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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
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Vibrations from a motor or machine contain vital information about the operation state and condition of the machine. Analysis and categorizing of various vibration patterns provides us with a visual reference to critical situations which may damage the system. By analyzing vibrations along with current, we propose to develop an electronic control system capable of predicting faults which in turn will help save valuable resources.
Electricity is most widely used to power up appliances from Homes to Industries. Our special interest is on Industrial equipments which are powered by an Electrical Motor; such as Compressor, Blower, CNC Machine, Milling Machine, etc. Power output from motor is coupled to the shaft of machine. Coupling components include shafts, gears, belts, flags and bearings, essentially transferring energy. Even though these components are designed for high performance and rigidity, with time they start to develop flaws. High frequency of operation causes bearings and components to reach the end of their product life. Hence with increasing use or age, begin to vibrate more distinctly or producing abnormal movements which reduces overall efficiency. Such vibrations are caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, meshing & wear and tear of gear teeth or bearings, rotor, etc.
In continuous production lines, there is need of 100% uptime of all machines. Traditional maintenance methods are Preventive in nature that is components are replaced on a fixed schedule though they wore out or not. Also another way of maintenance is called as Reactive maintenance, in which components are repaired only after they are broken down. First method can increase expenses towards maintenance, because parts are always replaced after certain period. The second one can cause ―Idle Period‖ when machine stops working due to malfunctioned part.
There is yet another maintenance approach known as Predictive maintenance, which can be achieved by Vibration Analysis. In vibration analysis, vibrations of machine assembly or a specific part are recorded using sensors such as Accelerometer. These recorded vibrations are analysed to estimate for how more time the part or machine could work without any issues. We can have a visualization and estimation about working state of the machine by means of vibrations. Therefore predictive maintenance using vibration analysis provides the condition of components in operating machines. If any fault occurs in component, continuous vibration analysis can detect possible fault, and respective corrective action can be taken to keep system in operation. Hence vibration analysis provides faster, continuous and efficient fault prediction. When this technique is used in sensitive application requiring 100% uptime, will certainly prove to be efficient and most importantly fail proof.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
What is vibration?
Vibrations are characterized by two specific features. These are :
i)The amplitude of vibration D
ii)The frequency of vibration where f= 1/T
The amplitude tells us how bad it is vibrating. The frequency tells us what is vibrating.
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In its simplest form, vibration can be considered to be the oscillations / repetitive motion of an object around an equilibrium position. The equilibrium position is the position which an object will attain when the force acting on it is zero. This type of vibration is called as ―whole body motion‖ i.e. all parts of the body are moving together in the same direction at any point of time.
Most engineering machines & structures experience vibration to some degree & their design generally requires consideration of their oscillatory behaviour. The vibration of an object is always caused by an excitation force which may be externally applied to that object or it may originate inside the object.
The vibration / oscillatory motion of the system may be objectionable or desirable, depending on the purpose of the machine. The objective of the designer is to control or minimize the vibration when it is objectionable & to utilize & enhance it when it is desirable.
The objectionable vibration in a device may cause fatigue failure, the loosening of parts, malfunctioning , imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, meshing, wear and tear of gear teeth or bearings, rotor or eventual failure of mechanical system.
Vibrations may be defined as the oscillatory or cyclic motion of a solid body, about some equilibrium point when excited by an appropriate force.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
1.1 Classification Of Vibration
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Vibration can be classified in various ways. This classification depends on the behaviour of the physical system under study as well as the nature of the dynamic forces acting on the system & the response of the system to these loads. Oscillatory systems can be characterized as linear or nonlinear.
Classification of vibration can also be based on the nature & behaviour of the input to the system & the corresponding response. There are two general classes of vibration in this regard as free & forced vibration.
Free vibration take place when a system oscillates under the action of force inherent in the system itself & when after an initial disturbance, the system is left to vibrate on its own & no external force acts on the system.
If the system is excited by an external force, the resulting vibration is called forced vibration. e.g. the oscillations that arises in machines such as rotating shafts due to unbalance is forced vibration.
When the excitation is oscillatory, the system is forced to vibrate at the excitation frequency. If the frequency coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system, a condition of resonance occurs & the system undergoes dangerous large oscillations. Vibration is also classified as deterministic or random.
If the magnitude of the excitation acting on a vibratory system varies in accordance with a prescribed function at any given time, the excitation of deterministic. The resulting vibration is known as deterministic vibration.
In some cases, the excitation is nondeterministic or random, i.e. the value of excitation at any given time cannot be predicted. This defines an class of vibration called as random vibrations.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
1.2 Sources Of Vibration :
1) 
Absence of lubrication 
2) 
Bent shafts 
3) 
Damaged or misaligned drives 
4) 
Damaged bearings 
5) Eccentricity
6) 
Fretting corrosion 
7) 
Incorrect assembly 
8) 
Insecure components 
9) 
Mechanical slackness 
10) Onset of cavitations 11) Presence of solid bodies 12) Static or dynamic unbalance 13) Worn bearings 14) Warn or damaged gears
Gear :
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Vibrations results from dynamic forces which produce a series of motions within the system. These motions may be linear or nonlinear or combination of both of these. Machinery vibrations can be measured and analyzed to provide a cost effective Predictive method of diagnosing the cause for development of failure conditions. Typical machinery faults which may be discovered by vibration analysis are :
A gear wheel is a wheel with teeth around its circumference ,the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device possibly another gear wheel—so that force can be transmitted between the two devices in a direction tangential to their surfaces. A nontoothed wheel can transmit some tangential force but will slip if the force is large; teeth prevent slippage and allow the transmission of large forces. Gears are also sometimes call toothed wheels or cogged wheels. The teeth are also sometimes called cogs. The smaller gear in a pair is often called the pinion; the larges, either the gear, or the wheel.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
Types Of Gears:
Following are different types of gears,
1. Spur gears
2. Helical gears
3. Double Helical gears
4. Bevel gears
5. Crown gear
6. Hypoid gears
7. Worm gear
8. Sector gear
9. Rack and pinion
Gear Mesh Frequency:
The speed of machine is 1430 rpm. Hence the gear mesh frequency= rps* gear teeth = (1430/60)*62 =1480 Hz
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A gear can mesh with any device having teeth compatible with the gear’s teeth. Such devices include racks and other nonrotating devices; however, the most common situation is for a gear to be in mesh with another gear. In this way, rotational motion can be transferred from one location to another. While gears are sometimes used simply for this reason—to transmit rotation to another shaft—perhaps their most important feature is that, if the gears are of unequal sizes, a mechanical advantage is also achieved, so that the rotational speed, and torque, of the second gear are different from that of the first. In this way, gears provide a means of increasing or decreasing a rotational speed, or a torque. This is a highly useful property.
Each gear has 62 teeths. Hence tooth mesh frequency is 62 Hz and its second and third harmonics are 124, 186 etc.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
1.3 Literature Survey:
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Predictive maintenance by using vibration analysis is the most reliable and secure approach towards the maintenance. Much of the research work is going on this field due to increased industrialization. In paper [1] they proposed use of vibration analysis for structural health management by considering two nonstationary signals and applying wavelet techniques onto it. Paper [2] describes diagnosis of engine faults using vibration analysis by using wavelet packets and neural networks. Paper [3] elaborates use of vibration testing and analysis in increasing performance of reconfigurable Turnmilling Machine Tool using FFT and they have used accelerometer for signal capturing along with force detector and hall effect current sensor to plot the currentvibration profile of that machine. Paper [4] describes use of vibration monitoring analysis technique for electric motor mass unbalance in power plants and hence provide an effective solution for balancing it. Paper [5] shows use artificial neural network for fault pattern classification of turbinegenerator set using wavelet transform and fuzzy logic for improving performance of generator. Paper [6] describes use analysis of noise and vibration for a new pure electrical vehicle to provide an ecofriendly solution for improving the performance of transport system. Paper [7] shows use of dynamic wavelet analysis for motor Fault diagnosis based on the vibration signal testing and analysis using Labview software for simulating and a data acquisition card. Paper [8] elaborates condition monitoring of induction motors using wavelet based analysis of vibration signals using a piezoelectric accelerometer sensor. Paper [9] shows application of wavelet analysis in fault detection of cell phone motor using vibration analysis by a MEMS accelerometer. In Paper [10] they proposed the used of wavelet techniques for the continuous analysis of motors using mallet algorithm. In paper [11] shows electrical fault detection in three phase squirrel cage induction motor by vibration analysis using mems accelerometer. Paper[12] describes static and dynamic vibration analyses of switched reluctance motors including bearings, housing, rotor dynamics, and applied loads. Paper [13] shows fault detection of gearbox with vibration signal analysis by a linear combination of adaptive wavelets. Paper [15] application of wavelet and Fourier transforms for vibration analysis of motor. Paper [16] shows vibration fault detection and diagnosis in aircraft power plant using modelbased techniques along with fuzzy neural networks. Paper [17] shows vibration fault detection and diagnosis method for power system generator based on wavelet fractal network.
Along with this a book [18] covers the major information contents related sources and causes of vibrations in mechanical systems. Also book [19] ontains advanced
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
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information about various techniques of maintenance and interrelation between shock and vibration and how to minimize them.
We also had visited various industries nearby Kolhapur such as Presifab India Corp. Manugraph Ltd, GhadgePatil Industries Ltd, S.B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd. and Dudhane Nutbolts. By visiting those industries we got to know about the traditional maintenance methods they are implementing in there day to day practices. Those methods are preventive in nature that is components are replaced on a fixed schedule though they worn or not. Also another way is called reactive maintenance in which components are repaired only after they have broken down. These methods are not ideal but used very commonly throughout the heavy industry sector. Both of these methods tend to much higher costs and less reliability of system.
Therefore we decided to use predictive maintenance. Predictive maintenance using vibration analysis provides the condition of components in operating machines. If any fault occurs in component due to fast processing and analysis the fault can be detected and respective corrective action can be taken to keep system in operation and Hence vibration analysis provides faster , efficient fault detection and when used in industries can provide huge cost saving without need of interruption in operation of any of system. We are going to use wavelet analysis which will provide precise control by resolving each and every frequency and then comparing it with standard pattern.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
CHAPTER 2
Proposed work
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2.1 Block Diagram
Block diagram consists of :
1) Accelerometer
Fig .2.1. Block diagram of system
P
C
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For detecting fault in any machine the vibrations of that machine are firstly recorded by the means of accelerometer and an ARM controller either using UART or SD card. Those recorded vibrations are then analysed on PC by using software MATLAB.Keys and display are used to provide user interface.Main aim of our project is to provide predictive maintenance approach for machines.
Accelerometer is used to measure tiny vibrations and movements of an object. A piezoelectric sensor can be used to collect initial vibration signal. For interfacing with controller, MEMS accelerometer is preferred which provides digital output. Data from sensor will be input to the system.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
2. Microcontroller (ARM) and PC
3.PC –
4. Keys and Display
This user interface will provide ability to setup the device and see real time output results.
5. SD card/network interface
6.Ethernet module 
An Standalone Ethernet controller ENC28J60 with SPI interface is provided for future development which will facilitate remote access to the vibration pattern of machine.
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This is the main processing part of the system. Inbilt ADC of ARM controller is used to sample the input data from accelerometer. Sampling rate of ADC is 1Msps and resolution is12 bit.
PC is used to analyze the vibration pattern by using MATLAB software. It will firstly apply wavelet on input vibration pattern and obtain low and high frequency components. Then power spectral density of the wavelet decomposition is taken will be used to get or resolute the particular area of frequencies interest in vibration pattern.
SD card is used to store the vibration pattern onto it. It uses a FAT32 file system for storing the data. Also it will store the standard vibration pattern of machine which is provided by the manufacturer.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
2.2 Work flow
Phase I Studying Vibration Patterns & Matlab Simulations
Phase II Hardware Estimation
Phase III Hardware Development
Phase IV Testing & Optimization
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In this phase, we will obtain vibration patterns from the machine under observation. For this part, we will get started with simple piezoelectric crystal accelerometer and record the signal. In Matlab software, we will develop an algorithm to detect critical vibration occurrences by developing a database of all possible patterns. By applying wavelet transformations, we will decompose signal components for better study of specific parts. PSD of particular level of Wavelet decomposition can be calculated to focus on a particular frequency signal portion. We will make a database defining Normal and Abnormal vibration patterns for later comparisons with real time input.
This phase is critical towards designing actual hardware and estimating cost. We will choose a microcontroller from ARM family having higher sampling rate so as to collect all frequency components. Then this vibration pattern is stored on the MicroSD card. Then the algorithm is developed in MATLAB.That algorithm is applied to compare the vibration patterns on SD card and from that the fault is detected.As a future scope Ethernet connectivity is provided.
In this stage, we will prepare circuit layout and PCB for mounting the circuit. Once board is ready, code for microcontroller will be developed which will resemble algorithm developed in Matlab. For ARM controllers, we will be using Keil IDE for developing and evaluating the code.
Here, the draft system will be subjected to various tests to see if it facilitates design objectives. Any debugging, fixes and optimization will be carried out.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
CHAPTER 3
HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT
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3.1 Accelerometer
Fig. 3.1.1 Piezoelectric Accelerometer
The piezoelectric sensor is a single axis vibration transducer. Multiple axis accelerometers are available in MEMS type and they provide easy integration with a
0
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Accelerometer is a transducer that measures acceleration. It Measures relative ―weight‖ experienced by test mass. Piezoelectric crystal is basic accelerometer. MEMS accelerometers are available which provides better resolution. MEMS accelerometers are available in MultiAxis models (2 or 3).They can directly provide digital SPI output or Analog output.
The above is of Piezeoelectric Accelerometer which was initially used to capture the signal. The piezoelectric accelerometer can be considered the primitive vibration transducer for machine vibration measurement.The seismic mass is clamped to the base by an axial bolt bearing down on a circular spring. The piezoelectric element is squeezed between the mass and the base. When a piezoelectric material experiences a force, it generates an electric charge between its surfaces. There are many such materials, with quartz being one of the most commonly used.
The output of the accelerometer is plugged to Microphone Input of PC’s sound card. Output is basically voltage which varies in accordance with vibration pattern of machine. Sound recording tool such as Gold Wave is used to record this pattern. Recorded signal is stored in WAV format which can be easily imported in MATLAB.
microcontroller. Their sensitivity can be chosen according to the application. MMA7361L was chosen which is a 3 axis analog output MEMS accelerometer.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
MEMS Accelerometer MMA7361L
• 3mm x 5mm x 1.0mm LGA14 Package
• Low Current Consumption: 400 μA
• Sleep Mode: 3 μA
• Low Voltage Operation: 2.2 V – 3.6 V
• High Sensitivity (800 mV/g @ 1.5g)
• Selectable Sensitivity (±1.5g, ±6g)
• Fast Turn On Time (0.5 ms Enable Response Time)
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MMA7361L is a Three axis Lowg accelerometer Module which gives selectable acceleration range from ±1.5g or ±6g.The MMA7361L is a low power, low profile capacitive micro machined accelerometer featuring signal conditioning[22], a 1pole low pass filter, temperature compensation, and gSelect which allows for the selection between 2 sensitivities. Zerog offset and sensitivity are factory set and require no external devices. The MMA7361L includes a Sleep Mode that makes it ideal for handheld battery powered electronics. Features
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
Internal Block Diagram
Fig.3.1.2 Block Diagram of MEMS Accelerometer
Specifications:
• Supply voltage (Vdd): 2.2V to 3.6V @ 600μA
• Sleep mode current: 3 μA
• Sensitivity: 
1.5g : 800 mV/g 
6g : 206 mV/ g 
• Static Acceleration: XOUT,YOUT @ 1g : 0.85V, @ 0g : 1.65V, @ +1g: 2.54V
• Bandwidth: XOUT, YOUT: 400Hz
• Output Impedance: 32KΩ
Maximum Ratings :
Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer
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3.2 ARM Microcontroller
Features :
■ Core: ARM 32bit Cortex™M3 CPU
– 24 MHz maximum frequency,1.25 DMIPS/MHz (Dhrystone 2.1) performance
– Singlecycle multiplication and hardware division
■ Memories
– 16 to 128 Kbytes of Flash memory
– 4 to 8 Kbytes of SRAM
■ Clock, reset and supply management
– 2.0 to 3.6 V application supply and I/Os
– POR, PDR and programmable voltage detector (PVD)
– 4to24 MHz crystal oscillator
– Internal 8 MHz factorytrimmed RC
– Internal 40 kHz RC
– PLL for CPU clock
– 32 kHz oscillator for RTC with calibration
■ Low power
– Sleep, Stop and Standby modes
■ Debug mode
– 
Serial wire debug (SWD) and JTAG interfaces 

■ 
DMA 

– 
7channel DMA controller 

– 
Peripherals supported: timers, ADC, SPIs, I2Cs, USARTs and DACs 

■ADC 
–1 × 12bit, 1.2 μs A/D converter –up to 16 channels
– Conversion range: 0 to 3.6 V
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Microcontroller is used to take input from the accelerometer and then store it onto the SD card interfaced to it . STM 32 F100RB8 is a ARM Cortex M3 based 32 bit microcontroller.
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
STM32F100RBT6B Block diagram
Fig.3.2.1 Block Diagram of STM32F100RBT6B
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STM32VLDISCOVERY
The STM32 is available as an evaluation board, STM32VLdiscovery. The STM32 value line Discovery evaluation board helps you discover the STM32 value line features and to develop and share your applications. It is based on an STM32F100RBT6B and includes STLink embedded debug tool interface, LEDs and push buttons.
Features :
■ STM32F100RBT6B microcontroller, 128 KB Flash, 8 KB RAM in 64pin LQFP
■ Onboard STLink with selection mode switch to use the kit as a standalone STLink (with SWD connector for programming and debugging)
■ Two red LEDs; LD1 for USB communication, LD2 for 3.3 volts power on
■ Designed to be powered by USB or an external supply of 5 V or 3.3 V
■ Can supply target application with 5 volts and 3 volts
■ Two user LEDs, LD3 and LD4 (green and blue)
■ Two push buttons (User and Reset)
■ Extension header for all QFP64 I/Os for quick connection to prototyping board or easy probing
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Block Diagram of STM32VLDISCOVERY
Fig 3.2.2 STM32 VL Discovery Block Diagram
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
Fig. 3.2.3 Top View of STM 32 VL Discovery
Header Connectors
Male headers P1, P2 and P3 can connect the STM32 value line Discovery to a standard prototyping/wrapping board. All GPIOs of STM32F100RBT6B are available on it. P1, P2 and P3 can also be used to probe an oscilloscope, logical analyzer or voltmeter.
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
Table3.2.1 : P1 header Pinout
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Table.3.2.2.P2 Header Pinout
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
Table3.2.3. Port 3 Header Pinout
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3.3 SD Card :
Secure Digital (SD) is a nonvolatile memory card for use in portable devices.
It is used to store the vibration pattern of machine.
SD card can be operated with
1)SPI bus mode
2) Onebit SD
3)Fourbit SD
Out of above interfaces SPI interface is preferred when interfacing with microcontroller.SD card operates on 3.3V supply.
SD card will be using a FAT32 file system to store the vibration pattern onto it.File
Allocation Table (FAT) is basic computer file system architecture
commonly found on flash memory cards, digital cameras, and many other portable devices because of their relative simplicity. The name originates from the usage of a table which centralizes the information about which areas belong to files, are free or possibly unusable, and where each file is stored on the disk. To limit the size of the table, disk space is allocated to files in contiguous groups of hardware sectors called clusters. This makes it a useful format for solidstate memory cards and a convenient way to share data between operating systems.
FAT file systems are
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3.4 Ethernet Module :
Ethernet controller ENC28J60 is a Standalone Ethernet controller with SPI interface.
It has following features :
IEEE 802.3. Compatible Ethernet Controller
Fully Compatible with 10/100/1000BaseT Networks
Integrated MAC and 10BaseT PHY
Supports One 10BaseT Port with Automatic Polarity Detection and Correction
Supports Full and HalfDuplex modes
Programmable Automatic Retransmit on Collision
Programmable Padding and CRC Generation
Programmable Automatic Rejection of Erroneous Packets
SPI Interface with Clock Speeds Up to 20 MHz
Fig.3.4 TYPICAL ENC28J60BASED INTERFACE
Computer:
Computer is used to collect vibration pattern recorded on SD card or store the
vibration pattern by serial communication. MATLAB computing environment software is used on PC for analyzing signals. Using wavelet decomposition techniques various frequency components of a signal are resolved. Applying power spectral density to particular level of wavelet decomposition will provide power related to that frequency.
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
3.5 Power Supply
5V Supply Specifications :
Output Voltages 5V DC
Input Voltage 7 to 12V DC
Regulator ICs LM7805 for 5V.
Current sourcing max 500mA at 5V
Fig.3.5.1. 5V power supply
3.3 V Supply Specifications :
Output Voltages 3.3V
Input Voltage 7 to 12V DC
Regulator ICs LM1117 for 3.3V
Current sourcing Maximum 800mA at 3.3V
Fig3.5.2. 3.3V power supply
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
LM7805 Positive Linear Regulator
Features
• Output Current up to 1A
• Output Voltage of 5 V
• Thermal Overload Protection
• Load and Line Regulation
• Ripple Rejection
• Short Circuit Protection
LM1117 3.3V Low Drop Out Regulator
Features:
Low Drop Out
Current Limiting and Thermal Protection
Load and Line Regulation
Output current up to 800 mA
Output Voltage 3.3 V
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
LCD DISPLAY
Features:
16 char x2 line LCD
Back light facility
8 data line interface
3 control line (rs, r/w, enable)
Power efficient
Bright and even back lighting
Long life expectancy, more than 100,000 hours
Simple to drive. Needs +5 volts only
Brightness can be easily adjusted
74HC245 Octal 3 State Buffer
Features:
Typical propagation delay: 13 ns
Wide power supply range: 2–6V
Low quiescent current: 80 µA
maximum (74 HC)
3STATE outputs for connection to
bus oriented systems
High output drive: 6 mA (minimum)
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
CP2102 Single Chip USB to UART Bridge
DB9 COM port is omitted on today’s computers. USB port is easily available which is used to connect most of the peripheral devices. Hence CP2102, a USB to UART bridge has been used to provide easy connectivity without need of DB9 port.
Features:
Integrated USB transceiver; no external resistors required
Integrated clock; no external crystal required
Integrated 1024Byte EEPROM for vendor ID, product ID, serial number, power descriptor, release number, and product description strings
Onchip poweron reset circuit
Onchip voltage regulator: 3.3 V output
Selfpowered: 3.0 to 3.6 V
USB bus powered: 4.0 to 5.25 V
Temperature Range: –40 to +85 °C
Works with Existing COM Port PC Applications
RoyaltyFree Distribution License
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
3.6 Schematic
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
3.7 PCB Layout
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
CHAPTER 4
VIBRATION ANALYSIS
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4.1 Wavelet Analysis
Most of the signals are represented in the time domain. More information about the signals can be obtained by applying signal analysis, i.e. the time signals are transformed using an analysis function. In frequency domain analysis time domain signal is converted into frequency domain by using appropriate analysis function.
The Fourier transform only retrieves the global frequency content of a signal hence time information is lost . Analysis functions for Fourier are sine and cosine functions which are not localized hence it cannot be used for analyzing sharp spikes. Therefore, the Fourier transform is only useful for stationary and pseudostationary signals. The Fourier transform does not give satisfactory results for signals that are highly nonstationary, noisy, aperiodic, etc. This is overcome by the short time Fourier transform (STFT) which calculates the Fourier transform of a windowed part of the signal and shifts the window over the signal. The short time Fourier transform gives the timefrequency content of a signal with a constant frequency and time resolution due to the fixed window length. This is often not the most desired resolution.
A wavelet is a short oscillating function which contains both the analysis function and the window. Time information is obtained by shifting the wavelet over the signal. The frequencies are changed by contraction and dilatation of the wavelet function. The wavelet transform retrieves the timefrequency content information with an improved resolution compared to the STFT. The window size of wavelet transform is variable hence provide multiresolution capabilities . Wavelet transform provides simultaneous time and frequency representation. It has infinite set of basis functions and handles frequency logarithmically.
Discrete Wavelet Transform:
A Real or complex valued analyzing function ψ (t) is classified as a wavelet if the following mathematical criteria are satisfied:
i. A wavelet must have finite energy
E = _{∫}
dt
< ∞
The energy E equals the integrated squared magnitude of the analyzing function ψ (t) and must be less than infinity.
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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine
ii. Admissibility Condition
= _{∫}
^{̇}
< ∞
The mean of the wavelet ψ (t) must equal zero.
iii. For complex wavelets the Fourier transform ψ (f) must be both real and vanish for negative frequencies.
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) uses filter banks to perform the wavelet analysis. The discrete wavelet transform decomposes the signal into wavelet coefficients from which the original signal can be reconstructed again. The wavelet coefficients represent the signal in various frequency bands. In DWT, a time frequency representation of a digital signal is obtained using digital filtering techniques. In this case, filters of different cutoff frequencies are used to analyze the signal at different scales. The signal is passed through a series of high pass filters to analyze the high frequencies, and it is passed through a series of low pass filters to analyze the low frequencies. Hence the signal (S) is decomposed into two types of components  approximation (A) and detail (D). The approximation is the highscale, lowfrequency component of the signal. The detail is the lowscale, highfrequency components. The decomposition process can be iterated, with successive approximations being decomposed in turn, so that one signal is broken down into many lower resolution components. This is called the wavelet decomposition tree which is shown in the Fig. below. As decompositions are done on higher levels, lower frequency components are filtered out progressively.
Fig.4.1.1. Wavelet Coefficients
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As in Fig4.1.1, the low and highpass filters split the frequency content of the signal in half. It therefore seems logical to perform a downsampling with a factor two to avoid redundancy.
Since the analysis process is iterative, in theory it can be continued indefinitely. In reality, the decomposition can proceed only until the individual details consist of a single sample or pixel. In practice, a suitable number of levels can be selected based on the nature of the signal, or on a suitable criterion such as entropy[8].
Fig.4.1.2. Decomposition Tree (Mallet Algorithm) [8]
Haar wavelet can be used for analyzing signal has following function:
ψ(t) = 
1 
if x 
[0, 0.5] 

= −1 
if x 
[0.5, 1] 

= 
0 
otherwise 

(t) = 1 
if x 
[0 1] 

= 
0 
if x 
[0 1] 
The Haar wavelet is also known as the first order Daubechies wavelet, which wavelet function resembles a step function. It is symmetric and orthogonal. Algorithm of haar wavelet is fast and provides exact reconstruction. Haar can be used for both continuous and discrete wavelet transform. It is simple and basic wavelet with scaling function and capable of both orthogonal and biorthogonal analysis.
Fig.4.1.3. The Haar Wavelet Basis Function
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WAVELET TOOLBOX:
MATLAB is a technical computing environment. It is used to create algorithms , analyze and process the various signals , test and simulate the processes and algorithms. MATLAB contains many set of toolboxes such as communication toolbox, aerodynamics toolbox etc. Wavelet toolbox is a graphical tool with commandline functions for developing waveletbased algorithms for the analysis, synthesis, denoising, and compression of signals and images. Wavelet analysis provides more precise information about signal data than other signal analysis techniques, such as Fourier. Wavelet Toolbox supports the interactive exploration of wavelet properties and applications. It is useful for speech and audio processing, image and video processing, biomedical imaging, and onedimensional (1D) and twodimensional (2D) applications in communications and geophysics[20].
Key Features
▪ Standard wavelet families, including Daubechies wavelet filters, complex Morlet and
Gaussian, real reverse biorthogonal, and discrete Meyer
▪ Wavelet and signal processing utilities, including a function to convert scale to frequency
▪ Methods for adding wavelet families
▪ Lifting methods for constructing wavelets
▪ Customizable presentation and visualization of data
▪ Interactive tools for continuous and discrete wavelet analysis
▪ Wavelet packets, implemented as MATLAB objects
▪ Onedimensional multisignal analysis, compression, and denoising
▪ Multiscale principal component analysis
▪ Multivariate denoising
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4.2 Power Spectral Density (PSD)
:
Power Spectral Density (PSD) is used to find power distribution over frequency components present in the test signal. PSD is obtained by multiplication of spectral density and an appropriate factor.
Welch’s method is used to find the PSD. This method provides noise reduction in spectral density which is caused due to imperfect and finite data.
In the Welch method:
The signal is split up into overlapping segments: The original data segment is split up into L data segments of length M, overlapping by D points.
1. D = M / 2, the overlap is said to be 50%
2.The overlapping segments are then windowed: After the data is split up into overlapping segments,
the individual L data segments have a window applied to them (in the time domain).
After doing the above, the periodogram is calculated by computing the discrete Fourier transform, and then computing the squared magnitude of the result. The individual periodograms are then timeaveraged, which reduces the variance of the individual power measurements. The end result is an array of power measurements verses normalized frequency.
Welch method reduces noise in estimated power spectra in exchange with reducing frequency resolution but it is desirable in most of the cases as noise is reduced.
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CHAPTER 5
SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT
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5.1 Flow Chart
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5.2 KEIL
The Keil is an IDE product from ARM. It includes C/C++ compilers, debuggers, integrated
environments,
CortexM, CortexR, 8051, C166 and 251 processor families. It is an integrated development
environment used for creating, compiling and simulating code of project.
RTOS, simulation models includes support for evaluation boards for ARM,
/*Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis using MEMS Accelerometer and Wavelets Final Year Project by Chavan Priyanka G. Dalavi Kishor B. Ghewari Sameer V. of Electronics & Telecommunication Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth's College of Engineering, Kolhapur. Under Guidance Of Prof. Mrs. J. K. Patil HOD, Electronics & Telecoomunication department./*
/*#####################################################################*/
//portsetup.c /*This function sets up all the pins of the controller in required configuration. It also enables required peripherlas on STM32 /*
//Includes #include "stm32f10x.h" #include "pinconf.h"
GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStructure; USART_InitTypeDef USART_InitStructure; NVIC_InitTypeDef NVIC_InitStructure;
// Further code Is omitted in this online copy of report
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CHAPTER 6 RESULTS
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Signals are recorded from accelerometer. Signals of various conditions of gear are recorded. Wavelet Transformation is applied on recorded signal to analyze the signal. Signals are sampled at rate 44100 samples/second.Signalas are recorded for span of one minute. The signal is shown in fig. below:
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Fig.Shows 12 level decomposition of recorded signal using Wavelet Toolbox from
MATLAB.Wavelet toolbox is used to analyze the signal and perform various operations onto
it using wavelet techniques such as filtering and denoising.By using wavelet toolbox it can
be seen that 9 ^{t}^{h} level of detailed coefficients provides appropriate resolution of high
frequency signals present in the recorded signal and 10 ^{t}^{h} level of approximated coefficients
provides low frequency components in recorded signals. Fig. below shows 9 ^{t}^{h} level detailed
and
10 ^{t}^{h} level approximated coefficients.
On x axis : no of samples On y axis : amplitude
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Power Spectral Density of Wavelet coefficients are taken in order to find power
distribution at various frequencies.Welch’s method is used to find power spectral density of
decomposed signal.Fig.below shows power spectral density of respected wavelet coefficients
Fig.6.1 wavelet Decomposition and welch power spectral density
Power spectral density is a plot of array of power measurements verses normalized frequency.
Wavelet analysis is applied on all the signals reorded and graph of individual Power spectral densities are plotted simultaneously for comparison.
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PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Lubricated Gear :
Fig.6.2 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Good Lubricated Gear
Frequency (Hz):1423.27 Hz
Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 31.73
PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Broken tooth Gear :
Fig.6.3 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Broken tooth Gear
Frequency (Hz):1375.07 Hz
Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 37.85
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PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Cracked tooth Gear :
Fig.6.4 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Cracked Gear
Frequency (Hz):1395.97 Hz
Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 41.19
PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Warned out Gear :
Fig.6.5 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Warned out Gear
Frequency (Hz):1376.72 Hz
Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 35.29
From fig. it can be seen that amplitude of high frequency component is increased from good lubricated gear to broken gear drastically. Hence Fault can be detected by comparison.
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Statistical Analysis :
Any distribution can be characterized by a number of features (such as the mean, the variance, the skewness, etc.), and the moments of a function describe the nature of its distribution.
Standard 

Type of Gear 
Mean 
Deviation 
Variance 
kurtosis 
Skewness 
Good 
1.9580e005 
0.0729 
0.0053 
10.4506 
0.1483 
BrokenTeeth 
1.8206e005 
0.0744 
0.0055 
7.4362 
0.2328 
Cracked 
2.0287e005 
0.0545 
0.0030 
9.4898 
0.0654 
Warned 
2.3684e005 
0.1133 
0.0128 
6.8536 
0.1404 
Table 6.1 Statistical Parameters
Standard Deviation :
Standard deviation is a widely used measure of variability or diversity used in statistics and probability theory. It shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or expected value).
Variance :
Variance is the second central moment about the mean is the variance. Its positive square root is the standard deviation σ.
If a random variable X has the expected value (mean) μ = E[X], then the variance of X is given by
VAR[X ] =
The variance of a random variable or distribution is the expectation, or mean, of the
squared deviation of that variable from its expected value or mean. Thus the variance is a
measure of the amount of variation of the values of that variable, taking account of all
possible values and their probabilities or weightings
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Skewness :
The third central moment skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the data around the sample mean. If skewness is negative, the data are spread out more to the left of the mean than to the right. If skewness is positive, the data are spread out more to the right. The skewness of the normal distribution (or any perfectly symmetric distribution) is zero.
The skewness of a distribution is defined as
Y =
where µ is the mean of x, σ is the standard deviation of x, and E(t) represents the expected value of the quantity t.
Kurtosis :
Kurtosis is a measure of how outlierprone a distribution is. The kurtosis of the normal distribution is 3. Distributions that are more outlierprone than the normal distribution have kurtosis greater than 3; distributions that are less outlierprone have kurtosis less than 3.
The kurtosis of a distribution is defined as
k =
Kurtosis is the fourth central moment.
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CHAPTER 7
FEATURES OF PROJECT
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APPLICATIONS
1) Process Industry
Most process plant is littered with rotating machinery such as fans, pumps, conveyors, gearboxes, motors, centrifuges, mixers etc. If any one of these devices starts to deteriorate in its performance it can affect product quality and cause loss of production, or perhaps total close down of the production line. Monitoring of all these critical components can warn engineers of any imminent problems.
2) Petrochemicals
The system can be used to monitor vibration levels on pumps, motors, fans and all other types of rotating machinery used in petrochemical industry. These vibration sensors will operate in environments of inflammable gases, fumes, chemicals, powders, dust etc.
3) Power Generation
The use of wind turbines to generate electricity has increased considerably over recent years; many of them being placed in remote areas in particular, out at sea. Because of high penalties for nonproduction, the rotating parts of these generators need to be continuously monitored to warn of bearing and component wear so that remedial action can be taken to avoid failures.
4) Utilities
Vibration sensors are used to monitor the vibration levels of all types of rotating machinery including fans, pumps, motors, etc. in power generation stations, gas processing plant and water treatment facilities. The information gathered by Maintenance Engineers allows them to plan efficiently for repair or replacement of suspect components.
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5) Metal Industry
Vibration monitoring is used extensively in the manufacture and conversion of metals, mainly in steel and aluminum. The important plant that is monitored includes strip roll bearings, pumps, fans and cooling towers where sensors are used which will operate in a such environments.
6) Pharmaceuticals
Use of vibration sensors in the pharmaceutical industry is typically in Clean Room Manufacturing Cells for drugs. AHU (Air Handling Units) control the air flow for the drug manufacturing cells and because access to the motor and fan cannot be gained, accelerometers perform the task.
ADVANTAGES
Better approach towards maintenance
Provides condition of component in operating machines
Faster, continuous and efficient fault prediction
Identify wear and tear
Detect operating speed
LIMITATIONS
Bandwidth of Accelerometer is limited
Database of signal is required for prediction
External conditions may produce false detection
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CHAPTER 8
FUTURE SCOPE & CONCLUSION
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Future Scope
1. Multiple Accelerometer Sensors
Multiple accelerometers can be mounted on various parts of a machine to collect part specific vibration signal. This will enable more critical analysis thus helping
to predict fault in a particular part.
2. Centralized Database & Remote Monitoring
A centralized database of vibration signals can be setup where signal from
machine under test will be received. Then it will be analyzed with respect to previous signals in database. In case of probable fault, supervisor can be notified about the same.
3. On board signal processing
With a powerful DSP microcontroller, it is possible to analyze the captured signal right on the same hardware platform. This will enable portable and real time analysis of signal and monitoring of condition.
4. Accelerometer with high sensitivity
Accelerometer with more bandwidth and sensitivity can be used to capture wide range of vibration signals.
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Conclusions
This project proposes a new predictive maintenance approach for fault detection
Wavelet analysis is a scalable way to analyze vibration signal
Vibration acquisition system was developed with STM32 ARM Cortex controller and accelerometer
With vibration analysis using wavelets, faults in gears were classified based on vibration pattern.
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CHAPTER 9
REFERENCES
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[1] AlBadour, M. Sunar, L. Cheded, ―Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time– frequency analysis and wavelet techniques‖, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2083 –2101.
[2].Chen Anyu, Jia Jide, Dai Xiliang, Zhu Zhongkui, ―Engine Fault Diagnosis Based on Wavelets packet and Neural Networks‖, 2010 International Conference on Optoelectronics and Image Processing
[3] Xuxiao Fan, Changyou Xu, Zhijing Zhang, Xin Jin, ―Vibration Testing and Analysis Of a Reconfigurable Turnmilling Machine Tool‖, 2010 International Conference on Digital Manufacturing & Automation
[4]S.Gopinath , ―Study On Electric Motor Mass Unbalance Based On Vibration Monitoring Analysis Technique‖, 201O International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology (ICMET 2010).
[5]Yan Li, Baohe Yang, Zhian Wang, Xuhui Wang, ―Fault Pattern Classification of Turbine generator Set Based on Artificial Neural Network‖, 2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010)
[6] He LvChang, Zuo ShuGuang, He Rong, Chen RuiFeng, ―Analysis of Noise and Vibration For a New Pure Electrical Vehicle‖, 2010 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICA CTE).
[7] Wu Zhaoxia, Li Fen, Yan Shujuan, Wang Bin, ―Motor Fault Diagnosis based on the Vibration Signal Testing and Analysis‖, 2009 Third International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application.
[8] Jeevanand S., Abraham T. Mathew, ―Condition Monitoring of Induction Motors Using Wavelet Based Analysis of Vibration Signals‖, 2008 Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking Symposia.
[9] hang Li, Luo Fenglin, ―Application of Wavelet Analysis in Fault Detection of Cell Phone Vibration Motor‖, 2009 International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics
[10] Feng Lv , Hailian Du ―Fault characteristics extraction of motor’s vibratory signal based on wavelet transform‖ World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, June 2004
[11]Mr.Maruthi G.S & Dr.K.Panduranga Vittal, ―Electrical Fault Detection in Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor by Vibration Analysis using MEMS Accelerometer‖, IEEE PEDS 2005.
[11]K. N. Srinivas, ―Static and Dynamic Vibration Analyses of Switched Reluctance Motors Including Bearings, Housing, Rotor Dynamics, and Applied Loads‖, IEEE
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TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 40, NO. 4, JULY 2004
[13] HanXin Chen, Ming J. Zuo ―Fault Detection Of Gearbox With Vibration Signal Analysis By A Linear Combination Of Adaptive Wavelets‖, 2009
[15] N. Roy, P. Purkait and K.Bhattacharya, ―Application of Wavelet and Fourier Transforms for Vibration Analysis of Motor‖, IEEE Indicon 2005 Conference, Chennai, India, 1113 Dec. 2005.
[16] Zhiwei Tang, Guangjian Wang “Vibration Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Power Plant Using Modelbased Technique‖, 2009
[17] Kang Shanlin1, Liang Baoshe1, Fan Feng1, Shen Songhua ―Vibration Fault Detection and Diagnosis Method of Power System Generator Based on Wavelet Fractal Network‖,
2007
[18]Alok Sinha, ―Vibrtion of Mechanical Systems‖, Cambridge Press.
[19]Allan G. Piersol, Thomas L. Paez, ― Harris’ Shock and Vibration Handbook‖, McGraw Hill Education.
[20] Wavelet Toolbox manual from MathWorks Inc.
[21] John Prokis and D. Manolakis ―Digital Signal Processing – principals algorithms and
appications ‖ 3 ^{r}^{d} edition
[22] Nex Robotics MMA7361L module lab manual
[23] Rhydo Technologies LISY300AL MEMS gyroscope user manual.
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CHAPTER 10
DATASHEETS
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