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f 'H E S E

p

p a ge s on the home

r oces sing of current

ph o t o gr a phi c

m a t e ri a ls

o

ntinu e th e tr a dit i on

c e ntur y of the British J o urnal

of well over

' ho log r a p hi c A lm a na c - -lthough t o d a y the ran g e o f

raterials t o b e pr o c e s s ed

ar wid e r fi e ld t ha n i n t ho s e ea rly

c ov er s a

lays. Gen e r a l instructi o n s

and

irecautions t o be o b s e r v e d

in the

'

iandling o f c h e mic a l so luti o ns a re

a

h

A

for

l lo wed by d e t a iled f o rmulae

e p r o c ess ing

i

nd n e g a t ive

of c o lour r ev er sa l

films a nd p a p e r s .

a bulation of black-and-white

i lln s a nd f o rmul a t io n s

s uit a bl e

for p r oc ess ing them follows.

P a r a do xic a ll y the ch e mi c all y

simpler p ro cess ing of black-and-

w h i te f i lm s admit s of mor e

control and e x ploit a ti o n of the

pro pert ies of the different film

ty pes th a n does colour

p r o ce s s ing . F or thi s reas on ,

al t h o u g h th e black-and-white

t a b l e i s ret a ined , the length y

t a b ul a ti o n s of co l o ur

film type

w

hich wer e a fe atu r e

o f p a st

A nnual s h a ve b ee n omitt e d : in

p r ac t i c e v irtu a ll y a ll ge n e r a l

p u rp os e c o lour m a teri a ls

co

p

for c o nvenience , ge n e r a ll y kn o wn by t h e ir E a s tm a n Kodak

d e s i g n a t i o n s . Thus a l l c olo ur

nega ti v e m at eri a l s m an uf actur e d

i

may b e p ro cess e d i n Kod a k C - 4 1

or s i m i l a r s o lut ion s .

u s ef u ln e s s o f t h e t a bu l a ti o n s in

a re

mp a t ibl e

w ith th e s a m e

r o ce s s in g s oluti o n s

w h ic h a r e ,

n th e n o n - Co r n eco n

co unt r i es

Th e fo r m e r

l i s tin g t h e p ro c es s r e q u i r e d

therefore gone, an d a n y m a t e r i a l s

h a s

How to process current colour and black-and-white re v ersal and negative films and papers

-

bar a f e w Kodak

ones -

may

b

e pr o ce ss e d b y Kodak 's E-6

proce ss , alth o ugh s om e ma y be

de s ig n ed

c a p a bilit y o f o ffering eff ec ti ve l y

enhanced film speed by

increa s in g fir s t development

time . The s e ar e th e ex tr e me

speed typ e s exemplified

Kodak ' s E kt a chr o me P800 1 1 6 00

a

which only re a ch the i r de s ign a ted

sp

The rem a ining

compatible with the E-6 proc e ss

ar

called ' non- s ubst a ntive ' colour

films which do not incorpor a te colour couplers i n the emul s ion

layer s and which requir e to be proce ss ed by the comple x K-14 proce s s in Kodak Laboratori e s

and two whi c h still use th e old E- 4

proc ess , E ktachr o me Infr a r e d and Phot o mi c rograph y C o lor Film 2 48 3, intended for sc ienti f ic

purp oses. Sub s t i tute fo rmulation s

t o e x ploit the pr o c es s's

b y

h i gh-

P 16 00 H ,

in thi s way . film s n o t

t y pe s -

s o-

nd Fuji ' s Fujichrom e

e ed s wh e n treat e d

Kod ak

e th e Kodachrome

-

or th e E - 4 p r oc ess

f

a r e a v a il a bl e

and co pi es o f th ese m a y b e

o b t a in e d . f r e e of c h a r ge , o n

a

p pl ic a t i o n

f Ph o to gr a p h y ' s

t o th e Br it i sh Jo u rna l

o ff i ce s .

o

T

a l s o a p p ea r f rom t i m e t o t im e i n the Jo u r n a l .

a bul at i o n s

of c o l o u r film t y pe s

T h e p a st yea r h as se en a

n

colo u r m a t er i a l s . I n ma ss m a r k e t

u m b e r o r in teres tin g

a d va n ces i n

h

a v e i ntroduced

new range s of

c

o l o ur n ega t iv e

films t o ful fi l th is

demand .

Kodacolor

T h es e are the

Gold range (known as

Kod a col o r V RG i n the US A) at

speeds of ISOlOO , 200 and 400 ,

Fujic o lor

and 4 00 , a nd Ag f acolor X RlOOi. At the s a m e tim e advances in

g r a in c ryst al s tructur e t e chnol o g y

ha

grains to specific requirements :

Fuji , for in s t a n ce ,

they are able to render

s ensitivity si t es s usceptible

e

pulses from electronic f l ash

s o urces

intensity lighting from n a tural

s ources .

of the two

can be indi v iduall y met. The

tr

a chi e ved b y ex ploit i ng a dvanc e s

in d ev el o pm e nt

r

K od a c o l o r G old films e x hibit a

h

col o urs , g iving bri g hter colour

r e n d e r i n g,

in

Super H R at ISOlOO

to t a ilor

s u gges t th a t

certain

to the

s hort

v e be e n ex ploited

ffe c t o f high-inten s ity

and oth e rs to the long e r-

In thi s wa y the differing

contrast requirement s

e nd to bright e r

eage nt s

colour is

inhibi ti on

s o th a t , for e xa mple,

the

ig h e r co ntr as t

i n t h e indi v id ua l

w hi le a t th e sa m e t i me

b u i ld -

h i b it i n g ove r a l l c on tr as t

u

p w h i c h w o uld l ea d t o prints of

h

ar s h ap p . ea ra n ce.

Th e ye ar a l so saw th e end , f o r

th e l im e be i n g a t l eas t , o f th e t e n-

yea r l ega l b a tt le b e t w e e n

Po l ar o i d and E a s tm a n

t

r e sult o f w hi c h was

K o d a k ,

h e i mm e di a t e

comp a tibl e Fujiram a pro ces s) . Pol a roid h a ve not been idle

m

as well a s the l e gal , a nd the y ea r

fr o nt

ea n w hil e

on the technic a l

saw the i ntroduction

of a new

s

e lf -de ve lopin g

s ingle-she e t print

s

y s tem known as P o lar o id Sp ec tr a

in Am er i ca a nd Austra l as i a

and

as Pol a r o id

I ma g e in E u ro pe .

As

w i th m a ny Pol a roid introducti o n s

t

o nl y w ith a ne w c a m er a r a n g e a nd

is in a new re c t a ngular

br

A

h e ne w m a ter i al

i s comp a tible

f ormat .

ig ht e r , s h a rp e r colour

ren de r i ng i s cl a im e d , with s pec i f ic

improv e ments

a

in pastel sh a de s

o f natur a !

n d in t he re p rodu c tion

fol

iage col o ur s .

The n o vel

technic a l f e ature

of th e new film

i

c y a n

c

th e ir S X -70 a nd 600 frlrns b y

immobilising mi g r a tin g d yc s

wh e re image

im

the y ell ow

s th a t , w hil e the m ag ent a

a n d

im a g e s a r e f or m e d in th e

P olaroid

wa y as ill

f o r

o nvention a l

the y a r e not r e qui re d

fo rmati o n ,

a ge i s form e d by the revers e

proces s. A tem p or a ril y

i mmobili se d ye Jlo w dy e, linked to

a

t

hiazolidine g roup, is released

b

y a n e x ch a n ge

reaction w hen

re

ve r sa l-im a g e

sil v er ions f rom

the blu e -s e nsit i ve

l a yer re a ch the

d ye . Thi s , cl a im P o lar oi d ,

int e r-im a ge

y ellow l ay er an d the o th e r two to

be r e d u ce d a n d p e rmit s f ine

tunin g o f , p a rticul a rl y,

col o ur r endering.

e n a ble s

ef f e cts bet w e e n the

g r e e n

I

n c o lour rev e rsa l

fi lm s , the

y ea r ' s m a in n e ws wa s th e

ann o unc e ment ,

th

film , t hat a n e w IS0 20 0

fi f t y y e ar s aft er

s t i ll c a m e ra

e f ir s t K o d ac hr o m c

d

es ig n e d f o r the e a r li e r

K o d ak

co l o u r m a t e r ials,

t h e m a j or

K o da k' s w i thdrawa l f r o m

Kod a c h r o r n e P r ofe s s io n a l 3 5 mm

m

a n u fa c t ur er s

h a ve r e c ogn i se d

'

insta nt ' ph o t o gr a phy ,

l e a ving

il m wo u l d · b e · intr o du ce d

f

t o

(-22 p ro ccs s a r e b y now l o n g o u t of d a te .

t

he po pul a r i t y

wi t h the p ubli c o f

P o l a r o i d a l o n e (ex ce p t i n J a p an ,

s up p l e me nt

t he e xis t i ng I S 025

 

S

im i l a r l y . a l l w es t e r n

a n d far

il m s g i v i n g b r i g htl y co l o ur e d

f

w

h e re,

a t t h e t i me of publ i ca ti on ,

an

d 6 4 ve rs i o n s

( a n d t h e e lu s iv e

eastern c o lour re ve rsa l mat e ri a ls

p

ri n t s , and Kodak , Fuji and Agfa

('71.1ji co n t i nu e t h e ir Ko d a k -

IS

0 4 0

a r t i fi c i a l

l i g ht T y p e A) .

_

~ ~t ~ ~ ·r · ~ 1 : ~ ~ ~ .~ ~ ~~~ ' : ~ ~!t ~ ~ff~~ ~-~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ ?»"!l · ·~ 1 "·~ -~

~ .•:.-" . !: . < ~

~ .::,± . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~~ .~:.:. -

.•.

.•.<.:

Ev e n m o re s u r pri s in g

imminent extension of

Kod a chrom e Profe ssi onal film to

larger s i zes , speci f ic a ll y

r

w as th e

120

o U f ilm and 70mm bulk, I t h a d

set .•

~~ " . % - ~~"'~~~~~ ~ ,

Kodac h rom e b u lk p r ocess i ng,

with i ts r e qui re m en t

s ub s t an ti a l semi -c ontinu o u s

t

for mat s wo ul d effe ct ively i n hi b it

of a

hrou g hpu t

of ma t eria l ,

to wider

~ ~~- , Jt _ ", ~ ~'; . f _~ : &

~ ::

~!"2-d_~:'2"::.!"_ - ~' ~ ::~ ~b t c ~tM t' : " ; B

Ilford's baryta - coated f i bre-based

vers i on of t he ir varia bl e - co ntr ast

M ul t i grade paper u n de r the

FB as a

desig n ation

d

Multigrade

i rect c o mpetitor for Kodak ' s

p articu l ar f e ature of U f ord

Mu l tigrad e

of the maximum bla c ks , a s cribed

F B is t h e high dens i ty

a more tight l y co n trol l ed

to

i

m mobi li sa ti o n

o f t he f lu o r escen t

been w idely believed , ever s ince

a

n y s u c h mo ve, T he move was

recent l y- i ntrod u ced Po l yfibe r.

b

r igh t en er i n corporated

i n

the withdrawal of Kodachrom e

e

nthu s i as t i ca l l y

we l c om e d in

T

h e n ew Ilfo rd p a p e r is a v a ilabl e

vi

r t u a lly all mod ern p r inting

sh e et fi lm some forty y ears

pr of es s i o n a l c irc l e s,

i

n th re e surfa c es

o n a double-

pa pe r s.

earlier, that t h e ec o nomic

a nd

T h e p r in cipa l black - a n d-white

w e i ght base and in g l ossy on l y on

technic a l di ffi culties o f extend i ng

introduct io n

o f th e y ea r was

a s in g l e-we i g ht

p a p er .

A

 

N

, N-Diethyl-p-phen y lenedi a min e s ulph a te = C o l-

C

hlorquinol ( = chloroqu i n o l o r c hl o r-

Ma k i n g up solutions Glass, pl a stic, new enamel or st a inless steel vess e ls should be used , The chemicals should b e taken in order and each c ompletel y dissol v ed b e fore adding the n ex t , u s in g a bout three-qu a rters of th e f i n a l volum e of w a ter , Cold o r te p id (35-40 ° C) water s hould b e used , not hot w a ter (e xc e ptions a re gi ve n b elo w ) , Distilled or d eio nis e d water should pref er - a bly be u s ed in making up the solutions , p a rticula r ly the firs t and c olour developer s , but this is not e ssent ial , and t a p water may be u s ed, If the w a t e r s upply i s too h a rd, it is h e lpful to add, p a rti c ul ar ly t o water d e s tin ed f or bl ack -a nd - wh i t e a n d colour d e ve l o p e rs , b e for e d iss olv i ng a n y other c hem ica l s Z g / lof a s equ es te r ing a gent : C a l g on, so dium he x - ametaphosph a te , or sod i um tripolyphosph a te, Anhydrous carbon a t e s hould b e dissolv e d sep a - r a tely in a bout three times it s o wn bulk o f h o t water. H o t w a t e r mu s t a l s o b e u s ed to m a ke up a h a rd e ner - ble a ch , whi c h may throw down a whit e pr e cipitat e when cold, but this does not a ffect it s workin g ; stop baths are best m a d e ' up cold. Time can be saved by using 20 % solutions of thiocyanat e and bromide in s tead o f solid re a gent. Phenidon e s hould b e dis s olved aft e r the h y dr o quinone and a lkali s . A ll so lution s should b e a llowed to stand for a bout 30min a nd filt e red before use . Practic a l metric measures (g = grams; ml = millilitres (= ern? or cc for practical purposes); °C = Celsius) a re used throughout.

Colour developing agents The f o l lo wing col o u r d e v e loping ag ent s a re th ose w hi c h a r e, or h ave b ee n, i n c o mm o n use ; ot hers a r e u sed in s ome s p e cialis e d colour pr o cesse s , s uch a s K odachrome K-L4, but a re not supplied or needed for those proces s es which are g ene r ally a v a il a ble ,

N ,N - Di e th y l-p-phenylene d iamin e hydrochl o rid e = A cti vol H ( John so n) , C olou r D e veloper 1 (chloride ) ( M e rck), CD - l

(

Kod a k ).

our D ev eloper 1 (sulphate) (Merck) . M ore sulph a t e

th a n hydrochlo r ide will be need e d in the ratio

262

N,N-D ie th y l-p-phen yl enediamlne

G e n o chrom e

(M a y & Baker) , A c tivol No . 1 (John s on), S28 (3M1

Ferr a nia).

2-Amino-5-di e thylaminotoluene hydrochloride =

Tol oc hrom e

(M ay & Ba k er ), Colour D eve lop e r 2 ( M e rck) ,

CD- 2 ( Kod a k ).

4-Amino-N -et hyl-N-((3- m ethan es ulph o n a m i do et h y l - m-tolu i dine se s qui s ulph a te monoh y dr a te = Myd o chrome (May & Baker); A c tivol No 3 (John- son) , Colou r Developer 3 (M e rck); C D -3 (Kod a k). 4-[N - Ethyl-N -2 -hydro xy eth y l]-2-me t h y lph e nylen e -

d la m l n es ul p h ate • • Co l o u r Deve l oper 4 ( M erc k) ,

CD -4 (K od ak) ,

N-Eth y l - N-(( 3- h y droxy e th y l)-p-ph e n y l e n e diamin e sulph a t e = D r oxychrome (May & Bak e r) , A c ti v ol

No 8 (John s on), T32 (Orwo) , C olour D e velop e r 32

/Mer c k ) .

N-n - But y l-N ( 4 s ulph o -n - but y l ) l, 4- ph e n y l e d ia m i n e

: 200 .

sulph i te =

= Ac60 (Agfa ) , Colour De ve lop er 60 ( M e r c k) ,

Thi s l is t i s r et ain e d although some o f th e c hem i cal s are no lon ge r available und e r the trade names indicated here , since readers have found it of

as s i s tance in t r acking them down . Th e main s up-

pli e r s are: R ayco Ltd , Ash Road, Ald e r s hot, Hants .

T e l e phone : 02 52 22 72 5 and Hog g Labora t ory Sup-

pli e s , Sloane Street, Birmingham Bl 3B W.

Chemical names and synonyms

As f ar as po s s i ble the current preferred n a mes have

been u se d for ch e mical s. Th ese a r e th e n a mes und e r

w hi c h ' the y will g ener a ll y app ear i n m anufac tur e r s'

ca t a l og u e s . H ow ev e r , ea rlier e di ti o n s of t h e A n n ual

a nd Almana c, a nd f o rmula e f r o m oth e r s our ces ,

may make u s e of alternative

imp or t a nt o f these a r e listed h e r e :

A c id EDTA (see EDTA )

B o r a x (= d iso dium tetr a borat e)

C a l go n ( [tr a d e n a m e ) = s odium he xa m eta ph os -

ph at e )

Cau

n a m es , The m os t

st i c s od a ( = s od i u m h y dr ox id e )

hydroquinone)

Chrome alum (= chromic potassium s ulphate)

Diethylen e g lycol (= digol)

2, 5-Dim e tho x ytetrahydrofur a n : ( = t etra hydr o -2 , 5 -

dim e tho xy fu ra n)

Disodium phosph a te (= di s odium h y drog e n

or t hopho s ph a te)

EDT A (= ethylenedinitrilotetra acetic , often ca lled

.

ethylenedia minotetr a

acetic a cid or ethylene bi s imi-

n

o di acetic a cid) . Th e acid h a s been r e ferred t o

v

a riousl y a t t i m es as Acid EDTA , E D T A ,

EDTAA , Eth a dimil , Acid e t e tr a c e rn i qu e. H av id o t e and tetr a mic acid , Tr a de n a me s in c lud e I r ga l o n an d

S e que s tr e ne o r Sequ e strol ( G ei gy) , Ve r se n e (Dow), Questex , Te trine , K a lex, Tr i l o n B, Ko rn- plexon , Complexone, Nerv a n a id (ABM Industrial

Products Limited ). S a lts of thi s acid u se d ph o t o - graph ic a lly lire EDT A N aFe ( = EDTA f e r ric

m o no s od i um sa lt ) a nd ED TA Na4 ( = E D TA

t e tr as odium salt) . T he nam e e d e t i c a ci d fo r t h e aci d ,

th e s a lts b e ing ed e t a te s , h as m a de i t s a ppe a r a n ce i n

the British Pharm a c o poeia C o dex and the U S Ph a rmacopoe i a . Eth y lene d ia mine ( = 1,2 di a mino e th a n e) Fo rm a ld e h y de (= form a lin )

Gl yc in (= p a r a -h y dr oxy ph e n y l g l y c i n e o r p a r a-

h y dro xy ph e nyl am i noaceti c ac id )

IBT ([trade name]) = benz o triazole ) KOdaITd [ trade name] = sodium metaborat e ) Monopotassium phosphate (= potas s ium dih y d ro - gen orthopho s phate ) Monosodium phosph a te (= s odium dih y drog e n orthophosphate) Potash or pot ass ium a lum (= a luminium pot assi um sulph a te) Pyrocatechin (catechol or 1 , 2-dihydroxybenzene) Sequestren e NaFe ([trade n a me]- see E DTA)

Sodium bi s ul p hate [sodium hydro ge n s ulph a t e ] Sodium bi s ulphite [= met a bisulphit e ]

S o dium h y d ros ulphite [sodium dith i oniote]

Hydrat e d salts Many of th e s alt s u se d in th ese formul a e

obt a in e d alternati v el y in a nh y drou s o r h y d rate d

m ay be

f o rm s, in s ome ca ses in s eve r a l s tat es of h ydra ti on . So m e o f th e pr i n ci p a l of th ese ar e as fol l ows:

Dis o dium h yd r ogen o rlh o ph olp ha te - ava il ab l e with

o r 12 H 2 0. The

2

H z O ,

7H 2 0

( r e l at iv el y

r a r e )

i

f

~.

!

I

1

r el a tiv e qu a ntiti es r e quir e d

are 1 .00 , 1. 5 0 , 2 . 00.

E t h y l e n e dia min e -in its hydrat e d

80% o f t h e pur e s ub s t a n ce:

em pl oy ed a r t; , . th e re fo r e

M ag n e s iu m - s ~lphat e -h as

o rm c o ntain s to b e

f

in its h y drat e d

r e l a ti v e qu a ntiti es 1. 00 and 1. 25 .

IH 2 0

o r m or 7H 2 0 ( ' Ep so m

f

es requ i r e d

ti

dr

1. 0 0,

i e d f o r m i s o f va r iab l e

ar e

s a lt s ' ).

Th e r e l a tive

2 . 0S .

LIS ,

c o mp os ition .

The

quanti -

s o -call e d

Sodiu m ~ cetat e -h as

T

h e qu a ntit y

1.

6 6: 1.00.

r e lativ e

3 H 2 0

in i t s h y dr a t e d

fo r m .

to a nh y drou s

required

is

Sod ium c arb o nate-a v ailable

a

nh y drous.

IH 2 0

(s

qu a n t i t ie s requir e d

s p eci f ic a t io ns a r e fr e quently

o d a a s h ) o r 1 0 H 2 0

( w a s hing

so da ) .

The re la ti ve

a re 1.0 0 , 1. 26 , 2 . 6 9 . A lthou g h

qu o t e d

i n term s of the

a

n y h y dr o u s

s a lt ,

thi s is m o r e

diff i cult

to di s solv e

t

h a n t h e

s t a bl e

m o n o h y dr a t e ,

so l d

a s so da

a s h

( n o t e: th i s is ava i l a b l e in a r a n g e o f puri ti e s -m a n y

t o o i mpur e fo r p h o t og r a phi c

w as hin g s o da , t e nd s t o lo s e w a t e r of c ryst a lli sati o n

a n d go p ow d er y: it s co m pos ition

is then indefinit e .

u se) . The d e c a h y dr a t e ,

Sodi um d i h y d r oge n o rth o p h osp ha te -u s u a ll y

2

H 2 0 .

T h e

qu a ntit y

re qui r ed

r e l at i ve

t o

wi th

the

a

nh yd r o u s

m a t e rial

i s 1.3 0 : 1 .

S

o dium s ul p h a t e is ava il a bl e in th e anh y dr o u s

f or m

a n d w i t h l O H 2 0. T h e r e l a ti v e

quant i ti es

a r e 1. 00

an

d 2 .27 . Th e a nh y d ro u s

fo rm m a y b e u n re li a bl e

u

nl es s d r i e d b e f o r e

u se .

S

odi um s ulphit e -anh y dr o u s ,

7H 2 0 or lOH 2 0. R e -

l

a t ive q u a ntiti es

requir e d

a r e 1. 00, 2 . 0 0 , 2 .27.

S o dium th iosu l p ha t e -ha s S H 2 0 in h y dr ate d f orm .

Q

u a ntit y r e quir e d

r e l a ti v e to a nh y dr o u s

Tr i so diu m ph os ph a t e -h as

1 2 H 2 0

i s 1.S7 . in hydrated

f

a

o rm. Anh y dr o u s

b l e b y e qu iv a l e nt

a nd h y dr a te

w e i g ht

ar e not inter c han ge -

a s t h e

l at ter

i s m o re

al ka l i n e .

Alk a li s o lution s

form

of s od ium onve ni e n t

c

a 4 0 or S O % we ight / v o lume

in

p e ll e ts s h o ul d b e m u l t ipli e d

T h e p e l l e t s a n d s t i c k s a b so rb. b o th C O 2 a n d m oi s -

t

w hi c h k ee p s

S o diu m h y d r ox ide - a lthou g h

h yd r oxi d e

b

s

the tr a dition a l

i s as s tick s

o r pellet s,

a

f or m o f pu rc h a s e

fo r the s m a ll u s e r i s as

olution ,

f or

d e finit e l y if s t o pp e r e d .

u r e rea d i l y .

The w e i g ht s s peci f i e d

y 2 . S o r 2 r e s p e c ti v e l y.

Ammo ni u m h yd r oxide-th e

st a ndard

form is ' 8 8 0

Am m o ni a' ,

a r e f e r e n c e

t o it s d en s i t y.

T hi s s o lu t i o n

s 35% we i g ht / v o lum e .

i

re qu i r e s di luti o n

Diluti o n

t o 2 0 a nd

2 5 %

wit h wat e r i n t h e r a t i os 1 00 : 75 a n d

1 0 0: 40 r es pe ct i v e l y .

Act i vit y

W h e n st r ic t a ccuracy i s esse nti a l ,

b e c h ecked w ith a p H - m e te r ( t e s t p a p e r s a r e n o t

m a y

th e pH-v a l ue

suit a b l e) a nd a dj u st e d to t h e st a n d a rd v a lu e by t h e

add i t i o n

o

o f c a u s t i c soda ( so di u m

h y d r ox id e )

so l u tion s

p e ll e t s

r Fl a k e s o r t h e 4 0 o r 5 0 %

m en t i o n e d

,

. "

.•

:.•.

~.,, '

-;.,:

'

,.:. " ~.

a

b y s e ndin g

ve l o p e, acc o r d in g to u s e r r e quir e m e n t s.

L

s

a very

o

u

W

Rd

s

Lim ite d ,

re w illin g t o a d d t o th e ir c h e m i ca l

e obt a ine d

lis t s , w h i ch c a n

e n- K oc h -L i g ht

B uc ki n gh a m-

b

a st a mp e d

Co lnbr ook ,

C o ln b r o o k

a ddr ess ed

a bor ator i e s

hire S L3 O BZ , t elep h one :

c omplet e '

r g anic

s e r , t ra de ,

on es ,

2262 - S , s t ock

es pecia ily

ra n g e o( ' c h e mic a l s,

' T h e , Re xo lin

and a re s upplie rs

a nd i ndus t ry .

to t he l a r g e s c a le

Di v i s i o n

o f

. R . Grac e Ltd, Northd a le H ous e , No r th C ircular

, a lts and chela tin g

London

NWl O 7 U H

agents .

suppl y

E DTA

Ubi eh e m , 2 81 Hith e r-

EDTA ,

m

t

proce ssin g ch e mica ls .

oo r

Ro a d ,

Stan w ell

M o or ,

S tain es

T W 19 6 AZ ,

e leph o ne :

075 3 6 8 51 1 7 , s uppl y m o s t p h o t og r a p h i c

Times

A

shoul d

ll t im es,

b e

i n c lud i n g a d h e r e d

t h o s e

f or w as hin g

or rin s i n g ,

t o in orde r

t o o b v i a te

th e

pos

s ibilit y

o f c o l o ur

c ast s . T h e s p ec ifie d

tr e atm e n t

it

e m s in c lud e

1O - 15 s ec d rain age .

Temper a tur e

 

Mai

nt e n a n ce

o f c o n s t a nt tem p e r a ture

t hr o u g h o ut

fir s t (bl a ck -a nd- w hite ) de ve l o pm e nt in re v e r sa l pr o ce ssing a nd (c o lour) dev e l o pm e nt in neg ati v e

pr o c essin g i s a bs o lute l y

a r e to be a c hi eve d . I n th e o th e r s oluti o n s , t h e

ess enti a l if c ons iste nt re s ults

to l er a n ce

is w id er ,

a ltho u g h

t h e s pec i fie d

limit s

s

hould

b e r e s pe c t e d .

Eve n s o , it i s important

t h a t

ex ce ssiv e tem p e ra ture

s

differ e n c es

b e twe e n su cce s-

in tr a n s fe r-

i v e so lut io n s

a nd was h w a t e r , e s p ecia l l y

r

i n g t o t h e w as h f o l l o w in g

c o l o u r d ev e l o pment ,

b e

avo

id e d ,

ot h e r w i se

th ere

i s a ri s k o f r e tic ul a tio n .

The w ashin g

t imes g iven in th e pr o c e dures

a ppl y a t

th

e r eco mm e nd e d

t e mp e r a tur es ;

if wat e r

a t l owe r

t

S O % p er s - e

e mp er a tur e s

i s u s e d t i m es

m u s t

be e x t en ded

b y

Ag

The r ec omm e nd e d

l

s o lu tio n s

s h o uld be r eg ard e d as a mini m um ; mor e vig o r o us

a g itati o n c a n o nl y b e a dva nt a ge o u s in e x p e diti n g

i n t h e e mu l s i o n .

so luti o n

s

i tation

ag ita t io n i s i ndi c a t e d immedia t e -

It s h o uld

b e a dhered

t o

but i n o th e r

y af t e r . th e p r o ce dur e .

tr i ctl y

i n th e

d e ve l op e r s

c h a n ges

Li

a t what

s t a ge n o rm a l r o om l ig h tin g m ay b e res um e d w h e n

u se o f a n o p e n p ro c ess i n g ,

d

l

i n i t i a l

T

ghtin g

he i n di v idu a l

a r kr oo m

ig h t - ti g ht

pr o c ed u res

c l ea rl y

s h o w

t

ank n ecessi t ates

wo rki n g.

At the sa me s t ag e ,

th e lid o f a

t a nk m ay b e r e m o ve d .

e c o n d expos ur e h e r e seco n d exp os u r e

S

W

t o lig ht i s t h e m anufactu r-

e r ' s r e co m m e nd e d proc e du r e th e r eco m m ende d

l

r

a m p wa t ta g e

i a t e p o i n t . T h e f ilm s h ou l d pr efe r a bl y

a nd d i s t a n ce

ar e s hown a t t h e ap p r o p-

thr o u g h

b e r e m ove d a d i s h o f co l d

fr o m t h e s pir a l a n d s ee- s awe d

a

bo v e - s - i t

i ~ sa f e s t

t o u se t h e d i lut e

so l ut i o n s -t o

w a te r b e l ow t h e l amp , fro nt a n d ba c k b e in g ex p o s e d

ra

i s e th e pl - l -v a l u c

o r . i f n e ce ssa r y.

s o d i um m e t a-

a

p p r ox i mat e l y

eq u all y .

If t h e e xp os ur e

i s ca rri e d

b

i s u l p h i t e

or a c e ti c

a c i d

t o l o we r

i t . L i q u i d

pH

o

ut w i t h th e f i lm in a t r a n s p a r e n t -e nde d

s pi ral , bes t

W

If a fin a l

m

wa

o rd er to a cce l e r a te drai n i ng a n d d r y in g , t h e r e b y

inhib iting drying m a r ks .

e

Ae

U

non - i o ni c

F

NP X . Th e w ett in g

0 % s o lu t i o n thu s fo rmin g

1

Th e wo rk i n g s t r en gth

so

a

but s h o uld be d isc a rded

ett i n g age n ts

ate r i a l

w as h s h o uld

t e r co nt ain i ng

complete s be p as s ed

a ro und

th e proc ed ure,

the

fo r ab o ut

l m i n th ro ug h

a ge nt

in

Irnl /l o f we t t i n g

T h e wettin g age nt m a y b e

e g Am e ric a n

C y a n a m i d

ither o f th e a nionic t y p e -

r oso l

n io n C a r bide T ergito l

r a nc o lor

t y p e - Sun ap t o l

OT ( s o dium di - i s o - o ct ys ulph o s u cc in a te ) ,

7 a nd C i b a In v i to l -

01" t h e

eg Ro hm an d H ass T r i t o n X- l OO, O P a nd U n io n C ar b ide T c r g itol

ag e nt is co nv e ni e ntl y

s t or ed a s a

a n d m a d e up as a 10 % s o l u t i o r . of thi s,

a 1 % sol u t ion .

luti o n kee p s indefini tel y

fter use .

D

r y i ng

S

h o uld

b e per f o rme d

u n d er p r o te c tio n

f ro m

a ir

cur

re nts

a n d du s t.

Stora g e

T

n i s h e d b y 20 -65 % de pe nd i n g

a

h e keeping

nd stor a g e

tim e o f used so lut i o ns

(fullness

m a y b e d i m i -

o f u se

upon co ndit i on s

o f b o ttles,

a nd sea lin g

d a rk-

ne

ss a nd temp e r a tur e ) .

W ell s t oppe red

dark g l ass

bo

ttl e s s h ou ld b e us e d a t temp eratu re s n ot excee d-

i

s

bl

s

pr o p e r t i e s .

ng 20 ° C .

houl d ,

eac h

tock s,

How e ve r ,

firs t a nd

c o l o u r

d ev e l o p er s

in a ny . c as e,

an d

fi xer

b e us e d a s fre s h a s pos s i b l e .

a re

m a d e

up as tr i pl e - s tr e ngth

If

sto r a ge

t h e y w ill b e f o und t o h ave ex c e ll e nt

Gen e ral

Th

po n d i ng

o

from d iff e r e nt s upplie r s . Tocomp e ns a te

wher e n ec e s sar y ,

u s er 's

i

less u s u a l in g r e di e n ts m a y be h el pful :

C itr az i ni c a cid (C Z A o r 2 , 6 -dih y dro xy i so ni co t i ni c

a cid) i s employ e d as a s p eci alis ed restrainin g a g ent

e f o r m ul a e

c cas i o n a lly

ndi vi du a l

qu ot ed pr o d u c e

re s ult s c l ose l y c o r r e s -

w ith t h os e fr o m offi c i a l k i t s , b u t d e v i a t i o n s

o c c u r o w ing to va ri a t i on s

or t o provide

c o ntr o l s

t as t e ,

th e fol low i n g

in re a g ent s for t hese, to s uit th e

n o t es o n th e

a

e

d

e xc ess p rod uce s

in c o nc e nt ra tio n

t h y l e n ed iam i n e

E

(ED T A N a .) a c t s a s a n a c c e l e r ato r . A d ef i c i e n cy

pr

n d se r ve s to p r ev ent

x cessi ve l y

d en s e

e f i cie nc y pro d uc es

w h at w oul d o th e rwi s e

and c o n t r a s t y

dye

a de n se g ree nis h

b e a n A

im ag e , b u t a n

im a g e.

a thin pinkis h im ag e ; a 1 0 % c h a ng e

s ho w s m a rk e dl y

in th e resul t .

tet r a -a c e t i c

aci d t e tr aso dium

sa l t

im a g e , where a s

an e xc ess

od uce s

a t hin ye llowis h

pr

od uce s

a he a vy bluis h ima ge; a 10 % v a ri a ti o n

has

a

q u i t e n ot i c eab l e e ffe c t .

B e n zy l a l co h ol

a cts as a p e n etrat i ng a gen t m a ki n g

t

h e

o t h e r w i se

wa terproo f

d ye -f o rm e r

a

part i cu l a r l y

c cess ible

t o th e c o l o ur

i m p o r t a n t

d e v e lop er to e n s u r e

p a rticl es It i s

t h at th is l i quid i s

pr o duct s.

 

co

mplete l y

d i sso lved

b e fo r e

a n y oth e r

re a g e nt

of

t

h e co l o ur deve lop e r

i s add e d .

Va r i a tion s i n th e amo u nt of c o lo u r de v e l o pin g agent

in

d i c a t o r s .

c g BDI - 1 . a va i l a b l e

fr o m p h armaci es,

i

m m e r sed

in co l d wa t er

in a w hi t e b ow l , th e t ime

p

r od uc e

e f fe cts r a t h e r si mil a r t o th ose of the E DT A

m

ay be u s eful tu t h e a m a t e ur.

s

h o u l d b e e xtend e d 1 ' /, ( 3 5mm) or 2 V , (1 2 0) tim es .

sa

lt, t he ba l a n ce

tr ave llin g

f rom t h i n a nd w a rm t o

h em ical s upplie r s

C

M

o s t c h e m i c al s

qu o t e d

i n Th e Brit i s h J ourna l o f

Ca

w

un l e ss the l a mph o l der

r e

s h o u l d

th e h o t lamp

a n d n o t t o wo rk n e ar th e s ink or t a p s

i s p r op e r l y e a r t h e d .

be take n

n o t t o s p l as h

i t h wa t e r

T h r e e or

d

e n s e a n d co o l as th e co n c e n tr ati o n

Pr

eca ution

i s incr ea s e d .

Ph oto g r aph y A II I I I W/

ar e av a il a ble

fr o m

R a y c o

o u r e l e c tr o n i c

f

F l as h es o n ea c h s i d e o f t h e fi lm may

Colo u r d e v elo p e rs

co n t a in

d e r iva t ive s

of p a r a -

L

im i te d. Ra y c o Wo r k s . Bla c k w a t e r

W a y ,

A s h

a

l s o b e v s c d : tI : ho llg h t h is m a v g iv e o dd c o l o u r c a s t s

p

h e n y len e d i a min e ,

w h ich

in c e rt a i n

perso n s m a y

' , 1

, 1

,

· · .· h

fh ; !t ,

: ( · ! " ' -" ~ . ) n < ~ :27~"?c::.

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M !4S

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.,

I

" O U '"' '

; t f o r m of sk i n irrit a t i o n .

P e r s o ns

w h o a re

'If

u

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sensitive to chemicals of this kind should take

precautions

t o av o id contact

with t h e d e v e loper

b y

u

s ing rubber

glov es . In a ll cases, wh e n th e s kin h as

b

ee n in cont ac t w ith th e so lution ,

it s h o uld b e rin sed

w e ll in clean w a ter, pr e ferabl y

m a d e a c i d w i t h a f e w

dr o p s of acet i c or h y dr o chloric ac id, be f ore u si n g

so a p. Where pr o c e s s ing

ch e mi ca l s

u s e d

T h e E kt a c hr o r n e

t

h e E - 4 p r o c ess ,

E-6 p r oc ess ,

l ik e i t s p rede c e ss o r

i s in t en d e d

fo r mac h i n e

u se a n d i s

pr e m i ses

subject t o th e provi s i o n s

are of t h e H ea lth

i n a n d

u

sef ull y s h o r t e r ,

n e e d i n g

a ro und

4 0 m in

i n t h e

S

a f et y

A ct ,

1974 (eg

in pr ofess i o n a l

u se

o r in

s

o lut i o n s.

Th e s h o r t e r

pro c e ss

t i m e i s a c h ieved

b y

c

o mmerc ial

p r oc ess ing

pl a nt s )

b e

r

a i s i n g t h e so l u tio n t e mp e r a tur e s

to 3 8 ° C. F r o m t h e

t h e A c t s houl d to b e obser ve d .

con s ulted for t h e s a f e ty pr e caution s

u

s er 's p o in t o f v i e w t h e p ro cess

h as b e e n i mpr o ve d

In a ll cases w a rning s printed ' on chemi ca l package

l

details of precautions

of p a rticular m a terials may be found in the So c iety of Ch e mi s try publication, H az ards

to be observed in the handling

a b e l s

s hould

b e

s t r ictly

compli e d

with .

Full er

Royal

in th e

Chemical Lab o rat o r y (3rd editi o n ) by L. Brether -

wi c k .

The g eneric

rev e r sa l mate r i a l s

m a teri a ls of thi s typ e except two-Ekta c hrom e

n a m e

for Kodak i s Ekt a chrome

u ser-proces s abl e a nd a ll current

In f r a red and Photomi c rograph y

a

c

r e pr ocessed

o ntinue

to u s e

th e

earlier

Color F ilm 24 8 3-

b y Process E-6 . T hese tw o ex ception s

Process

E- 4,

w hich

p re -

liminary hard e n e r h as been e lim i n a t e d by hardenin g

the film emul s i o n in m a nuf a ctur e a nd the hi g hly

toxic tertiary-butyl a minoborane

age nt in the c o lou r develop e r

t

e v e rsing

a g e . Like ve l o pment

st

r

in tw o dir e cti o n s;

th e s om ew h a t

a g g r es s iv e

u se d a s a rever s in g

h as bee n replaced

s t a nn o u s

c hl o ride

b y

in a

th e c o l o u r

ne g a tive

for co l o u r

n eg ati v e

d e -

blea ch a nd

he

much

l es s d a n g erou s

b a th w hi c h p re c e d es

the C - 4 I

pr o ce ss th e E- 6 pr oc es s u s es se p a ra t e

fi x stage s but w ith the bleach ac t i o n p e rformed

fe

fix s olution s .

e

permitting sub s t a ntia l economie s in w a t e r consump -

tion (and pr o bably working temper a tur e ) .

ned emulsion, which is mor e r e s istant and less

the high

thu s

b y a

rric-EDT A

liminated ,

co mple x

as is n o w c o mmo n

rin se s

in bl eac h -

Int e rmediate

a nd w as h i ng

a r e practic all y

tim es a r e s hortened ,

in energy also, despite

And, thanks

to the harde-

r

more so as it with s t a nds

t

e t e ntive

of w a t e r ,

drying is much more rapid ,

the n ec e ssar y

higher

e mp e rature s.

th e

a ir

Formulae

Th ese f ormul a tion s

q

turers' formul a e .

g i v e

r e s ul t s

o f co mpar a b le

u a lit y to th ose o bt ain e d

b y th e u se of th e manuf a c -

In o n e or t w o of t h e b a th s d e ri vi n g

Stock c on c en tr a t ed

So lu t ion s pr e p a r e d as co n c e n t ra t e s

b e f o re u se h av e m a r k ed l y

so l u tio ns

i

a n d d il u t e d ju s t

s h e l f li f e- b y

a

we hav e u se d

sav in g of

n c r e a se d

f

a

t

ac t o r o f t wo o r t h r e e.

r e a s fo l l o w s a n d th ey g i v e a wor t h w hil e i m e and e ff o r t.

T h e so lu ti o n s

ir s t d ev e l o p e r

F

Co lou r d e v e l o p e r

R

Co ndi t i o n e r

Bleach

Fixer

Stabiliser

ev e r sa l

Co n c en trat i on

X2

X

X20

XlO

2

X

XS

X20

4

Diluti on

1+1

1

+3 "

1+19

1+9

1+1

1+4

1+19

" The

m

s

C D- 3

o r C D - 4

m ay b e k ep t

s ep a r a t e l y

b y

a kin g

a 2 0 % s olution

fr o m wh i c h ma y b e m e a -

ur e d th e r e quir e d

quanti t y b y pip e t t e .

CD-

3 or CD- 4

20.0g

Pota s sium m e t a bi s ulphit e Water t o

( c r y s t a l lin e)

3 . 0g lOO . Oml

Influence of pH

The E-3 proce s s u s ed solution s who s e pH dif fe r e d considerably f rom one bath to the n e xt. The s e

v

working proposed with E-6 allow s

only minor pH difference s b e tween b a ths-with t h e

F lu c -

ex

tu a tions , inte ntio n a l

pH , can r e sult in va ri a tion s

in

in th e c o l o ur bal a n c e o f

the s ubject

a riations we re considerably

high temperatur e

c eption

reduc e d

from E-4. Th e

of th e f i rst and colour

m a tte r

de v elop e r s .

or n o t , in th e c o l o ur d e v e l o p e r

of th e e x p o s ure s .

V a ri a ti o n s

f ir s t de ve lop e r

p H c hiefly af f ec t i t s a ctivi ty ,

r a i s i n g

o r lo we ring its r e du cin g

p owe r , a nd r es ultin g

in a n

incr ea s e or r e du cti o n in th e s pe e d of d eve l o pm e nt .

ntr o duced revers a l

i

for the fir s t time th e u se o f a chemi c a l

bath

to r e place

re ve r sal

by

a second

r o m th e E- 6 pr ocess we pr o p ose

f

so m e v ariants as in

the f ir s t de v el o p e r

a nd the

bleac h .

Th ey

are both

C

olour De ve l o p e r

pH too l o w : blue ca s t

 

e

xpo s ure.

The r e v e rsal

bath

u sed in P r ocess

E-4 ,

derived

from E-4 and only requir e

a d a ptation

f o r

pH too high : yellow cast

h

o w e ver, contains c o mponents

which a re toxic and

the new products;

this should

mak e

the work

of

Colour d e v e loper

too dilute : ma g enta

ca s t

require

care in h a ndling

which may not be appro-

preparation

easier.

Quantities

a re indicated

in

If the r e ve rs ing

bath is too dilut e or exhau s ted :

priate to some am a teur circumst a n c e s.

 

g

r ammes

per litre or ml per litre .

green cast.

Fir s t developer (pH : 9.6±O.1)

C

Sodium s ulphite (a nh y drou s ) Pot a ssium h y droquinone mono s ulphonate (pure) Diethylen e gl y col P o tassium c a rbonate (anh y drou s ) Phenidone S o dium thioc y an a te (20 % solution) Potassium bromide

Potassium iodide (1 % solution)

W

al gon

a ter to

Al te ru a ti v e fir s t developer (pH: 9.6±O.1)

C a l g on S od ium s ul p h i te (a nh y drou s )

l ' c t a s sium c arb o nat e (anhydrous) H yd roqui non e Phenidon e So dium thioc ya nate (20 % solution) Po tass ium bromid e

Potassium iodide (1 % solution)

W

a ter to

Re v er s al bath ( pH: 5.8±O.1)

 

2

. 0g

Pr o p i onic acid

I

2 ml

I

S . O g

Stannous chloride

1.

6 5 g

20 . 0g

p- Aminophenol

O

. Sg

IS.Oml

Sodium h y droxide

4

.8g

IS.O g

BDH Calcium Compl e xingAgent No 4

ISml

 

O.4g

W a ter to

1000ml

8 .0ml

1. 8 g

4

1000

. 0ml

. Oml

. 0g

l

1S . 0g

S . 0g

2

8

S

6 . 0g

O.

. 0ml

2 . 0 g

. Oml

4g

lOOO .O ml

Note s: 1 The very sm a ll qu a ntity of p-Aminophenol

m

This so lution

2 If t h e so lution ,

c

mor e sh o uld

e

of 2% a c e tic acid f o r lrnin a t 3 8 ° C , f ollowed

tem pe r a tur e

can best be measur e d

b y

a kin g a 0 . 1 % solu t i o n

( lg/lOOOml) in 1 % (lOml/ 1000ml)

s lowl y until it d o e s .

o f propionic a c id . a fter a week or s o .

doe s n o t a littl e out b y

do e s n o t ke e p well and s hould be disc a rd e d

p a rtic ul ar l y

when m a d e up as a 20 x c o nc e ntr a te ,

3 If

re ve r sa l

l ea r o n a dding th e c a l c ium compl ex in g

x p os ur e

be added

a gent in the a bo v e qu a ntit y

i s c a rried

t o light the re ve r sa l bath mu s t b e repl ac ed

in running

w ate r. Th e oper a tio n

b y a s t o p ba th con si s t i n g

b y a rin s e f o r t h e s a m e tim e a n d

i s carried

out in th e d a rk .

{

Colour developer (pH: 1l.6 ± 1l.7)

Blea c h (pH: 5 . 5-5 . 7 )

ED T ANa 4

P o tas s ium carbon a te ( anh y drou s ) S o d i um s ulphit e ( anh y drous ) P o t ass ium br o mid e

P o ta ss ium iodide ( 1 % s olution)

C itr a zinic a cid

H

W

y d roxy l a m in e

a t e r to

h y dr o chl o ride

 

3

. 0g

P

o t a s si um n i tr a t e ( cr ys t a lli n e)

3 0.0g

40

.0 g

 

Potass ium b ro m i d e

 

l lO . Og

 

4.0

g

E

DTAN a Fe o r NH 4 Fe

(Mer ck )

llO.0g

O.

5 g

. Wa t e r to

1 0 00. Oml

3

.0 ml

Not e: Th e nitra te is o ptional

a nd a cts a s a pr o tec tion

f or s t ai nle ss s t e el tank s .

1000

l.2g

1

. Oml

.5 g

Alternati v e bleach ( pH: 6.7-6.9 )

Add befor e use : C D-3

o rCD - 4

1 O . 0 g 7 . 5 g difficulty a s 20% stock solutions

or s odium metabisulphite.

The se two ch e mical s

w ith the a ddition

can be kept without

o f 2-3g p e r litre of potassium

Co nditioning bath (pH: 6. 1 ±O.1)

So dium s ulphi te (a nh y dr o u s )

EDTAAc i d

Th

Wa t er to

iog l y c e r o l

IO.Og

0 g

O.5 ml

8.

1000.Oml

N

o r 109 o f th e l a tt e r m ay be u s ed with the pH a djusted

2 Th e i n c lu s i o n

r es ult s h ave b ee n obt a in e d

m

so dium o r pota ss ium carbon a te .

ot es: 1 If onl y EDTA

odif ic a ti o n

N a, i s a v ai l a bl e

o r EDT A

N a 2 th e n 1 2g o f th e form e r

with d i lute a cetic ac id.

per f e c t

a th with a s m a ll

3 F or our purpo s e s,

b

by a dding

alk a li-

of t hi o gl y c e rol

i s opti o nal,

w ith the use o f th e E-3 c lea r ing

if n e cessary

a nd with the pH adjusted

The b a th is as f oll o ws:

P o t ass ium m e t ab i s ul p hit e (cr yst alline )

H

Wat e r to

y dr o quinone

15

1

. Oml

.0 g

. 0g .

1000

The formulae e s tabli s hed

Her e i s a simple and eff i cient va ri a nt Potassium Ierr i c ya nide (crystallin e )

o r th e E-4 process

f

o f it:

P

o tass ium bromide

also gives e x cell e nt

r es ult s.

lOO.Og

35

. 0g

Di s odium phosphate ( cr ys t a l l in e)

 

2

0.0 g

Wate r to

 

W

O O.Oml

Fixer (pH: 6 . 6-6 . 7 )

 

A mmo n i um thios ulph i t e ( crysta lli n e)

 

7 0 . 0 g

Po

t ass ium m e tabi s ulphit e

( cr ys t a llin e)

1

2.0g

S

odium s ulphite (anhydr o us)

 

7.0

g

Wa t er to

 

IOOO.Oml

Not e : Th e E -3 o r E-4 f i x ing b a ths w or k ju st as we ll.

Stabil is e r

We

tti ng

ag ent (Aer o sol

OT , a ni o nic

pr o duct) (10% solutio n )

rm a ldeh y de a t e r to

Fo

W

( 3 5 - 40 % )

or a n y s imila r

5

6.

. 0ml

0ml

. Oml

1000

No te s

F

or bl a ck- a nd - w hite

de v elo p ment

s t age '

it

i s

A

Th e t e mp e rat u re o f the

de v eloper

must

be

part i cul a rl y

n e ce ssar y

to h ave a s exa ct a knowledge

m

a int a in e d

with the utmost poss ible

accurac y .

We

as poss ibl e of this parameter

( s peed) ,

since it is this

r

ecomm e nd

th e u s e of a st a inl ess

steel tank

i m-

wh i ch determine s

th e qu a lit y

of th e imag e :

g rad a -

m

e r se d in a t a nk of wa ter a t a temperature

of 39 ° C,

t

io n, colour, r e ndering ,

den s ity of th e silver ima ge

r om w hich it i s r e moved

f

for ag it a tion

and imm e-

d

e posit

in th e various zones of the ima ge and hence

di

a t e l y r e - i mm e r s ed .

.

the d y es in th e fin a l ima g e .

 

B Th e t i m es gi ve n

em p ty th e tank: thi s should n o t e xce e d of lO s ec.

include

th e time

n ee ded

to

a ma x imum

T

h e

di a gr a m

illu s trati ng

the rel a t i on

b e t w e e n

t

e mp e ra t ure

a nd dev e lopment

time i s th e r es ult of

o

ur o wn ex p er ime nt a l

w or k;

i t ca n b e o f u s e to

C

Ea ch

ope r a t io n

s hould

be

tim e d

f r o m

the

th

os e w h o wi s h ( o r w h o a r e o blige d )

t o w o rk a t a

m

o m e nt

the

tank

is fill e d

with

the proc e s s ing

t

e mp e ratu r e o th e r th a n 38°C . Th is mu s t not h ow -

so

l u ti o n .

.

e

ver b e b e l ow 32-33 ° C si n ce th is w ill se ri o u sly

a f fec t

D

A n in i tial

ag it a ti o n

o f 20s ec s h o uld

b e g i ven,

th

e c o lour

r e nd eri n g

of th e t ra n spa r e n cy.

(Th e

dur in g w hi c h th e t ank s h o uld

b e t a pp e d

o n a h a rd

p

e rm ea bilit y

o f th e emul s ion dimi nish es

t o o gr e a tly

s urface ( t a b l e o r si n k) t o d is p e r se

th e bu b bl es

of ai r

t

o p e rm i t

a d eq u a t e

ex ch a n ge

of s oluti o n s

t h ro u g h

tr

a p p e d i n t h e s pi ra l aga in s t

the e mul sio n

s u rface .

th

e ge l ati n e . )

E

F o r dry i ng, t h e s pi ra l s hould ,

a f te r r e m o v a l

r o m the s t abili s e r "

f

f i rs t b e w e ll s h a k e n

t o r e m o v e so

far

a s pos s i bl e

l o o se d rops

o f so lu t i o n ;

th e fil m i s

r e mo v e d a nd the n a ll owed t o d r y in a we ll a i red b ut

a t a t e m pe r atu r e d r y in g c l i p s f or

du

of 2 0 - 25 ° C ) or st re tch e d

(l e ft o v er ni g ht

s t fre e s it uat i on

i n s p e c i a l

thi s p u r p os e ,

o r o th e rw i se

s u s p e nd ed.

(A t 20 - 25 ° C

d

r yi n g w i ll t h e n t a k e abo u t

' Io hr . )

Pr

o cess in g at tempera tur es

other than 38 ° C

T

i l l p ro cessi n g p h o t o g r a phi c

r e l a t e d t o w or k in g t e m p e r a tur e . I n o th e r w ord s ,

th

c h e m i c a l a n d p h ys i c a l r eact ion

at w hi c h it occ u r s .

te m p e rat ur e .

w hi c h a r e i nvo l ve d

h e p h ys i c o-c h e mi ca l

e re i s a r e l a t i o n s hip

pr o c e s ses

m a t e rial a r e i n t r in s ic all y

b e t ween

the

s pe e d

of a

a n d th e t e mp e ratu r e

in c r ea s i n g

w i t h t he

th e s p e e d

Pro c e ssi n g

fu

i

L

w

E

times as a

nction of t e mp era tu re

n the r a n ge 3 2- 40 ° C .

ine l-b l ack - an d-

hil e deve lo p er

D TA Fe blea c h ;

a n d

2

- ferr ic y an i d c bl each;

3

- li x ;

4

-- rever s a l bath a n d

c

ondi t io n e r;

5

-- wash.

i- I

I

'

 

40

-

- -

 

L -

 

38

4

 

-

E

3 6

~

Z

~

34

C1>

a.

E

~

32

- - -

- I -

\

\

-, \

- -

l2

\

\

I

Proc e ss

2

I

3

time (minI

I

I,

-

-

I

i

1

\

\

\

\

1\

\

\

I

I

3

tl

456 7 810

- -

~

-

-

20

·. ;= ~ =~~~ = =; ~ ~ : ~~~~ ~~ ~~~

.

L': - " ' '' ' '' ~~ · ''I' , '': f :r9,~< ; 4 ' ' ' ' ' '

'

~-"'-~.'.!.: . ~ ~ _ ~!t

I'> .- ': ! . '~ " "~ ~~ ' . : .

Mo di fl c at ion o f pr o ce ss ing procedure

A Re ve r sa l: I t is p o ss ibl e

to d ispe n se

w ith c hemi -

" ' - - "" _ ~" ~4~l

~ l 3t« _ ~ ~ i je ~ '~ : ~ ~~ l ~~~ }~ ~ £

l e ac h b a th of t h e E - 3 or E - 4 t ype , a d j u s t e d

b

of 6.4± 0 .2 followed

by 2 m i n rins e b e f o r e

t o a p H f ix i n g .

- I s l o p +1 s to p

2x

U.5x

+

2 m i il

+Zmin

Ji

cal revers al

procedure of r e -exposure

electr

an d in s t ea d

flash exp os ure s

o nic

hav e r eco urs e of the e mulsi o n

t o th e c l ass i c to li g ht : 2

t o e ac h s id e o f t h e t a n k

Th e t e mp e r at ur e

through o ut th es e s t ag e s .

E

of 38 ° C s h o u ld als o b e m a intain e d

i s d e s i r e d

tn

k ee p

th es e

va ri o u s

Wh e r e

it

C

o l ou r r end e r in g

i s s light l y a ff e ct e d:

+ I s t op

over ex po s ur e :

red u ctio n o f c o n tr a s t a n d

s

p i r a l aft e r rem o v al

f r o m the t a n k a nd p r eferably

s

o luti o n s,

i n v i ew of th e f a ct th a t t h e re

i s a ri sk o f

 

d

e t eri o r a ti o n

of co l o u r

k

e pt immersed

in w a ter,

a t a dist a n ce

of a b o ut

ea c h s o luti o n bein g c o n tam in ate d

b y t r ac es of th e

a n in t e r m e d i a t e r in se

 

30cm

; or two 2min exposures

to a phot o flo o d

 

at a

pr e viou s bath , we r e co mme nd

-1 sto p

und e r expo s u r e :

re n d e ri n g d imi n u ti o n of m ax imu m

d

i s t a nce

o f a bout

I m e tre ;

o r yet ag ain int e rm e di a t e

of 1 /2 t o l min a ft e r eac h b ath e x c e pt i n g

r ev e r sa l a nd

-

2 s t o p s

de n s it y

 

d

r y ing in diffu se d

li g h t ( not d ir e c t s u n li g ht! )

 

co ndit i o n e r

so luti o n s

wh e re

th e

ac t i on

mu st

be

diminu tio n o f ex p o s u re

B

Should the re-ex posure

procedur e

b e a d o pt e d

in

a

ll ow e d t o con tinu e

in th e f o l lowin g s o lu t i o ns.

T h e

l

a t itu de

place of c hemical reversal,

thi s s oakin g tr ea tm e nt

s

m a ll incre ase

in ov er a ll

tim e

thu s

shi f t o f co l o ur r e nd er in g

sh

o uld be replaced

by Irnin in a stop bath of 2 %

occasioned

c a n

onl y

b e

pr oces s in g of ben ef it

t o w orking

 

incr e as e o f c o ntra s t

ac

e tic

acid

and foll o wed

b y ] min

wash

be fore

c

apa cit y a nd k e eping qu a lit y .

 

. op e ning

th e t a n k .

 

F

rom o ur p e r s on a l

e xp e ri e n ce,

 

un der e xpo s u re

by I

C Rec o urse

m ay b e had to intermediate drying in

Ex po s ure

for a s p ee d oth e r th a n th e n o minal

rating

s t

o p (as f o r e x a m p le

IS 0800 fo r Ek t a c hr o rn e

40 0)

order

to defer completion

of pr o cessing

to a l a t e r

F

ilm s co mp a tibl e

with

the

E -6 pr oc e ss

can

be

still g i ve s e x c ell e nt

re s ults ,

o f qu a l i ty

n o t p e r cep t -

time.

A f ter d r ying ,

the

film

should

be k e pt

in

'uprat e d'

to hi g h e r e muls i o n

s p ee d s b y up to 2 stops

ibly inferior to th a t resulting

from corre c t e xp os ure .

rel a tive d a rkn ess. F o r completi o n of proce ssin g ,

 

it i s

o

r downrat e d

b y I st o p

c omp ar ed

with nomin a l

Not a ll E- 6 proc ess

film s fr o m oth e r ma nuf ac tur e r s

re

wo und

into the sp i r a l and , pr e f e r a bl y,

soaked

in

va lues . T o co mp e n sa te

fo r this, firs t d eve l o pm e nt

b

e

h a v e id e ntic a lly

a nd th ese d eve l o pm e nt

t im es

w a t e r

for

1min bef o re

tr e atm e nt

in the

colour

s hould

then

be m o dif ied

in a ccord a nce

with the

may r e quir e modificati o n