, use Type 316 stainless steel or PVC materials. For any equipment that comes in contact with the fixer, use PVC or titanium. Do not use copper or brass with any processing
solutions,

Time: 5 seconds

Time: 5 seconds Temperature: O.3'C (OSF)

Temperature:
O.2'C (O.3'F)

8-1

AGITATION
Use humidified nitrogen [or agitation in both developers, and air tor agitation in the bleach, fixer, and washes. Use enough pressure to raise the solution level 1.5 cm (5/s inch) with a 2-seeond burst. The pressure should provide vigorous bursts that eover all areas of the tank in a uniform pattern without splashing. Do not use agitation in the reversal bath, pre-bleach, or final rinse. Use oil-free air for bleach agitation. Aerating the bleach reactivates it and allows you to use a very low replenishment rate. Agitating the fixer with air will aerate any bleach carried into the fixer. To minimize oxidation in the fixer, use agitation only while film is in the fixer.

REPLENISHMENT

RATES

See Table 8-2 for the replenishment rates for rack-and-tank processors.

Table 8-2 Replenishment Rates-Rack-and-

Tank Processors

135-24 135-36 120 220 4 x 5-in. sheets 5 x 7-in. sheets 8 x 1O-in. sheets 11 x 14-in. sheets

0.395 0.556 0.550 1.090 0.134 0.238 0.549 1.064

79.0 111.0 110.0 218.0 27.0 48.0 110.0 213.0

7.9 11.1 11.0 21.8 2.7 4.8 11.0 21.3

39.5 55.6 55.0 109.0 13.4 23.8 54.9 106.4

Note: Wash rates are 7.5 L1min (2 galJmin).

8-2

Calculating Average Replenishment Rate per Rack: To calculate the volume of replenisher for each rack, add the amount of replenisher required for each roll or sheet on the rack. For example, for a rack that holds three 8 x lO-inch sheets, the amount of first and col or developer replenisher required would be 330 mL. If your film sizes or amount of film vary from rack to rack, determine the replenisher volume for the average rack. Keep a record of film sizes and amount of film processed to make your calculations. An example is given in the chart below. First determine the total rolls or sheets of each film size processed over a typical time period (B). Then calculate the total square feet of each size by multiplying the total rolls or sheets by the square feet per roll or sheet (A x B = C). Keep track of the number of racks used during this time (column D). Add the total square feet of all the different sizes (column C). Add the total number of racks used (total of column D). Now divide the total square feet processed (total of column C) by the total number of racks used (total of column D). This gives you the average square feet per rack. Use that value to obtain a replenishment rate for the average rack by multiplying that figure by the replenishment rate in millilitres per square foot given in Table 8-2.

0.395 0.556 0.550 1.090 4 x 5-in. sheets 5 x 7-in. sheets 8 x 10-in. sheets 11 x 14-in. sheets Total Average square foot per rack 0.134 0.238 0.549 1.064

100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

39.5 55.6 55.0 109.0 13.4 23.8 54.9 106.0 457.2

20 20 33 33 13 20 50 50 239 1.91

F (square feet of film processed


R (number of racks)

457.2 239

Developers Bleach Other Solutions

200 x 1.91 '" 382 20 x 1.91 '" 38.2 100 x 1.91", 191

FINAL WASH
Use two 2-minute countercurrent-flow washes for the final wash. However, you can use a single 4-minute wash if it is well agitated and has a water-flow rate of 80 Llm2 (2 gal/fr'),

8-3

IMPROVING FILM UNIFORMITY IN RACK-ANO-TANK PROCESSORS


With some rack-and-tank processors, you may have problems with film uniformity, such as occasional streaking, mauling, and spotting. Some causes of nonuniformity in rack-and-tank processors and suggestions for avoiding them are described in this section. Testing Your Processor for Uniformity: To test processor uniformity, prepare sheets of test film. Expose 8 x lO-inch sheets of KODAK EKT ACHROME Duplicating Film / 6121 with an enlarger. Adjust the enlarger so that the light on the easel is out of focus. Use your normal filter pack for duplicating film and a 0.50 neutral density filter. Expose the film at the exposure time that you use to produce duplicate transparencies. To determine if the nonuniformity occurs during handling or processing, process the test sheets. Orient the sheets alternately at a 90-degree angle to each other when you process them. If nonuniformity occurs in a different position in each sheet, check your preprocess handling. If nonuniformity occurs in the same position in each sheet, check your processor and/or processing conditions. Nonuniformity from Preprocess Handling Storage, handling, and exposure before processing can all affect uniformity in the film. A summary of possible causes of nonuniformity from preprocess handling is given below (Table 8-3). Table 8-3 Causes of Nonuniformity

Nonuniformiiyfrom

Processing Equipment and Processing

Solutions Film Clips and Springs-Some racks retain processing chemicals in the film clips or springs. The trapped solution can run down the film and leave a streak. Cross Bars-Sometimes solution splashes occur because of the design of the rack. Solution can drip on the wide cross bars, and splash onto adjacent rolls, causing spots and streaks. This occurs particularly when two racks are crossing cover at the same time, or if the racks swing during a crossover. You can check for splashing by holding a piece of white paper close to a rack during a crossover. To control splashing Use splash guards between tanks; make them as high as possible without interfering with the transfer. Load the emulsion side toward the dryer so if splashing occurs, it is more likely to be on the base side of the film rather than the emulsion side. Skip every other rack position to reduce the possibility of splashing on the film. Wide Reinforcer Bar-Some racks are constructed with wide reinforcer bars on the bottom. If the bars are too wide, they can keep the nitrogen bubbles from agitating the solution on the film and cause streaks and mottle. To correct the problem, modify the bar or load the film so that the emulsion side is directly in the bubble path. Agitation-Proper agitation in the first and color developers greatly affects film uniformity. If the agitation does not remove the developer by-products from the emulsion and supply fresh developer to the surface, nonuniformity can result. Lack of agitation in the first developer can cause mottle. In the color developer, the reversal bath must be removed quickly and evenly from the emulsion so that normal development can take place; a delay of as little as 3 seconds can cause yellow or blue streaks. Uniform agitation is important in the first wash to remove the first developer and its by-products. Lack of agitation in the first wash can cause red streaks.

from Preprocess Handling

Light-fog patterns

Malfunctioning shutter Pinholes in storage container or exposing equipment Instrument indicator light Loose packaging, not carefully sealed Darkroom light leaks Fluorescent tape, eat's-eye buttons, or instrument panel lights

Edge effects (density or calor balance variation)

Film curled during exposure Frequent thawing and refreezing of an opened film package Rapid separation of films from another surface, such as a roller, a platen, or another sheet of film Metallic dust in film-handling equipment Chemical dust Processing solution or water splash

Static spots

Light spots

Mettle or rundown streaks

Condensation

8-4

Adjust the gaseous-burst agitation in the developers and first wash so that these conditions exist Adjust the gas pressure and volume so that the burst raises the solution level about 1.5 cm (Vsinch). Pressure that is too high can cause the film to tangle, and can also cause foaming. In large tanks, a solution level rise of less than 1.5 cm (Vsinch) may be adequate. If you cannot maintain adequate pressure, check the gaseous-burst systems for leaks. Without positive pressure, solution can back up into the line and cause a weak initial burst. Check that the gas is distributed evenly over all positions of the film rack. Be sure that the sparger holes are clean and that they are level across the bottom of the tank. Plugged sparger holes reduce agitation and produce patterns that cause nonuniformity. Introduce the gas into the bottom of the tank. Use humidified nitrogen to reduce the chance of plugging. Use a burst that lasts for 2 seconds at 8-second intervals. A shorter burst or a longer interval is inefficient. A longer burst or shorter interval in the first developer can produce nonuniformity in the film and foaming in the solution. Time the burst so that is occurs as soon as possible after the film enters the tank. This is especially important in the calor developer. With some processors, the initial burst must be delayed so that the agitation does not move the film or rack as it enters the developer. Adjust the timing of the burst to reach the best compromise between the start of the burst and the movement of the film or rack.

Other Process-Related Conditions to Check


Recirculation in the Developers-Proper recirculation is important to maintain uniform tank temperature and to provide uniform chemical distribution. Poor recirculation can cause temperature variations in a tank that result in nonuniform development or inconsistent development within a rack or across a tank. Check that the recirculation filters are not plugged. Do not use a filter finer than 10 microns. Slow Transport Speed-Immersing the film into the color developer too slowly produces a vertical pattern and may delay the initial agitation burst. When this occurs, streaking may be more severe on the sheets at the bottom of the rack than those at the top. Agitationfor Push Processing-Extend the first-developer time in such a manner that it does not affect the agitation in subsequent processing solutions/steps. Developer Replenishment-Exhausted first or color developer may cause mottle and produce unacceptable results. Foaming-Excessive foaming in the first and color developers can cause nonuniformity. Use KODAK Defoamer, Process E-6, to control foaming in the firstdeveloper, color-developer, and bleach tanks; do not use defoamer in the final-rinse tanks (it can leave oily deposits on the film). Apply a thin layer of defoamer to the inside of the process tank above the solution level. Use the defoamer sparingly. Do not add defoamer directly to the tank solution.

SILVER RECOVERY
You can recover si!ver from used fixer or fixer overflow by collecting the solution, and then passing it through a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Junior Model II (3Yz-gallon size, CAT No. 1669431), a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Model II (5-gallon size, CAT No. 173 4953), or an equivalent cartridge.

8-5

9
Table 9-1

BATCH PROCESSING

STEPS AND CONDITIONS


Steps and Conditions-Sink-Line and Batch Processing

Perform these steps in total darkness, First Developer" FirstWash:j: Reversal 8ath 5:00 1:00 1:00 6:00 2:00 2:00 7:00 4:00 4:00 36.7 to 39.4 (98 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 36.7 to 39.4 (98 to 103) 24 to 39.4 (75 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) 33.3 to 39.4 (92 to 103) Ambient Up to 63 (145) Nitrogen. One 2-second burst every 10 seconds.j Manual agitation. One cycle every 30 seconds. None. Tap to dislodge air bubbles. Nitrogen. One 2-second burst every 10 seconds. None. Tap to dislodge air bubbles. Air. One 2-second burst every 10 seconds. Air. One 2-second burst every 10 seconds. Manual agitation. One cycle every 30 seconds. None. Tap to dislodge air bubbles.

Remaining steps can be done In room light, Color Developer Pre-8leach 11 Bleach Fixer Final Wash:j: Final Rinse Dry 5:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 3:00 0:30 6:00 2:00 6:00 4:00 4:00 1:00 As needed 7:00 4:00 8:00 6:00 8:00 4:00

All times include a to-second drain time. Increase the first-developer time by 15 seconds when you process roll films on reels with manual agitation. t For sheet films on hangers, first use manual agitation; then continue using gaseous-burst agitation as described on page 9-3. For roll films on reels, use only manual agitation. :j: Flowing wash. See ''Washes'' on page 9-3 for more information.

TIME AND TEMPERATURE


You can control your process by adjusting the developer times and temperatures, and by monitoring changes with KODAK Control Strips, Process E-6. Do not exceed the times and temperatures given in Table 9-1. If you do not need to adjust the time and temperatures of the developers, use the midpoint of the ranges; 6 minutes at 38C (lOO.4F) for both developers. Once you have selected the times and temperatures for your process, keep them within these tolerances:
FirstD.ev.el()p~i.' Time: S seconds Temperature: 0.2'C (0.3'F) Time: S seconds Temperature: 0.3C (0.5F)

9-1

First Developer Starting Temperature: To determine the starting temperature for your first developer, follow the procedure described below. 1. Adjust the developer temperature to 38C (100.4 OF). Use an unshielded thermometer with an expanded range that is calibrated in 0.1 "C units, such as the ASTM No. 91C, or Fahrenheit equivalent. Place the thermometer in the developer for several minutes to register an equilibrium temperature. Record this temperature. Leave the thermometer in the developer. 2. Place a full rack of processed scrap film in the developer. The rack should be at room temperature, and the film load should be typical of your normal film load. Provide the same initial agitation that you normally do. At the end of the first 60 seconds (measured from the time you placed the film in the developer), record the solution temperature. 3. Determine the temperature difference between steps 1 and 2. This temperature change is valid only for the room temperature at which you made this measurement. 4. Your starting temperature is 38T (lOO.4F) plus the temperature change that you determined in step 3. You will not need to repeat this test as long as your processing conditions (i.e., room temperature and amount and type of film) remain the same. The temperature change will be different for different film loads. Although the temperature difference may be small, you must consider it for critical processing, and for consistency between processes.

AGITATION
You can use manual or gaseous-burst agitation when you process sheet films. When you process roll films, use only manual agitation; gaseous-burst agitation will cause nonuniformity. Use humidified nitrogen to provide gaseous-burst agitation in the developers; air will oxidize the developers. You must use air agitation to aerate the bleach and fixer to maintain the stability of the solutions. If you use manual agitation in the bleach, you will also need to use another method to aerate the bleach. In the other solutions and washes, use compressed air or nitrogen for gaseous-burst agitation. Note: If you process sheet films of different sizes at the same time, such as 8 x lO-inch sheets and 4 x 5-inch sheets, separate adjacent hangers that contain different-size sheets with a hanger loaded with an 8 x lO-inch sheet of scrap film to avoid uneven development of the larger sheets. This unevenness is caused by turbulence around the central frame of the multiple-film hanger during agitation. Manual Agitation: Use only manual agitation when you process roll films on reels. You can also use manual agitation when you process sheet films. Initial Agitation-All Solutions and Washes, Except the Final Rinse-Immerse the rack into the solution. Rapidly tap it on the bottom of the tank to dislodge air bubbles; then agitate the films continuously by lifting the hangers or reels approximately three-quarters of the way out of the solution and then reimmersing them. Repeat to complete eight lift cycles (in approximately 15 seconds). Initial Agitation-Final Rinse-Tap the loaded reels or hangers on the bottom of the tank to dislodge air bubbles. Use no other agitation; foaming will occur. Subsequent Agitation-All Solutions and Washes, Except the Reversal Bath, Pre-Bleach, and Final Rinse-Every 20 seconds, lift the loaded hangers or reels out of the solution and then reimmerse them. Repeat to complete two lift cycles (in approximately 5 seconds). Subsequent Agitation-Reversal Bath, Pre-Bleach, and Final Rinse-None; use no other agitation for these solutions. Drain Time-All Solutions-Ten seconds before the end of the solution time, raise the rack, tilt it approximately 30 degrees toward one corner, and drain for 10 seconds. At the end of 10 seconds, immerse the rack into the next solution.

9-2

Gaseous-Burst Agitation: Use gaseous-burst agitation only when you process sheet films. Initial Agitation-First and Calor Developers, Bleach, Fixer, and Washes-Lower the loaded film hangers into the solution and tap them sharply against the tank to dislodge air bubbles, Then agitate the films continuously for 15 seconds by lifting the hangers approximatcl y three-quarters of the way out of the solution and then reimmersing them (approximately eight lifts). Initial Agitation-Reversal Bath, Pre-Bleach, and Final Rinse-Tap the rack sharply on the bottom of the tank to dislodge air bubbles. Use no other agitation; loss of solution activity or foaming will occur. Subsequent Agitation-First and Color DevelopersProvide humidified nitrogen with enough pressure to raise the solution level approximately 15 mm (Vs inch) during a 2-second burst. Use one 2-second burst every 10 seconds. Subsequent Agitation-Bleach, Fixer, and Washes-Provide oil-free air with enough pressure to raise the solution level approximately 15 mm (Vs inch) during a 2-second burst. Use one 2-second burst every 10 seconds. Use air agitation in the bleach and fixer only during processing. Do not use nitrogen in place of air in the bleach and fixer. You can also use manual agitation for subsequent agitation in the washes by lifting the hangers approximately three quarters of the way out of the water, and then reimmersing them. Repeat to complete two lift cycles (in approximately 5 seconds). Subsequent Agitation-Reversal Bath, Pre-Bleach, and Final Rinse-None; use no other agitation for these solutions.

WASHES
Flowing Washes: Whenever possible, use flowing washes for the first and final washes. Use the conditions given in the following table.

33 to 39 (92 to 103)

Initial
7.5 (2) 7.5 (2)

Final

4
6

33 to 39 (92 to 103) 25 to 39 (77 to 103)

Initial Initial

Nonflowing Washes: You can use nonflowing washes for sink-line processing to conserve water and energy. Use these conditions: First Wash-Use a 2-minute wash time with one tank filled with water at 36.7 to 39C (98 to l03P). Replace this wash after two processing runs. Drain the wash tank at the end of each day, and leave the tank empty overnight. Do not interchange the tanks that you use for the first and final washes. Final Wash-Use a 6-minute wash time with three tanks filled with water at 20 to 39.4C (68 to 103P). Wash for 2 minutes in each tank. Replace the water in all three tanks after you have completed four processing runs. Drain the wash tanks at the end of each day, and leave them empty overnight.

BLEACH AERATION
In a seasoned process, the efficiency of the bleach depends on aeration of the bleach. The best way to aerate the bleach is to use air-burst agitation. To aerate the bleach, continue the air bursts during the complete process cycle. If you use nitrogen-burst or manual agitation, provide another method for aerating the bleach. You can use a separate compressedair supply to bubble air into the bleach through a sparger at a valve pressure of about 2.5 Ib/in2. Bubble the air for approximately 5 minutes during each complete process cycle. If you cannot aerate the bleach by bubbling air into it, vigorously stir the bleach with a mixer so that air is drawn into the solution.

9-3

REPLENISHMENT
You can extend the life. of processing solutions by replenishing your solutions. Table 9-2 gives the amount of replenisher to add for each roll or sheet of film processed. Calculate the volume of replenisher for a batch of film by adding the volumes of replenisher for each roll or sheet of film processed. For example, to determine the replenisher volume needed for thirteen 8 x 1O-inch sheets, use the following calculation:
mL per 8 x 10-ineh sheet x 13 sheets per batch = mL of

Replenish the solutions after each processing run unless the run is your last run of the day. After your last run, record the amount of replenisher that you need to add to each solution, and replenish the solutions before the first run of the next day that you process film.

replenisher
First and Color Developers 110 mL x 13 sheets = 1,430 mL Bleach 11 mL x 13 sheets = 143 mL Other Solutions 54.9 mL x 13 sheets = 714 mL

Table 9-2 Replenishment Rates-Sink-Line

and Batch Processing

4 x 5-in. sheets 5 x 7-in. sheets 8 x 1O-in.sheets 11 x 14-in. sheets

0.395 0.556 0.550 1.090 0.134 0.238 0.549 1.064

79.0 111.0 110.0 218.0 27.0 48.0 110.0 213.0

7.9 11.1 11.0 21.8 2.7 4.8 11.0 21.3

39.5 55.6 55.0 109.0 13.4 23.8 54.9 106.4

Note: Wash rates are 7.5 Llmin (2 gal/ruin).

9-4

CAPACITY OF UNREPLENISHED SOLUTIONS


If you do not replenish your tank solutions, use the I-gallonsize chemicals. The capacity uf the first- and color-developer solutions without replenishment is about 1.7 square metres (18 square feet) offilm per 3.8 litres (1 gallon). The capacity of the other solutions is 5 square metres (54 square feet) per 3.8 litres Cl gallon). Keep the number of processes Iow by processing as much film as possible in each batch. After you have processed 1.1 square metres (12 square feet) of film, increase the first developer time to 6\12 minutes. If you process only one size of film in a particular batch, you can use Table 9-3 to determine the capacity of the solutions. Table 9-3 Capacity of Unreplenished

SILVER RECOVERY
You can recover silver from used fixer or fixer overflow by collecting the solution, and then passing it through a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Junior Model 11 C3Y2-gallonsize, CAT No. 1669431), a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Model TT C5-gallon size, CAT No. 173 4953), or an equivalent cartridge.

Solutions

1 to 30 1 to 22 11023 1 1012 4 x 5-in. sheets 5 x 7-in. sheets 8 x lO-in. sheets 1 to 90 1 to 46 1 to 22

31 to 46 23 to 33 24 to 34 13 to 17 91 to 134 47 to 74 23 to 33

46 33 34 17 134 74 33

Be sure that the solution completely covers the film during processing. You may need to add tank solution to maintain the solution level of the first developer. Discard solutions that have been stored beyond the recommended storage time regardless of unused capacity (see page 2-6). Note: For best results, replenish your tank solutions according to Table 9-2.

9-5

10

ROTARY-TUBE PROCESSORS
Processors

STEPS AND CONDITIONS


Table 10-1 Steps and Conditions-Rotary-Tube

Turn on processor Warm-up with running water (7.5 Umin [2 gal/min])t Film warm-up PrewelJ First Developer Wash Reversal Bathll" Color Dsveloper-j 7:00~ 2:00 2:00 4:00 38 0.3~ (100.4 0.5)~ 38.0 1.0 (100.4 1.8) 38.0 1.0 (100.4 1.8) 38.0 1.0 (100.4 1.8) 20 to 40 (68 to 104) 33.3 to 40 (92 to 104) 33.3 to 40 (92 to 104) 33.3 to 40 (92 to 104) 6:00; 38.0 1.0 (100.4 1.8) Perform these steps in total darkness. 4:00t 38.0 (100.4)

Turn on heaters and leave on throughout the processing cycle. No film in processor.

Load tube with film and insert tube in processor. Prepare first developer as tank solution. Running water (7.5 Umin [2 gal/minD. Prepare as 60 percent of replenisher solution.f Prepare color developer as tank solution.

Remainmg steps can be done m room light. Pre-Bleach " Bleach Fixer Wash Wash Wash Final Rinse Dry Post-Cycle Wash 2:00 6:00 4:00 1:00 1:00 1:00 0:30 As needed 5:00 Ambient Up to 60 (140) 24 (75) Prepare pre-bleach as tank solution. Prepare bleach as tank solution. Prepare fixer as tank solution. Three 1-minute running-water washes (7.5 Urnin [2 gal/minJ) with a 10- to 20second drain after each wash. Use separate tank outside processor.

* All times include a 10- to 20-second drain time. t This step may not be necessary with a water-jacketed processor.
:j: Determine the exact time and temperature for your processor. J If the processor manufacturer recommends a film prewet, note that a prewet can cause a slight sensitometric effect with some emulsions. Since some emulsions are affected more than others, your control strip may not reflect the results you get with all films.

You can vary this time from 5 to 8 Yz minutes to produce an in-control process at a selected temperature. Once you have chosen the time, maintain it within 5 seconds; once you have selected a temperature from the 36 to 40'C (97 to 104'F) range, control it within iO.3C (iO.5"F). 'f[ Mix the reversal bath or reversal bath replenisher to 60 percent of the normal concentration used for conventional processing, e.g., if the instructions tell you to use SO millilitres per litre of reversal bath concentrate, use only 30 millilitres per litre. If the instructions tell you to dilute one bottle of reversal-bath concentrate to prepare 19 litres (5 gallons) of solution, use the concentrate to prepare 315 litres (8.3 gallons) of solution. ** Although you can open the processor after the reversal-bath step, it is best to leave it closed until after the col or-developer step to avoid heat loss in the processing chamber. ttSee the comments under "Yellow D-min Stain" on page 10-4.

'lI

10-1

CHEMICALS
You can use any Process E-6 chemicals with your rotarytube processor. Mix and use the l-gallon-size chemicals for rotary-tube processors according to the instructions packaged with the chemicals. With larger sizes, first mix replenisher solutions according to the instructions; for pre-bleach, fixer, and final rinse, use the replenisher solutions as mixed. Use reversal bath rep1enisher at 60 percent of the normal concentration for your reversal bath. For first and color developers, mix developer starter with the replenisher according to the instructions to prepare a tank solution. For bleach, dilute the replenisher with water, and add bleach starter. Depending on your processor, you may need to add 1 to 4 mL per litre of 5N NaOH (sodium hydroxide) to the color developer to adjust the color balance (see "Color-Balance Control" on page 3-3.

SOLUTION STORAGE
For best results, store solutions according to the conditions given in the table 011 page 2-6.

PRE-CYCLE STEPS
The pre-cycle steps and conditions recommended are designed to compensate for solution heat loss during processing. The processor warm-up and film warm-up steps minimize changes in the first-developer temperature by raising the temperature of the processing chamber. Although you don't need to raise the temperature of the chamber to the processing temperature, you will get more repeatable results if you keep it consistent for each run. If your processor heater cannot provide a consistent chamber temperature, don't use it. If your processor has not been used for several hours, you may need to pre-warm the chamber to minimize variations in film speed.

SOLUTION VOLUME
For best sensitometric results, use no less than the minimum solution volumes given in Table 10-2. Some film holders or tubes may require more solution to produce better uniformity or to compensate for solution oxidation. Check your processor manual for the solution volume recommended for your processor. Table 10-2 Minimum Solution Volumes

POST-CYCLE STEP
The post-cycle step is simply a cleaning operation. Thoroughly rinse all inner surfaces of the processor tray, tube, and film holders to remove all traces of chemicalsespecially fixer. If you intend to run another processing cycle immediately, you may need to keep the post-cycle temperature at approximately 24 T (7YF). If you have dried your processor with a hot-air-dryer, allow it to cool to room temperature to minimize film-speed variations. With some processors, the tube, tray, and processor cabinet may have to be at the same temperature before each run.

First and Color Developers Reversal Bath, Pre-Bleach, Bleach, and Fixer

2,750 (250) 1,650 (150) 5

AGITATION
Rotation of the processor tube provides agitation. Good agitation is necessary for good film uniformity.

10-2

MONITORING YOUR PROCESS


Each processor may provide slightly different results. The design of the tube, film holder, processing tray, and means of rotating the tube can affect agitation, heating capacity, and amount of solution oxidation. To check the process with your equipment, process a KODAK Control Strip, Process E-6. 1. Attach a KODAK Control Strip, Process E-6, in the tube or on the drum near the center of the tube or drum. You may need to staple the control strip to an acetate sheet that you have cut to fit the film clips. The sheet should be dimpled or ridged so that it allows solution to drain from behind the control strip. In smaller processors, load the control strip on a processing reel. Run all processes with the control strip in the same position.
2. Follow your normal processing cycle to process the

2. Reduce your starting process temperature by DSC (0.91l) by decreasing the processor heater thermostat setting, and the first-developer, first-wash, reversal-bath, colordeveloper, and pre-cycle running water temperatures by O.S'C (0.9'F). Continue to reduce the temperatures until the densities of the LD step plot in control or until you reach the minimum process temperature of 36C (97'F). If your first-developer temperature is 36C (9TF), do not decrease it to match the aim. Other conditions, such as contamination, storage, or mixing errors may be causing the problem. Do not reduce the temperature to less than 36C (97'F) or the time below 6 minutes. When you find a temperature that produces an in-control process, use this as your normal temperature for future processes. Slow Speed-The green densities of the LD step plot above the control limit. Properly exposed transparencies appear dark. 1. Make these changes, one at a time. Process a control strip after each change. a. Increase the processor warm-up time by 2 minutes. b. Increase the film warm-up time by 1 minute. c. Increase the volume of the first and calor developers by 25 percent. 2. In anyone of these changes increases the densities of the LD step significantly, modify your cycle to include the change. 3. Increase the first-developer time in IS-second increments until the densities of the LD step plot within the action limits. Modify your normal processing cycle to include this change. Do not increase the first-developer time beyond 8Yz minutes. 4. If none of these steps corrects the slow speed, increase your process temperature by DSC (O.9'F). Continue to increase the temperature until the control values plot in control. Do not increase the processing temperature beyond 40C (104F). If all of these steps do not correct the slow speed, check for chemical-mixing or storage errors, and solution contamination.

control strip. 3. Measure the D-max, BD, LD, and D-min densities ofthe control strip. Calculate and plot the differences from aim for that batch of control strips on a KODAK Process Record Form, KODAK Publication No. Y -55. If the differences from aim plot within the control limits, and the processed transparencies are acceptable, the process cycle you used is satisfactory. Include a control strip with each run, and plot the differences from aim for each strip. If the differences from aim plot outside the control limits, analyze the results (see "Analyzing and Adjusting Your Process," below). Analysing and Adjusting Your Process: If the differences from aim plot outside the control limits and your processed transparencies are not acceptable, modify your processing cycle. The most common out-of-control situations and possible remedies are described below. Fast Speed-The green densities of the LD step plot below the control limit. Properly exposed transparencies appear light. 1. Decrease the first-developer time in I5-second increments until the densities of the LD step plot within the action limits. Modify your normal processing cycle to include this change. Do not decrease your first-developer time below 6 minutes.

10-3

Variable Speed-Control strips from successive processing runs plot out of control with some results plotting above the aim (too slow) and some results plotting below the aim (too fast). Properly exposed transparencies appear too dark from some processes, and too light from other processes. Your operating conditions may be inconsistent. Variable speed can also be caused by inconsistent mixing of the first developer. If more consistent operating procedures do not eliminate the speed variations, you may need to modify the pre-cycle step. Try the following changes one at a time. If any change reduces variability, include it in your normal process cycle. 1. If the first process you run after the processor has been idle for more than a few hours is consistently slower than other runs, increase the machine warm-up time for the first run by 2 minutes. Then return to your normal warm-up time. If the processes you run immediately after other processes are consistently faster, increase the post-cycle wash time to 10 minutes. 2. If process-speed variability seems to be random, try the following steps-one at a time. a. b. c. Increase the processor warm-up time (with running water) by 2 minutes. Increase the film warm-up time by 2 minutes. Use the modified pre-cycle steps for the processor, but turn the heaters off during the processing cycle.

3. Blow nitrogen into the processing chamber during the color-developer step.

4. Increase the amount of pre-bleach used by 50 percent.


5. Add a 3D-second spray or flowing wash between the colordeveloper and pre-bleach steps and replace the final rinse with KODAK FLEXICOLOR Stabilizer III Replenisher. Important: Adding a wash between the color developer and pre-bleach steps, without the corresponding change to Stabilizer III, will result in unsatisfactory magenta-image stability.
6. If any of these changes reduces the D-min, include it in

your normal process cycle. If none of the changes corrects the problem, check for chemical-mixing or storage errors, and solution contamination. If you have a large processor, the yellow D-min stain may be most evident in the film that is farthest from the solution inlet. Sometimes the solution flow may leave pre-bleach at the inlet while color developer collects at the opposite end. To minimize this, move the position of the inlet to the center of the tray or install inlets at the ends as well as at the center. This change will also produce more consistent results with the other processing steps.
7. Be sure that you are mixing and reusing the bleach and

fixer according to the instructions. Poor Calor Balance-A blue or yellow calor balance can be caused by calor-developer alkalinity (pH) that is too low or too high, or by incorrect mixing of the calor developer. You can adjust calor-developer alkalinity (pH) by adding small amounts of sodium hydroxide (5N NaOH) or sulfuric acid (5N HzS04). Adding sodium hydroxide increase alkalinity and corrects a blue calor balance; adding sulfuric acid decrease alkalinity and corrects a yellow calor balance. Sometimes, a blue-bias process could be corrected by increasing the process volume by 30%. If this option is chosen, the process temperature should be reduced by O.soC (0.9F). For more information, see "Calor-Balance Control" on 3-3.
Other Problems-Use the diagnostic charts (section 14) and control-chart examples (section 15) to diagnose other problems.

Yellow D-min Stain-The green and especially the blue D-min densities plot high. The D-min is yellow overall, and there are yellow streaks and patches of varying densities from run to run. This problem is most apparent in largeformat sheet films, and in large areas of low density. The problem is usually caused by color-developer oxidation. To eliminate yellow D-min stain, try the following modifications-one at a time. 1. Use twice the amount of color developer.
2. Decrease the tube rotation rate, particularly during the

reversal-bath, calor-developer, and pre-bleach steps (e.g., if your processor rotates at 32 rpm, reduce the speed to 20 rpm).

10-4

;...>rj
:I " ~(JQ

Process customer film.

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-;:

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Fast speed Green LD step densities plot below the control limit. Yes ~ Decrease firstdeveloper time in 15-s econd increments until process is in control. Do not use A time shorter than 6 minutes. ~ Reduce first-developer temperature in increments of 0.90 F (0.5 'C) until process is in control. If temperature is less than 97F (36C), check for solution contamination or improper mixing or storage. No No

Variable speed Variable LD step densities.

No

Yellow O-min satin No Blue density plots above the control limit for D-min.

Poor calor balance Processed film has a blue or yellow color balance. No

Low maximum density or other process problems, see sections 14 and 15.

> .e-

...
~"

JJ"
~ ~ '"I

Yes Make these changes, one at a time. Process a control strip after each Change. 1. Increase the processor warm-up time by 2 minutes. 2. Increase the film warm-up time by 1 minute. 3. Increase volume of both developers by 25 percent. If process is still slow~ Increase first-developer time in 15second increments until process is in control. Increase processing temperature in increments of O.9F (0.5C) until process is in control. Note: If none of these steps corrects the speed, check for solution contamination or improper mixing or storage.

Yes ~ If the first process after processor has been idle for several hours is consistently Slow, increase the warm-up by 2 minutes (first run only). If several successive processes show an upward trend in speed, increase the post-cycle wash to 10 minutes. ~ If variability is random, make the following changes, one at a time1. Increase processor warm-up time by 2 minutes. 2. Increase film warm-up time by 2 minutes. 3. Use the modified pre-cycle, but turn heaters off during processing.

Yes Make these changes, one at a time1. Use twice as much color developer. 2. Decrease rate of tube rotation. 3. Blow nitrogen into processing chamber during color-developer step. 4. Use 50 percent more pre-bleach. 5. Add a 3D-second wash between the calor-developer and pre-bleach steps and replace final rinse with KODAK FLEXICOLOR Stabilizer III Replenisher. 6. For large processors, move solution inlet to the center of the tube. 7. Check for solution contamination or improper mixing or storage.

Yes Cast may be caused by incorrect color-developer alkalinity (pH). 1. Add sodium hydroxide (5N NaOH) 10 correct a blue color balance. 2. Add sulfuric acid (5N H2S04) to correct a yellow color balance.

'e= "
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n
OIl

Include change in basic cycle and process customer film.

Include change in basic cycle and process customer film.

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Include change in basic cycle and process customer film.

Include change in basic cycle and process customer film.

Include change in basic cycle and process customer film.

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o

Ut

SMALL ROTARY-TUBE

PROCESSORS

You may have to modify the normal processing cycle for some small rotary-tube processors (i.e., processors that have a tank capacity of approximately Llitrc). If the instructions for your processor recommend a prewet, it may have a slight sensitometric effect with certain emulsions. The effect is greater with some emulsions than with others, so your control strip may not reflect the result with all emulsions. Usually, you can use these processors without a prewet. However, maintaining good control in these processors without a prewet requires long warm-up times (approximately 30 minutes). If you can't afford these long warm-up times, use the prewet as recommended by the manufacturer. To use these processors without a prewet, closely follow the recommendations for first-developer time and temperature, cabinet temperature, and warm-up times. You can usually correct speed problems by adjusting the first-developer time and/or temperature, or by modifying the warm-up time (see Figure 10-1). For repeatable results, maintain a consistent cabinet temperature and monitor all temperatures closely. Be sure to clean the tube and all drum surfaces thoroughly between processing runs. Small rotary-tube processors are particularly subject to solution contamination. Chemical spills, solution carry-over, and residual chemicals left in lines and holding tanks can be sources of contamination. Use reversal bath replenisher at 60-percent concentration. Use the color developer prepared as a tank solution.

To reuse your bleach, you must replace the chemicals lost through dilution, carry-over, and chemical reaction. First measure the specific gravity of the used bleach at 27"C (80P); see section 3. "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions." Stir the used bleach thoroughly before you take the sample. After you have measured the specific gravity of the used bleach, determine the amount of bleach replenisher that you need to add from Table 10-3. Table 10-3 Additions for Reconstituting
f]ff~ispe,c~fii?-~ I

Used Bleach

,(at2'l>C[80 ~ltpfY.Ol.lr
. "Use~:BJe'~ch is; 1.123 or greater 1.120 to 1.123 1.118 to 1.120 1.115 to 1.118 1.113 to 1.115 below 1.113

~raVitYJI.
'.

""'erocess'E-6'B leacH
80 110 140 170 200

Ada:ltilis'Amountd'f(

<~RE@tmJsher .(mL1L~;:' ,,,'

The bleach is too dilute. Discard it. Check your pre-bleach drain time.

BLEACH EFFLUENT
You can collect used Process E-6 bleach and reconstitute it for reuse to reduce processing effluent and chemical costs. To reuse the bleach, collect the bleach from your processor drain. Minimize contamination from other processing solutions by allowing an adequate drain time after the color-developer and pre-bleach steps. Collect the bleach before you drain any fixer from the processor. Discard any used bleach that you think contains greaterthan-normal amounts of color developer, or that contains any amount of fixer; these chemicals can affect keeping or reuse. You can reconstitute the bleach immediately or store it and then reconstitute it.

After you add bleach replenisher to the used bleach, stir the solution thoroughly. Then measure the specific gravity of the reconstituted bleach at 27C (80F). The specific gravity should be greater than 1.130. If it is not, you will need to add more bleach replenisher. If your bleach is not properly reconstituted, bleaching will be inadequate, and your transparencies will have a high D-min from retained silver. If your transparencies have a low red D-max density, aerate the reconstituted bleach for 1 hour before using it.

SILVER RECOVERY
You can recover silver from used fixer by collecting the solution, and then passing it through a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Junior Model IT (3l-0-galIon size, CAT No. 1669431), a KODAK Chemical Recovery Cartridge, Model II (5-gallon size, CAT No. 173 4953), or an equivalent cartridge.

10-6

11

MAINTENANCE

GENERAL MAINTENANCE
Processing machines require regular maintenance to ensure optimum performance. We cannot overemphasize the importance of careful and frequent maintenance. Checklists provide a convenient and efficient method of ensuring complete maintenance for Process E-6. A daily checklist should include all activities that are required on a daily basis, such as draining wash tanks and checking dryer temperature. The daily checklist should include all chemical and mechanical measurements. Other lists can include less frequent activities, such as filter changes. Following a complete checklist will help ensure that the process is started up consistently, and that all the proper process variables are being monitored. Checklists are especially important if the process operates more than one shift per day, if the regular machine operator is away, or if the operator is new and unfamiliar with Process E-6. Customize checklists for each machine and each specific operation, and use checklists to record machine history. The following table shows the ideal schedule of measurements and maintenance that you should observe for all processors. Table 11-1 Process-Monitoring

and Maintenance Frequency

D M Reversal Bath Color Developer Pre-Bleach 11 Bleach Fixer Final Wash Final Rinse Dry M M M M M M M

D D D D D D D D W D D W W W D D W W W EOW EOW EOW D Wt EOW M

We do not recommend that you recirculate this solution. However, if your machine is equipped with a recirculation system for this solution, we recommend that you recirculate the solution for only the first 15 minutes of the day and change the filters every other week. t Drain non-replenished final-rinse tanks daily; drain replenished final-rinse tanks weekly, or more frequently, to maintain solution cleanliness.

D = Daily W=Weekly M

EOW = Every other week EOM = Every other month

Monthly

11-1

REPLENISHMENT

SYSTEMS

WEEKLY MAINTENANCE
Calibrate the replenisher pumps for the pre-bleach, bleach, fixer, and final rinse, and record the calibration. The replenishment rates tor these solutions are not as critical as those tor the first developer, reversal bath, and color developer, but you should monitor them weekly to prevent problems. Measure the specific gravity of the pre-bleach, bleach, and fixer tank solutions.

Most replenishment systems incorporate three functions: chemical mixing. film sensing. and chemical delivery. All three must operate properly and consistently to maintain a good process. Chemical mixing: In chemical mixing, consistency and accuracy are very important. Consistency is important in the mixing vessel you use, the order in which you mix the chemicals, the water supply, and the mixing time and method. Accuracy is important when you measure chemicals, concentrates, and water. Do not overmix or aerate replenisher solutions. Store mixed chemicals in tanks with floating lids (to minimize oxidation and evaporation) and dust covers (to prevent contamination). Do not store replenisher solutions at high temperatures. Film sensing: Automatic sensing devices in processing machines vary by manufacturer, and include infrared scanner bars, mechanical rollers, and tabs on racks. Regardless of the type of measuring device, calibrate all mechanical and electrical parts frequently, preferably on a daily basis. Note: When processing KODAK EKT ACHROME Professional Infrared EIR Film / Process E-6, be sure to turn off all sources of infrared radiation that may be associated with your processing equipment to avoid fogging this film. Chemical delivery: Your chemicals are probably delivered by a gravity-feed or metered-pump system. A gravity-feed system uses flowmeters or needle valves that allow chemicals to run continuously into the tanks as film is processed. Check flowmeters frequently to ensure consistent delivery (some meters exhibit pressure changes as the volume of replenisher in the storage tank decreases). A metered-pump system is the most common system used with rack-and-tank and roller-transport processors. The pumps are run by a timer or a microswitch. The replenishment system in an in-line dilution or blender system is a process within itself. Monitor and control it just as you do your tank solutions.

BIWEEKLY MAINTENANCE (EVERY OTHER WEEK)


Replace all filters, regardless of their appearance. This helps prevent slime in the filter housings. Use recirculation filters that are in the range of 15 to 20 microns. For best results, install pressure gauges before and after each filter so that you can easily detect plugged filters. If a 5-pound-per-square-inch difference in pressure occurs between the two gauges, replace the filter.

MONTHLY MAINTENANCE
Measure the time of all solutions that you do not measure daily. Use a stopwatch to measure the time that the film is in a solution from the time the film enters the solution to the time it enters the next solution (or wash). Drain your pre-bleach tank, flush it with hot water, and replace the solution. You must do this regularly because the solution is not recirculated or agitated. Process byproducts may precipitate and collect at the bottom of the tank. If these precipitates build up, they can transfer dirt to the film. Check all recirculation systems.

BIMONTHLY MAINTENANCE (EVERY OTHER MONTH)


Drain your reversal-bath tank, flush it with hot water, and replace the solution. You must do this regularly because the solution is not recirculated or agitated. Process by-products may precipitate and collect at the bottom of the tank. If these precipitates build up, they can transfer dirt to the film.

DAILY MAINTENANCE
Drain the wash tanks at the end of every day or shift to help prevent buildup of biological growth (slime). If possible. leave the tanks empty overnight and then fill them with fresh water in the morning; see your processor manual for the procedure recommended for your equipment. Daily draining and refilling may not be enough to prevent slime buildup. If slime accumulates in your wash tanks, clean them by wiping the inside of each tank with a sponge and rinsing the tanks with warm water. Calibrate the replenisher pumps for the first developer, reversal bath, and color developer. Check the nitrogen supply (for your agitation system) at the beginning of each shift.

11-2

RACK-AND-TANK

PROCESSORS

Use floating lids on all solution tanks. Rinse the floating lids after you remove them at daily start-up. (This will prevent dried chemicals from entering the tanks when you reinstall the lids. Dried or crystallized chemicals can plug filters.) Follow these other maintenance steps as well as the procedures in your processor manual: Clean pickup cups or lifts every day. Remove chemical residue to prevent corrosion. Clean the rack slides by wiping them with a damp sponge; then use a clean, lintless cloth sprayed with silicone. Do not transfer any silicone to the tank solutions. Rinse the racks, hangers, weights, and clips between each use to prevent solution contamination. Thoroughly clean the machine once a week. Wash the tank dividers or crossover plates. (Check that the rim of each tank is free of dried chemicals. If you have to remove dried chemicals, do not let them fall into the tanks.)

If you cannot remove silver buildup by following your manufacturer's cleaning instructions, you can use KODAK Developer System Cleaner and Neutralizer (CAT No. 8434615). Prepare the cleaner and neutralizer according to the instructions packaged with the chemicals. 1. Remove the racks from the machine, and rinse them thoroughly with water to remove all traces of solution.
2. Use a squeeze bottle filled with working-strength

cleaner to direct a stream of cleaner onto the parts of the racks that require cleaning. If necessary, use a sponge or a brush to keep the parts wet with cleaner. For heavy deposits, reapply the cleaner as needed.

3. Rinse the racks thoroughly with water to remove the cleaner, and allow them to drain completely. 4. Use a squeeze bottle filled with neutralizer to direct a stream of neutralizer onto the parts of the racks that you treated with cleaner. 5. Rinse the racks thoroughly with water to remove the neutralizer, and allow them to drain completely. 6. Replace the racks in the machine and refill the tank(s).

CONTINUOUS PROCESSORS
If your processor is equipped with wiper blades or

squeegees, check and clean them every day. Replace blades or squeegees that are worn or have a buildup. Check the pressure on the blades or squeegees daily. Rinse all rollers above the solution level with warm water every day. (This will help prevent chemical buildup that can scratch film.)

ALL MACHINES
Follow the maintenance recommendations listed in your processor manual. Occasionally check that the air flow from the darkroom is positive. If it is not, air from the dryer will flow back through the machine and cause an increase in solution temperature and/or excessive evaporation during processing. Check for positive air flow by holding a candle near the feed tray. The smoke from the candle should move toward the machine, not back toward the darkroom. Check all hose fittings once a year. (Hoses tend to shrink with age, so check that the clamps are tight enough to prevent leaks. Check all hoses for cracks.) We recommend that you drain every tank at least once a year and clean and inspect it. Place your solutions in holding tanks while you clean the processor tanks. Check for rust and/or loose metal parts in tanks.

ROLLER~RANSPORTPROCESSORS
Roller-transport processors are sensitive to dirt; they require a more involved maintenance routine. Rinse the top (or crossover) rollers with warm water every day. (This will help prevent chemical buildup that can scratch film.) When the tank solutions are up to operating temperature, run KODAK Roller Transport Cleanup Film 4955 through the processor daily at start-up. Make sure that the film comes into contact with the entire width of the rollers. Do not reuse the cleanup film. Note: KODAK Roller Transport Cleanup Film 4955 is available in 8 x lO-inch (CAT No. 114 1530), 11 x 16-inch (CAT No. 114 1555), or 35 x 43 cm (CAT No. 1664368) sheets, and 40-inch x 30-foot (CAT No. 1547306) or 50inch x 30-foot rolls (CAT No. 1544368). You can cut the roll sizes to the appropriate size for wide-track processors. Clean the racks in the first-developer tank every week. Clean all other racks once a month. (Do this by cleaning a few racks each week.) See your owner's manual for instructions on cleaning the racks. Note: You can use ultrasonic cleaning to loosen dirt on racks. However, if you use ultrasonic cleaning to clean racks that have hollow rollers, the cleaning solution may fill the rollers and contaminate tank solutions.

11-3

12

VISUAL TROUBLESHOOTING OF PROCESS E-6

Once you have eliminated improper film storage and incorrect exposure as causes of poor-quality transparencies on KODAK EKT ACHROME Film, check for processing problems. These problems include errors in chemical mixing, order of processing steps, processing temperature, agitation, washing, replenishment, and solution contamination. A visual check of the processed film is one way to make an initial diagnosis. You can make a more thorough determination of the cause of processing problems and the corrective action to take by plotting and evaluating your control-strip densities; see section 13, "Process Monitoring." Table 12-1 Troubleshooting
A~pearan'ce'df Very High Maximum Density (very dark no apparent image) Dark Overall First develop omitted First developer and color developer reversed Film not exposed Inadequate time or low temperature in first developer First or color developer diluted or exhausted Color developer starter added to first developer Too much first developer starter used First developer or first and color developers underreplenished Bleach or fixer (or both) omitted, reversed, diluted, exhausted, or underreplenished Too much time or high temperature in first developer Film fogged by light before processing First or color developer (or both) too concentrated First or color developer (or both) overreplenished First developer starter omitted First developer contaminated with reversal bath or color developer First developer contaminated with fixer First developer used twice or color developer omitted Severe light fog Inconsistent first-developer time, temperature, agitation, or replenishment Color-developer alkalinity (pH) too low Reversal bath overconcentrated Too much col or developer starter used Color-developer temperature too high Inadequate agitation in color developer or both developers Color developer mixed with Part B only or with too much Part B Too little first developer starter used Agitation used in reversal bath Color developer or first and color developers underreplenished First and color developers underreplenished First-wash temperature too low Calor-developer alkalinity (pH) too high Calor developer starter added to first developer Color-developer temperature too low Calor developer mixed with too much Part A Calor developer starter omitted or too little added Reversal bath slightly oxidized and/or underreplenished Too much first developer starter used Color developer overreplenished Inadequate bleaching or fixing

from the Appearance of Processed Film

Very Dark (overall or in random areas) Light Overall

Image Very Faint or No Image (film may show colored streaks) Overall Density Variation from Batch to Batch Blue

Cyan Yellow

12-1

Low Densities Blue-Green; High Densities Yellow Magenta with High Maximum Density Green

Color developer contaminated with first developer Color developer contaminated with fixer Color developer replenisher too dilute Reversal bath exhausted, diluted, or underreplenished Film fogged by green safelight Wash used between color developer and reversal bath Calor developer overconcentrated Color-developer alkalinity (pH) too high Inadequate aeration of bleach Pre-bleach concentration too high Inadequate aeration of fixer First-wash temperature too high Severely oxidized calor developer Gaseous-burst agitation used in first developer Incorrect or inadequate manual agitation Bio-growth (slime) in final rinse (drain and replace) Air filters in dryer need changing Dirt in solutions; use floating covers on processor and replenisher solution tanks Final rinse overconcentrated Precipitate in pre-bleach Dirt from dryer Fixer sulfurized Defoamer added directly to any solution or too much defoamer used Dirt from final rinse Water spotting. Final rinse too dilute Dirt from dryer Fixer sulfurized Dryer temperature too high Bleach or fixer time too short, temperature too low, or replenisher too dilute Uneven or insufficient agitation, particularly in first and col or developers Nonuniform agitation in first and calor developers Low first-wash flow rate Foam rundown Dirty squeegee blades Jammed, misaligned, or dirty rollers Cinch marks due to excessive take-up tension Dirt from loading area Dirt from camera Static Fog Loss of bleach, fixer, or pre-bleach activity Fixer sulfurized by excessive aeration Bleach not sufficiently aerated Color-developer time too long or temperature too high Inadequate first-developer agitation

Red

Cross-Width Bar Marks (with stainless-steel reels) Scum and Dirt-

Surface Spots (appear dark by transmitted light)

Streaks-Nonuniformity

Scratches and Abrasions

Light Density Spots, Streaks, or Patterns Stain

* A buildup of fungus or algae in processing solutions or wash tanks can cause dirt. To minimize buildup, drain wash tanks when they are not in use. When you expect the processor to be out of use for more than six weeks, drain and rinse the reversal-bath processor tank and replenlsher storage tanks. To remove fungus or algae, scrub the tank with a stiff-bristle brush, using a 30 to 50 mUL sodium hypochlorite solution (household bleach). Rinse the tank thoroughly with water to remove all traces of the hypochlorite solution. Do not use a sodium hypochlorite solution in the wash tank that follows the fixer. Use a 5- to 25-micrometre (or finer) filter for your water supply.

12-2

13

PROCESS MONITORING
KODAK CONTROL STRIPS, PROCESS E-6 (CAT No. 1226554)
These 35 mm strips are supplied in lOO-foot rolls of approximately 120 strips with cutoff notches at 24.1 cm (9Y2-inch) intervals. A reference strip is included with each roll. The roll is wound emulsion side in, with the D-min ends of the strips toward the outer end of the roll. Each strip has 11 steps. For process monitoring, read and plot the densities of the D-min, LD, HD, and D-max steps. You can measure the densities of all 11 steps to plot a full sensitometric curve.

INTRODUCTION
Kodak supplies KODAK Control Strips, Process E-6, for monitoring processing of all KODAK EKTACHROME Films in KODAK Chemicals, Process E-6. KODAK Control Strips, Process E-6, are precisely exposed strips of film that contain areas for monitoring D-min, LD, HD, and D-max.

KODAK CONTROL STRIPS, PROCESS E-6 (CAT No. 151 9750)


These 35 mm x 5~-inch strips are supplied in a box of five foil packages that contain 10 strips each. Each box includes a reference strip. The ends of the strips are perforated for use with standard control-strip racks. Each strip has five steps; a raised dimple is located on the emulsion side at the lowdensity end. For process monitoring, read and plot the densities of the D-min, LD, RD, and D-max steps.

Cutoff_ notch

D~r
o
0

Raised dimple

o o o
E-6 8011

Yellow

Magenta

Cyan Identification code (reversed when strip is emulsion side up)

O~MIN 20TD OLD 40HD O~MAX


3 5

Identification code

I DATE:

o
o

Io
o

5 1/4-lnch Strip

D-MAX

9 1/2-lnch Strip from 100-Foot Roll

13-1

Storage and Handling: Store unused control strips at -18"C (O'F) or lower. Handle unprocessed strips in total darkness. Remove ouly a day's supply at a time from the package, and reseal and return the balance of the package to the freezer as quickly as possible. Store the daily supply in a lighttight container at room temperature. Allow your daily supply of strips to reach room temperature before processing. At the end of the day, discard any unprocessed strips that you removed from storage. Handle control strips by the edges to prevent fingerprints and surface damage. If film sticking, static marking, or moisture mottle occurs, allow the package to warm up before you open it. However, do not keep the package out of the freezer for more than Yz hour per day. Keep the reference strip in its envelope to protect it from light when you're not using it. Avoid glow-in-the-dark tape strips and wrist watches with glow dials. Reference Strip: Enclosed in each box of control strips is a reference strip of the same code number; it is processed by Kodak at standard conditions. Use the reference strip to determine aim values for your batch (code number) of control strips. Correction Factors: Correction factors for each code number are given in the instructions packaged with each box of control strips. Add these correction factors to the reference-strip densities to determine aim values. Correction factors differ for each code number. Aim Values: Aim values are the standard to which you compare your daily control-strip readings. You determine aim values by measuring the densities of the reference strip packaged with each box of control strips, and then adjusting the densities by applying the correction factors supplied with the control strips. Action Limits: Action limits are the boundaries of the desired operating range of the process. As long as the density values remain between the upper and lower action limits, your process is operating correctly. If a density value exceeds the action limit, it is an "early warning." You can safely process customer film, but you should check for the cause of the shift and correct it.

Control Limits: The control limits define the maximum tolerances that are acceptable for processing customer film. If any density value of your process plots beyond the control limit, the process is out of control, and results will be unsatisfactory for color, density, ancJJorcontrast. Stop processing customer film until you find the cause and cOlTect it. Color-Balance Spread Limits: A calor spread is the density difference between the two most widely separated calor plots of the LD and HD steps. If your process exceeds the color-balance spread limit, stop processing customer film and take corrective action. The color-balance spread limits for LD and HD are given in Table 13-1. Tolerances and Limits: The tolerances and limits are density variations allowed before you must take corrective action; they include an aim-value adjustment tolerance, and action and control limits. The tolerances and limits for Process E-6 are listed in Table13-I. Table 13-1

Tolerances and Limits for KODAK Control Strips, Process E-6

. I'+t

'J'AimMllue I"
O-min LO (Speed) to.02 to.03 +0.03 to.OB 0.12 -0.20 +0.05 0.10 0.15 -0.25

..

"t"

"Color~

:-S.alance

.--A(ljij~tm~ht"Actiorl""Coiitrol -Sp~~ad 1'. Mea~gte~,enl ]8r~,r'ilnce. l..;irnU$ 'Limits't.J{ilit


0.07 0.11

HO (Color)
O-max

-o.os
so.oz

13-2

Using Control Strips


We recommend that you process at least three control strips per day or shift. Process a strip at the beginning of the shift (before you prOl:ess customer film), another strip in the middle of the shift, and another strip at the end of the shift. Wc also recommend that you process a control strip with customer film at regular intervals. Handle and process control strips according to the instructions packaged with them. Use a densitometer equipped with Status A filters to read the control-strip densities. In rack-and-tank processors and in sink-line processes, process control strips with the D-min end up. In continuous processors, splice control strips so that the D-min end enters the processor first. 1. Create a control chart by using the KODAK Process Record Form Y-55 or similar graph paper. 2. Draw in the action and control limits given in Table 13-1. Use black for the action limits and red for the control1imits. 3. Remove the reference strip from the box of control strips. If you removed the box from cold storage, allow the reference strip to warm up to room temperature before you remove it from its envelope (about 15 minutes). 4. Measure the red, green, and blue densities in the center of the D-min, LD, HD, and D-max steps with your densitometer. If you have several boxes of strips with the same code number, average the readings of all the reference strips. 5. To calculate aim values, apply the correction factors supplied in the instruction sheet packaged with each box of control strips to the reference-strip densities. If you averaged the reference-strip readings from several boxes of the same code number, apply the correction factors to the average. These corrected density values are the aim values for the batch of control strips. Record them in the proper spaces in the left margin of Form Y-55.

Table 13-2 Example of Determining

Aim Values
... -" ..

If'Red . Green .
... ~. ,"."..,. ;;

D-max

Reference Strip Densities Correction Factor Aim Value

3.23 -0.07 3.16 2.36 +0.00 2.36 1.03 +0.00 1.03

3.37 -0.Q3 3.34 2.35 +0.01 2.36 1.04 -0.03 1.01 0.18 +0.00 0.18

.~tU!'l 3.69 -0.14

-3.55

HD

Reference Strip Densities Correction Factor Aim Value Reference Strip Densities Correction Factor Aim Value Reference Strip Densities Correction Factor Aim Value

--

2.25 +0.00 2.25

LD

1.02 -0.02

--

1.00

D-min

-0.16

0.16 +0.00

--

0.14 +0.01 0.15

6. Process a control strip and measure the same steps that you measured in step 4. 7. Calculate the variations from aim by subtracting the aim densities from your control-strip densities. Plot the variations on your control chart. Plot differences that are larger than the corresponding aim values (+ values) above the aim line. Plot differences that are smaUer than the aim values (-values) below the aim line. 8. If any of the variations from aim plot beyond the action or control limits, process another control strip. If the second strip confirms the results of the first strip, determine the cause of the problem and take corrective action. Whenever you take corrective action, process another control strip to confirm that the change you made returned the process to control before you resume normal processing.

13-3

Changing to a New Batch of Control Strips


When you change from your current batch of control strips to strips with a different code number, make a crossover to confirm that both code numbers provide the same information. If you have more than one Process E-6 machine, perform this crossover [or each machine. Be sure that your process is stable and in control before you begin using a new batch of control strips. 1. While you still have at least a week's supply of control strips of the current code, process one control strip from the new batch of strips with one strip from the current batch in three separate runs. 2. Read and record the densities of the processed strips. Table 13-3 Example-LD

7. Depending on the sign of the average difference, adjust the aim values for the new batch of strips by adding or subtracting the results from step 6. The amount of the adjustment should not exceed the aim-value adjustment tolerances given in Table 13-1. If the adjustment is greater than the tolerance, determine the cause. Check your calculations, densitometer, and control stirps. 8. Record the new aim values and the code number of the new batch of strips on your control chart, and begin using the new strips. Plot the new control-strip readings against the adjusted aim values. Making the Crossover Mathematically: You can also use a mathematical procedure to crossover to a new batch of control strips. With this method, you don't need to plot the readings of the two set of processed control strips. Follow the steps shown in the table below.

Step Readings

'.
1 2 3

.J);".c,;.
1.03 1.00 1.05

"
........

.. i "

:;:1 .. !>~ ~ .

i\? 'Ne~ $trips .. ..~..c Fled. 'G,,~en Blue


,;;,.".,

Red
Density of Current Reference + Density of New Reference Equals Multiply by 3 Equals + Density of New Strips 1.00 +1.01 2.01 x3 6.03 +1.00 +1.01 +1.02 - Density of Current Strips -1.03 -1.00 -1.05 Equals Divide by 6 Equals New Adjusted Reference (Rounded Up) 5.98 +6 0.997 1.00 +6 +6 +6 + + + + + + + + + x3 x3 x3 + + +

0.99 0.99 0.98

1.00 0.99 0.98

1.00 1.01 1.02

1.00 1.00 0.99

0.97 0.97 0.95

3. Determine aim values for the new batch of strips; follow steps 3 through S under "Using Control Strips." 4. For your current batch, calculate the variations from aim by subtracting current aim densities from densities of the three strips. Plot the variations on your control chart. S. For the new batch of strips, calculate the variations from aim by subtracting the new aim densities (calculated in step 3) from the densities of the three strips. Plot the variations on your control chart. 6. Calculate the differences between the variations from aim of the current strips and the new strips. Average these differences, and then divide the result by 2.

13-4

INTERPRETING YOUR CONTROL PLOT


Your control plot provides a running record of your process. It will show how consistent your process is, and how well it meets your aim. It provides you will helpful information for analyzing and correcting process problems. Your process will produce acceptable results if your control strips always plot within the control limits.

When you troubleshoot a problem, check the easiest and most obvious causes first; then check the more difficult and less likely causes. With process monitoring, first check the followingo

Did you use control strips with the same code number?

Did you plot the density values against the correct aim values?
o o o

Corrective

Action

Is the densitometer operating properly? Were the time and temperature set correctly? Is the replenishment rate set correctly?

When a control strip plots outside the control limits, or ifthe plot shows a gradual drift toward an out-of-control condition, immediately check for the cause and correct it. First, determine if the process drifted out of control slowly over time or if it occurred suddenly. An out-of-control condition that has occurred slowly over time indicates a problem such aso

Insufficient replenishment-this may be caused by an incorrect replenishment rate, an incorrectly mixed replenisher, or a defective replenisher pump. Evaporation or oxidation-evaporation or oxidation can be caused by low utilization or by too much air flow around the processing solutions.

Checking for contamination or for correct mixing requires more time and effort. Unless you have a good reason to suspect one of these causes, check them after you have checked the causes that are easier to check and verify. To help you determine the cause of an out of-control condition, use the information in section 14, "Diagnostic Charts," and the sample plots in section 15, "Control-Chart Examples." An example of a control chart is shown on page l3-7. This example shows you how to maintain a control chart and how to note any problems and corrective action taken.

An out-of-control condition that occurs suddenly can indicate a problem with youro

Daily Processing Log


Use a daily processing log for your processor. A processing log will provide you with a convenient means of keeping track of the amount of film you process and can provide you with valuable information in case of process and/or machine problems.

Control strip-did you use a control strip from the correct code number? Remember, if you change code numbers, you need to establish new aim values for that code number (see "Changing to a New Batch of Control Strips" on page l3-4). Do the control-strip code numbers match those of the reference strip? Were the strips handled and stored properly? Densitometer-is your densitometer working properly? Did you use Status A filters?

Time or temperature--check that they are set properly. Check your temperature regulator.
o

First or calor developer-was the tank or replenisher solution contaminated with another processing solution (e.g., fixer)? Contamination can cause a large density and color shift. Solution mixing-was the tank solution mixed properly? If the problem occurred with a fresh mix, check for improper mixing.

13-5

14

DIAGNOSTIC CHARTS
Chart Example Preliminary Summary-Control-Chart Plots Control-Chart Plots-High D-max Control-Chart Plots-Low D-max Control-Chart Plots-Low D-max Control-Chart Plots-Red or Green Color Balance Control-Chart Plots-Blue Color Balance Control-Chart Plots-Cyan, Magenta, or Yellow Color Balance Control-Chart Plots-Yellow Color Balance Control-Chart Plots-Low ActivityOne or More Density Values Plot High Control-Chart Plots-Low ActivityOne or More Density Values Plot High Control-Chart Plots-High ActivityOne or More Density Values Plot Low Control-Chart Plots-High D-min Summary-Visual Appearance Visual Appearance-First Developer and Reversal Bath Visual Appearance-Color Developer Visual Appearance-Pre-Bleach, Bleach, Fixer, and Final Rinse Visual Appearance-Film-Surface Visual Appearance-Film-Muddy Visual Appearance-Film-Scum Visual Appearance-Film-Scratches Visual Appearance-Film-Emulsion Visual Appearance-Film-Density Visual Appearance-Film-Dark Visual Appearance-Film-Light Visual Appearance-Film-High Marks Marks Images Images or Low Contrast Dirt or Grainy

The diagrams in this section provide you with a step-by-step approach to diagnosing processing problems. Summary charts show which detailed chart to consult for your problem. The charts give probable causes and suggest corrective procedures. Remedies for some processing problems are described in section 3, "Monitoring and Controlling Processing Solutions," and section 5, "Corrective Actions for Processing Solutions."

B C D

E
F G H I J K L M N

o
P
Q

R S T U V W X Y Z

14-1

PLOT PROBLEM Tolerance limit(s) exceeded on control chart

I I

~
CHECK THE OBVIOUS

/
CHECK CONTROL STRIP

CHECK REFERENCE

-.
I
~

STRIP

~
CHECK FOR OPERATOR ERROR

CHECK FOR OPERATOR

ERROR

Plots on Y-55 Form done correctly? Error in reading control strip? (Reread control strip) - Area to be read correctly centered and free of defects? - Emulsion side placed correctly? - Densitometer read correctly? - Correct densitometer filters used? - Correct step on control strip for parameter plotted? Correct control-strip code number plotted?

Reference strip of same code as control strip? Correct readings? Correction factors used correctly for crossover procedure? Reference values correctly transferred to Y-55 Form?

~
CHECK FOR PHYSICAL DEFECTS Correct handling and storage? Control strip damaged when processed? Manufacturing deficiency?

~
CHECK FOR PHYSICAL DEFECTS Correct handling and storage? Manufacturing deficiency?

-.

/
CHECK DENSITOMETER Correct usage by operator? - Instrument warmed up? - Correct filters used? - Zeroed and sloped correctly? Malfunction of instrument?

+
I I

Problem Found

Problem Not Found

Correct

~
Process

Go to Chart B

14-2

Chart B SummaryControl-Chart Plots

MATCH PROBLEM PARAMETER

DESCRIBE PLOT PROBLEM

FURTHER IDENTIFY AND GOTO CHART SPECIFIED

-1

D-max

r-1

-"l

See Chart C

I
I I
1

LowO-max

I
Red plot - low

I
Green plot-

I
Blue plot - low

I
Blue plot low (accompanied by one or more plots below
'\

I
Red and green plots - both low

I
11
Blue and green plots - both low

11

low

11

tolerance and
all 3 plots below zero line in HO or LD parameters) \

V See Chart E

V See Chart D

Identify the problem parameter on your control chart. Go to that parameter on Chart B. NOTE: If tolerance limits are exceeded in more than one parameter, look first at the parameter where the problem is most severe. If this does not give satisfactory results, then go to the other problem parameters.

-1
----..

Calor (HD)

r~

Improper CoIor Balance (Plots spread apart with spread between lowest and highest exceeding either color-balance tolerance)

Red calor balance (Red

Green calor balance (Green

Blue calor balance (Blue

Cyan calor balance (Red

Magenta balance

calor (Green

Yellow calor balance in HO parameter. Cyan in LD parameter. (Blue apart from and higher than other two in HD. Red apart from and higher than other two in LD)

Yellow balance

calor (Blue

plot apart from and lower than other two)

plot apart from and lower than other two)

plot apart from and lower than other two)

plot apart from and higher than other two)

plot apart from and higher than other two)

plot apart from and higher than other two) See Chart I

I
V See Chart F First developer (Iow activity) See ChartJ

See Chart G

H H
y

Speed (LO)

....
~

Toe Density (TO)

r
r
J

Slow Process (One or more plots above tolerance limits and all three plots above zero line)

f\

v
See Chart H

Fast Process (One or more plots below toleranee limits and all three plots below zero line) See Charts J, K and L

I
Calor developer (Iow activity) See Chart K

-1
D-min

High D-min See Chart M

Low O-min

.....

~ t,.,

.....
.j::..

.J:,.

Chart C Control-Chart Plots High D-Max CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

First developer too dilute Check specific gravity Calor developer too dilute

Check mix and solution tanks Check mixing techniques On in-line replenishment systems, check settings on concentrate and water pumps and adjust to specifications

First and calor developers underreplenished

Check replenishment rate and calibration of replenisher measuring devices. Recalculate film load of average rack.

Adjust to specifications Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

High D-max First and calor developer reversed Check mix and operating procedures Correct mix and operating procedure Thoroughly clean both tanks

Take steps to prevent the problem in the future

First developer omitted

Check operating procedure

Correct operating procedure

I:
a

-n a a

a CD m
Cl

ChartD Control-Chart Plots Low D-Max

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE


High first wash temperature

VERIFY CAUSE
Check temperature with an accu rate thermometer

ELIMINATE CAUSE
Adjust wash temperature 92-103'F (33-39'C) to

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Low red D-max Plot below tolerance limits (-0.20 or -0.25) Underaerated and I or fixer bleach Check bleach

Properly

aerate

bleach I I

,--Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

Overconcentrated pre-bleach

H
bath

Check specific gravity Check mix procedure Check mix tank Check pumps

Correct Correct

mix procedure pu mps

Take steps to prevent problem in the future

Loss of reversal activity

Check reversal bath replenishment rate, storage, agnation, and mix procedure

Correct

problem

Low green D-max Plot below tolerance limits (-0.20 or -0.25) Color developer concentrated too

Check specific gravity, mix procedure, calibration mix tank, and replenisher pumps

Correct mix procedure Correct or compensate evaporation Adjust pumps

for

First developer contaminated with reversal bath

H
r-1
pH

Check mix procedure and splashing

Correct mix procedure (DO not mix developers in equipment used to mix other solutions) Install splash shields

Agnation

Check agitation of first and/or calor developer

Adjust to specifications

Low color developer

r-1

Check specific gravity of tank and replenisher Check replenisher pumps

Use floating

lid on

replenisher Do not exceed keeping time for color developer replenisher Adjust pumps

Reversal bath too concentrated Low blue D-max Plot below tolerance limits (-0.20 or -0.25)

H
of

Check Check

specitic gravity replenisher pumps

H
~

Calibrate mix tank Correct mix procedure Adjust pumps

I I

I
Check replenishment rate & calibration of replenisher

Overreplenishment first developer

measuring device
Recalculate film load of average rack

Adjust to specifications

-----

Too much calor developer starter

Check mix procedure Check calibration of solution tank volume

Correct

mix procedure

Low blue D-max Plot below tolerance (0.20 or -0.25) -n


0 0

I"' "' s

~I
I

C)

Accompanied by one or more plots below tolerance and all 3 plots below zero line in HD or LD parameter fast speed

Fixer contamination developer

of

Check mix procedure and splashing

Correct mix procedures (Do not mix developer in mix tanks used for other solutions) Install splash shields

Too little first developer starter

Check specific gravity Check mix procedure Check mix tank

Correct

mix procedure

V1

>-' .j::.
I

0\

Chart E Control-Chart Plots Low D-max

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Color developer contaminated with first developer (10mLl L of first developer in color developer will show a photographic effect)

Check mix procedure, machine operation, and distribution lines, including nitrogen-burst agitation

Eliminate common mix equipment and common use lines Clean dirty racks and hangers Eliminate splashing and foam

Low red-green D-max Plots below tolerance (-0.20 or -0.25)

limits

Too little color developer starter Check mix procedure On in-line replenishment systems, check for too high a setting on Part A pump or too Iowa setting on Part B pump. Also check to see if Part B replenisher container is empty or if the line is blocked Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

Use correct mix procedures


Calibrate mix tank and solution tank

Take steps to prevent the problem in the future

Color developer replenisher has too much Part A

Low blue-green D-max Plots below tolerance (-0.20 or -0.25)

limits

First developer with fixer

contaminated

Check mix procedure, processor operation, and distribution lines

Correct mix procedure Do not use equipment used for mixing fixers for other solutions

-n o

'" I", :i
m o

Chart F Control-Chart Plots Red or Green Color Balance CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

High first wash temperature

Check temperature

with an

Adjust first wash temperature

to

accurate thermometer

98-103F (33-39C)

Red Color Balance Red plots spread apart from and below blue and green in cdor or speed parameters Transparencies red appear too

Overconcentrated
pre-bleach

Check specific gravity Check mix procedure Calibrate mix tank Check pumps

Correct

mix procedure pumps

Adjust

I
Underaerated or fixer bleach

11

Check

bleach aeration

Properly

aerate bleach and fixer Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

Take steps to prevent problem in the future

the

Green Col or Balance Green plots spread apart from and below red and blue in color or speed parameters Transparencies appear too green in shadow areas

Oxidized

reversal

bath

I
Reversal bath underreplenished

Check for floating cover, air agitation or nitrogen agitation, long turnover time, air in flexible container, storage temperature, and pumps

Install floating cover Correct flexible-container storage conditions Do not store chemicals beyond suggested storage life Adjust pumps

I I

Check replenishment rate and calibration of replenisher measuring devices

Adjust pumps

Color developer too high

pH

Check mix procedure Check replenishment Check pumps Check AB ratio

Use correct mix procedure


rate Adjust replenishment to specifications Adjust pumps rate

"
o
I~

>-.j::.

" o "

....
.j::o
I

00

Chart G Control-Chart Plots Blue Color Balance

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE


High color-developer temperature (+5'F[+3'C])

VERIFY CAUSE
Check temperature with an accurate thermometer

ELIMINATE CAUSE
Adjust color-developer temperature

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Low col or-developer

pH

Check specific gravity of tank and replenisher Check replenisher pumps

Use floating lids on replenisher Do not exceed keeping time for color developer replenisher Adjust pumps

Calor-developer

oxidation

Check for floating cover, air agitation, long turnover time, air in flexible container, improper storage temperature, and air in replenisher pumps

Install floating covers Use nitrogen agitation Correct flexible-container storage conditions Do not store chemical beyond suggested storage life Adjust pumps

Concentrated

reversal

bath

Check specific gravity Check mix procedure Check replenisher pumps Calibrate mix tanks Correct mix procedure Adjust pumps Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

Blue Calor Balance Blue plots spread apart from and lower than the other two in color or speed parameter Trar.sparencles appear too blue

Color developer replenish er has too much Part B or has only Part B Check mix procedure Check specific gravity Too much calor developer starter

Take steps to prevent problem in the future

the

No oolor-developer agitation or no agitation in both developers ~

... Check 1

nitrogen distributors

supply and

Adjust to specifications

Calor developer replenished

under-

Check replenishment rate Check calibration of replenisher measuring device

Adjust to specifications

Too little first developer

Check mix procedure Check calibration of solution tank Check replenisher pumps

Correct

mix procedure

Adjust pumps

-n o o
I~

::: to
o

Chart H Control-Chart Plots Cyan, Magenta, or Yellow Calor Balance CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE
Use floating lid on color developer replenisher When processor not running use floating lid on developer tank solution Adjust pumps

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

rl
Magenta Calor Balance Red and blue plots spread apart from and below green in LD or HD Transparencies magenta appear too

Calor developer replenished

under-

Check replishment rate Check specific gravity Check replenisher pumps

_I

Add replenisher (can safely add 10% of tank volume)

--+

-1
~

Colordeveloperloo

dilute

Check specific

gravity

~ ratio

Check concentrate-to-water

1--+ Check
~ N 2 purity too low Check N 2 generation

Calibrate mix tanks and processing solution tank mixing technique For in-line replenishment systems, check seHings of concentrate and water pumps

--+

Color developer contaminated with first developer (10 mLl L of first developer in color developer will show photographic effect)

Check mix procedure, machine operation, and distributor lines, including nitrogen-burst agitation

Yellow Color Balance Yellow color balance in calor parameter and cyan color balance in LD Red and green plots spread apart from and below blue HD Blue and green plots spread apart from and below red LD Transparencies appear cyan in 1I1e lighter areas and yellow in

1-+1-+

Color developer contaminated with fixer (1.0 m LI L of fixer in color developer will show photographic effect. Fixer does not wash out easily Irom mix tanks)

f--+

--.

Eliminate common mix


equipment and lines (Do not use equipment used to mix fixer for mixing other solutions) Clean dirty tanks and hangers Eliminate splashing and foam

f-+-

....

shadows

-1
rl
f-+

Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

f--.-+

Take steps to prevent the problem in the future

Check mix procedure, machine operation, and distributor lines

Low reversal

bath agent

r
~
Check replenisher rates and calibration of replenisher measuring devices Recalculate film load of average rack Check for floating cover, air agitation or excess nitrogen agitation, long turnover time, air in flexible container, and storage temperature

First and color developers u nderreplenished

rl

Adjust to specifications

~
Install floating covers Use nitrogen agitation Correct flexible-container

Cyan Cobr Balance Blue and green plots spread apart from and below red in HD or LD Transparencies appear too cyan

H -1

Loss of reversal

bath activity

storage conditions
Do not store chemicals suggested storage life beyond

f--.

Low first-wash

temperature

Check temperature with accurate thermometer

Adjust first wash temperature 92-103F (33-34C)

to

..... .p.. -0

~ m
o

>-'

f" >-' o

Chart I Control-Chart Plots Yellow Color Balance

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE
Determine from control strip (yellow calor balance) Check specific gravity of tank and replenisher Check replenisher pumps Too much sodium hydroxide

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

-1
H H H
Yellow C olor Balance Blu e pi ot spread apart from and higher than other two Transparencies appear too yeltow

High calor-developer

pH

Use correct mix procedures Adjust pumps Add 5N H 254

-I

~
Low calor-developer temperature

Check temperature with accurate thermometer

Adjust calor-developer temperature

Calor-developer

overreplenished

Check specific gravity Check replenisher pumps Check replenishment rates and calibration of replenisher measuring device Recalculate film load of average rack

H
-loo

Adjust to specifications

Adjust pumps

r
~
beyond

Reversal

bath slightly oxidized

1 1

Check for floating cover, air agitation or excess nitrogen agitation, long turnover time, air in flexible container, and storage temperature

Install floating covers Use nitrogen agitation Correct flexible-container storage conditions Do not store chemicals suggested storage life

1-+

H H

Reversal

bath underreplenished

1 1

Check replenishment rates and calibration of replenisher pumps

Adjust to specifications Adjust pumps

Too much first developer

starter

~
Too little colardeveloper starter

-1

~
Calor developer first developer starter added to

Check mix procedure and calibration of solution tank

-I

Calibrate mix tank; check mixing technique

r r

f----.

Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

Take steps to prevent the problem in the futu re

~ I
1

Check specific

gravity

Calor developer Part A only or excessive Part A

-1 Y
o

For in-line replenishemnt systems, check for too-high setting on Part A pump or too-Iow setting on Part B pump. Also see if Part B container is empty or If line IS blocked

Check mixing procedures Adjust replenisher pumps

Calor developer first developer

contaminated

With ~

Review contamination-control procedures

Thoroughly rinse mixing tank before mixing calor developer. Avoid mixing developers in tanks used to mix other solutions

Color developer fixer

contaminated

with ~

Roll film exposed through (very yellow overall)

the base 1 1

Chart J Control-Chart Plots Low Activity-One or More Density Values Plot High CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Low temperatu

re

Check temperature with accurate thermometer

Adjust temperature

Short time

Check time with stop watch Check rack threading on

continuous processor

Adjust to specifications Rethread rack on continuous processor, if necessary

Low concentration

Check Check

specific

gravity pumps

replenisher

Calibrate mix tanks and solution tank Check mixing technique For in-line replenishment systems, check settings of concentrate and water pumps

Slow Process First Developer (Iow activity) One or more plots above tolerance limits All three plots above zero line Transparencies appear too dark

Low agitation

Check nitrogen distributors

supply and Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution Take steps to prevent the problem in the future

Adjust to specifications Check replenishment rate and calibration of replenisher measuring devices. Recatculate film load of average rack

Underreplenishment

Oxidation

Check for floating covers, air agitation, long turnover time, air in flexible container, and storage temperature

Install floating covers Use nitrogen agitation Correct flexible-container storage conditions Do not store chemicals beyond suggested storage life

Too much first developer starter (slight speed loss) Check mix procedure calibration of solution Calor developer starter used (substantial speed loss especially in the blue) and tank

Correct

mix procedures

-n o

....

': s
Cl

Low utilization

First-developer tank turnover every 3 weeks required

Use low-utilization

procedure

f" ....

....

>-'

f'

>-'

Chart K Control-Chart Plots Low Activity-One or More Density Values Plot High CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

......

Moderately low concentration (col or balance may be magenta blue-red)

or

H~

Calibrate

mix tanks

Correct mix procedu res

Check specific gravity Check replenisher pumps

For in-line replenishment systems, check settings on concentrate and water pumps Check for cracks in tank

......

-1
Slow Process Color Developer (Iow activity) One or more plots above tolerance limits All th ree plots above zero line Transparencies too dark

Underreplenishment (shows up on control plot as high contrast with blue color balance)

Check replenishment rate and calibration of replenisher

measuring device

Recalculate rack; adjust

film load per average replenisher to specs

r
~
Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

f--+

-1

Oxidation

Check for floating cover, air agitation, long turnover time, air in flexible container, and storage temperature

Install floating cover Use nitrogen agitation Correct flexible-container storage conditions Do not store chemicals beyond su ggested storage life

Take steps to prevent the problem in the fu tu re

1-+

-1

Color developer PartB

has too much

Check mix procedure For in-line replenishment systems, check for too-high setting on Part B pump or toolow setting on Part A pump. Also see if Part A replenisher is empty or Part A line is blocked

Correct mix procedure Adjust in-line replenishment system

I: ~
m

~ o
...,
()

Chart L Control-Chart Plots High Activity-One or More Density Values Plot Low

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

First-developer time too long

Check time with stop watch

Adjust first-developer time

First-developer temperature high

Check temperature with accurate thermometer

Adjust first-developer temperature

First developer overconcentrated Check specific gravity Check replenisher pumps Calor developer overconcentrated

Calibrate mixing and processing tanks Check mix procedure Correct or compensate for evaporation For in-line replenishment systems, check settings of concentrate and water pumps; use humidified nitrogen for gaseous-burst agitation Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wait and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution

Fast Process One or more plots below tolerance limits All three plots below zero line Transparencies appear too light First developer contaminated by fixer, reversal bath, or color developer" "Note: Level of contaminent needed for out of control plot: .0.1 mL of flxernttre of first developer 1.0 mL of reversal bath/litre of first developer 50 mL of color developerllitre of first developer Contamination of first developer with reversal bath will cause a temporary photographic effect which will disappear in about 8 hours. Fixer does not wash out easily from mix tanks.

Check distributor lines including nitrogen lines Check mix procedure

Eliminate common use lines Correct mix procedure

Check machine operation

Eliminate splashing and foam Clean dirty racks and hangers

Check mix procedure

.Eliminate common mix equipment .Wash out all mix equipment thoroughly before and after use

First developer overreplenished

Calor developer overreplenished (shows on control plots as low contrast with yellow color balance)

Check specific gravity Check replenishment rates, mix procedures, and calibration of replenisher measuring devices For in-line replenishment systems, check settings on concentrate and water pumps

Adjust to specifications

Too little first developer starter

Check mix procedure and calibration of solution tanks

Correct mix procedure

~ o
,..... .j:>. ,.....
I

I~

S
00

v.l

>-'

f"" ......

.J:>.

Chart M Control-Chart Plots High D-Min CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Loss of fixer activity NOTE: Transparencies may have overall high density and blue shadows when viewed through the base Check time, temperature, agitation, replenishment, storage, mix procedure, and pumps

Loss of bleach activity

High D-min NOTE: If accompanied by slow process, solve that problem before proceeding with this chart Loss of pre-bleach activity

Check aeration, time, temperature, agitation, replenishment rate, specific gravity, and inadequate squeegeeing after color developer and after pre-bleach Depending on the severity of the situation: a. Wart and tolerate b. Risk a prescription c. Dump partially d. Dump solution Take steps 10 prevent Ihe problem in the future

Adjust to specifications Check storage, replenishment, rate, time, temperature, agitation, mix procedure, specific gravity, and pumps

Inadequate agitation

first-developer

Check nitrogen distributors

supply and gas

~ o
I~

<0 [!l

Chart N

Summary-Visual

Appearance

PROCESSING SOLUTION
First developer Reversal bath

GOTO CHART

,.....
Visual-appearance problem with processing solutions

Chart 0

r----.

Color developer

ChartP

Pre-bleach Bleach Fixer Final rinse

Chart 0

PRODUCT PROBLEM r--+'

GOTOCHART
Chart R

Surface dirt

Muddy appearance Grain or motile

ChartS

r---+Visual-appearance problem with processed film

Scum

ChartT

----.
~
Scratches and abrasion ChartU

-+

Emulsion marks

Chart V

r---.
~

Density marks Pressure marks Light fog Static marks

ChartW

Dark film

Chart X

Variable low density

ChartY

Contrast problems

ChartZ

14-15

....

f"
>-' 0\

Chart 0 Visual Appearance First Developer and Reversal Bath CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VISUAL PROBLEM

VERIFY CAUSE
Check burst time on and off Check bubble size Adjust

ELIMINATE CAUSE
agitation to

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Excessive

agitation

specifications

Foam Air from pump (evidenced by extremely small bubbles)

Tighten connection side of pump

on vacuum

Silver accumulation rollers or gears

on

f------------I

.-JI

Filter the first developer

Precipitates Use soft or distilled the first developer Salt from oxidation of first developing agent (gray or white) Always store first developer tank and replenisher solutions with a floating lid Do not overheat or overagitate first developer Do not aerate first developer. Use nitrogen only water to mix

Dump, clean tank, and replace first developer

Oxidation Abnormal Solution Color

(brownish

color)

Dyes leaching

out of film

.1 This

is natural correction

and requires

no

Contaminated

water

Use uncontaminated

water

Biological

Growth

-n

Reversal bath particularly susceptible to biological growth

Replace regularly

reversal

bath

Dump reversal bath Clean tank as follows: Flush system with hot water Fill tanks, lines, and replenishment system with 30 to 50 mUL of householdbleach solution. Let stand for no more than 1 hou r. Flush with water and refill. Replace solution

': ~
o
m

Chart P Visual Appearance Color Developer

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Abnormal calor (particularly blue-black color in Part B concentrate)

Oxidation of solution. Look for air leaks in replenishment lines and

Do not use oxidized Part B solution

replenishment container

Excessive agitation Check burst rate on and off Check bubble size

1------+1

Adjust agitation

to specifications

Dump tank solution. Clean tank and replace solution.

Color developer

Foam Ai r from pu mp

Tighten connections on vacuum side of pump Check problem areas regularly

Check

N 2 generator

Crystals (particularly prevalent in roller-transport machines). Hard black crystals on tank walls and gears where colordeveloper solution has evaporated

~ I

Rinse crystals off tank walls with hot water

o o eo

-n

>-'

t-

'", ~ r-e
m
()

>-'
-J

f-'

~I

Chart Q Visual Appearance Pre-Bleach, Bleach, Fixer, and Final Rinse CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

PROCESSING SOLUTION

VISUAL PROBLEM

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Pre-Bleach ~ Solution appears cloudy ~

Product of development Pre-Bteaeh not replaced on regular Replace basis Pre-Bleach regularly Replace Pre-Bleach

I
Overconcentration evaporation due to

H
~

Check specific

gravity

Monitor specific gravity to stay below 1.260

LBleach ~ Crystals ~ Low temperature Check bleach temperature Adjust to specifications

Adjust concentration by adding diluted bleach replenish er. If the problem is severe, you will need to clean tank and replace solution

Water added directly bleach tanks

to

Check procedure

Add only replenisher solution to a seasoned bleach tank

I Monitor and correct excessive aeration. Aerate only when processing film. You may have to increase replenishment as much as 50%. Generally, air agitation is not recommended for bleach and fixer solutions in roller-transport processors or helical-path continuous processors with top rollers above the solution level

Fixer

Crystals Milky appearance of tank solution Black specks Gray precipitate in filter

Sulfu rization of fixer

Check for oxidation

source

Dump, cl.ean tank,. and replace fixer solution

Final Rinse

Foam

Aeration

of final rinse

Do not aerate final rinse

"T1

o eo 'co o re cc

Chart R Visual Appearance Film-Surface Dirt CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VISUAL PROBLEM

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Check replenisher

tank

I----.t

Replace filters in recirculation system Filter mix water

Dirt in solutions Replace filters Use floating covers on tanks and replenisher solutions

Check filters

Check filter

Change filter regularly (use 5-25 micron filter in water supply)

Drain and clean tank

To remove fungus or
algae, scrub tank with diluted household bleach or algaecide, using a stiff brush. Rinse thoroughly with water. Replace wash water in tanks

Dirt in washes

Check for biological in tank

growth

To minimize build-up of dirt and fungus, drain wash tanks when not in use

Surface

Dirt

Check problem areas regularly

Dirt in final rinse

Final rinse requires regular replacement Check solution

Replace final rinse as recommended

Drain and clean tank and replace final rinse

Dirt and chemical on processor

deposits

I----.t

Check rollers, racks, squeegees

Clean rollers, racks, and squeegees Establish regular

maintenance procedures

.... .... """


I

I", o r;;:
[!:J

cs o eo

-n
Dirt in dryer

I----.t

Check air filter and inspect dryer for cleanliness

Change air fiher and clean dryer area Establish regular maintenance procedures

\0

.....
.j:>.

N
o

Chart S Visual Appearance Film-Muddy or Grainy

VISUAL PROBLEM

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE


I

VERIFY CAUSE
Check for adequate bleach regeneration by air agitation

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Adjust air agitation

Aerate bleach

I
Retained silver (muddy appearance)

I
I

I
I

Check for proper time, temperature, agitation in fixer L-

Adjust to specifications

Muddy

Appearance

I
Retained silver halide (muddy appearance)

r Check Check replenishment rate replenisher pumps

H
f-----..j

Adjust Adjust

replenishment pumps

rate

Dump fixer through CRC . Start with fresh chemicals.

Check problem areas regularly

Check mix procedures

Prepare replenishers according to package directions

Dump fixer replenisher through CRC)

(not

Grain or Mottle

Sulfurized fixer (white grain or mottle)

Check fixer for precipitate

Generally, air agitation is not recommended for bleach or fixer solutions in roller-transport processors or helical-path continuous processors with top rollers above solution level

Dump fixer through CRC. Start with fresh chemicals.

."

';
m
()

Chart T Visual Appearance Film-Scum

VISUAL PROBLEM

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Final rinse exhausted

Check final rinse

Replace

solution

regularly

Excess defoamer used, or defoamer added directly to any solution

Check all solutions where defoamer has been added

Follow package instructions for use of defoamer

Replace

solution

Scum Correct mix procedure. Using distilled water to mix Final rinse too concentrated Check mix procedures

final rinse is sometimes


helpful

Replace

final rinse

Check problem areas regularly

Pre-bleach requires regular replacement

Check pre-bleach

Replace

pre-bleach

regularly

Replace

pre-bleach

...j>..

~ I", ~

t'l

N ....

.....
.J:>.
I

to to

Chart U Visual Appearance Fi Im-Scratches CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Obstruction in machine such as clips, film, or rack parts

Check all tanks and dryer

Remove obstruction. care in handling.

Use

Check agitation

Adjust to proper agitation

Rack-and-tank processor

I
Film tangling

I
Loadinglhandling problem

Check

racklift

Adjust

lift according

to

manufacturer's
specifications

Check loading technique

Scratches Abrasions

and

I
Clean affected area or replace squeegees

I
Dirtorchemical buildup ~ Check rollers, squeegees, and racks

I I
Establish regular

maintenance procedures

----Continuous processor ~ Mechanical problems ~ Check for worn or damaged rollers, squeegees, or racks ~ Replace parts Establish regular maintenance habit

Splicing

problems

Check splicer

Fix splicer

if necessary

;;g
CO>

I~
CO>

I\.> --.J

Chart V Visual Appearance Film-Emulsion Marks

VISUAL PROBLEM

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE


Inadequate developer agitation in first

VERIFY CAUSE
Check nitrogen distributors supply and

ELIMINATE CAUSE
Adjust to specifications

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

----Streaks
1

-I

Low first-wash rate or inadequate air agitation first wash

in

Check air supply and distributors

.-~ Check instructions defoamer for

Foam ru ndown

Use defoamer as recommended in first and color developer In rack-and-tank machines, check machine modifications offered by manufacturer to decrease

crossover time

Small separation tanks

between

Check

processor

Install splash guards

----Excessively levels high solution Check processor Adjust solution Install splash guards

Chemical

splashes

In rack-and-tank machine, racks being simultaneously lifted and dunked in adjacent tanks Check processor system In rack-and-tank machine, successive racks being lifted and transferred with very little separation between them transport

Eliminate forward splash by loading film with emulsion side toward dryer end of machine, since effect of backsplash is less severe

~H

Check problem areas regulary

Emulsion

Marks

~
I

Adjust processor

transport

Water too hard

~I

Use distilled water for mixing final rinse


11 1

Watermarks Deformation perforations Craters (furrows) around

(water spots)

Water rundown

In rack-and-tank machine, excess moistu re not being removed when film rack drops into dryer section. Racks may be splashing during drying

I
Check processor splashing for Adjust processor

~I

Increase final rinse concentration or dump and replace

In continuous removed

processor,

excess moisture on film not


at dryer entrance

" '" co
I

Check that squeegees, water extractors, and rotary buffers are functioning properly at entrance to dryer

H
~

Adjust squeegees, buffers

rotary

tl
w

'" co ro '" cc

m 0

Skiving

Misalignment film transport

of processor or camera

Check for mechanical problems in processor transport or camera

Correct

alignment

problem

>-'

.j::.

ChartW Visual Appearance Film-Density Marks CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VISUAL PROBLEM

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Film-handling (kinks)

technique

Check

handling

technique

Handle with care

Pressure

Marks

Processor

tension

Check mechanical adjustment

Adjust

mechanical

problem

Safelight Faded filter on infared illuminator

.1

Do not use safelights Replace IR filter on illuminator or use bulb of lower wattage Check problem areas regu larly

Ught Fog

Light leak in splicer, machine, wall, door jamb, etc

Check darkroom light leaks

area for

Eliminate

light leak

Splicer

Static Marks

Machine

Film-handling

technique

If possible, perform all operations in areas with relative humidity between 45 and 65 percent and temperature between 65 and 75" F (18 to 24" C). Keep film in original sealed packages and store at recommended temperature until ready to use. Do not handle materials any more than is necessary. Avoid sudden, quick movements of film which could cause friction. Avoid winding or unwinding film too rapidly or too tightly. Keep all equipment in clean condition and good working order. Keep film-loading room and processing room as free from dust as possible.

':
o ro
CO

c> o

-n

(")

Chart X Visual Appearance FiI m-Dark Images CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VISUAL PROBLEM

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Inadequate time or low temperature in first developer

Check first developer time and temperature

Adjust to specifications: Adjust replenishment rates Correct mixing procedure Adjust replenisher pumps

Dark overall

First developer diluted, exhausted, or underreplenished

Check specific gravity and replenishment rate

Depending on severity, clean tank and replace solution

Exposure error by picture-taker

Notify customer of possible came ra problem

Dark Film

Color developer starter added to first developer

Check

mix procedure

Correct mix procedure

Dump .Clean tank Replace solution

Check specific Bleach or fixer (or both) omitted, reversed, diluted, exhausted, or underreplenished Pre-bleach oxidized

gravity Correct processing error Correct mix procedure Adjust replenishment rate Adjust pumps Depending on severity, dump bleach and/or fixer, clean tank, and replace solution

Dark overall or random

Check processing procedure Check mix procedure Check replenishment Check replenishment pumps

rate

Dark overall and red (sheet film)

Exposure error (sheet film exposed through base)

Load camera

properly

>-' ..,.

cs o cc 'co o cc o

-n

N VI

...
0\

""" N
I

Chart Y Visual Appearance Film-Light Images CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VISUAL PROBLEM

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Excess time or high temperature in first developer

Check time and temperature of first developer

Adjust to specifications

Light overall

Film fogged by light before processing

Check for light leaks

Eliminate light leaks Do not use safelights

Add starter if needed

First developer too concentrated, or overreplenished, or starter omitted in preparation of working solution

Check Check

replenishment rates replenisher pumps

Adjust to specifications Add starter if needed Adjust pumps

First developer contaminated with calor developer Correct mix procedure Dump first developer, clean tank, and replace with fresh solution

Check mix procedures

Light overall

and blue

First developer contaminated with fixer

Inconsistencies in time,
Variable low density temperature, agitation, replenishment of first developer or Check machine for mechanical difficulties Correct machine problem

"T1

I~

~ m
o

chart Z Visual Appearance Film-High or Low Contrast

VISUAL PROBLEM

CHOOSE PROBABLE CAUSE

VERIFY CAUSE

ELIMINATE CAUSE

ELIMINATE SYMPTOM

PREVENT RECURRENCE

Too much first developer starter

Process

control strip

Correct

mix procedure

If not in control, dump

High Contrast: Sharp density gradations between highlights and shadows

First developer

time too long

Check time of first developer

Adjust to specifications

Check specific gravity Check topping-off Calor developer too dilute

procedure
Check for mix error Check pumps on in-line dilution system

Adjust to specifications Correct topping-all procedure Correct mix procedure Adjust in-line dilution system

Add concentrate

and starter

Calor developer concentrated

too

~I

Adjust to specifications Correct topping-oH procedure Correct mix procedure Adjust in-line dilution system Add floating lids to processor tank when not in operation

Add water

Low Contrast: Soft density gradations between highlights and shadows

First developer short

time too

Check time of first developer

Too little first developer starter

Check mix procedure

Correct

mix procedu re

If you can determine the amount of starter left out 01 fresh tank, add that amount to tank

I;
"T1

>-' .j:>.

to -....l

~ m
o

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