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Unit 9.

6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks Stage 1 - Desired Results Unit Summary
In this unit, students will examine the elements and organizational structure of drama and poetry. A study of word choice and voice in mentor texts as well as figurative language and vocabulary acquisition strategies will help improve students writing skills. Students will have the opportunity to expand their presentational and active listening skills as they gain experience in the roles of both presenter and audience member. They will also investigate the reading-writing connection of drama and poetry. Transfer goal: Students will gain an appreciation and understanding of poetry, drama, and figurative language. Students will be able to express their emotions and experiences through these expressive mediums and apply the studied strategies to their own writing.

Content Standards and Learning Expectations


Listening/Speaking L/S.9.1 Listens and responds to a read aloud from a variety of fiction and nonfiction to analyze character development and setting, to determine tone, voice, and mood, and to make connections to the text. Reading R.9.2 Analyzes context clues, reference sources, and other vocabulary expansion strategies to assess word meaning using prior knowledge to relate to new meaning; uses prefixes, suffixes, and root words to determine the meaning of unfamiliar, multiple-meaning, and compound words. R.9.3 Analyzes characters and traits; explains setting in fiction and nonfiction; distinguishes between first person, third person, and omniscient point of view. R.9.6 Uses elements of poetry and plays to analyze, interpret, and identify genre, imagery, and figurative language. Writing W.9.4 Uses figurative language; writes different styles of poems.

Big Ideas/Enduring Understandings:


Literature both reflects and contributes to knowledge and our understanding of the world. Poems use figurative as well as literal language to help us understand the world around us. Personal response to dramatic literature requires us to be an active participant, using visual and auditory cues to interpret what we are viewing and witnessing on the stage. Language expression, drama, and poetry are influenced by our culture.

Essential Questions:
In what ways does literature contribute to our understanding of the world? How do poets express themselves through language, particularly figurative language? Why does drama elicit emotional and intellectual responses? How is culture reflected in the arts, specifically poetry and theater?

June 2012

Unit 9.6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks Content (Students will know)
First person, third person, and omniscient point of view Imagery and figurative language Elements of poetry and plays Setting, character, tone, voice, mood A variety of plays and poems Prefixes, suffixes, root words, multiple meaning and compound words Tone Voice Mood 1st person, 3rd person, and omniscient point of view Simile, Metaphor Imagery Cinquain, Haiku, Diamante, Free Verse, Narrative Poem, Clarihew Dialogue, Script, Actor, Blocking, Set, Props

Skills (Students will be able to)


Listen and respond to a read aloud from a variety of fiction, specifically poems and play, increase comprehension. Analyze character traits and character development. Distinguish between first person, third person, and omniscient point of view. Analyze, interpret, and identify genre, imagery, and figurative language in plays and poems. Write different styles of poems.

Content Vocabulary

Stage 2 - Assessment Evidence Performance Tasks


Poetry Portfolio Throughout the unit, students will be reading and practicing a variety of poetry styles. Students will write 3-5 poems of different styles to be presented in a poetry portfolio project. The poems should include evidence of figurative language (e.g., personification, metaphor, simile, hyperbole), sound (e.g., alliteration, onomatopoeia, rhyme scheme, rhythm, and flow), and graphics (e.g., capital letters, line length, punctuation). The task will be completed following teacher created rubrics. Students should choose one poem to present orally to the class. Oral reading should demonstrate expression and fluency. After completing the Compare a novel to its

Other Evidence
Reading log students will continue reading books on their own and keeping a running record of the titles and pages read. Selected response quiz students will match elements of poetry with their correct definitions. Informal assessment as pairs and groups share examples of the elements of poetry found in mentor texts during foldables activities (see Learning Activities). Fluency Practice oral readings of poems (see Learning Activities) Informal assessments and checks for understanding as students compose different types of poems Create a Word Wall as a class using unit vocabulary and new concepts/words students encounter in texts they read during the unit. Students will create individual word walls in 2

Readers Theater

June 2012

Unit 9.6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks


film version learning activity, students will, in small groups, select a scene from the book that they feel was not well-represented in the film version. The teacher will explain the process and expectations of Readers Theater by reviewing attachment 9.6 Performance Task Getting into Readers Theater with the class. The teacher will allow students to form groups and decide on a scene, consulting the book as they work. The groups will write a brief paragraph that describes the scene. If students do not all have copies of the book, the teacher will make copies of the excerpts selected by the groups so that each group member has a copy of the relevant excerpt. The students will be given class time to work on their scenes with their groups. Before the performances, ask each group to explain where their scene occurs in the book and to discuss why they chose to dramatize the scene in this way. During discussion, look for comments that show students can think critically about why movies and books would not be identical and that communicate their preferences for the film or book. Students should evaluate their work using attachment 9.6 Performance Task Readers Theater Reflection Sheet. The teacher will review this for indications that students made thoughtful decisions and have spent time evaluating their own contributions to the group performance. their reading logs for unknown words they encounter while reading.

Stage 3 - Learning Plan Learning Activities


Compiling poetry collections and a working definition of poetry Discuss the definition of poetry and provide notes on types of poems. See the following website for terms and definitions, if needed. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/janjune00/poetryboxformexamples.html Provide the students with many examples of different types of poems (concrete, haikus, cinquain, diamonte, etc.). Discuss the patterns and provide the students with the formulas for the poems. 3

June 2012

Unit 9.6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks


The teacher should first focus on diamonte. The teacher will show the students that we are all poets by helping them to write their own poem about themselves. o Line 1: Noun or subject (their first name) o Line 2: Two Adjectives (describing line 1 in this case, the student) o Line 3: Three ing words (action verbs describing line 1) o Line 4: Four words about the subject (2 nouns related to line 1, 2 nouns related to line 7) o Line 5: Three ing words (action verbs describing line 7) o Line 6: Two adjectives (describing line 7) o Line 7: Synonym for the subject (their last name) Over the next week, the teacher should examine model poems of different types with the students and lead students in composing their own. The students should have the opportunity to experiment with many types of poems. Introduce the poetic devices and figurative language techniques below. Allow students to create foldables for managing key terms and elements of poetry throughout the unit (see examples below). Provide reciprocal teaching opportunities for students to research, read, and compare types of poetry while locating examples of poetic devices and figurative language elements. These will also serve as study tools for the students. Fold an 8 x 11 sheet of paper in half and then cut the top half into 4 equal sections, lengthwise (see below). On the outside of each flap, write one of the elements of poetry (stanza, rhyme scheme, hyperbole, onomatopoeia).

Create elements of poetry and figurative language foldables1

On the inside of each flap, write the corresponding definition and an example of the term as shown below. Definitions a group of lines in a poem Examples The first five lines of The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost equal one stanza. Roses are red, (A) Violets are blue, (B) She is my friend, (A) And so are you. (B) I have a TON of homework! Buzz, zoom, whoosh, pop, sizzle

the pattern of rhyme in a poem an exaggeration a word that that illustrates the sound it makes
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Source: https://www.georgiastandards.org/Frameworks/GSO%20Frameworks/Grade-5-Unit-4-Create.pdf

June 2012

Unit 9.6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks


After students have written the terms, definitions, and examples on their foldables, allow them to work in pairs to find additional examples of these elements of poetry from mentor texts provided (see Literature Connections). In another lesson, make a second foldable for figurative language terms (alliteration, personification, simile, metaphor). Definitions a comparison using like or as a direct comparison not using like or as the repetition of consonant sounds giving human characteristics to animals or objects Fluency2 Students will read aloud with rhythm, flow, and meter that sound like everyday speech (prosody). Students will recite selected poetry to gain practice with varied text complexity and to utilize reading strategies for decoding, self-correcting, and identifying words from a variety of context clues. If technology is available, play an audio recording of a poem (example Webcast: http://www.loc.gov/today/cyberlc/feature_wdesc.php?rec=4187). If not, read a poem very expressively and while demonstrating fluency. After listening to the recording or reading expressively, read one stanza from the same poem using a robotic voice and making intentional errors in pronunciation. Allow students to reflect on the importance of fluency in daily communication. Provide three or four sample poems from which students may choose. Allow students to work with partners to practice reading their selected poems with confidence. Remind students to use syllabication, prefixes, suffixes, surrounding words, etc. as clues to difficult vocabulary. As partner #1 reads, ask partner #2 to tally any miscues. Reverse the roles until both students have improved reading with fluency. Provide ample time for students to memorize one or two stanzas of their poem to recite to the whole class. Remind students that poetry provides an excellent opportunity to practice fluency and that the reading /speaking skills acquired may be transferred to all other genres of literature. The teacher will explain to students that drama, unlike other works of fiction, is written to be performed. The written form of a play is called a script, and the author is called a playwright. The teacher will inform students that a script contains a number of important elements: o Acts and scenes A play is broken into acts and scenes instead of chapters. Acts are the bigger divisions; scenes are the parts within an act. A new scene usually begins when the setting changes. Examples Her smile is as bright at the sun My homerun was a rainbow of hope for our baseball team. Larry Ledbetter lost his lovely lunchbox! The mountain laughed at the hikers below.

Elements of Drama3

2 3

Source: https://www.georgiastandards.org/Frameworks/GSO%20Frameworks/Grade-5-Unit-4-Create.pdf Source: https://www.georgiastandards.org/Frameworks/GSO%20Frameworks/5%20Unit%207%20Drama%20Elements%20 of%20Drama.pdf

June 2012

Unit 9.6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks


o Cast of characters A cast is a list of everyone in the play. The cast of characters is listed at the beginning of most plays. Sometimes the characters are listed in order as they appear in the play, and a brief description of the character may be given. Dialogue The script consists mostly of dialogue (conversation). Through the dialogue, the playwright reveals the characters, plot, and themes of a play. Dialogue in plays is not set off by quotation marks. Scripts have speech tags which tell who is speaking. Monologue (soliloquies) A character stands alone on stage and speaks. These speeches are often important, dramatic moments in a play. Plot The action/events that occur in the play comprise the plot. Setting Where and when the play takes place are aspects of setting. The setting usually changes from act to act and scene to scene. Stage directions The playwright describes details of the setting and sound effects as well as directs characters how to speak their lines, move, act, and look. Theme The main message is the central idea or message of the play.

o o o o o

Compare a novel to its film version The student will write a comparison of a piece of literature with its dramatic representation (in this case, the movie). The teacher should choose a book that was read as a read-aloud during the year and show the corresponding movie in class. Review the Story Map for the novel (see attachment 9.1 Story Map). Transfer the information to the Book column of the Focused Reading and Viewing Guide (see attachment 9.6: Learning Activity Focused Reading and Viewing Guide). Stop the movie as necessary to answer questions or review the story elements through discussion. Students should complete the Film side of the chart while watching the movie. After the movie, allow the students to work in small groups to complete a Venn diagram to note the similarities and differences between the book and the movie. After completing the Venn diagrams, students should share their findings and opinions in a class discussion. What changes did they like? What didnt they like? Should movies always be just like the book or are changes ok? Individually, students should use the Venn diagram as a pre-writing exercise to draft an essay comparing the book to the movie. They should use peer editing to revise their essays and complete a final copy to be assessed by the teacher. In the comparison, the student will identify and analyze the similarities and differences between the narrative text and its film. The student will support all judgments through references to the text and film. The student should demonstrate an understanding of the literary work in his/her writing. Other examples of book/movie pairs: Judy Moody and the NOT Bummer Summer, Harry Potter, Tuck Everlasting, Holes, Bridge to Terabithia, Mr. Poppers Penguins, Diary of a Whimpy Kid, Rapunzel/Tangled, Alice in Wonderland The Connection Between Poetry and Music: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroomresources/lesson-plans/connection-between-poetry-music-808.html

Sample Lessons

June 2012

Unit 9.6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks


Compiling Poetry Collections and a Working Definition of Poetry: http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/lesson-plans/compiling-poetry-collectionsworking-354.html Use As reference: o Unit 7.3 Poetry: ODE to Puerto Rico o Unit 8.5 Using Poetry to Express Myself Line Break Explorer http://www.readwritethink.org/classroom-resources/student-interactives/linebreak-explorer-30018.html Poets.org currently features thousands of poems, with new ones being added all the time. You can search for text within a poem, or browse the list by title, author, or first line. http://www.poets.org/search.php/prmResetList/1 Tips for Teaching Poetry http://www.poets.org/page.php/prmID/85 Poetic Devices and examples http://www.pbs.org/newshour/extra/features/janjune00/poetryboxdevicesexamples.html Puerto Rican Poetry http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/masterpiece/americancollection/woman/ei_poetry.html

Additional Resources

Literature Connections
Poetry Collections All the Small Poems by V. Worth From Mother to Son by L. Hughes Hist Wist by e. e. cummings Jabberwocky by Lewis Carrol Many Winters by N. Wood Ordinary Things: Poems from a Walk in Early Spring by R. Fletcher The Place My Words Are Looking For - P.B. Janeczko (editor) Night on Neighborhood Street by Eloise Greenfield Pizza, Pigs, and Poetry: How to Write a Poem byJack Prelutsky Troop 13 to the Rescue by Penny Warner Rumplestiltskin, Private Eye by Jason Sanford And So They Did by V. McQuin Final Prep by Timothy Tocher Free Agent by Timothy Tocher Barts Black Gold by Penny Warner Temper, Temper by Bruce Lansky Liza and the Lost Letter by Bruce Lansky The Royal Joust by Bruce Lansky

Dramatic Literature

June 2012

Unit 9.6: Figuratively Speaking English as a Second Language 6 weeks


READ XL (Ninth grade) Textbook o Nonconformist by Angela Shelf Medearis page 81 (Poetry: Problem and Solution ) o Opening Act by Yolen and Heidi Elisabet Yolen Stemple page 202 (Short Story: Cause and Effect) o A Song and Poem by Jewel page 210 (Poetry/ Lyrics: Cause and Effect) o Voices from What You Are? Page 324 (Essays and Poetry: Make Inferences)

June 2012 Adapted from Understanding by Design by Grant Wiggins and Jay McTighe