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Considertuions. 1:11, PhfJtogmphing ommercial PU1'1S0Se8. .,

Glass for

By C.



the 8lo'ui'bridge ~Meeting,),farch 18ih, 1936.1 ,

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'I'he }J'U'pOO'>il and form of commercialphot.ographs is discussed with par+i- Iur reference to the photography of glass.. Two distinct types of pllOtog.-.~ph S}lOW respectively the form, and the spirit of glass. Photographs h aving light backgrounds make better blocks in tho subseouent J'l'()I,]uf:tion of j Iustr ations and are preferred to dark 'backgrounds except, j,l eases whore the de-sign of cut glasswUJ'e, has to be shown, '



As t.hir- j>fl iJ"f is an introduction to a discussion of matters affecting t hc i,],{h",r;phing of glass, I propose !,O embrace in my contribut ion t he ',;.(Tal considerations which are always attendant when the worl; is done for general commercial purposes. 'To follow me are s(,i(~nti8ts with a store of knowledgerelating Iighting, spectra, colours, refruction, and at-her subjects) of which I, as a photographic craf+smun, know little. What, I, as a working yhotograpber, have to sa,y uJWJl the practical methods adopted 'bi myself, and others ilk' me, way be very unscientific. .The results achieved by us [11'0 possibly Dot always truthful, but adapted to meet trade and psy('?:~logi.<al conditions, the de.mands and requirements of advert ismg "':nild~Hrls)and the idiosyncrasies of our clients, which, not boing stnnderdised, are not the least of our difficulties ... ' . The ,firf<t :'0l15,ideratioll which a photographer gives is the purpose for which his clients require the pictures: Is it to form a record of work, to illustrate a new&paper advertisement for colouring-up as a, show-card, or perhaps to illustrate a high-class folder or booklet ~ Does he rc:quire a detailed representation of the facts, say for a catalogue, to impress a trade customer, ordoeshe "ish. to persuade one section of the public that his product il:i'a good one, or another that it is all economical one 1 Again, .he primarily concen~ed with the decoration of his goods or with their line and form '1 All these faot.s, and many more, decide the method employed [;0 produce an acceptable result. Unfortunately, vexing questions of nricc and quulity of work are always present. I believe I am C'OlTc'd.in saving t hat., ~c'li2rnlly <peaking. t.he photography of glass is of 8 low ';rder



in this country, chiefly because it is one of the most difficult. subjects in a photographer' repertoire. That being so, it takes more 1ime and thought to produce good work, .and in consequence, more money, which perhaps is the major reason that the photography of glass is poor. While on the subject of national ability it is not to be supposed that conditions are in any way different in countries other than our own. Photography being a comparatively new method of illustratinz advertisements, the clients of photographers are not usually H'l'Y exacting in their demands; in consequence, much YI"1'Y ordinary work is seen, ana the general standard is low. There are, however, both photographers and buyers who realise that goo(1 photography, really good photography, like really good glass, costs good mon..y. It. is poor economy to attempt to make a picture fulfil [\' job ::ut intended for it. Money will be lost if a purely adver rising photograph is pressed into use as r. catalogue illustration, or vice YC13it. I will come later to the differences in these types of illustration. A wholesaler or retailer is interested in detail, form, de-ign, pat tr-rn, ornamentation, surface and colour, and therefore you, illHot sell km many new lines by showing him illustrations without t hcse detnls. On the other hand, you will never sell me glass, as a ir ernber of 'he glass-buying public, upon a dry-as-dust diagraunuat ic illnstra: 'vB of one piece or more. I have to be persuaded that, gL~" is it vauable possession, for my greater convenience, the dec ora 1 ion of 1:,home, or even with which to impress my friends. I 'wilt (]<ej,_:e the actual pattern when I get into the shop. ~
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Generally speaking, t.here arc two broad groups f,,,:. (:('~;"Ii(l .;, 1 photographs. The first and larger group comprise'S 11ho\'\;l'HpiJ.,. for record purposes, such as catalogue illustrations; ;,IE,t')~":l"'l:~ ,. hh " ~ wnic aye no other purpose than to show the subject ,;~ ;'i~"it),t~,: as .t: SIDle, sornetrmes emp hasi . nos " at rile ("_i;;~{' f,;: , ' , iasismg one point others. Silversmiths' illustrations are notorious fU1 tlns : :-. j-jl'~::' catalogues their desire is to show the form and pat tom (it thnj' .:;',(,d" and they treat their illustrations in such a way that all the hizhlv polished silver looks like a matt. aluminium sl;face. I h:n l seen glass illustrations looking like .so much ebony. The ""'(,!jl: type of picture is one ill which, in the case of glass. clPlftil ,:?l'! exact representation are subsidiarv to what I ~,igh~ call "t[!(: spirit of glass." This kind of illuF;t;'ation is not so m~('h on, r,j :;']f ~"",",L ... 1 1 ;:nu ~.,a.tLe:r.J. m.L.D.lC glass itself, Lut one of line and ::;-:f.~;.-: ~..n rornnng a composition creating an artistic and l>11?B:~ iDg llL: !~.; ,'J,
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Luxury is often the effect required. They are photographs in which the advertiser and photographer try to rouse the acquisitive sense of the buying public. The selection of the best means to accomplish this end is governed by factors dependent upon the quality of the goods, the reputation of the firm marketing them, the class of society which it is desired to attract, the purpose for which the goods are to be used, the type of printed reproductionof the photograph, and the medium which is to. carry and distribute the reproduction, such as newspapers; magazines, booklets or leaflets. All these and other matters should be envisaged before commencing the actual photographing: . Let us consider the second mentioned class of work first. Iri the desire to create in the mind of the beholder the wish to purchase the particular kind of glass which is illustrated, we can make it look luxurious, or antique for those who like such objects, or we can suggest by some other treatment that it is unquestionably modern. 1-Yecan show it in use, its simplicity, its purity, possibly its inability to break or splinter; or perhaps its imperviousness to heat or cold, A method frequently employed is to associate a product with certain well-known people, who either in enthusiasm, or for a financial consideration, extol its merits, Also, famous firms who use a product exclusively are sometimes willing to have the fact declared and the manufacturer is pleased to capitalise upon it. All such pictures as these require a photographer to have an advertising sense which he puts at the disposal of his customers. He must be prepared to supply models willing to be so photographed, and to negotiate with well-known people to obtain their services for his clients. In the case of the photographic record, this;'in my experience, is chiefly found in catalogues) be they printed for disbributdon to the public or to the trade, or as originals c_~lTied by salesmen. This type of photograph in the majority. of trades obher than the glass ami polished metal trades, is an easier subject for the photogra -,rer, It is difficult in the glass trade-owing to the nature of the product, a.nd made more so by the outlook of many clients, who, being human, try to achieve too much at once. The difficulty is usually one of transparency. To the camera anything that is completely transparent cannot be photographed. In consequence, to obtain a result one is dependent upon light reflections from the surfaces, and the dimming of light intensity OwL.'1.g thickness of to the glass or its decorations. This would be quite satisfactory jf the subject were single-sided. So' many" are' double-eided-s-by which I mean bowls, vases, cups, and glfl;sses. Provided they are plain, without pattern, they are easy in so far as showing tr:xture,






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but as soon as they [tIC ol"na.mcntecl the trouble commences, Ior the ornamentatiou onrthe second surface obliterates or obscures that on the first. There are several methods of overcoming this difficulty, and one of them is to select a " shooting" angle, as it is described in the film world, which will obviate this trouble, but sometimes this cannot be done owing to the necessity of portraying the form of the subject, and then a method must he adopted such as the selection of a suitable background, diITerel1tial lighting, spraying of the object with paint, differenti.ation of focus, and work on the negative. Some people have the final proofs painted to their sat;isfaction.' This latter method is expensive and if used or <lone by people without some artistic conception is, in its results, terrible. Yet there are people who, as a matter of course, 113:",0 every print worked, i,e. painted before block- making. There should he no need to retouch a photographic print if it is a good one, provided that the truth is what is rcq uired and not an CAH..ggcra,tioll 01 it; even then a. good photogra pher should be able to meet the occasion intelligently and satisfactorily.

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Very often what a client thinks is good photographv i~ only it fashion of the moment. The present fashion is for illust-ration and layouts of a clean-cut, simplified design, and it '01 not a bad one for glass. Some people try to introduce shadows to help out he.' d(,~15n, generally with grotesque results! The introdi ction of . hadows requires a designed, artietic effort, and it is not the OUb:OllW of accident. Now comes the question of what is the correc.ll'cnucring:. photographically, of glass. 'Ibis is something which, in DJ:--- experi-ru. of the glass trade, has no standard. Everyone seems ,0 have one of about three ideas. This makes it. a little difficult for l'lwtographers unless they can find out to which school of thought a client belongs, ' the man who likes detail in the finished print it doE'S not matter if the subject ruatter looks like stone or metal. IJH'Aj,,>d the design of the cutting is clearly shown. Then thoro is the nu.n who likes line, shape, or form-s-whichever name y011 prefer. There are not so many of these. 'I'hon again, others like the pictures simply to look like glass, Lastly, there is the person who w:wt" everything! There ie neither a, pbotograpber born, nor a photographic process, which will satisfy him, These schools of thought are the result of a commercial 0111 look. The craft.~man likes detail. He accepte the fact that the 1i.(I;ln is of glass. and, if be is intere~iJed in eutt,ing: he will of t.e!: i'Jr~(';



CL.'.SS 1'0l{ CO~\mER(,1-'\L rU11'OSES.


the form, but if a highlight obliterates a piece of the design, or there is a recognisable reflection, the print is' judged bad. A retail store is full of difficulty for a photographer. The buyers in glass departments are, naturally, glass-minded first, second and third, and advertising-minded a long way afterwards. Unfortunately, however, very frequently they have the veto of an advertisement contrary to the 'wii'hes of the advertising department, and so the war LS waged I I think the balance of favour is on the ad -ertising side. Very few of the ordinary public, with the exception of mail order business, buy glass from a catalogue. They go into a shop and se ect it there, Therefore, it is waste of time to show individual patterns of cutring. It is far more remunerati ve for the store to get into people's heads that glass is desirable and that they have a fine selection of glass from which to choose, and so get people into the shop. People who go into a shop to buy tumblers, for instance, are more likely to purc1HLSC a jug also, when they sce it, Hum if n.n t'hey saw was a photograph of the tumblers. Again, there are people who are not conscious of requiring glass. If they see an ordinary photograph of a vase they arc unmoved, for they are not interested in vases, hut if first you can instiU into their minds that glass is a desirable and pleasure-giving possession, then the subject of glass vases may have interest for them and they 'ill go round to the shop aud see what they can find-a result which cannot be achieved by the mere showing of designs. It i the ad vortising mentality which likes to see its photographs looking like glass. The presentation or layout of photographs is a very important point. I recommend all users of photographs to give 8CriOUS considcrnr ion to the manner in which they present their pictures. There are no hard-and-fast rules. A good illustration and good copy in an advertisement will lose 50 per cent. of its sales value if the layout is bad. Remember the use of white space. It is very effective and telling, especially if the commodity is one of good quality. The advertising man who a fe~v years ago filled e ';;ry inc h of his ~lJace with pictures or wording is 110\Yas dead as the dodo. Simplicity of design and statement is the thing. Try and tell people too much and they realise nothing, and you have wasted your money. Similarly with pictures. Show them many and they see none. . The question of background is a much discussed subject. For a straight atalogue illustration one school of thought prefers ligilt: ba ckg 'ound, and another dark. Although I realise that. for cu! glass, black makes a good contrast, if I wore asked to dccid~ I should 31.,l?d Jight backgrounds for a most an normal products.

For this reason only, the resulting photograph is a better l".>:kmaking and printing propoaition and is more pleasing t.o 010 eye, lightor, and cleaner and more akin to glass, It is seldom tltat a printer will put on sufficient ink to g~t th~ rich blacks that a !.llack background usually requires. I believe It takes a long while to dry and shows through on the other side of the paper. Therefore, I say, light backgrounds nearly every time. I now h01)Oto heal' from those who follow me the wav that photographs are: or should be, taken from a tedmicol point of view for the benefit of my own work and my clients. TII conclu-ion, I gratefully thank MT. Hogan and Mr. Powell for the loan of :lwir very beautiful glass, photographs of which accompany t.his plll'er, and for the kind advice they gave me during its preparation. It is my hope that these three photographs will illu-rratc SOl, t- of the points I have made.



Aspects of the Photography

By A.

of Glass.



(Read at the Slom'bridge Meeting, .March lSrh, 1936.)

The special difficulty in the photography of glass is that the brightness l'ange of t.hc subject ('0\'(>1'8 the whole range which a normal photographic plate can record, and it is essential that exposure be absolutely correct. 'I'ho elIed of the angle of illumination and background is discussed with reference to eight difforent subjects, and practical notes are given on r-amc-ra arrangements for obtaining the type of photograph described. INTRODUCTION.

the least of the serious mistakes made by the professional commercial photographer when asked to prepare a photograph which is to help to sell a piece of glass, is to imagine that he is being asked to sell 3. commodity, whereas in reality he is being asked to help in the selling of a work of art. Those methods which have been developed for the selling of cosmetics, motor curs or cereals are quite unsuited for the selling of works of art. It is not possible to make people " glass minded" merely by photographing a scent bcttle in the hauds of a film star. A' piece of glass is just as much a work of art as a cathedral, and is as beautiful in its way as a, mountain scene or a child. As the rhotograph of a cathedral, a mountain scene or a child can itself be beautiful and a work of art, so can the photograph of a piece of glass be beautiful, and by its own artistic merit turn the mind of the beholder towards the original. 'n~sis a H that is required of a good photograph of glass; and, if such photographs can be obtained, glass will be sold, and sold on its OW1l merit wit-hout any of the tricks of commercia'! psychology so popular in ot her spheres.

It is my opinion that a photograph of a piece of glass should be obtained ." ith(IL.t the use of artificial aids for the alteration of the gl:tS5 surface. That is the glass should not be painted with shellac or ()!her rr-sin. This is a common method but gives a. photograph








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of thc resin supported on a glass base ; it does not give a photogra ph of the glass, Again the glass of a vessel should not bc filled wit h coloured solutions, nor should it be cut in half and photographs of the two portions superimposed. Indeed such a method could not be used with old and valuable glass. Retouching should not be used to make up for photographic deficiencies. A piece of glass is a solid body, and while looking at it the eye travels over it and interprets its solidity. A photograph s),0111d show no more than the eye C8,n perceive when looking a.t the oljoct, and it is, I think, legitimate at times to show less.

The technical difficulties of photographing glass fall into two groups, optical and photo-chemical ; it will be convenient to deal with them separately. (:1) Optical. If Fig. 31s examined, that of the 'wine glass with a. coat of arms upon it, it will be appreciated that a,uy photograph of this must show the coat of arms, the spiral decoration in the stem, and the glass proper all in focus together, although they exist on clijJ,']'(')lt planes in the actual object. The wine gl<:s.:;is 7{) cm. in diaiu-ter, the stem 1 cm., and the distance between the plane of the cou t of l1l'1lJS and the plane of the spiral may be taken as 30 cm. A useful rule in deciding what part of the object to focus 0]] 'S l"S follows (IlJord JJfam/al) :If x and y is the distance of the two planes from then 2(x X y) -:-- (x -+ y) is the point to focus on.

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In the ease of the wine glass the camera. toobject distnuc W;t,.: 32 in., the planes required being 32 ill. and 3325 in. Appl.'ing i 1,0 rule we must focus for a distance of 324 in. It is a goorl pk.u <,et.ually to measure this distance from the camera, and put a card of i.\ pescript IIp, focus on this and then substitute for it the T,in;e of glass 'which is to be photographed.
(h) Photo-chemical.


An ordinary landscape, showing sky, trees and shadow Sl'lYCS as a commonly observed example of tlu ee tones ; the -kv to' ,ccalled the "high light "-is "ery bright, the shadows are clark, while the trees are of intermediate tone. An a verage sky (Ill a. sunny day if studied with a photometer yields a bright 11(>,,;; of abou i. lood foot candles ; the deep shadow would yie-ld a. lwigjj; l'.' c', d 50 foot candles. In SI1Gh an ordinary connnon ')utd(,vr ~.l Lk(' L(:











range of brightness is then 1600 to 50, or roughly 32 to 1. On a dun day the landscape would look" fiR,tter," that is, it would exhibit a smaller tone range, probably '10 to 1. Photographically spc11kFngsubjeets with a tone range of ;) to 1 or less are vcry "flat. '?; t.hose with it range of 10 to 1 are medium soft contrast; ,1, range of 20 or 30 to I is considered as good contrast, while strong contrast is represented by a brightness tone range of 50 to 1. ' If a photographic plate be taken and strips exposed to a standard light at a constant distance for times which are 1 unit for the first strip, 2 units for the second, 4 units .for the third, 8 units for, the fourth, and so on (the unit may be any convenient period of time, 1 sec. or -lv- of a second or lO"uU of a second, the only important thing is Hint the ratios of the times of the exposures of the strips should be

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a geometric progression), the plate 15eing then developed and fixed, it will be found that the density (or amountjof the silver deposited in each strip is some proportional function of the exposure. A convenient method of determining the amount of silver is to measure its density with some form of photometer: It will normally be found that no silver JUtS been deoosited on the first two or three strips, but that commencing 'with the 8 unit exposure a slight veil of silver has been produced, increasing with the 16, increasing again with the 32 and so on. It will be found that there is a certain maximum time of exposure beyond which no increase in density ean be obtained. ., These results are shown graphically ip. -the curve given above (Fig. a curve known to the photographer as a "characteristic curve."


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This curve shows t.hat with exposures less than that at "a," no appreeia.ble effect will be produced on the plate or film, and that with. exposures greater than at " b," 'no more silver can be produced. The straight, region" c-d " is callcd the region of correct exposure, and is the region in which the silver produced is ptOpot'ti(~lml to the light action on the film. What, does this mean to the practical photographer? 'rho experiment described is a close imitation of what happens when a camera shutter is opened, The shadow tones of a, subject reflect eompa,ratively little light towa.rds the plate and produce but 11 Iaint veil of silver. Faint as this veil of silver may be, it is c"s(ntial that it should be present; if it be absent the shadow tones arc represented by clear glass (lad gelatine instead of silver, and 'will be dark and featureless. The first. axiom of exposure is that the chrkc:"t p::nts of the subject must, be represented b)' silver on the ]]('.g'l tiv e. Vlhn,thappens to the brightest tones when enough e)' jJo~lJr(' is given to impress the darkest, tones on the plate? J, good plnte will stand 200 times as much exposure as that required to ll'odnce a thin veil of silver and still show a deposit of silver proportional to the amount of light actillg upon it. The ordinary IOU bjecr has a tone range of 30 to 1, the plate can ]'e.::e,l'd a hj'itLtn;;s~ f ."200, therefore if adequate exposure be giwn i o the sh.idows f}lI re will not be too much exposure for the high lights. 1adec,:1 if six. ti, 'leS 111c, exposure were given for this particular case the high lifht value would be only ISO and still within the capacity c.f the plate. Any go' ,1 plate or film will do much more than the ordinary subject ;:,;J:5 of i , Now the special dimcnlty of photographing gh"~i~ \,:('11illu 'raiC'd by the wine glass mentioned above. T1IC measured light. (:;'1;8,,;011 from the patt.em and the spiral in the stein is 680, v.hilc thr.r from the undecorated glass surface is 8, that is, the tone l'flJ1g,' is 170 to 1. This gives the very important fact in 'phot.ogn'1}hil 19 i hat the exposure must be absolutely correct, for the tone J'itngc (If the subject stretches over pl'aetically the whole range C8.1",hie of bc"ing recorded bytbe plate, and there is no " latitude ,. licft. This. then, is the essential constitutional photographic d:71i(:uhy in cor;'eotlv rernesenting a piece of f~lil,ss hV,lJC>ij;;,;, (,f the ;d,()~,;graphic process. It is eS8c-ntifLI, therefore.vif the Sc)c'icty 01' (;1:',>-;3 Technology is to study this subject, that careful experiments he made to discover emulsions eapable of recording the tone range of glass itself. For my own part, I have found that the .. Ili(,ld Soft Gra.da.tioll Panchromatic Plate has a YC'ry Iun,; SlQP8 to thE': curve between c and d, and therefore within my Iiruii c-! C'xpc';ience seems to be a desirable plate to use until more exact infol'llJ,11~C'n j.~ Cl v'-a,ilRble .
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'1'he illustrations accompanying thi~ pai,er are of an experimental nature. Only one type of lighting has been used and that was a spot light. I felt that it would be interesting to study the effect of " dramatic lighting." It is my suggestion that those 'who re most interested. in the photography of glass should study very carefully how the best film producers use light to display their subjects, and alter the mood of a picture. Many films and many of the illustrations in Amateur Cine World. give a mine ofinformation on the control of modelling by the manipulation lighting. Many useful hints cm the use of light in the display of form and shape can be picked up at. a variety theatre; attention should be concentrated on the man who works the limelight. As this is a first experimment, an ordinary orthochromatio plate sensitive to green and some yellow, but insensitive to red has been used. The plate actually experimented with was the Ilford ]~mpress. This has an H. and D. speed of 700. A set of line diagrams Figs. 2-14 illustrate the lighting and position of camera and object .. The numbers of the diagrams correspond to the numbers of the photographs. J. 'l'he Pl'int Glass Vase (Fig. 6). This, without any decoration, is a most difficult object 'of which to obtain a good photograph, The tone range is long, there is no specially prominent feature upon which one can focus, and the shape is somewhat ill-defined. The picture shown is the best of many attempts. The method of lighting and the technical details are shown in the diagram, Fig. 6. 2. The lVine Glass (Fig. 3). This su bject with its coat of arms is another difficult subject because of its extreme tone range. There is no need to discuss this piece any further, for it has been used as the main illustration for the earlier portion of the paper. 3, Goble: Wig. 12). The peculiar difficulty of this lies in the fact that the decot'at.ion is only lightly cut, and becomes visible only under certain conditions of illumination.' These are recorded in the diagrams. The gla8S piece itself (shown' to the members at the Stourbridge meet,jng) is a,particularly lovely example of St.ourbridge cut glass. . .

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halabion j.n the film and brought up the high. lights on the glass. It has increased the tone range beyond the capacity of the plate. The back background is Dunlop rubber crepe paper, which is the blackest material I have found for this purpose; it is much better than velvet when one requires the use of a. black material. 5. ThePlowel' Vase (Fig. 5). This is an amber vase ofvery beautiful and striking design, kindly loaned by Messrs .. James Powell.
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of each figure represen .. the clecat ion, and tlie loioc r cl/(!,j!t7:n tl.: {'!.on is the lighting arrangements for eacl, 1Jh%[Jraph. llfo-rd " Ern-press " lj!/.ile8 u,,<,d in

4. Glasses and Jug (Pig. 1O). These constitute a photographie?Jly difficult subject. The group is shown again in Fig. 11. The difference between the two figures is that Fig. 11 has been taken azainst a dense black background, while :Fig. 10 been taken against a grey background. :Mr..Hogan thinks that Fig. 10 is more true representation of the original glass .. It is interesting tonote that the intense black background of Fig .. 11 has caused a eonsiderablc amount of



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The photographs are not good as the plates were not s.1dTi('!ently sensitive to the amber ; however, they are of interest ill showing the effects of different positions of the light. Fig. 5 was ol)hilled wit.h "front" lighting, that is, the light proceeds from tl.e C;H!.C'l'J side of the object, while Fig. 7 was made with the light at the side of the object ; it will be noted how much more" solid " Fig. 7 :QJl;('<lfS than does Fig. 5. 6.IF'ndt Bowl (Fig. 8). This is another of Mes..::;';;. }\.w'T,~ c'.IT-:ations, this time in green glass> and it is i 0 Le Dnle:cl t-b~d L-t \l,'(,J.~ c.rt .


J01.JR,~.AL OF 'rHE



ful improvement, is obtained when the colour of the object happens to coincide with the maximum colour sensitivity of the film. Fig. 8 was obtained with the light fairly low down and at the back of the object with the camera high up; it gives a very good impression of the bowl.. Fig. 9 was obtained with .the light high up, and the camera low down and the light on the same side of the object as the camera. It. must. be left to the reader to decide which looks more like glass. 7. Barrel (Fig, 1:3). This is an etched decorated piece by Messrs. Stevens and Williams, and is again a tribute to that company's excellence of design. Fig. 13 was obtained with the light high up and well to the rear of the object. Fig. 14, which is very striking and shows up the object. in a rem ark able WRY, W,lS taken with the light shining through the object direct into the camera lens. S. Wine Glass (Fig. 2). This piece is one of remarkable delicacy of dccoration ; the tracings on the glass can only be displayed by means of suitable lighting. Fig. 2 shows the effect. of the camera looking down, the light. being high up and behind the object. Fig. 4, which has ma,ny of the qualities of dramatic lighting, is taken with the camera low clown, the light also being low dOlYI1 and on the same !'irle as the camera. The effect is very beautiful and shows the decorn tion of the glass to perfection; it is, I think, the best photograph in His series. Figs. 2 and 4 serve to demonstrate my -ca.rlier rem arks of the effect of the lighting on the apparent shape of the object. .







raised by Mr. Parkin in the discussion, it. is well worth (;1-:I!(;lill:l,Jdin; with lighting from underneath the glass, either for photography OJ' for window display. It is effective and dramatic. Little of the light leaves the object as it. is all reflected internally, and the object appears to glow and to be self-luminous. The most convenient method of arranging such lighting is to t.urn a, fnirly large box upside down and cut. a small circular hole in the bottom. The outside of the box should be painted black, the glass object is placed over the bole, and a powerful light allowed to shine on it from inside the box, A certain amount of experimenting is required to g'ct j.}](\ size of the hole correct.


I j

This pa.pCl' represents merely a hcginning of the systcmati C' 3tnd~of the photography of glass. It is obvious that. much more worl; is required. Snch work must include a st ndv of the illumiu.rtion of the glass, and of thc capacity of different photogn. phic 011n: lsions to portray the long tone range usually encountered in <lca,linb witll this difficult subject. It is suggested that members of tho Suciety interest themselves in the work, for the (:01 roct reprcsentat im of j heir artisti c production on pap(;r will go n long \i'a," le ~ellillg !-hose product.ions. Finally, I must. return to the i,,)int at ',"11i('li I i ..san. A photograph of 11piece of glass can he in i{.,cjf a t],;II~ of ],'.;uLy, a work of art" and only if it is so will it sell gJ:;.~s.
_\CK~O\\ LEDG.iTE:;-<iT::;.

, I ,I

In photographing glass it is absolutely essential to use a lens hood to prevent scattered light entering the le~s at a low angle. A big

Refiex Ca.m.ew.

t l


"-Lens: Ross

35 Xpress.

squ2fe section box hood is advised, and if possible it should have some diaphragms wit.h apertures in them running across it. The diagram, Fig. 15, shows Iny own arrangement. In anticipation of n. question

I have to thank Messrs. .Iarncs Powell and :\[(;:,1';;. Sk'C'l..; & Williams for the loan of glass for experimental l'i11l'0;';C'i:. ;\[y thanks arc due to Mr. Hogan, :Managing Director of }rl',,~rs, .1, 'll(>" Powell, for his help in selecting difficult pieces of gLtss :01' ],),,,tography. Mr. R. A. Bell, of the Ceramic Laborntory. 1.e.T. (F. s: S. P.), Billingham, has been responsible for the: Iii.c dl',(,\ .ngs. Two of my laboratory assistants, Mr. H. A. Price and :IfI' H, Dent, gave their enthusiastic assistance with the photograpl.v. l'i1l; 1):-' great praise is due to Mr. D. P. Lewis, of tlie PhC>t,ogl'''J,il;c .o(!} . rtment, Billingham, for the excellent lantern Elides and 1'1 "t"i:!H. pi):, prepared for reproduction.






hJ .
of gl,~
1L,~ ]'\,:,,101'


Before commencing work on the phot ographv is ad vised to obtain and study the following :(1) Amateur Cine Worli! O\1o])t111y od.). (2) Phoioqraphs] (Monthly od.).
'I'n.o\.SS. VOL.

! }





r v' ~:~



(3) The Photoqrtuphic

is an excellent pa.per, published by the Royal Photographic Society, London. It is 28. Gel. a month, and deals with both the artistic and technical sides of photography. .

These papers give valu able details of the manipulation of lighting for photographic purposes. 'I'heir reproductions will repa.y study.
(4) The Perfect Negative,


Effect of Illumination. Conditions and Camera Position on the Photographs cif Cui

Dr. B. T. J. Glover (British Periodicals,

of Photography (Ilfords Ltd., 28.). Lambert (Pitmans, 208.). (7) The following annual reviews of the best photographic should be studied :(6) 8t-ndio Portrait Lighting,

Ltd., Is.). (5) ']'he Ilfonl Manual






(Communicated from the Staff of the Research. Lcboraiories of the Gencral Eiectric Company, Limited, TVemhZp.!), E;ng7(wrZ). (Re.ad


the Siourbrulqe

.111eetitu], .:.1/ arch 18th, I D3G.)


(a) J11adorn Photography, published by The Stuilio, 78. Gd. (b) The .Entisk Journal of PhoioqraphsjAlanonac, 3s. Gd. (c) The Year's Photoqraphs], published by the R.P.S., 2s. (cl) Phoioqrams of the Year, 7s. Gel.


(8) The following are the best general text-books English :-(a) Photography, its Principles and Practice,


C. B. Neblett

'I'ho effect \V(lS studied of crnnera position und modo of Jigh Ling an.l OH' reflection factor of the background screen on the phot ographs (,))iDinecl of a cut glass jug. Different conditions emphasised cliffcrent ~caturo:;. Specular reflection from the cut surfaces was avoided by tho use of completely diffuse illumination, and some f'!lOtographs were tEkE'D with a small amount of direct light in addit-ion to the uniform illu r.vinat ion obtained with diffused lighting. TIIESB brief notes are only intended as a comributir,n to the ,,;encral discussion on the photographing of glassware, and the authors do not wish to suggest that tho matter they put forward is in anv way a detailed study of what is undoubtedly a complex prohle 11. In preparing the photographs there was no commercia 1 or :.Ti istic end in view, and, therefore, emphasis should not he phr'('ll on either of these aspects when considering the results prc-cnted. PUO'l'O(l]UPRS OTITA:tN"EDHY DutECT LIi;Inl;;C.

(Chapman & Hall, 30s.). (b) Photography, Theory amd. Practice,

35s.). (c) Photography, Principles arul

L. P. Clerc (Pitrnan, A. Watkins


(Constable, lOs.).


Fig. 1 illustrates the procedure adopted to obtain t Le l'ltotogl'tphs of Series I and IT. A camera was placed. in R fixed j"lIJ;-,j\ inn r.~:,ive t

._--_ .... __ .__ __ .-,$C.DE:EN


~-'----'-----"-.-"l-._..o\~.---..t-.--------.--Ji~ \






.... E --



c.(:.rv~~ Q/...

FIG. lA.

....-. ~


(;/ The Photographic

J01/Ti1al is an excellent paper, published by the RoyafPbotographic Society, London. It is2s. 6d. a mouth, and deals with both the artistic and technical 8i<1'3S of photography.

XII.-l'he EtJ eel of Iliuminaiion. 00 ndiiio: ,sand Camera Position. on the Photoqraphs of Cu: Glassware.

These [la pcrs give valuable details of the manipulation of lighting r photographic 1)1n1"oses. Their reproductions will repay study. Perfect Negaf.'t?;e, Dr. :B. T. J. Glover (British Periodicals, (A.d., Is.). (i:;) 'Ih'f. llforil Jfan.'iwl of Phofogrwphy (Ilfords Ltd., 2s.). (H) Std7:io Portrait Lighting, Lambert (Pitmans, 20s.). (7)The':[!',llowilig annual reviews of the best photographic work i.:>ldd he',:ttu:lied:l't)



B.sc., and

BImTHA GmS}'Dlw.

(Com1n{~m'cated f/Om the Staff of the Rc51?f11'ch Laboratori-:e of the General Electric Company, Limited, WcmUlcy, .Englo l/il).

tltciul at the Stollrbridge

.MeeNn.g, J1anh



(a.) .7ifndcrn Photogmphy, published by The Stndio, 7s. Gel. (b) '['/;e British J01/,1'nal of Photoqrtupln; Almanac, 38. 6d. (c) The Year's Photoqraphs], publishod by the RP.S., 28. Id) Photoqrams of the Year, 7s. Gd. \~) The following J~nglish :(a) .Photography, (b) P/J:;:'01ji'Ophy,

are the hest general

its Principles Theory and

text-books Practice,



C. B. N eL\lett

?~ho:)ffcct was studied of c8nlelJ~'!.~(\;'{jti::f;~:"'_ J~/uc:l(. o~'!jgh~i.r-,. ~~n~l. ; the roflection factor of the baokgro u: ~ S~H.'; n y~-~ nu phc.t .. gr~\.pL., !.' ~J!.: ,~;::(1 J of a cut glass jug. Different :;ond.iHoui; (~n!p;:f.4;ed J.irt't:l'\J1!C :1.~:atnt'Qs. .. s Specular reflection from the/cut sm'r"us \""8 flYC,;j,xl. by tlll: U80 of completely diffuse illurninat.ion, nnrl sorne l'~_1,_.tOglHpl1s were Ui~-'-',n with a sruall nmormt of direct light ill Ddditjnl~ to 111e u:~.iGJl'P.l illu: iij~ll ion obtained with diffused liZl;lilg.

(Chapman & Hall, 30s.).

and Practice, and

L. P. Clerc (Pi tman , A. "\Vatl<ins

:;;:'53.) . (,:) T'J.o:oQ'Tcrphy, Pn:nciples (Constable, 108.).

'.V.EL1Yi';;~-~o;, ... 01~rJ'ON (,N '-:



Tm~sE brief notes are only intended as a {(m..i1mii.]J to the- oneral discussion on the. photographing of gla.s~wr'I'e: (I,nd ~h.e .[\.1\ t; ors do not wish to suggest that the matter they put IUIW:'T<.l 1'; 'H n-,y \,'[j,y a. detailed study of what is undoubtedly n (:c.:r:l'i;':'; J 'J'ohk, 1. In preparing the photc,graphs there 'was no couuucrr-ial or r "j i:.:tic end in view, and, therefore, emphasis -hould l'(d, 1YJ }'Ja (t1 on either of these aspects when considering the l'eo\,lt:; Pl'~',,('ntcl!.
PnOTOGRA.PHS OB'fA1:;\ED TW DrRi:c'I Lre.EllS':.

}'ig. 1 illustrates the proe.edure adopt ed to oLtain f]1f.~vLc~tn~laphs of Spries I and n. A camera was placed in a fixed p",.i: ion n}\.!jye

c FIG. lA.

to A in in

the article and the type and direction of the lighting changed. bare hmp end a lamp with a diffusing envelope were both used a projection type fitting, each lamp being placed successively five positions as indicated in Fig. )A. The various positions







Arrangements Jor Series 1 and 11, 111 and IV.

were 45 from 011e another and the camera w-as placed midway "between two of the positions. Behind the object a screen was placed to serve as a background. In Series I and II a material having a roflection factor of 75 per cent. was used for this screen. The photographs result.ing from t.he tests of Series I and II revealed so lit.tlc difference between the use of the bare lamp and the lam p with a diffusing bulb in the fitting that only the photographs with the bare lamp are shown. It will be noted. that in positions A and E of the Jighting unit very little light falls on the background, but this does not appea,r to have a very marked effect, Photographs IUB and lVB were taken to emphasise the effect of ('hanging the reflection factor of the background. The lighting unit was in position B with the cameraIn the same position as in Series I :,11<1 n. The reflection factors of the background screen were 15 })o1' cent. in HIB and 3 per cent. in TVB. The surfaces of all the screens wore appreciably matt .. Photograph VB was taken with the- carucra looking down iJ1to the m.onth of the jug as indicated

A.s 3.. resu It of specular reflection from the cU:~!:lil'f!}cest here is a tendency for some spots to show It high ,!c;,:;rcG[2{l>right1l0SS. It is of interest. therefore, to ;'see the result of utilising completely diffused illun;inatiou giving no spec1llar reflection. . It is well known thab if a lamp is placed in a sphere, the~11l(~g1ecl!ng the light flux which falls initially on the walls, the effect of multiple cross reflection is that the brightness of t.11O walls uf the sphere becomes uniform. This is also very nearly true of a cube. If an article has a surface coefficient of reflection of nni t y, or ~f i:;; is completely non-a.bsorbing, it would not be visible if rl,,(:('d 111 s.ich 'lJ1 integrator under the following couditions. The rticlo shr uld ~e situated about two- thirds towards a corner and hicldcd l 1.\' n, small screen from tbe direct light of the LImp wIltc!: is pl,\;'(~: in the (:.L~lltreof t.hc cube. Under such conditions It \S POSSHJ!l La illuminate an article extremely uniformly by (IifInsc,1 light,

ts-~ .
A~~CE_ .. ~


Fw. 2. Position oj



for Series V.

in Fig. 2. The main result of this change was to reduce the contrast obtained by the loss of light in the vertical cuts on the jug surface. This is prol)fi1.t]y related to the ge'onH~try of the a.rra,ngen1ent.




DiJJuscd T./ight Hlim.i nation,



appeared as a dark reflection on the surface of the glass but t.his '.\'11S r nnoved by arranging quite a small hole in the door through which the camera lens projected. Photographs VI, VII and VIII were talcen with the article viewed against the bright wall of the cube and against two screens whose reflection factors were 15 [\,11d 3 per cent. respectively. These photographs illustrate the effect of completely removing specular reflection. . 'Vc have added to this series of photographs one taken with a very small amount of direct light on the article in addition to the general diffuse illumination produced in the cube (IX). This suggests the possibility of livening the somewhat austere effect obtained. by completely diffused illumination by adding a proportion of direct illumination suitably arranged relative to the camera position. These notes serve to indicate the varied results obtainablo by simple alterations in the mode of lighting, and suggest that it should be possible to arrange the lighting to bring out any particular feature of the glassware which the photographer desires to illustrate. 'Description of the Photo{jmphing Oonditions.
Photograph Number, Illmni.nation Condition. Position of Camera. Camera position midway be- Bare lamp in fitt.ing-c-rcflect ion twcen position C and D, . factor of background screen 75%. and below object. DiLto. Lamp with diffusing bulb in fitt.ing -v-reflection factor of background screen 75%. Bare lamp in fitting-c-reflcct.ion factor of background screen 15%. Bare lamp in fitting-reflection factor of background screen 3%. object, but between C Bare lamp in fitting--refiection factor of background screen 75%. Article in cube. Background the normal walls of the cube. Completely diffused illuminat.ion. Art.iele in cubc-s-refleot.ion factor of background screen 15%. Completely diffused illumination. Article in cu be-e-reflection factor of background screen 3%. Completcly diffused illumination. Article in cube. Diffused illumination augmented by some direct illumination.



Camera in tho same position as for Series I and n. Ditto. Camera above still midway and D.



Camera relative to article, in position similar to that for Series I-IV. Ditto.






0; '.2
Go., s:::

'-' ~


" ""-


2 2,
'-' s,

~ ~ ~
::SO '""" ;:;

~ ;:;


<:: '"

c 3-:


:::: ~3--








l~ ? '"

! ~



~ ~


.~(;tecn. = '7 [) ~/~.


IJ .

Dire,'! L'ighh'l'tg u.ith. Diffusing



Screens und thei Appz.icfl,/ Photoqra.phs) of Glassware ..

By J. L.

(Read ut the Stourbridqe Meeting, March 1St

Abstract. The const.ruotion, properties and '''l,plicatiolts oJ out lined, Light is scatterod to-a slight oxt ont by the 1100(1 on the camera is advisable when using thorn. screens permits the high lights of a subject to be application to the photography of glassware is di,,(-, transmit all wavelengths from 4000 A. to 'iOOO A., the ul ubsorbed, and the infra-red almost completely t ra usr a water filter between the screen and light source (" heating, although the screens are fairly heat resis i au

H'kite background. ,-ionfactor 75%.

6 ft. cube.


Grey background. factor 15%.

properties of polarised light U id its applicat+: tion of samples of strained glitss are doubtless members of the Society of Glass Technology. as its name implies, is a screen by the use of whirl illuminated vith plane-polarised light.



Po LA Sonui

-"",,,,,-,==~-"-'---' -'-'--=":"---.-~
IJ>rey bacl;ground.


Polarising devices have been k110"'1l for lllftn} either been inconvenient as regards their l,hoio~y incapable of being applied at all. The most f: is the Nicol prism, which h'18 the disadvantages angular aperture, and in large sizes is yery expc apparatus is obviously soruothing whir-h. like a cun be placed oyer a la np or Ions. This is the E. H. Land solved and finally led to the PoLL advantage of the effects produced by oertain dichr ing crystals. That certain crystals possessed the a new discovery but is almost [I'S old as the disc light itself. Tourmaline is perhaps the best-kn such subatances a ray of ordina-ry light passing t is split into two rays-the ordinary and extraord rays are. polarised in directions at right angles to