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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

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by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1

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by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 Vibrations from a motor or machine contain vital

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 Vibrations from a motor or machine contain vital information

Vibrations from a motor or machine contain vital information about the operation state and condition of the machine. Analysis and categorizing of various vibration patterns provides us with a visual reference to critical situations which may damage the system. By analyzing vibrations along with current, we propose to develop an electronic control system capable of predicting faults which in turn will help save valuable resources.

Electricity is most widely used to power up appliances from Homes to Industries. Our special interest is on Industrial equipments which are powered by an Electrical Motor; such as Compressor, Blower, CNC Machine, Milling Machine, etc. Power output from motor is coupled to the shaft of machine. Coupling components include shafts, gears, belts, flags and bearings, essentially transferring energy. Even though these components are designed for high performance and rigidity, with time they start to develop flaws. High frequency of operation causes bearings and components to reach the end of their product life. Hence with increasing use or age, begin to vibrate more distinctly or producing abnormal movements which reduces overall efficiency. Such vibrations are caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, meshing & wear and tear of gear teeth or bearings, rotor, etc.

In continuous production lines, there is need of 100% uptime of all machines. Traditional maintenance methods are Preventive in nature that is components are replaced on a fixed schedule though they wore out or not. Also another way of maintenance is called as Reactive maintenance, in which components are repaired only after they are broken down. First method can increase expenses towards maintenance, because parts are always replaced after certain period. The second one can cause ―Idle Period‖ when machine stops working due to malfunctioned part.

There is yet another maintenance approach known as Predictive maintenance, which can be achieved by Vibration Analysis. In vibration analysis, vibrations of machine assembly or a specific part are recorded using sensors such as Accelerometer. These recorded vibrations are analysed to estimate for how more time the part or machine could work without any issues. We can have a visualization and estimation about working state of the machine by means of vibrations. Therefore predictive maintenance using vibration analysis provides the condition of components in operating machines. If any fault occurs in component, continuous vibration analysis can detect possible fault, and respective corrective action can be taken to keep system in operation. Hence vibration analysis provides faster, continuous and efficient fault prediction. When this technique is used in sensitive application requiring 100% uptime, will certainly prove to be efficient and most importantly fail proof.

used in sensitive application requiring 100% uptime, will certainly prove to be efficient and most importantly
used in sensitive application requiring 100% uptime, will certainly prove to be efficient and most importantly
used in sensitive application requiring 100% uptime, will certainly prove to be efficient and most importantly

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

What is vibration?

Vibrations are characterized by two specific features. These are :

i)The amplitude of vibration D

ii)The frequency of vibration where f= 1/T

The amplitude tells us how bad it is vibrating. The frequency tells us what is vibrating.

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 In its simplest form, vibration can be considered to

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 In its simplest form, vibration can be considered to

In its simplest form, vibration can be considered to be the oscillations / repetitive motion of an object around an equilibrium position. The equilibrium position is the position which an object will attain when the force acting on it is zero. This type of vibration is called as ―whole body motion‖ i.e. all parts of the body are moving together in the same direction at any point of time.

Most engineering machines & structures experience vibration to some degree & their design generally requires consideration of their oscillatory behaviour. The vibration of an object is always caused by an excitation force which may be externally applied to that object or it may originate inside the object.

The vibration / oscillatory motion of the system may be objectionable or desirable, depending on the purpose of the machine. The objective of the designer is to control or minimize the vibration when it is objectionable & to utilize & enhance it when it is desirable.

The objectionable vibration in a device may cause fatigue failure, the loosening of parts, malfunctioning , imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, meshing, wear and tear of gear teeth or bearings, rotor or eventual failure of mechanical system.

Vibrations may be defined as the oscillatory or cyclic motion of a solid body, about some equilibrium point when excited by an appropriate force.

as the oscillatory or cyclic motion of a solid body, about some equilibrium point when excited
as the oscillatory or cyclic motion of a solid body, about some equilibrium point when excited
as the oscillatory or cyclic motion of a solid body, about some equilibrium point when excited

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

1.1 Classification Of Vibration

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 Vibration can be classified in various ways. This

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 Vibration can be classified in various ways. This

Vibration can be classified in various ways. This classification depends on the behaviour of the physical system under study as well as the nature of the dynamic forces acting on the system & the response of the system to these loads. Oscillatory systems can be characterized as linear or nonlinear.

Classification of vibration can also be based on the nature & behaviour of the input to the system & the corresponding response. There are two general classes of vibration in this regard as free & forced vibration.

Free vibration take place when a system oscillates under the action of force inherent in the system itself & when after an initial disturbance, the system is left to vibrate on its own & no external force acts on the system.

If the system is excited by an external force, the resulting vibration is called forced vibration. e.g. the oscillations that arises in machines such as rotating shafts due to unbalance is forced vibration.

When the excitation is oscillatory, the system is forced to vibrate at the excitation frequency. If the frequency coincides with one of the natural frequencies of the system, a condition of resonance occurs & the system undergoes dangerous large oscillations. Vibration is also classified as deterministic or random.

If the magnitude of the excitation acting on a vibratory system varies in accordance with a prescribed function at any given time, the excitation of deterministic. The resulting vibration is known as deterministic vibration.

In some cases, the excitation is non-deterministic or random, i.e. the value of excitation at any given time cannot be predicted. This defines an class of vibration called as random vibrations.

value of excitation at any given time cannot be predicted. This defines an class of vibration
value of excitation at any given time cannot be predicted. This defines an class of vibration
value of excitation at any given time cannot be predicted. This defines an class of vibration

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

1.2 Sources Of Vibration :

1)

Absence of lubrication

2)

Bent shafts

3)

Damaged or misaligned drives

4)

Damaged bearings

5) Eccentricity

6)

Fretting corrosion

7)

Incorrect assembly

8)

Insecure components

9)

Mechanical slackness

10) Onset of cavitations 11) Presence of solid bodies 12) Static or dynamic unbalance 13) Worn bearings 14) Warn or damaged gears

Gear :

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: Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 Vibrations results from dynamic forces which produce a

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 Vibrations results from dynamic forces which produce a

Vibrations results from dynamic forces which produce a series of motions within the system. These motions may be linear or nonlinear or combination of both of these. Machinery vibrations can be measured and analyzed to provide a cost effective Predictive method of diagnosing the cause for development of failure conditions. Typical machinery faults which may be discovered by vibration analysis are :

A gear wheel is a wheel with teeth around its circumference ,the purpose of the teeth being to mesh with similar teeth on another mechanical device-- possibly another gear wheelso that force can be transmitted between the two devices in a direction tangential to their surfaces. A non-toothed wheel can transmit some tangential force but will slip if the force is large; teeth prevent slippage and allow the transmission of large forces. Gears are also sometimes call toothed wheels or cogged wheels. The teeth are also sometimes called cogs. The smaller gear in a pair is often called the pinion; the larges, either the gear, or the wheel.

sometimes called cogs. The smaller gear in a pair is often called the pinion; the larges,
sometimes called cogs. The smaller gear in a pair is often called the pinion; the larges,
sometimes called cogs. The smaller gear in a pair is often called the pinion; the larges,

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Types Of Gears:

Following are different types of gears,

1. Spur gears

2. Helical gears

3. Double Helical gears

4. Bevel gears

5. Crown gear

6. Hypoid gears

7. Worm gear

8. Sector gear

9. Rack and pinion

Gear Mesh Frequency:

The speed of machine is 1430 rpm. Hence the gear mesh frequency= rps* gear teeth = (1430/60)*62 =1480 Hz

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Hz Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 A gear can mesh with any device having

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 A gear can mesh with any device having teeth

A gear can mesh with any device having teeth compatible with the gear’s teeth. Such devices include racks and other non-rotating devices; however, the most common situation is for a gear to be in mesh with another gear. In this way, rotational motion can be transferred from one location to another. While gears are sometimes used simply for this reasonto transmit rotation to another shaftperhaps their most important feature is that, if the gears are of unequal sizes, a mechanical advantage is also achieved, so that the rotational speed, and torque, of the second gear are different from that of the first. In this way, gears provide a means of increasing or decreasing a rotational speed, or a torque. This is a highly useful property.

Each gear has 62 teeths. Hence tooth mesh frequency is 62 Hz and its second and third harmonics are 124, 186 etc.

Each gear has 62 teeths. Hence tooth mesh frequency is 62 Hz and its second and
Each gear has 62 teeths. Hence tooth mesh frequency is 62 Hz and its second and
Each gear has 62 teeths. Hence tooth mesh frequency is 62 Hz and its second and

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

1.3 Literature Survey:

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 7 Predictive maintenance by using vibration analysis is the

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 7 Predictive maintenance by using vibration analysis is the

Predictive maintenance by using vibration analysis is the most reliable and secure approach towards the maintenance. Much of the research work is going on this field due to increased industrialization. In paper [1] they proposed use of vibration analysis for structural health management by considering two non-stationary signals and applying wavelet techniques onto it. Paper [2] describes diagnosis of engine faults using vibration analysis by using wavelet packets and neural networks. Paper [3] elaborates use of vibration testing and analysis in increasing performance of reconfigurable Turn-milling Machine Tool using FFT and they have used accelerometer for signal capturing along with force detector and hall effect current sensor to plot the current-vibration profile of that machine. Paper [4] describes use of vibration monitoring analysis technique for electric motor mass unbalance in power plants and hence provide an effective solution for balancing it. Paper [5] shows use artificial neural network for fault pattern classification of turbine-generator set using wavelet transform and fuzzy logic for improving performance of generator. Paper [6] describes use analysis of noise and vibration for a new pure electrical vehicle to provide an eco-friendly solution for improving the performance of transport system. Paper [7] shows use of dynamic wavelet analysis for motor Fault diagnosis based on the vibration signal testing and analysis using Labview software for simulating and a data acquisition card. Paper [8] elaborates condition monitoring of induction motors using wavelet based analysis of vibration signals using a piezoelectric accelerometer sensor. Paper [9] shows application of wavelet analysis in fault detection of cell phone motor using vibration analysis by a MEMS accelerometer. In Paper [10] they proposed the used of wavelet techniques for the continuous analysis of motors using mallet algorithm. In paper [11] shows electrical fault detection in three phase squirrel cage induction motor by vibration analysis using mems accelerometer. Paper[12] describes static and dynamic vibration analyses of switched reluctance motors including bearings, housing, rotor dynamics, and applied loads. Paper [13] shows fault detection of gearbox with vibration signal analysis by a linear combination of adaptive wavelets. Paper [15] application of wavelet and Fourier transforms for vibration analysis of motor. Paper [16] shows vibration fault detection and diagnosis in aircraft power plant using model-based techniques along with fuzzy neural networks. Paper [17] shows vibration fault detection and diagnosis method for power system generator based on wavelet fractal network.

Along with this a book [18] covers the major information contents related sources and causes of vibrations in mechanical systems. Also book [19] ontains advanced

major information contents related sources and causes of vibrations in mechanical systems. Also book [19] ontains
major information contents related sources and causes of vibrations in mechanical systems. Also book [19] ontains
major information contents related sources and causes of vibrations in mechanical systems. Also book [19] ontains

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 8 information about various techniques of maintenance and

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 8 information about various techniques of maintenance and

information about various techniques of maintenance and interrelation between shock and vibration and how to minimize them.

We also had visited various industries nearby Kolhapur such as Presifab India Corp. Manugraph Ltd, Ghadge-Patil Industries Ltd, S.B. Reshellers Pvt. Ltd. and Dudhane Nutbolts. By visiting those industries we got to know about the traditional maintenance methods they are implementing in there day to day practices. Those methods are preventive in nature that is components are replaced on a fixed schedule though they worn or not. Also another way is called reactive maintenance in which components are repaired only after they have broken down. These methods are not ideal but used very commonly throughout the heavy industry sector. Both of these methods tend to much higher costs and less reliability of system.

Therefore we decided to use predictive maintenance. Predictive maintenance using vibration analysis provides the condition of components in operating machines. If any fault occurs in component due to fast processing and analysis the fault can be detected and respective corrective action can be taken to keep system in operation and Hence vibration analysis provides faster , efficient fault detection and when used in industries can provide huge cost saving without need of interruption in operation of any of system. We are going to use wavelet analysis which will provide precise control by resolving each and every frequency and then comparing it with standard pattern.

which will provide precise control by resolving each and every frequency and then comparing it with
which will provide precise control by resolving each and every frequency and then comparing it with
which will provide precise control by resolving each and every frequency and then comparing it with

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 2

Proposed work

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by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 2 Proposed work Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 9

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by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 2 Proposed work Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 9
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 2 Proposed work Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 9
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 2 Proposed work Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 9
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 2 Proposed work Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 9

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

2.1 Block Diagram

Keys and Display MMA 7361L Ethernet module Machine Microcontroller under Test 3 axis MEMS Acceleromet
Keys and
Display
MMA 7361L
Ethernet
module
Machine
Microcontroller
under Test
3 axis MEMS
Acceleromet
er
(ARM)
Serial
Interface
SD Card
Interface

Block diagram consists of :

1) Accelerometer

Fig .2.1. Block diagram of system

P

C

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C Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 0 For detecting fault in any machine the

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 0 For detecting fault in any machine the vibrations

For detecting fault in any machine the vibrations of that machine are firstly recorded by the means of accelerometer and an ARM controller either using UART or SD card. Those recorded vibrations are then analysed on PC by using software MATLAB.Keys and display are used to provide user interface.Main aim of our project is to provide predictive maintenance approach for machines.

is to provide predictive maintenance approach for machines. Accelerometer is used to measure tiny vibrations and

Accelerometer is used to measure tiny vibrations and movements of an object. A piezoelectric sensor can be used to collect initial vibration signal. For interfacing with controller, MEMS accelerometer is preferred which provides digital output. Data from sensor will be input to the system.

controller, MEMS accelerometer is preferred which provides digital output. Data from sensor will be input to
controller, MEMS accelerometer is preferred which provides digital output. Data from sensor will be input to
controller, MEMS accelerometer is preferred which provides digital output. Data from sensor will be input to

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

2. Microcontroller (ARM) and PC-

3.PC

4. Keys and Display-

This user interface will provide ability to setup the device and see real time output results.

5. SD card/network interface-

6.Ethernet module -

An Standalone Ethernet controller ENC28J60 with SPI interface is provided for future development which will facilitate remote access to the vibration pattern of machine.

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 1 This is the main processing part of the

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 1 This is the main processing part of the

This is the main processing part of the system. In-bilt ADC of ARM controller is used to sample the input data from accelerometer. Sampling rate of ADC is 1Msps and resolution is12 bit.

PC is used to analyze the vibration pattern by using MATLAB software. It will firstly apply wavelet on input vibration pattern and obtain low and high frequency components. Then power spectral density of the wavelet decomposition is taken will be used to get or resolute the particular area of frequencies interest in vibration pattern.

SD card is used to store the vibration pattern onto it. It uses a FAT32 file system for storing the data. Also it will store the standard vibration pattern of machine which is provided by the manufacturer.

for storing the data. Also it will store the standard vibration pattern of machine which is
for storing the data. Also it will store the standard vibration pattern of machine which is
for storing the data. Also it will store the standard vibration pattern of machine which is

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

2.2 Work flow

Phase I- Studying Vibration Patterns & Matlab Simulations

Phase II- Hardware Estimation

Phase III- Hardware Development

Phase IV- Testing & Optimization

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 2 In this phase, we will obtain vibration patterns

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 2 In this phase, we will obtain vibration patterns

In this phase, we will obtain vibration patterns from the machine under observation. For this part, we will get started with simple piezoelectric crystal accelerometer and record the signal. In Matlab software, we will develop an algorithm to detect critical vibration occurrences by developing a database of all possible patterns. By applying wavelet transformations, we will decompose signal components for better study of specific parts. PSD of particular level of Wavelet decomposition can be calculated to focus on a particular frequency signal portion. We will make a database defining Normal and Abnormal vibration patterns for later comparisons with real time input.

This phase is critical towards designing actual hardware and estimating cost. We will choose a microcontroller from ARM family having higher sampling rate so as to collect all frequency components. Then this vibration pattern is stored on the MicroSD card. Then the algorithm is developed in MATLAB.That algorithm is applied to compare the vibration patterns on SD card and from that the fault is detected.As a future scope Ethernet connectivity is provided.

In this stage, we will prepare circuit layout and PCB for mounting the circuit. Once board is ready, code for microcontroller will be developed which will resemble algorithm developed in Matlab. For ARM controllers, we will be using Keil IDE for developing and evaluating the code.

Here, the draft system will be subjected to various tests to see if it facilitates design objectives. Any debugging, fixes and optimization will be carried out.

to various tests to see if it facilitates design objectives. Any debugging, fixes and optimization will
to various tests to see if it facilitates design objectives. Any debugging, fixes and optimization will
to various tests to see if it facilitates design objectives. Any debugging, fixes and optimization will

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 3

HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT

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Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 3 HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 3

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Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 3 HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 3
Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 3 HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 3
Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 3 HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 3
Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 3 HARDWARE DEVELOPMENT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 3

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

3.1 Accelerometer

Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine 3.1 Accelerometer Fig. 3.1.1 Piezoelectric Accelerometer The piezoelectric

Fig. 3.1.1 Piezoelectric Accelerometer

The piezoelectric sensor is a single axis vibration transducer. Multiple axis accelerometers are available in MEMS type and they provide easy integration with a

0

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

0 Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 4 Accelerometer is a transducer that measures

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 4 Accelerometer is a transducer that measures acceleration. It

Accelerometer is a transducer that measures acceleration. It Measures relative ―weight‖ experienced by test mass. Piezoelectric crystal is basic accelerometer. MEMS accelerometers are available which provides better resolution. MEMS accelerometers are available in Multi-Axis models (2 or 3).They can directly provide digital SPI output or Analog output.

The above is of Piezeoelectric Accelerometer which was initially used to capture the signal. The piezo-electric accelerometer can be considered the primitive vibration transducer for machine vibration measurement.The seismic mass is clamped to the base by an axial bolt bearing down on a circular spring. The piezo-electric element is squeezed between the mass and the base. When a piezo-electric material experiences a force, it generates an electric charge between its surfaces. There are many such materials, with quartz being one of the most commonly used.

The output of the accelerometer is plugged to Microphone Input of PC’s sound card. Output is basically voltage which varies in accordance with vibration pattern of machine. Sound recording tool such as Gold Wave is used to record this pattern. Recorded signal is stored in WAV format which can be easily imported in MATLAB.

microcontroller. Their sensitivity can be chosen according to the application. MMA7361L was chosen which is a 3 axis analog output MEMS accelerometer.

can be chosen according to the application. MMA7361L was chosen which is a 3 axis analog
can be chosen according to the application. MMA7361L was chosen which is a 3 axis analog
can be chosen according to the application. MMA7361L was chosen which is a 3 axis analog

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

MEMS Accelerometer MMA7361L

• 3mm x 5mm x 1.0mm LGA-14 Package

• Low Current Consumption: 400 μA

• Sleep Mode: 3 μA

• Low Voltage Operation: 2.2 V – 3.6 V

• High Sensitivity (800 mV/g @ 1.5g)

• Selectable Sensitivity (±1.5g, ±6g)

• Fast Turn On Time (0.5 ms Enable Response Time)

(±1.5g, ±6g) • Fast Turn On Time (0.5 ms Enable Response Time) Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 5 MMA7361L is a Three axis Low-g accelerometer Module

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 5 MMA7361L is a Three axis Low-g accelerometer Module

MMA7361L is a Three axis Low-g accelerometer Module which gives selectable acceleration range from ±1.5g or ±6g.The MMA7361L is a low power, low profile capacitive micro machined accelerometer featuring signal conditioning[22], a 1-pole low pass filter, temperature compensation, and g-Select which allows for the selection between 2 sensitivities. Zero-g offset and sensitivity are factory set and require no external devices. The MMA7361L includes a Sleep Mode that makes it ideal for handheld battery powered electronics. Features

devices. The MMA7361L includes a Sleep Mode that makes it ideal for handheld battery powered electronics.
devices. The MMA7361L includes a Sleep Mode that makes it ideal for handheld battery powered electronics.
devices. The MMA7361L includes a Sleep Mode that makes it ideal for handheld battery powered electronics.

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Internal Block Diagram

Fig.3.1.2 Block Diagram of MEMS Accelerometer

Specifications:

• Supply voltage (Vdd): 2.2V to 3.6V @ 600μA

• Sleep mode current: 3 μA

• Sensitivity:

1.5g : 800 mV/g

6g : 206 mV/ g

• Static Acceleration: XOUT,YOUT @ -1g : 0.85V, @ 0g : 1.65V, @ +1g: 2.54V

Bandwidth: XOUT, YOUT: 400Hz

• Output Impedance: 32KΩ

Maximum Ratings :

Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer

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Maximum Ratings : Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 6

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Maximum Ratings : Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 6
Maximum Ratings : Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 6
Maximum Ratings : Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 6
Maximum Ratings : Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 6
Maximum Ratings : Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 6
Maximum Ratings : Table.3.1. Rating of Accerometer Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 6

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

3.2 ARM Microcontroller

Features :

■ Core: ARM 32-bit Cortex™-M3 CPU

24 MHz maximum frequency,1.25 DMIPS/MHz (Dhrystone 2.1) performance

Single-cycle multiplication and hardware division

■ Memories

16 to 128 Kbytes of Flash memory

4 to 8 Kbytes of SRAM

■ Clock, reset and supply management

2.0 to 3.6 V application supply and I/Os

POR, PDR and programmable voltage detector (PVD)

4-to-24 MHz crystal oscillator

Internal 8 MHz factory-trimmed RC

Internal 40 kHz RC

PLL for CPU clock

32 kHz oscillator for RTC with calibration

■ Low power

Sleep, Stop and Standby modes

■ Debug mode

 

Serial wire debug (SWD) and JTAG interfaces

DMA

7-channel DMA controller

Peripherals supported: timers, ADC, SPIs, I2Cs, USARTs and DACs

ADC

1 × 12-bit, 1.2 μs A/D converter –up to 16 channels

Conversion range: 0 to 3.6 V

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V Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 7 Microcontroller is used to take input from

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Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 7 Microcontroller is used to take input from the

Microcontroller is used to take input from the accelerometer and then store it onto the SD card interfaced to it . STM 32 F100RB8 is a ARM Cortex M3 based 32 bit microcontroller.

and then store it onto the SD card interfaced to it . STM 32 F100RB8 is
and then store it onto the SD card interfaced to it . STM 32 F100RB8 is
and then store it onto the SD card interfaced to it . STM 32 F100RB8 is

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

STM32F100RBT6B Block diagram

Vibration Analysis of Machine STM32F100RBT6B Block diagram Fig.3.2.1 Block Diagram of STM32F100RBT6B Bharati

Fig.3.2.1 Block Diagram of STM32F100RBT6B

Block diagram Fig.3.2.1 Block Diagram of STM32F100RBT6B Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 8
Block diagram Fig.3.2.1 Block Diagram of STM32F100RBT6B Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1 8

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

STM32VLDISCOVERY

The STM32 is available as an evaluation board, STM32VLdiscovery. The STM32 value line Discovery evaluation board helps you discover the STM32 value line features and to develop and share your applications. It is based on an STM32F100RBT6B and includes ST-Link embedded debug tool interface, LEDs and push buttons.

Features :

STM32F100RBT6B microcontroller, 128 KB Flash, 8 KB RAM in 64-pin LQFP

On-board ST-Link with selection mode switch to use the kit as a stand-alone ST-Link (with SWD connector for programming and debugging)

Two red LEDs; LD1 for USB communication, LD2 for 3.3 volts power on

Designed to be powered by USB or an external supply of 5 V or 3.3 V

Can supply target application with 5 volts and 3 volts

Two user LEDs, LD3 and LD4 (green and blue)

Two push buttons (User and Reset)

Extension header for all QFP64 I/Os for quick connection to prototyping board or easy probing

for quick connection to prototyping board or easy probing Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1
for quick connection to prototyping board or easy probing Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1
for quick connection to prototyping board or easy probing Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 1

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Block Diagram of STM32VLDISCOVERY

Analysis of Machine Block Diagram of STM32VLDISCOVERY Fig 3.2.2 STM32 VL Discovery Block Diagram Bharati

Fig 3.2.2 STM32 VL Discovery Block Diagram

STM32VLDISCOVERY Fig 3.2.2 STM32 VL Discovery Block Diagram Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 0
STM32VLDISCOVERY Fig 3.2.2 STM32 VL Discovery Block Diagram Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 0

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Fig. 3.2.3 Top View of STM 32 VL Discovery

Fig. 3.2.3 Top View of STM 32 VL Discovery

Header Connectors

Male headers P1, P2 and P3 can connect the STM32 value line Discovery to a standard prototyping/wrapping board. All GPIOs of STM32F100RBT6B are available on it. P1, P2 and P3 can also be used to probe an oscilloscope, logical analyzer or voltmeter.

used to probe an oscilloscope, logical analyzer or voltmeter. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2
used to probe an oscilloscope, logical analyzer or voltmeter. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Table3.2.1 : P1 header Pinout

Vibration Analysis of Machine Table3.2.1 : P1 header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2
Vibration Analysis of Machine Table3.2.1 : P1 header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2
Vibration Analysis of Machine Table3.2.1 : P1 header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Table.3.2.2.P2 Header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of

Table.3.2.2.P2 Header Pinout

by Vibration Analysis of Machine Table.3.2.2.P2 Header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 3
by Vibration Analysis of Machine Table.3.2.2.P2 Header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 3
by Vibration Analysis of Machine Table.3.2.2.P2 Header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 3

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 4
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 4
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 4

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Table3.2.3. Port 3 Header Pinout

Analysis of Machine Table3.2.3. Port 3 Header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 5
Analysis of Machine Table3.2.3. Port 3 Header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 5
Analysis of Machine Table3.2.3. Port 3 Header Pinout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 5

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

3.3 SD Card :

Secure Digital (SD) is a non-volatile memory card for use in portable devices.

It is used to store the vibration pattern of machine.

SD card can be operated with

1)SPI bus mode

2) One-bit SD

3)Four-bit SD

be operated with 1)SPI bus mode 2) One-bit SD 3)Four-bit SD Out of above interfaces SPI

Out of above interfaces SPI interface is preferred when interfacing with microcontroller.SD card operates on 3.3V supply.

with microcontroller.SD card operates on 3.3V supply. SD card will be using a FAT32 file system

SD card will be using a FAT32 file system to store the vibration pattern onto it.File

Allocation Table (FAT) is basic computer file system architecture

commonly found on flash memory cards, digital cameras, and many other portable devices because of their relative simplicity. The name originates from the usage of a table which centralizes the information about which areas belong to files, are free or possibly unusable, and where each file is stored on the disk. To limit the size of the table, disk space is allocated to files in contiguous groups of hardware sectors called clusters. This makes it a useful format for solid-state memory cards and a convenient way to share data between operating systems.

FAT file systems are

to share data between operating systems. FAT file systems are Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur
to share data between operating systems. FAT file systems are Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

3.4 Ethernet Module :

Ethernet controller ENC28J60 is a Standalone Ethernet controller with SPI interface.

It has following features :

IEEE 802.3. Compatible Ethernet Controller

Fully Compatible with 10/100/1000Base-T Networks

Integrated MAC and 10Base-T PHY

Supports One 10Base-T Port with Automatic Polarity Detection and Correction

Supports Full and Half-Duplex modes

Programmable Automatic Retransmit on Collision

Programmable Padding and CRC Generation

Programmable Automatic Rejection of Erroneous Packets

SPI Interface with Clock Speeds Up to 20 MHz

Packets  SPI Interface with Clock Speeds Up to 20 MHz Fig.3.4 TYPICAL ENC28J60-BASED INTERFACE Computer:

Fig.3.4 TYPICAL ENC28J60-BASED INTERFACE

Computer:

Computer is used to collect vibration pattern recorded on SD card or store the

vibration pattern by serial communication. MATLAB computing environment software is used on PC for analyzing signals. Using wavelet decomposition techniques various frequency components of a signal are resolved. Applying power spectral density to particular level of wavelet decomposition will provide power related to that frequency.

decomposition will provide power related to that frequency. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 7
decomposition will provide power related to that frequency. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2 7

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

3.5 Power Supply

5V Supply Specifications :

Output Voltages- 5V DC

Input Voltage- 7 to 12V DC

Regulator ICs- LM7805 for 5V.

Current sourcing- max 500mA at 5V

ICs- LM7805 for 5V.  Current sourcing- max 500mA at 5V Fig.3.5.1. 5V power supply 3.3

Fig.3.5.1. 5V power supply

3.3 V Supply Specifications :

Output Voltages- 3.3V

Input Voltage- 7 to 12V DC

Regulator ICs- LM1117 for 3.3V

Current sourcing- Maximum 800mA at 3.3V

LM1117 for 3.3V  Current sourcing- Maximum 800mA at 3.3V Fig3.5.2. 3.3V power supply Bharati Vidyapeeth’s

Fig3.5.2. 3.3V power supply

sourcing- Maximum 800mA at 3.3V Fig3.5.2. 3.3V power supply Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2
sourcing- Maximum 800mA at 3.3V Fig3.5.2. 3.3V power supply Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 2

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

LM7805 Positive Linear Regulator

Features

Output Current up to 1A

Output Voltage of 5 V

Thermal Overload Protection

Load and Line Regulation

Ripple Rejection

Short Circuit Protection

• Ripple Rejection • Short Circuit Protection LM1117 3.3V Low Drop Out Regulator Features:  Low

LM1117 3.3V Low Drop Out Regulator

Features:

Low Drop Out

Current Limiting and Thermal Protection

Load and Line Regulation

Output current up to 800 mA

Output Voltage 3.3 V

 Output current up to 800 mA  Output Voltage 3.3 V Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of
 Output current up to 800 mA  Output Voltage 3.3 V Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of
 Output current up to 800 mA  Output Voltage 3.3 V Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

LCD DISPLAY

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine LCD DISPLAY Features:  16 char x2 line LCD

Features:

16 char x2 line LCD

Back light facility

8 data line interface

3 control line (rs, r/w, enable)

Power efficient

Bright and even back lighting

Long life expectancy, more than 100,000 hours

Simple to drive. Needs +5 volts only

Brightness can be easily adjusted

74HC245 Octal 3 State Buffer

Features:

Typical propagation delay: 13 ns

Wide power supply range: 26V

Low quiescent current: 80 µA

maximum (74 HC)

3-STATE outputs for connection to

bus oriented systems

High output drive: 6 mA (minimum)

bus oriented systems  High output drive: 6 mA (minimum) Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur
bus oriented systems  High output drive: 6 mA (minimum) Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur
bus oriented systems  High output drive: 6 mA (minimum) Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CP2102 Single Chip USB to UART Bridge

DB-9 COM port is omitted on today’s computers. USB port is easily available which is used to connect most of the peripheral devices. Hence CP2102, a USB to UART bridge has been used to provide easy connectivity without need of DB-9 port.

Features:

Integrated USB transceiver; no external resistors required

Integrated clock; no external crystal required

Integrated 1024-Byte EEPROM for vendor ID, product ID, serial number, power descriptor, release number, and product description strings

On-chip power-on reset circuit

On-chip voltage regulator: 3.3 V output

Self-powered: 3.0 to 3.6 V

USB bus powered: 4.0 to 5.25 V

Temperature Range: 40 to +85 °C

Works with Existing COM Port PC Applications

Royalty-Free Distribution License

Port PC Applications  Royalty-Free Distribution License Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 1
Port PC Applications  Royalty-Free Distribution License Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 1
Port PC Applications  Royalty-Free Distribution License Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 1

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

3.6 Schematic

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine 3.6 Schematic Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine 3.6 Schematic Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine 3.6 Schematic Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

3.7 PCB Layout

Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine 3.7 PCB Layout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3
Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine 3.7 PCB Layout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3
Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine 3.7 PCB Layout Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 4
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 4
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 4

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 5
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 5
Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 5

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 4

VIBRATION ANALYSIS

by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 4 VIBRATION ANALYSIS Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 4 VIBRATION ANALYSIS Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

4.1 Wavelet Analysis

Most of the signals are represented in the time domain. More information about the signals can be obtained by applying signal analysis, i.e. the time signals are transformed using an analysis function. In frequency domain analysis time domain signal is converted into frequency domain by using appropriate analysis function.

The Fourier transform only retrieves the global frequency content of a signal hence time information is lost . Analysis functions for Fourier are sine and cosine functions which are not localized hence it cannot be used for analyzing sharp spikes. Therefore, the Fourier transform is only useful for stationary and pseudo-stationary signals. The Fourier transform does not give satisfactory results for signals that are highly non-stationary, noisy, aperiodic, etc. This is overcome by the short time Fourier transform (STFT) which calculates the Fourier transform of a windowed part of the signal and shifts the window over the signal. The short time Fourier transform gives the time-frequency content of a signal with a constant frequency and time resolution due to the fixed window length. This is often not the most desired resolution.

A wavelet is a short oscillating function which contains both the analysis function and the window. Time information is obtained by shifting the wavelet over the signal. The frequencies are changed by contraction and dilatation of the wavelet function. The wavelet transform retrieves the time-frequency content information with an improved resolution compared to the STFT. The window size of wavelet transform is variable hence provide multi-resolution capabilities . Wavelet transform provides simultaneous time and frequency representation. It has infinite set of basis functions and handles frequency logarithmically.

Discrete Wavelet Transform:

A Real or complex valued analyzing function ψ (t) is classified as a wavelet if the following mathematical criteria are satisfied:

i. A wavelet must have finite energy

E =

dt

< ∞

The energy E equals the integrated squared magnitude of the analyzing function ψ (t) and must be less than infinity.

analyzing function ψ (t) and must be less than infinity. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur
analyzing function ψ (t) and must be less than infinity. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

ii. Admissibility Condition

=

̇

< ∞

The mean of the wavelet ψ (t) must equal zero.

iii. For complex wavelets the Fourier transform ψ (f) must be both real and vanish for negative frequencies.

The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) uses filter banks to perform the wavelet analysis. The discrete wavelet transform decomposes the signal into wavelet coefficients from which the original signal can be reconstructed again. The wavelet coefficients represent the signal in various frequency bands. In DWT, a time frequency representation of a digital signal is obtained using digital filtering techniques. In this case, filters of different cutoff frequencies are used to analyze the signal at different scales. The signal is passed through a series of high pass filters to analyze the high frequencies, and it is passed through a series of low pass filters to analyze the low frequencies. Hence the signal (S) is decomposed into two types of components - approximation (A) and detail (D). The approximation is the high-scale, low-frequency component of the signal. The detail is the low-scale, high-frequency components. The decomposition process can be iterated, with successive approximations being decomposed in turn, so that one signal is broken down into many lower resolution components. This is called the wavelet decomposition tree which is shown in the Fig. below. As decompositions are done on higher levels, lower frequency components are filtered out progressively.

lower frequency components are filtered out progressively. Fig.4.1.1. Wavelet Coefficients Bharati Vidyapeeth’s

Fig.4.1.1. Wavelet Coefficients

filtered out progressively. Fig.4.1.1. Wavelet Coefficients Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 8
filtered out progressively. Fig.4.1.1. Wavelet Coefficients Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 8

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

As in Fig4.1.1, the low- and high-pass filters split the frequency content of the signal in half. It therefore seems logical to perform a down-sampling with a factor two to avoid redundancy.

Since the analysis process is iterative, in theory it can be continued indefinitely. In reality, the decomposition can proceed only until the individual details consist of a single sample or pixel. In practice, a suitable number of levels can be selected based on the nature of the signal, or on a suitable criterion such as entropy[8].

the signal, or on a suitable criterion such as entropy[8]. Fig.4.1.2. Decomposition Tree ( Mallet Algorithm)

Fig.4.1.2. Decomposition Tree (Mallet Algorithm) [8]

Haar wavelet can be used for analyzing signal has following function:

ψ(t) =

1

if x

[0, 0.5]

= −1

if x

[0.5, 1]

=

0

otherwise

(t) = 1

 

if x

[0 1]

=

0

if x

[0 1]

The Haar wavelet is also known as the first order Daubechies wavelet, which wavelet function resembles a step function. It is symmetric and orthogonal. Algorithm of haar wavelet is fast and provides exact reconstruction. Haar can be used for both continuous and discrete wavelet transform. It is simple and basic wavelet with scaling function and capable of both orthogonal and bi-orthogonal analysis.

and capable of both orthogonal and bi-orthogonal analysis. Fig.4.1.3. The Haar Wavelet Basis Function Bharati

Fig.4.1.3. The Haar Wavelet Basis Function

analysis. Fig.4.1.3. The Haar Wavelet Basis Function Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 9
analysis. Fig.4.1.3. The Haar Wavelet Basis Function Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 3 9

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

WAVELET TOOLBOX:

MATLAB is a technical computing environment. It is used to create algorithms , analyze and process the various signals , test and simulate the processes and algorithms. MATLAB contains many set of toolboxes such as communication toolbox, aerodynamics toolbox etc. Wavelet toolbox is a graphical tool with command-line functions for developing wavelet-based algorithms for the analysis, synthesis, denoising, and compression of signals and images. Wavelet analysis provides more precise information about signal data than other signal analysis techniques, such as Fourier. Wavelet Toolbox supports the interactive exploration of wavelet properties and applications. It is useful for speech and audio processing, image and video processing, biomedical imaging, and one-dimensional (1-D) and two-dimensional (2-D) applications in communications and geophysics[20].

Key Features

Standard wavelet families, including Daubechies wavelet filters, complex Morlet and

Gaussian, real reverse biorthogonal, and discrete Meyer

Wavelet and signal processing utilities, including a function to convert scale to frequency

Methods for adding wavelet families

Lifting methods for constructing wavelets

Customizable presentation and visualization of data

Interactive tools for continuous and discrete wavelet analysis

Wavelet packets, implemented as MATLAB objects

One-dimensional multisignal analysis, compression, and de-noising

Multiscale principal component analysis

Multivariate de-noising

principal component analysis ▪ Multivariate de-noising Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 0
principal component analysis ▪ Multivariate de-noising Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 0

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

4.2 Power Spectral Density (PSD)

:

Power Spectral Density (PSD) is used to find power distribution over frequency components present in the test signal. PSD is obtained by multiplication of spectral density and an appropriate factor.

Welch’s method is used to find the PSD. This method provides noise reduction in spectral density which is caused due to imperfect and finite data.

In the Welch method:

The signal is split up into overlapping segments: The original data segment is split up into L data segments of length M, overlapping by D points.

1. D = M / 2, the overlap is said to be 50%

2.The overlapping segments are then windowed: After the data is split up into overlapping segments,

the individual L data segments have a window applied to them (in the time domain).

After doing the above, the periodogram is calculated by computing the discrete Fourier transform, and then computing the squared magnitude of the result. The individual periodograms are then time-averaged, which reduces the variance of the individual power measurements. The end result is an array of power measurements verses normalized frequency.

Welch method reduces noise in estimated power spectra in exchange with reducing frequency resolution but it is desirable in most of the cases as noise is reduced.

but it is desirable in most of the cases as noise is reduced. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College
but it is desirable in most of the cases as noise is reduced. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 5

SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT

Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 5 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 2
Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 5 SOFTWARE DEVELOPMENT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 2

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

5.1 Flow Chart

Is Reset Pressed ?
Is Reset
Pressed ?
START Initialize Hardware
START
Initialize Hardware
Flow Chart Is Reset Pressed ? START Initialize Hardware Enable Accelerometer MODE SELECT ? Initialize SD
Enable Accelerometer MODE SELECT ? Initialize SD Card File System Initialize Serial Initialize Ethernet
Enable
Accelerometer
MODE
SELECT ?
Initialize SD Card File
System
Initialize Serial
Initialize Ethernet
Communication
Module
Sample X, Y and Z
channels
Sample X, Y and Z
channels
Sample X, Y and Z
channels
Store sampled
values on SD Card
Send sampled values
over Serial Port
Send sampled values
over Ethernet
Signal Analysis with
MATLAB on PC
Serial/Ethern
-et Interrupt
Occurred ?
Show probable fault
on LCD and sound
Buzzer
Command ?
END
Show probable fault on LCD and sound Buzzer Command ? END Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,
Show probable fault on LCD and sound Buzzer Command ? END Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

5.2 KEIL

The Keil is an IDE product from ARM. It includes C/C++ compilers, debuggers, integrated

environments,

Cortex-M, Cortex-R, 8051, C166 and 251 processor families. It is an integrated development

environment used for creating, compiling and simulating code of project.

RTOS, simulation models includes support for evaluation boards for ARM,

/*Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis using MEMS Accelerometer and Wavelets Final Year Project by Chavan Priyanka G. Dalavi Kishor B. Ghewari Sameer V. of Electronics & Telecommunication Department, Bharati Vidyapeeth's College of Engineering, Kolhapur. Under Guidance Of Prof. Mrs. J. K. Patil HOD, Electronics & Telecoomunication department./*

/*#####################################################################*/

//portsetup.c /*This function sets up all the pins of the controller in required configuration. It also enables required peripherlas on STM32 /*

//Includes #include "stm32f10x.h" #include "pinconf.h"

GPIO_InitTypeDef GPIO_InitStructure; USART_InitTypeDef USART_InitStructure; NVIC_InitTypeDef NVIC_InitStructure;

// Further code Is omitted in this online copy of report

// Further code Is omitted in this online copy of report Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,
// Further code Is omitted in this online copy of report Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 6 RESULTS

Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 6 RESULTS Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4
Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 6 RESULTS Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Signals are recorded from accelerometer. Signals of various conditions of gear are recorded. Wavelet Transformation is applied on recorded signal to analyze the signal. Signals are sampled at rate 44100 samples/second.Signalas are recorded for span of one minute. The signal is shown in fig. below:

for span of one minute. The signal is shown in fig. below: Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of
for span of one minute. The signal is shown in fig. below: Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of
for span of one minute. The signal is shown in fig. below: Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of
for span of one minute. The signal is shown in fig. below: Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

46

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Fig.Shows 12 level decomposition of recorded signal using Wavelet Toolbox from

MATLAB.Wavelet toolbox is used to analyze the signal and perform various operations onto

it using wavelet techniques such as filtering and de-noising.By using wavelet toolbox it can

be seen that 9 th level of detailed coefficients provides appropriate resolution of high

frequency signals present in the recorded signal and 10 th level of approximated coefficients

provides low frequency components in recorded signals. Fig. below shows 9 th level detailed

and

10 th level approximated coefficients.

detailed and 10 t h level approximated coefficients. On x axis : no of samples On
detailed and 10 t h level approximated coefficients. On x axis : no of samples On

On x axis : no of samples On y axis : amplitude

coefficients. On x axis : no of samples On y axis : amplitude Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College
coefficients. On x axis : no of samples On y axis : amplitude Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

47

Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

Power Spectral Density of Wavelet coefficients are taken in order to find power

distribution at various frequencies.Welch’s method is used to find power spectral density of

decomposed signal.Fig.below shows power spectral density of respected wavelet coefficients

power spectral density of respected wavelet coefficients Fig.6.1 wavelet Decomposition and welch power spectral

Fig.6.1 wavelet Decomposition and welch power spectral density

Power spectral density is a plot of array of power measurements verses normalized frequency.

Wavelet analysis is applied on all the signals reorded and graph of individual Power spectral densities are plotted simultaneously for comparison.

spectral densities are plotted simultaneously for comparison. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 8
spectral densities are plotted simultaneously for comparison. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 8

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Lubricated Gear :

of Machine PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Lubricated Gear : Fig.6.2 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of

Fig.6.2 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Good Lubricated Gear

Frequency (Hz):1423.27 Hz

Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 31.73

PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Broken tooth Gear :

: 31.73 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Broken tooth Gear : Fig.6.3 PSD of Wavelet coeff.

Fig.6.3 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Broken tooth Gear

Frequency (Hz):1375.07 Hz

Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 37.85

Frequency (Hz):1375.07 Hz Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 37.85 Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 9
Frequency (Hz):1375.07 Hz Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 37.85 Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 4 9

Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Cracked tooth Gear :

of Machine PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Cracked tooth Gear : Fig.6.4 PSD of Wavelet coeff.

Fig.6.4 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Cracked Gear

Frequency (Hz):1395.97 Hz

Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 41.19

PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Warned out Gear :

: 41.19 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Warned out Gear : Fig.6.5 PSD of Wavelet coeff.

Fig.6.5 PSD of Wavelet coeff. Of Warned out Gear

Frequency (Hz):1376.72 Hz

Amplitude (dB/Rad/sample) : 35.29

From fig. it can be seen that amplitude of high frequency component is increased from good lubricated gear to broken gear drastically. Hence Fault can be detected by comparison.

gear drastically. Hence Fault can be detected by comparison. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5
gear drastically. Hence Fault can be detected by comparison. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5

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Statistical Analysis :

Any distribution can be characterized by a number of features (such as the mean, the variance, the skewness, etc.), and the moments of a function describe the nature of its distribution.

   

Standard

     

Type of Gear

Mean

Deviation

Variance

kurtosis

Skewness

Good

-1.9580e-005

0.0729

0.0053

10.4506

-0.1483

BrokenTeeth

-1.8206e-005

0.0744

0.0055

7.4362

0.2328

Cracked

-2.0287e-005

0.0545

0.0030

9.4898

-0.0654

Warned

-2.3684e-005

0.1133

0.0128

6.8536

-0.1404

Table 6.1 Statistical Parameters

Standard Deviation :

Standard deviation is a widely used measure of variability or diversity used in statistics and probability theory. It shows how much variation or "dispersion" exists from the average (mean, or expected value).

Variance :

Variance is the second central moment about the mean is the variance. Its positive square root is the standard deviation σ.

If a random variable X has the expected value (mean) μ = E[X], then the variance of X is given by

VAR[X ] =

The variance of a random variable or distribution is the expectation, or mean, of the

squared deviation of that variable from its expected value or mean. Thus the variance is a

measure of the amount of variation of the values of that variable, taking account of all

possible values and their probabilities or weightings

of all possible values and their probabilities or weightings Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5
of all possible values and their probabilities or weightings Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5

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Skewness :

The third central moment skewness is a measure of the asymmetry of the data around the sample mean. If skewness is negative, the data are spread out more to the left of the mean than to the right. If skewness is positive, the data are spread out more to the right. The skewness of the normal distribution (or any perfectly symmetric distribution) is zero.

The skewness of a distribution is defined as

Y =

is zero. The skewness of a distribution is defined as Y = where µ is the

where µ is the mean of x, σ is the standard deviation of x, and E(t) represents the expected value of the quantity t.

Kurtosis :

Kurtosis is a measure of how outlier-prone a distribution is. The kurtosis of the normal distribution is 3. Distributions that are more outlier-prone than the normal distribution have kurtosis greater than 3; distributions that are less outlier-prone have kurtosis less than 3.

The kurtosis of a distribution is defined as

k =

than 3. The kurtosis of a distribution is defined as k = Kurtosis is the fourth

Kurtosis is the fourth central moment.

is defined as k = Kurtosis is the fourth central moment. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,
is defined as k = Kurtosis is the fourth central moment. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering,

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CHAPTER 7

FEATURES OF PROJECT

Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 7 FEATURES OF PROJECT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5
Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 7 FEATURES OF PROJECT Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5

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APPLICATIONS

1) Process Industry

Most process plant is littered with rotating machinery such as fans, pumps, conveyors, gearboxes, motors, centrifuges, mixers etc. If any one of these devices starts to deteriorate in its performance it can affect product quality and cause loss of production, or perhaps total close down of the production line. Monitoring of all these critical components can warn engineers of any imminent problems.

2) Petrochemicals

The system can be used to monitor vibration levels on pumps, motors, fans and all other types of rotating machinery used in petrochemical industry. These vibration sensors will operate in environments of inflammable gases, fumes, chemicals, powders, dust etc.

3) Power Generation

The use of wind turbines to generate electricity has increased considerably over recent years; many of them being placed in remote areas in particular, out at sea. Because of high penalties for non-production, the rotating parts of these generators need to be continuously monitored to warn of bearing and component wear so that remedial action can be taken to avoid failures.

4) Utilities

Vibration sensors are used to monitor the vibration levels of all types of rotating machinery including fans, pumps, motors, etc. in power generation stations, gas processing plant and water treatment facilities. The information gathered by Maintenance Engineers allows them to plan efficiently for repair or replacement of suspect components.

efficiently for repair or replacement of suspect components. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 4
efficiently for repair or replacement of suspect components. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 4

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

5) Metal Industry

Vibration monitoring is used extensively in the manufacture and conversion of metals, mainly in steel and aluminum. The important plant that is monitored includes strip roll bearings, pumps, fans and cooling towers where sensors are used which will operate in a such environments.

6) Pharmaceuticals

Use of vibration sensors in the pharmaceutical industry is typically in Clean Room Manufacturing Cells for drugs. AHU (Air Handling Units) control the air flow for the drug manufacturing cells and because access to the motor and fan cannot be gained, accelerometers perform the task.

ADVANTAGES

Better approach towards maintenance

Provides condition of component in operating machines

Faster, continuous and efficient fault prediction

Identify wear and tear

Detect operating speed

LIMITATIONS

Bandwidth of Accelerometer is limited

Database of signal is required for prediction

External conditions may produce false detection

 External conditions may produce false detection Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 5
 External conditions may produce false detection Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 5

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 8

FUTURE SCOPE & CONCLUSION

Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 8 FUTURE SCOPE & CONCLUSION Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5
Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 8 FUTURE SCOPE & CONCLUSION Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5

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Future Scope

1. Multiple Accelerometer Sensors

Multiple accelerometers can be mounted on various parts of a machine to collect part specific vibration signal. This will enable more critical analysis thus helping

to predict fault in a particular part.

2. Centralized Database & Remote Monitoring

A centralized database of vibration signals can be setup where signal from

machine under test will be received. Then it will be analyzed with respect to previous signals in database. In case of probable fault, supervisor can be notified about the same.

3. On board signal processing

With a powerful DSP microcontroller, it is possible to analyze the captured signal right on the same hardware platform. This will enable portable and real time analysis of signal and monitoring of condition.

4. Accelerometer with high sensitivity

Accelerometer with more bandwidth and sensitivity can be used to capture wide range of vibration signals.

can be used to capture wide range of vibration signals. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur
can be used to capture wide range of vibration signals. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur

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Conclusions

This project proposes a new predictive maintenance approach for fault detection

Wavelet analysis is a scalable way to analyze vibration signal

Vibration acquisition system was developed with STM32 ARM Cortex controller and accelerometer

With vibration analysis using wavelets, faults in gears were classified based on vibration pattern.

faults in gears were classified based on vibration pattern. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5
faults in gears were classified based on vibration pattern. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5

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CHAPTER 9

REFERENCES

by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 9
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 9 REFERENCES Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 5 9

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

[1] Al-Badour, M. Sunar, L. Cheded, ―Vibration analysis of rotating machinery using time– frequency analysis and wavelet techniques‖, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing 25 (2011) 2083 2101.

[2].Chen Anyu, Jia Jide, Dai Xiliang, Zhu Zhongkui, ―Engine Fault Diagnosis Based on Wavelets packet and Neural Networks‖, 2010 International Conference on Optoelectronics and Image Processing

[3] Xuxiao Fan, Changyou Xu, Zhijing Zhang, Xin Jin, ―Vibration Testing and Analysis Of a Reconfigurable Turn-milling Machine Tool‖, 2010 International Conference on Digital Manufacturing & Automation

[4]S.Gopinath , ―Study On Electric Motor Mass Unbalance Based On Vibration Monitoring Analysis Technique‖, 201O International Conference on Mechanical and Electrical Technology (ICMET 2010).

[5]Yan Li, Baohe Yang, Zhian Wang, Xuhui Wang, ―Fault Pattern Classification of Turbine- generator Set Based on Artificial Neural Network‖, 2010 International Conference on Computer Application and System Modeling (ICCASM 2010)

[6] He Lv-Chang, Zuo Shu-Guang, He Rong, Chen Rui-Feng, ―Analysis of Noise and Vibration For a New Pure Electrical Vehicle‖, 2010 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering (ICA CTE).

[7] Wu Zhaoxia, Li Fen, Yan Shujuan, Wang Bin, ―Motor Fault Diagnosis based on the Vibration Signal Testing and Analysis‖, 2009 Third International Symposium on Intelligent Information Technology Application.

[8] Jeevanand S., Abraham T. Mathew, ―Condition Monitoring of Induction Motors Using Wavelet Based Analysis of Vibration Signals‖, 2008 Second International Conference on Future Generation Communication and Networking Symposia.

[9] hang Li, Luo Fenglin, ―Application of Wavelet Analysis in Fault Detection of Cell Phone Vibration Motor‖, 2009 International Asia Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics

[10] Feng Lv , Hailian Du ―Fault characteristics extraction of motor’s vibratory signal based on wavelet transform‖ World Congress on Intelligent Control and Automation, June 2004

[11]Mr.Maruthi G.S & Dr.K.Panduranga Vittal, ―Electrical Fault Detection in Three Phase Squirrel Cage Induction Motor by Vibration Analysis using MEMS Accelerometer‖, IEEE PEDS 2005.

[11]K. N. Srinivas, ―Static and Dynamic Vibration Analyses of Switched Reluctance Motors Including Bearings, Housing, Rotor Dynamics, and Applied Loads‖, IEEE

Bearings, Housing, Rotor Dynamics, and Applied Loads‖, IEEE Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 0
Bearings, Housing, Rotor Dynamics, and Applied Loads‖, IEEE Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 0

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

TRANSACTIONS ON MAGNETICS, VOL. 40, NO. 4, JULY 2004

[13] Han-Xin Chen, Ming J. Zuo Fault Detection Of Gearbox With Vibration Signal Analysis By A Linear Combination Of Adaptive Wavelets‖, 2009

[15] N. Roy, P. Purkait and K.Bhattacharya, ―Application of Wavelet and Fourier Transforms for Vibration Analysis of Motor‖, IEEE Indicon 2005 Conference, Chennai, India, 11-13 Dec. 2005.

[16] Zhiwei Tang, Guangjian Wang Vibration Fault Detection and Diagnosis in Aircraft Power Plant Using Model-based Technique‖, 2009

[17] Kang Shanlin1, Liang Baoshe1, Fan Feng1, Shen Songhua Vibration Fault Detection and Diagnosis Method of Power System Generator Based on Wavelet Fractal Network‖,

2007

[18]Alok Sinha, ―Vibrtion of Mechanical Systems‖, Cambridge Press.

[19]Allan G. Piersol, Thomas L. Paez, ― Harris’ Shock and Vibration Handbook‖, McGraw Hill Education.

[20] Wavelet Toolbox manual from MathWorks Inc.

[21] John Prokis and D. Manolakis ―Digital Signal Processing – principals algorithms and

appications ‖ 3 rd edition

[22] Nex Robotics MMA7361L module lab manual

[23] Rhydo Technologies LISY300AL MEMS gyroscope user manual.

[23] Rhydo Technologies LISY300AL MEMS gyroscope user manual. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 1
[23] Rhydo Technologies LISY300AL MEMS gyroscope user manual. Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 1

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Fault Detection by Vibration Analysis of Machine

CHAPTER 10

DATASHEETS

by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 10 DATASHEETS Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 2
by Vibration Analysis of Machine CHAPTER 10 DATASHEETS Bharati Vidyapeeth’s College of Engineering, Kolhapur 6 2

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