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Margarine Manufacture The Basic steps Margarine manufacture is carried out in two distinct stages.

The first stage is called refinement, where oil is extracted from seeds or beans and refined. The second stage is called processing, where oil and other materials are made into margarine Step 1 The seeds are harvested and transported to a crushing mill.

Step 2 The oil is removed from either seeds or beans by either expulsion or extraction. Step 3 The 'crude' oil (dark golden colour) which has been extracted from the seeds or beans needs to be neutralised. This neutralisation removes any "free" fatty acids. If these "free" fatty acids were left they would cause the oil to develop an unpleasant taste. The neutralised oil is then washed and dried thoroughly. Step 4 The oil is now bleached to remove any colour or impurities. This bleaching process is completed by using special absorbent earth. After bleaching is completed the earth is carefully filtered out. Step 5 After oil modification has been completed, the oil is deodorised to remove any smells and tastes. This process is completed by blowing steam through the heated oil, where the steam and any smells and tastes are drawn off by a vacuum. At this stage the oil is now colourless, odourless, tasteless and a light brown colour. It is this oil that is bottled and sold as vegetable oil. Step 6 The vegetable oil is then used in the manufacture of margarine and spreads. Oil modification is used to help make this oil harder. Three ways to modify oils are hydrogenation, rearrangement or fractionation.

Step 7 The next process is the blending stage, where various oils are mixed or blended together to make the right texture for the final spread product. Step 8 The refined oil is now blended with ingredients such as vitamins, colours, flavours and emulsifiers. At the same time a mixture of water, whey, brine and powdered ingredients is created. Step 9 These two ingredient mixtures are blended together at temperatures around 50 - 60 o C while being slightly mixed. This mixture or emulsion needs to be pasteurised at temperatures around 70 to 86 o C. Step 10 The mixed spread is now chilled to make it go solid. Step 11 During the chilling process, the product is 'worked' in a cylindrical chamber with a series of pins, which kneads the spread at a fixed speed. Step 12 After the chilling process, the product is now ready to be packed and transported to supermarkets, where it needs to be stored at between 2 o C and 5 o C.

Margarine is a type of processed food, which is commonly used in the whole world. It is widely used with the kitchen food like popcorn, pancakes, breads, baked potatoes, and grilled steaks. Margarine is also used in baking, as it increases texture and consistency of the food. The manufacturing of margarine involves various steps and process. The manufacturing process of margarine mainly starts with basic oil and fats. The vegetable oil and fats are used for the margarine manufacturing. The beans and seeds of the oil or nuts are then processed in the margarine processor and the liquid oil is obtained. Furthermore, canola oil, palm oil, olive oil along with some other vegetable oil is mixed together to make a raw material. The entire oil that is obtained is not suitable for the manufacturing of margarine, as oil includes some unwanted fatty acids and other ingredients. These unwanted materials are removed with the help of refining. After the refining process, the oil is dehydrated, cleaned and bleached, making it odorless and suitable for use. To remove the odor from oil, steam is passed through it and sucked out from the other side through a vacuum pipe. Now, the shiny margarine extract is obtained. This is all about the initial process for manufacturing of margarine. Now, the obtained oil extract is processed with other oils in order to get a smooth texture, which can be easily spread onto the bread. The smooth and creamy texture is important otherwise the main purpose of manufacturing margarine is not accomplished. After making the accurate texture, the oil is neutralized by the nutrients. The vitamins of the margarine are mainly intended to promote good health to heart. The color and flavor is then mixed into this material to create its popular blend. Manufacturing of margarine continues until the perfect sample of margarine is obtained. It is heated at about 120 degrees and pasteurized to about 179 degrees. After this process, it turns into liquid. To make it smooth and solid that can be spread easily, the liquid oil is quickly cooled and whipped. The whipping process creates a steam of circles on the top of the product and gets smaller and smaller, as it reaches the bottom part. It could also be created with the help of machines in more easy way. The machine helps in getting more perfect blend of margarine. The margarine created by machines is easy to use. The Final Step of Margarine Manufacturing. The manufacturing process is completed, when the final margarine product is cooled in the grocers refrigerator.

Margarine Manufacture Margarine can be made from a variety of animal fats and was once predominantly manufactured from beef fat and called oleo-margarine. Unlike butter, it can be packaged into a variety of consistencies, including liquid. No matter what the form, however, margarine must meet strict government content standards because it is a food item which government analysts and nutritionists consider to be easily confused with butter. These guidelines dictate that margarine be at least 80% fat, derived from animal or vegetable oils, or sometimes a blend of the two. Around 17-18.5% of the margarine is liquid, derived from either pasteurized skim milk, water, or soybean protein fluid. A slight percentage (1-3%) is salt added for flavor, but in the interest of dietary health some margarine is made and labeled saltfree. It must contain at least 15,000 units (from the U.S. Pharmacopeia standards) of vitamin A per pound. Other ingredients may be added to preserve shelf life. Preparation When the ingredients arrive at the margarine manufacturing facility, they must first undergo a series of preparatory measures. The oilsafflower, corn, or soybean, among other typesis treated with a caustic soda solution to remove unnecessary components known as free fatty acids. The oil is then washed by mixing it with hot water, separating it, and leaving it to dry under a vacuum. Next, the oil is sometimes bleached with a mixture of bleaching earth and charcoal in another vacuum chamber. The bleaching earth and charcoal absorb any unwanted colorants, and are then filtered out from the oil. Whatever liquid is used in the manufacturing processmilk, water, or a soybased substanceit too must undergo preparatory measures. It also undergoes pasteurization to remove impurities, and if dry milk powder is used, it must be checked for bacteria and other contaminants. Hydrogenation The oil is then hydrogenated to ensure the correct consistency for margarine production, a state referred to as "plastic" or semi-solid. In this process, hydrogen gas is added to the oil under pressurized conditions. The hydrogen particles stay with the oil, helping to increase the temperature point at which it will melt and to make the oil less susceptible tocontamination through oxidation.

Combining the ingredients The continuous-flow process is the most commonly used method in the manufacture of margarine. If milk is used as the liquid base, it is joined with salt and an emulsifying agent in a chamber. The emulsifying agent ensures that the emulsification processchemically defined as a suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquidtakes place. An emulsifier works by decreasing the surface tension between the oil globules and the liquid mixture, thereby helping them form chemical bonds more easily. The result is a substance that is neither wholly liquid nor wholly solid but rather a combination of the two called semi-solid. Lecithin, a natural fat derived from eggyolk, soybean, or corn, is one typical emulsification agent used in margarine Manufacturing. In the initial step, the liquid, salt, and lecithin are mixed together into one tank opposite another vat holding the oils and oil-soluble ingredients. In the continuous-flow process, the contents of the two vats are fed on a timed basis into a third tank, typically called the emulsification chamber. While the blending process is taking place, the equipment's sensors and regulating devices keep the mixture's temperature near 100F (38C). Agitation Next, the margarine mixture is sent to a device called a Votator, the brand name for the most commonly used apparatus in U.S. margarine manufacturing. It has been standard equipment to the industry since the 1930s. In the Votator, the margarine emulsion is cooled in what is referred to as Chamber A. Chamber A is divided into a trio of tubes that successively decrease its temperature. Within two minutes the mixture has reached 45-50F (7-10C). It is then pumped into a second vat called Chamber B. There it is occasionally agitated but generally left to sit still and form its semi-solid state. If it needs to be whipped or otherwise prepared for special consistency, the agitation is done in Chamber B.