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The CPU
Central Processing Unit (CPU) The brain of the computer. This is the component that actually executes instructions Controls all other computer functions In PCs (personal computers) also called the microprocessor or simply processor.

The Bus
Computer components are connected by a bus. A bus is a group of parallel wires that carry control signals and data between components.

VDU (Monitor)
This is the television-like screen where the results of a computer's tasks are displayed. Monitors come in all sizes, but most commonly they are either 15 or 17 inches (measured diagonally from one corner of the screen to the opposite corner).

Keyboard
The keyboard looks like a typewriter. It contains all the letters of the alphabet, numbers and some special symbols. It operates like a typewriter keypad, but instead of moving an arm, which strikes the paper, it sends an electronic impulse to the computer, which displays a character on the monitor.
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Mouse
Its

Printer
A printer is designed to output information from a computer onto a piece of paper. There are three kinds of printers: dot matrix, laser, and inkjet.

a device that is used to control the computer. A cable connects the mouse to the computer.

When the mouse is moved on a pad, called a mouse pad, the cursor on the screen moves. A cursor is a small symbol displayed on the computer screen (normally a diagonal arrow that is used as a pointer) that shows you what the mouse is referencing on the screen.
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Scanner
A scanner is a device used to copy an image off paper and convert it into a digital image, which can be saved as a computer file and stored on a hard drive. Scanners can also use a special kind of technology called Optical Character Recognition (OCR) to read text from paper and save it as an editable document file
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Main Memory
Main memory holds information such as computer programs, numeric data, or documents created by a word processor. All programs must be brought into main memory before execution. When power is turned off, everything in main memory is lost Main memory is made up of capacitors. If a capacitor is charged, then its state is said to be 1, or ON. We could also say the bit is set. If a capacitor does not have a charge, then its state is said to be 0, or OFF. We could also say that the bit is reset or cleared

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Main Memory (cont.)


Memory is divided into cells, where each cell contains 8 bits (a 1 or a 0). Eight bits is called a byte. Each of these cells is uniquely numbered. The number associated with a cell is known as its address. Main memory is volatile storage. That is, if power is lost, the information in main memory is lost.
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Main Memory (cont.)


Other computer components can
get the information held at a particular address in memory, known as a READ, or store information at a particular address in memory, known as a WRITE.

Writing to a memory location alters its contents. Reading from a memory location does not alter its contents.

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Main Memory (cont.)


All addresses in memory can be accessed in the same amount of time. We do not have to start at address 0 and read everything until we get to the address we really want (sequential access). We can go directly to the address we want and access the data (direct or random access). That is why we call main memory RAM (Random Access Memory).
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Session # 2 Inside The CPU Cabinet

9/9/2012

A Look Inside.

A Look Inside ..
power supply

CD-ROM drive floppy drive

Floppy

cards

hard drive

CD

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motherboard

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A Look Inside

A Look Inside.

Identify all the major components:


Power Supply Motherboard Memory Card Slots Cards (sound, video, network) CPU, heatsink and fan Drives (floppy, hard and CD-ROM)
RAM BANK

Card Slots (ISA & PCI)


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CPU, Fan, Heatsink


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What these components do.

What these components do..

Power Supply (heart) supplies power to all the circuitry and devices. Motherboard (body) acts as a manager for everything on the computer connects all the other components together. CPU Central Processing Unit (brain) this does all the work of computing.
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RAM Random Access Memory (short-term memory) holds data and program instructions that the computer is currently using. Hard Drive (long-term memory) holds all of the information that needs to be stored between uses of the computer. Floppy and CD-ROM drives (mouth/ears) allow you to give data to the computer and take data away from the computer.
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What these components do Power Supply


Card Slots (fingers) Allows other components to be added to the computer. Video card (face) Does all of the processing necessary to get stuff looking nice on screen, quickly. Sound card (vocal cords) Allows sounds from HD or CD-ROM to be played. Network Card (telephone) allows computer to talk to other computers over a wire.
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SMPS Switch Mode Power Supply Switching Transistors Outputs + 5V, -5V, +12 V, -12 V Typical Costs are: ATX Non ATX Usually, SMPS comes with the CPU Cabinet.
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Motherboar d

CPU A Single Chip


CU

ALU

Memory Registers

Examples: Intel Family Pentium 4, 3, 2, Pentium, XEON, Itanium AMD -- Athlon, K62 IBM -- Cyrix Motorola -- 68000 Series
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RAM

Hard Drive

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HD/DVD
track sector head

Floppy Drive

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CD-ROM Drive

Ribbon Cables

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Video Card

Sound Card

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Back of Computer

Remove these screws

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CPU

End of Session # 2 Queries???

The central processing unit or (CPU) is the "brain" of your computer. It contains the electronic circuits that cause the computer to follow instructions from memory. The CPU contains three main parts, all housed in a single package (Chip): Control Unit (CU) Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) Memory

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