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PROJECT CONEL ENERGY EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT

Student: John Bofarull Guix, 396047 jgb.2009@hotmail.co.uk 396047@student.conel.ac.uk


references: [xyz], links, Physics units [Joule]/kg and W/m2/C = W/(m2 C). There are 2 broad types of Energy Performance Certification; EPC and NEPC. Public buildings only have to display a DEC. But to make it simple I will refer to CONEL's DEC as EPC. Kelvin [K] grams [g]. I recommend to read this document while connected to Internet because there are links that the reader may like to check before reading further. To see embedded minimized graphs please click on respective icons. _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

2. ABRIDGED SEARCH
2.1 SEARCH BOUNDARIES or LIMITATIONS:
I do not hold the relevant accreditation to issue EPCs and I do not have for any CONEL buildings the following; accurate and extensive building schematics, bill of construction materials, and no tools to measure Infra Red (IR) building emissions as means to find out building heat loss. Heat energy [BTU] or [J]=[Wh], is energy, when lost over a period of time = power loss. To be able to compare different buildings, we have to fix the period of time to 1 year, and divide each Power loss by each respective (building) Area = the envelope Area of the building[21][22]. To mention the following boundary I need first to explain Heat loss or Power loss[W] = Area[m2] U[W/(m2 K)] (T2 T1)[K]. U is called thermal transmittance [McK], table in pg3.7. I will explain the factor U in the Analysis, point 4. And the figure of merit to compare buildings is Power loss/Area where Area is the envelope total surface including walls area of the building under study. Basement and certain walls may be neglected. So the limitations are obvious; No IR Thermal measurements, then we don't know T2-T1 accurately. It is possible to measure room temperature, from there with a formula approximate wall temperature, and measuring outdoor ambient temperature we may approximate T2-T1, BUT IT IS NOT BY FAR AS ACCURATE AS IR MEASUREMENTS. IR thermal footage allows pixel by pixel colour subtraction between building and outdoor background. The colour difference mentioned between background pixels and wall colour pixels is the most accurate way to know how well is any building confining heat energy. We would also need to know what building materials have been used. Because I do not have accurate building survey details I have to use estimations only. I am also limited by the short amount of time to deliver completed double checked document, with all attachments and references correctly arranged. There is no budget assigned and there is no building energy survey software compliant copy available. Nevertheless I managed to key in some guess parameters in a lite demo version, courtesy of Epoda, web link available in point 4 Analysis. No team and no intention to formally contact external consultants without work contract. If any of the external consultants I'd contact ended up being awarded EPC contract by, I would not be able to claim brokerage service. Uncertainty about current CONEL buildings EPC band: The energy efficiency assessment of CONEL TTH and ENF buildings may have been already carried out, Annex 5. But the efficiency certificate is not yet displayed, or I haven't seen it, and I have not found exemption to certificate display in regulations once EPC passed. This may mean either that the EPC has not yet finished, or that there is a regulatory loop I have not found that allows CONEL not to display EPC. It could also mean that CONEL energy performance is bad and that it has been given, or CONEL has asked for certain time to improve before displaying. I am going to stop guessing on this issue because bureaucracy does not reduce utility bills, but a group of smart alternative energy sources + effective countermeasures may certainly achieve such target. So, having already mentioned search boundaries, let's find out alternative energy sources and reasonable countermeasures. One alternative is to burn plants instead of fossil fuels. Same car, same boiler, same engine, different propellant. Fossil fuels are obtained by drilling miles underneath Earth's surface (ground or sea), they are pumped up or come up because of their own high pressure. Fossil fuels raw materials then have to be transported and refined, stored and distributed. But although I am going to recommend to increase CONEL Biofuels academic work, I believe that with current world population growth, food crops should have priority ahead of biofuels. So let's search for other alternative energy sources. Some of them may benefit CONEL potentially reducing electrical supply bill, or it would be even possible to sell electrical power back to current distributors. Let's bear in mind that as important as developing sources of alternative energy it is to avoid wasting it. So among my recommendations, guidelines and proposals, I will include countermeasures to avoid wasting building energy. But before even that I am going to briefly search about CO2 emissions and then we will see the surface of the energy efficiency regulations that buildings have to comply with. In Annex 2.13 I explain why I give such importance to regulations.

2.2 ABOUT CARBON FOOTPRINT:


CO2 concentration in the atmosphere has sharply increased since the industrial revolution, have a look to [McK] pg6. CO2 trapped in ice tells how much CO2 existed floating in the air many centuries ago, long before meteorology began keeping exhaustive logs. The essential reason why human kind has stopped stumbling from one major armed conflict
John Bofarull Guix CONEL Buildings Energy Efficiency. 2 SEARCH 2.1

into the next one as suffered for centuries is that after WWII (1945) the majority of military strong nations decided to solve problems talking in places like UN, G8 or world meetings like the one that took place in Kyoto, Japan, in 2003 to find out and agree upon ways to bring carbon emissions back to at least where they were in year 1990; the EU took part in the Kyoto Protocol[1] (components[2]) and committed own future CO2 reduction by 8% meaning by 2010 to be 5.2% below 1990 levels, EU Directive 2002/91/EC (EPBD, 2003)[3]. But human kind has managed to build a reasonable level of abstraction where jobs and money are won and lost instead of human life, most of times. It doesn't mean that the existing and future conflicts for resources have diminished. I would like the reader to understand that that military open fighting may have slowed down but economical competition has increased hand in hand with technological advance and inevitable globalization. Developing countries and recently developed powers keep trying to hack the first world. In year 2000 White house candidate G W Bush opposed Kyoto because it excluded countries like China from compliance (Issues2000)[4] off-site strategy, and China countered recently by agreeing to comply with Kyoto agreement, link[5]. This point highlights the fact that politics and economy are war by other means [Clausewitz][6]. I mention politics because of the importance of technology and engineering to keep the edge in any conflict, solved or yet to come, but politicians, bankers and military are the ones in control to whether bet on nuclear power mainly, or to fan out and invest on a wide range of alternative energy sources. Burning Fossil fuels produces CO2[7][8][9], along with a long list of heavy metals, and fossil fuel reserves are diminishing while world population is growing above Earth life support growing rate. Increasing electrical power demand is also requesting attention. In other words, increasing 'green' alternative energy sources is an strategic necessity. Accurate timely affordable speedy and reliable simulation is the intelligent way to design from basic goods, through complicated tools, to even more complex systems before starting production. I found an online simulation 'calculator' sponsored by the UK Government (IET[10]>>DECC[11]) that claims to forecast world energy demand according to different assumptions like scattering a considerable percentage of current fossil fuels demand among different alternative energy sources. I tried different configurations, Annex 2. [McK] chooses the same approach as DECC, calculating different future scenarios according to choices of alternative energy sources. Click on MacKay's forecast icon on the right to see their MacKay's forecast respective configurations. So, how energy efficient is Europe? [12]. Carbon Footprint (CF) of a person, a city or a country is the equivalent amount of fertile ground (HA or hectares) mc1 necessary to satisfy respective demand. I am not getting into how such equivalent area is calculated. According to table1 (following) the most developed countries are the ones that spend more CF. Between 1960 and 2010, human kind has more than doubled CF global demand on Earth, and to Worldmaper[13] 2000-2005 the countries that spend more CF are the ones that have more money per capita. Have a look to the following world maps pondered to wealth distribution and internet users so we understand that power and energy are the same thing. So historically r01 table1 speaking, we have reached a singular point, something that had hardly ever happened before WWII, like having all major military powers around a table and agreeing upon ICBM ware heads reduction;
WorldMaper1
WorldMaper2
WorldMaper3 WorldMaper4

WorldMaper5

WorldMaper6

WorldMaper7

Now 1st world polluting countries, a majority of the wealthiest countries are agreeing at least on paper to self-restrain energy consumption. Not to cut consumption but to make smooth transition to 'green' sources. But if we do not burn coal, petrol or natural gas (fossil fuels) can we burn something else instead of having to erect wind turbines and fill out roofs with solar panels? I find very useful AFDC[14] classification of alternative fuels before searching for other alternative energy sources. Enough of the broad line and let's focus on energy efficiency regulations. 2.3 REGULATIONS, ACCREDITATION, and CERTIFICATION: Since 2008 the UK government ( Communities[15] [ref0.3.4] domestic, [refs0.3.1/2/3] non-domestic, archive 2008, email]) wants non-domestic buildings to display an Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) [ref0.3.5]. When I found it, such regulation alone was enough for me to recommend CONEL acquiring such certification despite I did not find penalties or time deadlines in order to comply with [ref0.3.1-4]. However, in Annex 5 copy of Landmark[16] contact database for energy efficiency checked addresses, and they answered that both Tottenham and Enfield CONEL buildings have been registered, which means that an energy efficiency assessment has been, or is being carried out. I cannot get more detail without CONEL authorization and that would extend this assignment beyond above mentioned search boundaries. There are building maintenance companies that offer service packs including Non-Domestic Energy Performance Certificate (NDEPC) along with regular air conditioning routine checks, which is the kind of Energy Performance Certificate (EPC) that I think CONEL needs to meet the above mentioned regulation. To know more about EPC experts and how to contact them read Annex 9.

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2.2

The exact name of the buildings energy regulation is The Energy Performance of Buildings Certificates and Inspections (England and Wales) Regulations 2007. This is a direct link to the register that includes all buildings holding EPC and NEPC; NDEPC Registry[17] [ref0.3.7] non-domestic buildings on construction, sale and rent; 1st from April 2008 , all such buildings with area > 10000m2, 2nd from July 2008, all such buildings with Area > 2500m2 and 3rd from October 1st 2008, all will require a Non-Domestic Energy Performance Certificate (NDEPC), standard void copy in [ref0.3.11] and [ref0.3.21]. And band G, <150W/m2 (the worst bar) has been banned, which means that buildings with such poor energy efficiency have to improve energy efficiency to achieve EPC to avoid possible penalties. From [ref0.3.7] I understand that CONEL facilities are non-Domestic public buildings with Area>1000m2 and since year 2008 such facilities require EPC. Building energy efficiency surveys or assessment are non-intrusive measurements that include extensive compilation of energy consumption, building population, area, construction materials, to find out the figure of merit Power per unit floor area [W/m2] or [Wh/y/m2=W/(year m2)], have a look on front page graph. This power comprises ALL power sources that are used in a given building. This allows buildings energy efficiency rating at global level. Sometimes IR measurements are carried out to measure temperature difference between the building and air surrounding the building. But as far as I have understood, the idea behind this software standardization and EPC certification is that if there are enough accurate building details then there is no need for IR test. It's my opinion that there is nothing comparable to direct measurements. I think that working from survey data is only an acceptable approximation, widely used though. UK government regulation: So far, we have seen that we are spending more CF than average, and we have agreed upon CF reduction. From EU regulation we have seen that regarding buildings heat inside the building is like water in a tank; if it's used for a meaningful purpose it may be ok, but if it leaks we are wasting it. Current energy consumption of fossil sources is increasing [Rs pg719] and it is imperative to keep spending to work and grow. Currently UK consumes 300GW per year, roughly[McK pg214]. And UK has to spend more and if possible sell energy to continental Europe, because the other option is to end up importing energy across Dover. We want to keep the Sterling Pound, so no choice. UK energy generation sector behaves like a gas, either expanding (exporting energy) or contracting (importing energy) but no stable point, so let's export. And fossil fuels, either we spend it or some one else will do it instead, better us than others. The UK Government has decided to increase national electrical power generation at the same time than reducing dependency from fossil fuels and CO2 emissions [McK pg199]. Therefore CONEL compliance to UK regulation SAP2009[18] The Governments Standard Assessment Procedure for Energy Rating of Dwellings email, is a must to achieve a compliant certification, otherwise it would be a waste of effort. I also searched to find a reference outside CONEL that mentions CONEL as public institution. CONEL received further education UK Government transfer from Enfield College: UK Parliament high education reference[23]; UK government transferred budget from the Enfield College. Source UK gov national archives ref[24]>> gov LSC reading room[25]>> euroarchive summary[26]. UK Parliament enforced such competences and budget transfer on August 1st 2009. So, CONEL is a public institution rendering public service. I would have liked to check through Enfield Council if CONEL building schematics are available to public but the size of the assignment would have increased out of boundaries. [McK] Times Higher Education Supplement (30th/03/2007); UK universities used 5.2 10 kWh/year = 0.24 kWh/day/person in the UK. Learning costs energy. Intelligence costs energy, among other currencies. At the end of any initial energy efficiency assessment different building figures of merit are produced, like [kWh/day/person] referred to staff and students together. Approximations to CONEL yearly electrical, gas, water bills have been taken into account, as well as the roof area approximations shown in bird eye photo [ref20] 1cm:20m scale.

2.4 CONEL ENERGY EFFICIENCY:


For all the above said CONEL is committing to comply with UK buildings energy efficiency regulations, EU related regulations and Kyoto agreement. To improve CONEL buildings energy efficiency and achieving EPC is quite the same thing, if not already achieved (Annex 5). The already mentioned search boundaries (limitations) do not prevent the possibility to: plan initial steps of a generic building survey that could be used as 2nd opinion in case of discrepancy with current or already achieved EPC. analyse alternatives and plant alternative energy sources deployment for CONEL SCENARIO: CONEL BUILDINGS, 2 sites. CONEL ENF: ENFIELD buildings CONEL TTH: TOTTENHAM buildings
name: The College of Haringey, Enfield and North East London coordinates [ref 18.7]: 51.586670, -0.072355 = 51N3512 0.012 04E2028 0.68 address: High Road, London, N15 4RU [19] Map
Tel: 020 8802 3111 Fax: 020 8442 3091 Minicom: 020 8809 3160
Bitmap Image Bitmap Image
Bitmap Image

name: College of Haringey, Enfield and North East London coordinates: address: 73 Hertford Road, Enfield, Middlesex EN3 5HA[20] Map

click on the to see CONEL Google maps: CONEL TTH[ref20]

main building[ref19]

, MG swimming pool[ref18.1]

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2.3

In point 3 Analysis we will see how far we can go with such limited amount of survey data, but first let's find out the available roofs for possible PV panels deployment, because Solar power is the best option for CONEL if interested to set up and run on alternative power supply.

2.5 RESEARCH ON CONEL TTH ROOFS PV CAPACITY:


Please note scale units 1cm:20m. Approximate rough roof areas are calculated to find out how many PV panels may be considered as a start point to develop solar power system to feed CONEL electrical power demand. I have not measured all roofs because not all of them may be suitable to allocate PV panels. Not considering CONEL ENF buildings. The following parameters are based on Google bird eye map with buildings tagged [picture ref 20] on this page and [table 10]. Taking 2 different PV panel models from Solar Fabrik[27]; PV panel 1: Premium S mono 140W, 1.491mx0.669m, area/panel=0.997m2 140.35W/m2(PV) PV panel 2: Premium incell S poly 135W, 1535mmx694mm, area/panel=1.065m2 126.76W/m2(PV) I am going to use Tiengen site measurements AS IF SAME MEASUREMENTS TAKEN at CONEL, to simplify [kWh/year]: Tiengen[ref0.12.30] 199 PV panels ~1m2/panel: measured 28862kWh/year ~79kWh/day 79kWh/day 1/(Total_area 24h/day) = 16.47W/m2. Also, obtaining 28862kWh/year 144.31kWh/year/panel. PV panels Correction coefficients[Rs]: Applying coefficients is a practical way engineers get to acceptable corrections of measurements while scientists try to solve complicated equations. (1) Fitting PV Panels cannot cover the roof completely, and there must be space to get faulty panels and replace them. Besides that there may be roof zones where it may not be safe to install panels, (2) Dust Accretion: reduces power on panels, (3) Temperature; PV performance is not fully independent from ambient temperature, (4) Converter Efficiency; real electronics, ageing components, tolerances. Total hypothetic CONEL TTH PV panel covered area: 8890m2 = 0.89HA (Annex 3 bird eye and table 10). (panel model 1: 0.997m2) Total PV panels: 8,917. Measuring over one year I would obtain 144.3kWh/m2 and back to table 10; 146.89kW. But this was without coefficients 109.42kW. My rule of thumb regarding top loads, think of a light bulb as a 30W electrical impedance or power load; Total (x30W) loads: ~3600. Total (x130W) loads: ~840. Please note that PV panel type 2 would yield ~9356W less than type 1 BUT it would imply handling 568 less panels. It would be worth checking both figures of merit; W/ to find out if those extra 9.3kW are worth the investment. Tiengen is the reference site I am considering and there are more details about this site in point 4 Analysis. Let's find out total [Wh]/year (if CONEL had similar performance as Friburg-Tiengen [ref0.12.30] site[28] email1[29] email2[30]): As already seen, if the system yields 28800kWh/200 PV panels/year = 144kWh/panel/year, or equivalent, each one of this PV panels may support a 16.43W load round the clock, 365 days per year. So let me gather some figures for point 4, Analysis: Each PV panel may supply power 24h/365days to one (x16W) load, for instance a big light bulb. But this is capacity only. There is no Sun by night and no batteries saves budget. The Swimming pool roof alone has 17% [W] more theoretical solar power capacity than all CONEL roofs here considered together. The initial investment on PV panels to completely cover every m2 of roof I have considered (not possible) would fall around ~8,900 PV panels for let's say the first 2 years of the project. A large roof is easier to install and maintain than 10 roofs on different buildings even if close each other. Straight to Grid. I am detailing interface and topologies in Analysis. So, PV may help a lot but the best is yet to come. In my opinion Hydrogen Fuel Cells deserve far more attention [Rs chapters 27 and 28]. After all the effort put on fossil fuels? and developing biofuels to burn vegies instead of eating them? perhaps I don't get it yet but Brazil is a wealthy country, however one of Lula da Silva slogans that helped him win his Brazilian presidency was 'to make affordable to many Brazilians eating more than once per day'. At the same time than citizens half starving they are developing some of the most advanced biofuels in the world, with BP help.

Mendeleyev's
mnd

2.6 ON H2 HYBRID FUEL CELLS:


Some time ago I downloaded Transports Metropolitans de Barcelona (TMB)[31] British Petroleum (BP)[32] the promotional files they made available to promote public buses fuel cell as a robust technology, project Clean Urban Transport Europe CUTE 2000[33]. [Mck] argues that H2 is difficult to keep in sealed tanks (!?)but for urban transport it doesn't seem to be a problem or that was a punctual maintenance fault or faulty unit. CUTE but doesn't mention any leakage problem and [McK] doesn't refine the detailed way he outstandingly dives in many other important points. [Mck] also mentions that in the BMW H7 prototype, the cryogenic tank[91] weights 120kg (264 lb) to store 8kg (13 lb) of H2, I don't think that weigh is correct.

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2.4

[ref0.1 pg15] Some green energy sources are cleaner than others: I have not reduced this graph on purpose. The US started mixing conventional refined petrol with biofuels years ago. But what is the point of adding a biofuel to conventional fuel? cost. Vehicle fuel made out of crops may not cost that much so that the US starts mixing it up, but from the energy efficiency point of view, as the graph shows, photovoltaic and wind production are far cleaner. The problem with solar and power is they do not provide enough thrust to propel 7.5Tn fully loaded lorries, thousands of them over millions of daily miles on the roads to carry goods. Natural gas (fossil source) has the required energy density but may be expensive to extract and handle. Or governments and banks have agreed along with multinationals to gradually introduce hybrid vehicles while sq1 probing markets, gradually achieving product robustness and optimizing investments already reached on fossil fuels. Here are some reasons why fuel cells are not yet broadly used in domestic products like cars and homes: 1.- H2 has 'higher octane'[34] (= higher chemical potential[35] or energy density [J/kg]) fuel and is far cleaner than refined fossil gases. 'In every house a FC' availability is not unreasonable. 2.- But Multinationals bankers and governments want to optimize benefits obtained from petrol extraction. 3.- Each respective technology is mature enough to be deployed in domestic markets, H2 already in use [Rs] microCHP pilot run in UK. 4.- But the banks do not want the average citizen to try something new in the middle of current financial crisis. 5.- Current Sun energy panel technologies do not produce enough energy to propel vehicles with same thrust or autonomy as conventional fuels. It's a fact that fossil gas is the temporary substitute of petrol page 2.11 graph 2gr. In 2010 was UK's main source of energy following shift from petrol to gas. But I would like to draw the attention upon a gas that has far higher energy density: Hydrogen. Whichever the reason, we need to bear in mind that fossil gas was already broadly used at the beginning of XXth century as domestic fuel for instance, until petrol consumption took off, and fossil gas is in use throughout the world; houses, cars, fork lift trucks, rockets, industry, electricity generation, boilers.

pictures [tmb1 to 5] from top left to right: photovoltaic panels collect energy to split water molecules H2O into H2 (propellant) and O2. Safely (Linde)[36] stored and already on the street ([37]filling stations, FCorg[38]), to top up bus on-board H2 and O2 tanks. 70 passengers, peak vehicle velocity 80km/h, range 200 to 250km depending on payload weigh. Honda FCX Clarity[hon][39], Hummer H2H[40][hum] prototype, BMW H7[41][bm], and BMW car production factory in Spartanburg[42] North Carolina [spart] using Linde H2 picker trucks including H2 storage and H2 production. 3 minutes picker trucks battery charge compared to previous 40min. Above BP H2 buses refuel stations. Hand held fuel cell[43] March 2006. Following, a basic H2 fuel cell: [Bloom][44] Fuel cells were invented over a century ago and have been used in practically every NASA mission since the 1960's [Bloom] (NASA[46] STI[47] H2 news[45]). For space rockets Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC)[48] held and holds the greatest potential of any fuel cell technology. SOFCs operate at high temperature typically above 800C (1472F). Types of FC[49]. NASA has been broadly using fuel cells since 60's. To avoid carrying liquid O2 tanks pumps and pipes, O2 is trapped in a solid material, there the term SOFC. These are the advantages that I see in clean electrolysis generated H2 as broad substitute of fossil fuels: 1. No or little harmful emissions compared to fossil fuels or even biofuels 2. No noise because there are no explosions inside cylinders, graph next page [jm3], picture right [fcmem]

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2.5

3. No vibration caused by engines; no block, gasket containing shaft and cylinders, the core of the engine does not suffer same level of mechanical fatigue compared to Brayton[50], Otto[51], or Stirling[52] cycle motors. 4. Higher reliability; the fewer the parts involved in a system, if all parts reliable, then the system is more reliable than another system with equally reliable parts, but requiring a larger number of parts. 5. Increased onboard performance when space constrains apply; H2 is the fuel with highest energy density available in nature. That means that for every burnt H2 mass through fuel cell membrane layers there is more energy released than by any other technology There are different H2 fuel cells (FC) according to the reaction taking place on the membrane, click on icon right: From [UltraCell[53] white paper ABSL Solutions[54] there are 2 FC membrane main groups of FC, low temperature fuel cells (PEM, DMFC, AFC) and high temperature systems (MCFC, SOFC suffer intolerance of atmospheric CO2). Types of FC[49], right from [Ultr].

H2 storage: Some people call it one of H2 drawbacks. I rather call it just another problem to solve.
H2 storage has improved a lot from 60's because there is no need any more to drop temperature with cryogenic systems anymore to keep P1 V1/T1 = P2 V2/T2. Compressing a large volume of H2 at high pressure and keeping it liquid is achieved by mixing H2 inside the tank with chemicals that behave in same way that conventional vehicle coolant is used to prevent a liquid at high temperature to evaporate. As we can see on the right hand side Linde shows one of their liquid H2 tanks, stating ambient temperature 20C but they do not mention how is that there is no bulky cryogenic unit. Actually this photo is taken from Linde's example for public transport buses.

lh2

Cryogenic units require a separate Helium circuit extracting heat and bringing load (H2) temperature down. Then I found H Bank, from Taiwan: H Bank Technology Inc[55] e-mail[56], see diagram on the right. I found another example of H2 used to power UAV[57][h2uav] and in the photo (not included) it seems to have endured several flight hours. In Matweb[58] I looked for details about this clay Hydride that mixed up with H2 removes bulky H2 cryogenic storage systems from budget from H Bank Technology Inc but not included here, right detail from [hbnk].

hyd

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2.6

The following [McK] energy density and storage graphs agreeing with [h2.DOE], note these log scales while [jm3] is linear:

Cycles refers to the amount of times that a battery may be recharged. Cycle=1 means the energy carrier is destroyed along with the energy consumption. Linde has a way to produce H2 from methane and water, called methane reformation[60]: CH4 + 2H2O 4H2 + CO2, basically Linde aims at using biomass (organic waste, processed fossil gas, biofuels) to produce H2 to avoid burning petrol and coal to produce H2. Not as clean as producing electrolysis[61] with PV panels, but not as dirty (CO2/kWh) as burning petrol to generate electricity. [mbnz] Mercedes Benz[62] is joining US DOE[63] validation[64] project supplying different H2 powered vehicles. H2 Electrolysis; reduction of water through accumulation of H2 on cathode conducting electrical current [Coulomb/s or Amperes]. Up to this point I did not understand why not pumping H2 only straight into FC, so I did more research on this point SECA/NETL, EERE and [h2.DOE]: The original fuel cell was developed back in 1959 [wt] to trap CO out of fuel combustion. Cogeneration (burning fossil fuels to produce

fc59

electricity) is expensive and it burns fuel that could otherwise be used to propel vehicles. As we see, the starter block above these lines involves fuel processing, and that may produce H2 required to FC. FC were initially designed for power plants, submarines and for space vehicles propulsion and it turned out to be the best solution to thrust rolling vehicles on the Moon and Mars. Basically FC was and is used in power plants and submarines as the solution to 'trap' combustion CO, highly poisonous, along with other chemicals. The reduction of toxic chemicals poured into the atmosphere when using FC is overwhelming:
tablefc

fc69

But TMB supply chain (5 pictures pg5) shows that if H2 from clean generation available, then this is the best option from CF point of view; more power, no CO2. I did not understand the true scope of FC until I saw the table on the left hand side. There are different chemical basic reactions, for instance PAFC basic reaction is 0.5 O2 + H2 H2O. [Rs] bases his alternative energy sources chapter on [h2.DOE]. And then I looked for already existing FC generators, in the

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2.7

same way that remote hospitals, military, and remote sites like petrol wells. They bring along portable energy sources and I found the 250kW tubular SOFC installation within the short hopper photo below. I looked for hoppers standard size, Annex 6.2. So, [h2.DOE] points out at Methanol is (was in 2004) the best FC propellant WHEN intending to use it with conventional fuels. H2 FC is cleaner than fossil fuels, but in the [CUTE] update file pg12 and 36, gas reformation is not removed from the supply chain to keep maximum flexibility. [Table 53] Annex 3. Are we short on gas? pump in H2 from water electrolysis. Do we still have petrol? burn it before someone else does it. And in the eventuality of rationing (shortage, war), the more inlets the better. Read Annex 3 [table 53] Well2Wheel reforming processing matrix.

fcblk

[h2.DOE] argued back to 2004 that the reasons for FC not taking off as universal solution to burning fossil fuels were: insufficient longevity and reliability. unacceptably high cost. lack of familiarity of markets with fuel cells. When H2 used; lack of fuel infrastructure limiting commercial availability. But after careful consideration I dare say that SOFC reliability is no longer a problem (military trust it for UAVs), and cost has dropped to the point of being affordable to public transport throughout the world. Additionally all players in energy supply are somehow gradually stepping up investment on this reliable solution. Tell me what can be more reliable than the following example on the left; Siemens Westinghouse 250kW power plant powered by tubular manifold SOFCs. Other SOFC power generation manufacturers: ADELAN, ROLLS-ROYCE, US ACUMETRICS, Ceramic Fuel Cells, Delphi/Battelle, SOFC McDermott, Tokyo Gas, TOTO/Kyushu Electric power/Nipon Steel, and more, 2004 [h2.DOE]. As we have seen above in page 5, the basic FC shows flat sw surfaces [fcmem]. In point 3.5 Analysis I have included a diagram of how do manifold SOCFs look like. Actually manifold SOCFs look like heat exchangers maximizing gas path length. So to close H2 research, In the previous lines I have chosen some companies that are pulling the effort to introduce alternative energy sources to fossil fuels, and they have chosen H2, used directly or through reformation of fossil fuels. There are many more companies thinking or already working on the same direction. It is not possible in this assignment to fully highlight the offer of the alternative energy generation industry, or to even point out at current technical specific limitations. CONEL as College paying attention to evolving technologies has the power to shape future engineers and to focus students on the right direction.

2.7 MORE ON SOLAR:


I started search for solar power with year 2008 Solar energy generation sector report in Germany http://www.solarserver.de[65]. Some big factories and facilities with their own large generation Walp system already make money out of feeding the electrical supply network instead of spending on electrical power supply, example Walpolenz [ref1.12.2] (N5119' E1239') 550,000 PV panels covering 220HA and generating 40 10 kWh/year (4.56MW) [refs 1.12.20 and 1.12.2]. In Germany by 2007, 2762.9MWp (peak) total solar generation was already connected to national grid but domestic demand has fallen down below 1% over the last 10 years [table 25 from ref1.12.1]. Following, examples of large roofs used to reduce electrical supply bill. Instead of paying for electricity, these facilities make money out of electrical generation. wall example click on icon to see the photo facade example 1 click on icon to see the photo
730 active modules. 45 to 60 Watt output each. Size of 1.296 by 0.656 metres. The total costs amounted to approx. 250,000. 640m2 at the Berlin FBH. Source: Forschungsverbund Berlin e.V. This is the wall of a factory where PV panels are manufactured
ref1.12.wall

the exception, domestic faade in Freiburg, source Solarfabrik AG quoted in [1.12]


fa1

ref1.12.f1

we

John Bofarull Guix

CONEL Buildings Energy Efficiency. 2 SEARCH

2.8

roof example 1

click on icon to see the photo


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facade example 2

solar roof complex of Sharp in the Japanese town of Kameyama, 5.1 MW.

click on icon to see the photo faade in Tbingen, source SunTechnics. Quoted in [1.12]
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re1

fa2

roof example 2

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ref 1 12

roof example 3
5MW single roof Brstadt, Hessen 30,000 PV panels Tauber Solar [re3], and BP7471 panel IV graph [bv]:

IV panel

Brstadt

10,000 m2 producing 1.1e6 kWh/year among the largest roof systems in Germany. Solar Fabrik AG roof.
re2

IU curve

Buerstadt

More examples of big buildings with high density of PV panels taking advantage of large roofs in Annex 2. The majority of large roofs with PV panels mentioned in Annex 2.6 . The majority of these buildings are factories or facilities with maintenance teams that include mobile platforms and all tools necessary for quick panels replacement. If the building is a PV panel factory all they have to do is to pull spare parts from the same production line. This is not the case for CONEL, but CONEL has cheap handwork willing to learn and this is an advantage that has to be taken into consideration. China is wining anyone else on industrial production because of cheap labour; money may or may not bring in good soldiers, but good soldiers generate everything including money. [McK pg184] gives 15W/m2 as average energy production concentrating solar energy, farms mainly based in deserts. Comparing this to the previous 1st approach to CONEL TTH figures look wrong, how are 16W/m2 in England possible if desert sup power show [W/m2] below? It's not a mistake. It's because concentrating Solar power requires Sun tracking configurations leaving lots of gaps wasting incoming Sun energy.

2.8 SOLAR THERMAL:


To heat water, the energy is stored in hot water heated while running through long transparent tubes located on cylindrical parables. Ausra [66] 3.5km2 of mirrors would deliver 1.2TWh(e); thats 38W/m2 compact linear fresnel reflector [67][mm]. This technology is also used de desalinise sea water. Solar power comparative figures of merit fall within in the following ranges: parabolic troughs[68], 1419W/m2; linear fresnel collector, 1928W/m2; tower with heliostats[69](mirror convex Fresnel turning to follow sun and receive perpendicular rays maximizing effective area), 914W/m2; stirling dish[70], 914W/m2. Fresnel lenses are used in for instance in lighthouses and satellite cn communications, allowing large apertures, short focus distance and saving glass.

2.9 WIND:
UK operational wind farms[71]. [McK pg265] assuming average wind speed 6m/s then the average UK wind farm produces 2W/m2. wind farms[72] Micro-generation with small turbines may only be viable in really windy places. UK is the windiest country in Europe, but [McK] well points out that wind energy micro-generation may not be practical in majority of buildings, and I think that is the case for CONEL despite academic interest among students may increase if having one small turbine operational. How cheap can Chinese suppliers go in wind generation tools and project management? Ask Qingdao Wind wings Wind Turbine Co. Ltd, from ECVV[73] 2 models, a 600W 2.5m claiming 1500kW/year = 4Wh/day with 4m/s average wind speed, provided that wind blows hard and long enough. The other model, $10,000 for a 10kW supplier: Qing Dao[74]. Unit definition [McK]: home is defined by the British Wind Energy Association[75] to be a power of 4700kWh/year. Thats 0.54 kW or 13 kWh/day. Other organizations use 4000 wnd kWh/y per household. It doesn't seem that CONEL has enough area to set up big turbines, which is the only way to generate enough wind power, bear in mind that big turbines need to be spaced, and have to be kept at a certain distance from urban centres for obvious safety reasons.

2.10 BIOFUELS:
I started this fuel search visiting the UK's National Centre for Bio-renewable Energy Fuels and Materials NNFCC[76]. I already knew that some biofuels may clog certain engines, maritime warnings available online[77]. It has become world wide practice to mix biofuels like Ethanol (types E85[78] E10[79] E15-E20[80]) to conventional refined petrol API[81] OPEC[82] US and Brazil[83] are the largest producers of Ethanol, blended[84] with gasoline. BP[85] is involved in Brazil producing biofuels. Following the analysis of my search I agree with RoyS[86] that biofuels are useful to reduce CO2 emissions but they may not be a long term solution to completely take over fossil fuels. In 2050[87] Earth population 9 10 and growing. More details about biofuels in further reading Annex 2.11.

John Bofarull Guix

CONEL Buildings Energy Efficiency. 2 SEARCH

2.9

2.11 WASTE BURNING:


WasteBurning Next to this line graph showing current power generated by different UK waste burning plants currently working. Burning waste works but it cannot replace fossil fuels electrical power brn generation plants. Example waste burning plant Selchp. It generates 35MW burning 420kTn bin bags waste yearly. This plant needs 4MW back fed to power up own systems and only 1/5th of energy released while burning is recovered. Something would be really wrong if burning our own waste we could avoid burning fuels.

2.12 NUCLEAR:
Again, we are considering CONEL, so nuclear is really interesting regarding future national prospects, UK Atomic Energy Authority[88], but not feasible to install a nuclear reactor in the middle of London. However, I found Culham[89], they help secondary schools train future engineers on nuclear.

2.13 UK TARGETING REDUCTION OF DEPENDANCY UPON CONVENTIONAL FUELS:


So far, it is clear that rich countries contaminate more than emerging and poor countries. This is not a luxury but a basic need; strong horses eat more and spend more energy than weak ones. Is Kyoto showing emerging nations outplaying 1st world by getting them round the table to make concessions? or is this show a global Orwellian Farm meeting where the foxes are trying to take advantage while the lions are away doing the hard work? From the engineering point of view we must make sure that supply is uninterrupted and that there is enough backoff margin to avoid unexpected blackouts. I worked in TV broadcast and this is the way networks work; being as transparent as possible. That is the difference between smooth railway daily services King's Cross Edinburgh, to 3rd world undermanned railways suffering interruptions and not satisfying demand. From the majority of poor and emerging countries it is an obvious winning move to fully back up CF reduction, but that implies top players giving ground to competitors, and that is not affordable. UK energy demand is well above UK energy offer despite gaps with slight overhead exports [3.1]. So we are spending more energy and importing more energy, gas 2009 to 2010 increase. In the same source, the price of electricity in the ukie 2gr UK is driven by 'fossil plant, an example gas-fired Combined Cycle Gas Turbine (CCGT)' a technology UKgreen10pc that has lower maintenance costs compared to nuclear UKImportExport Bitmap Image and wind energy. I disagree upon the assertion in [3.1] ukdr that according to National Grid 'many critical development depends on market incentives'. I disagree. Such statements denotes an i-want-ti-be-a-banker-too attitude that markets tend to punish. In the US, after 1st financial recession banking rescue packs with public money along came different car manufacturers moaning for rescue packages, but Ford refused to take public money, and their sales increased. Check in Solar [table 25], Annex 3 table 25. The sector grows but the average domestic house cannot afford power shortage because PV panels requiring replacement, and the majority of domestic household do not like or cannot afford stocking spare parts. In other words, the average roof of a domestic household doesn't have enough area to compensate for installation and maintenance costs, but as Walpolentz and any other large buildings or dedicated energy farms, as soon as threshold generation is satisfied, covering costs and making benefit, the market rewards such enterprises. The questions is, does CONEL have enough roof area to take off? I am not finding it out, it would take a dozen more assignments, but there are professionals out there that may readily quote reliable installation and maintenance budgets for free, at least on first contact. UK spends 55% equivalent fuel on transport [20.1], and services, the current motor of the UK energy, requires 18% of overall UK demand only (2009, 20.1).[McK pg133] airplanes may be destroying the ozone layer (O3) but they are more CO2 emissions efficient than ships (excluding nuclear powered ships). The key move to reduce CO2 emissions would be to find a way to reduce transport dependency upon fossil fuels. H2 based FC, and hybrid electricfossil powering achieve this; lowering CO2 emissions, keeping thrust and by all means being safe enough for public use. That would be the direction maximizing research and development efforts. Meanwhile UK turns to fossil/natural gas[59] and liquefied natural gas (LNG)[90]. The North Africa is rich in fossil gas.

2.14 ON IMPROVING CURRENT POLICIES and ATTITUDES


Let's take at random one of many GOV suggestions to improve buildings energy efficiency; insulate windows and make door frame as hermetic as possible to avoid unnecessary heat flow. Ok, you spend thousands of pounds on new materials, new window frames and so on. However, there is little point at improving window insulation if then windows are left open while central heating on, or no one switches off PCs including monitors when leaving classrooms. I have asked over 30 students and staff in the canteen regarding their intention to change current habit in order to improve CONEL buildings energy efficiency. Questionnaire (raw data) in annex 7. I also probed students by randomly emailing 30 students and awaiting for a coherent answer to my energy efficiency related questions. I am still waiting now for any understandable answer. Let me put it in Dr House's terms; people don't care. We pretend we do but we don't unless there is clear benefit or potential penalty. I am detailing a pack of countermeasures in the conclusion point, but good staff and good students may or may not follow policies according to their own criteria, which means that if some one doesn't care about switching off computers
John Bofarull Guix CONEL Buildings Energy Efficiency. 2 SEARCH 2 . 10

and lights when leaving a room, CONEL staff should enforce policies. For instance; changing IT management network policies and turning off all computer automatically at given hour for instance. Right on the introduction I have asked 2 questions, but with the available information, it is not possible to give an accurate answer to any of them. However, I am drafting a bit of planning to highlight how I would proceed if I were in charge of a hypothetic project starting with building energy efficiency surveys, and if possible checking heat loss through IR footage, and if approved self certification through a CONEL staff member holding valid accreditation and using approved software.

John Bofarull Guix

CONEL Buildings Energy Efficiency. 2 SEARCH

2 . 11