Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

Просмотров: 40

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Research paper
- FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPES
- To Measure The Head Loss (Hl) In A Pipe Of Uniform Diameter (D)
- sparger
- 832708.pdf
- Diemnsionless No. in Fluid Mechanics
- Predicting HT During Flow Boilng in Mini Channels & Micro Channels
- Younis 2006 Ocean-Engineering
- Effect of Column Diameter and Bed Hight on Min Fluidization Velocity
- Wind Tunnel Test
- Study of Turbulent Flow Downstream From A
- Wall Effect on Ut
- Effects of Initial Conditions__ in Decaying Turbulence Generated by Passive Grids
- Fluid mechanics lab manual
- Proteus Engineering
- Thesis
- Experiment
- OCW Drilling Hydraulics Lecture
- WInd Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar Collectors
- AADE-03-NTCE-35-Power

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 55

Bagade

Title: - To find viscosity of liquids and its variation with temperature using Redwood Viscometer. Objective: - To study the variation in kinematic viscosity of the given oil by using Redwood Viscometer. Theory: - As the flow through the orifice is laminar, hence Hagen-Poiseuille equation may be used in this case. According to this equation, the discharge passing through the orifice may be given as, Q = D4 dp 128 dx ----------------------(1) Where: D is the diameter of the orifice, is the dynamic viscosity of the oil ,and (dp/dx) is the pressure gradient in the direction of the flow. In this case, if h is the initial head over the orifice, the pressure gradient responsible for the flow may be written as , - ( dp / dx ) = ( p1 - p2 / L ) = ( h 0/ L ) = h/L Where: L is the length of the passage of flow i.e. orifice and is the specific weight of the oil. p2 is the pressure at the outlet of the orifice and equal to atmospheric pressure. If Vol. is the volume collected in time t then discharge Q can be given as Vol./t the equation (1) can be written as, = D4 h t / (128 Vol. L ) - - -- - - - - - - - - - - -(2)

Above equation (2) may be written in terms of kinematic viscosity ( ) as = or D4 g h t / (128 Vol. x L )

= C1 t

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - (3)

from equation (3) it is clear that the kinematic viscosity () varies directly with time which ultimately depends upon the temp. i.e. as temp increases, the time to fill the same volume decreases. But here, the head h is not constant and is decreasing with respect to time, after opening the orifice. Hence a subtractive correction is applied and the equation (3) can be modified to = C1 t C2 / t --------------------------(4)

where C1 and C2 are the viscometer constants and in the case of the viscometer used here, this constants as suggested by the manufacturer are, C1 = 0.0026 and C2 = 1.175

1 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

K.K. WAGH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, NASHIK Prof. M.p.Ray and Prof. S.D. Bagade

Thus, = 0.0026 t 1.175 / t where is kinematic viscosity in cm2/sec (stokes) Description of Apparatus: - The equipment consists of a vertical cylinder with hemispherical bottom. An orifice is provided at the center of the bottom .The cylinder is surrounded by a constant temperature water bath. Electric heater is used to maintain the oil in the cylinder at desired temp. The orifice is kept closed by using a ball valve. The oil whose viscosity is to be determined is filled, up to the index mark. Other instruments required to conduct the experiment are a stop watch, a glass flask of 50cc capacity and a thermometer. Specifications of viscometer: 1) Diameter of cylinder 2) Height or depth of cylinder 3) Diameter of orifice 4) Length of orifice

Procedure: 1) Level the instrument with the help of leveling screws. 2) Fill the water in the constant temperature bath. 3) Close the orifice of the viscometer with the ball valve and fill the oil to be tested, in the cylinder up to the index mark. 4) Record the temperature of oil by using the thermometer. 5) Place the 50 cc flask below the orifice and gently lift the ball valve and start the stop watch. Note the time for collecting the 50 cc of oil. 6) Repeat the above procedure for different temperature. Observation Table Obs. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Temp in Degrees Time in sec

Sample Calculation: Observation no. : --------Discharge (Q) = Vol. / T =50 cc / time = -----cm 3 / sec 2 Area of orifice (A) = D / 4 = ----cm2

2 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

K.K. WAGH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, NASHIK Prof. M.p.Ray and Prof. S.D. Bagade

Velocity of flow (V) = Q / A = ----- cm / sec Kinematic viscosity () = 0.0026 t - 1.175 / t = ------cm2 / sec Reynolds number (Re) = V D / = ----Calculation Table :Obs. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Graph: - Plot the graph of kinematic viscosity vs temperature on arithmetical graph paper. Results :- The kinematic viscosity of the oil varies from -------0 at temp. c to --------cm2 / sec at temp. cm2 / sec 0 c Temp in 0 c Velocity cm/sec Time (sec) Kinematic viscosity (cm2 / sec) Reynolds No (Re)

Discussion:-

K.K. WAGH INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND RESEARCH, NASHIK Prof. M.p.Ray and Prof. S.D. Bagade

REDWOOD VISCOMETER

Question for Lab Quiz 1) Name the different methods to measure the viscosity. 2) State the equations on which methods are based. 3) What are disadvantages of capillary tube method? 4) How the disadvantages of capillary tube method are overcome in modern methods? 5) Name the different viscometers and points on which they differ. 6) State the precautions to be taken while conducting Redwood viscometer experiment. 7) Why round bottom flask is used to measure oil? 8) What are the C1 and C2 ? What is the significance of same? What are values of C1 and C2 for Redwood viscometer? 9) Why fluid possesses viscosity? 10) Why does the viscosity of the liquids decrease with the rise of temperature? 11) Why does the viscosity of the gases increases with the rise of temperature? 12) What is the relationship between dynamic viscosity and kinematic viscosity? 13) Which oil is used for performing the experiment? 14) What is practical significance of conducting this experiment? 15) What is Newtons law of viscosity? 16) What are Newtonian and Non Newtonian fluids? Give examples of the same.

Title: Study of Laminar and Turbulent flow by Reynolds apparatus.

Objective: - To study the nature of flow and and confirmation by Reynolds No. Theory: Osborne Reynolds, in 1883 conducted a number of experiments to determine the laws of resistance in pipe. By introducing a filament of dye into the water-flow taking place in a horizontal glass tube, he observed that nature of filament changes when the velocity of flow is changed. At low velocities the filament appeared to be a straight line through out the length of the glass tube, indicating laminar flow. At higher velocities, the filament after covering a small length of the tube suddenly mixes with the surrounding water, indicating turbulent flow. Experiments with pipes of different diameters and with water at different temperatures led Reynolds to conclude that the parameter which determines whether the flow shall be laminar or turbulent in a particular case is:Re = VD / Where, Re = Reynolds No. of motion. = Density of fluid. V = Velocity of flow. D = Diameter of pipe. = Coefficient of viscosity of fluid. The flow is laminar or turbulent according as the value of Re. If experiments are done with increasing rate of flow, the value of Re depends on the degree of care which is taken to eliminate disturbance in the supply or along the pipe. On other hand, if experiments are done with decreasing flow, transition from turbulent to laminar flow takes place at a value of Re about 2000 for flow in a circular pipe and below this the flow is inherently laminar in nature. Description of Apparatus: - The experimental setup consists of the Reynolds apparatus shown in the figure. It consists of a glass tube with a bell mouthed inlet. It connects large constant head tank on one end and regulating valve on the other end. Operating the regulating valve can control the rate of flow. The bell mouthed entrance provides a passage to ensure streamlined flow. A dye container is attached to a nozzle injecting a stream of dye into the center of glass tube. Procedure: Open the main supply valve and fill the tank of apparatus with water with outlet of glass tube partly open so that no air is trapped in the glass tube. Close the outlet valve of the glass tube and the inlet valve of the tank when tank is full. Leave the apparatus for some time so that water in the tank is at rest. Partially open the outlet valve of the glass tube and inlet of the tank so that the velocity of the flow is very small and the water level in the tank is fairly constant. Pour dye in container so that dye stream moves in a straight line through the tube showing that flow is laminar. Measure the discharge. Increase the velocity of flow and again measure the discharge.

6 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Take five to six reading till the dye stream in the glass tube, breaks up and get diffused in water. Calculate the Reynolds number for each reading to confirm visual observation. Observation Table: Inner diameter of glass tube(D) = 10mm = 1cm Obs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 Sample Calculation :For Observation No:Discharge (Q) = volume / time = = Velocity of flow (V) = = = Reynold No Re = V D / = = Calculation Table:cm3/sec. discharge(Q) / area of tube / cm/sec Volume of water collected (cm3) Time required (t) Discharge Q = volume/time (cm3/sec) Nature of filament

Obs No 1 2 3 4 5 6

Type of flow

Precautions :Do not forget to remove any entrapped air in the apparatus before starting measurement. There should be no mechanical vibration near the apparatus. Increase in velocity of flow should be in stages.

Questions for Lab Quiz :1) What is Reynolds number and its formula for pipe? 2) How will you classify flow through pipes on basis of Reynolds number? 3) Define Laminar and Turbulent flow. 4) What observations are made during experiment with help of colour filament?

REYNOLDS APPARATUS

Title: - Stability of floating bodies. Objective: -To determine the metacentric height of a given vessel under:a. Unloaded condition and b. Loaded condition Theory: - The investigation of the stability of the floating object requires the determination of the position of metacentre relative to C.G. of the object. For the different conditions of the stability following are the positions of the metacentre with respect to position of C.G. a. Stable equilibrium: b. Unstable equilibrium: c. Neutral equilibrium: M is above the C.G. M is below the C.G. M and C.G. coincides

Metacentre: - It is defined as the point about which body oscillates, when it is tilted by a small angle. The metacentre can also be defined as the point, at which the line of action of force of buoyancy in its tilted position, meets the axis of the body. Metacentric Height: - The distance between the center of gravity and the metacentre is known as metacentric height. Experimental determination of metacentric height: In the model of floating ship of total weight W; if a small weight w is moved by a distance x on its deck then the ship tilts by an angle . Then, Moment due to movement of load w = w x. Resisting moment induced due to self-weight = W GM sin . As the body is in the state of stable equilibrium, above two moments will be equal and opposite in nature. Hence; w x = W GM sin x / W tan (As is small, sin ~ tan )

GM = w

Description of Apparatus: The ship model is approximately 20 cm X 30 cm in plan and is about 10cm high. The model floats on water and can be tilted on both sides by moving a small weight on its deck. The tilt of the ship with respect to the vertical can be recorded on graduated scale, by using a plumb. The additional load may be added to the ship at the bottom.

Procedure: 1. Weigh the ship model with the jockey weight w and note down its value say W. 2. Put the ship model in the tank filled with water and displace the movable mass on rider so as to tilt the model through a small angle . 3. Note the reading of the plumb line, on a graduated scale, to determine angle of tilt. 4. Change the distance x and observe the angle; repeat for five different values of displacements (x). 5. Repeat the above procedure by moving the load w on the other side. 6. For loaded condition; place steel strips in such way that ship model is in balanced condition and repeat the steps 1 to 5 . Observation Table: Weight of the ship including movable weight w Weight of the ship with strips and movable weight w Weight of movable load (i.e. jockey weight) Obs. No w on left of center Distance x (cm) Tilt in degree For unloaded condition 1 2 3 4 5 For loaded condition 1 2 3 4 5 Sample Calculation: For observation No. -------(loaded condition / unloaded condition) Total weight of the ship (W1 / W2) = gm ` Metacentric Height GM (left) = w x / W tan , = (W1) (W2) w = = = gm gm gm

GM (right) = =

GM (Avg) =

11 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Calculation Table:Obs Nos 1 2 3 4 5 For loaded condition 1 2 3 4 5 Results and Discussions: The average value of metacentric height (unloaded condition) = The average value of metacentric height (loaded condition) Precautions: - Measure the angle of tilt accurately. Questions for Lab Quiz: 1. Define Buoyancy, Buoyant force and its point of application. 2. State different stability conditions for floating and submerged objects. 3. What is significance of metacentric height? 4. Can you compare the experimental results with those obtained analytically, if yes list 5. The formulae used. 6. How would the stability of the ship be affected if it were floated on a liquid with a density greater than that of water? 7. What is the significance of finding metacentric height for loaded and unloaded conditions. 8. What is practical significance of doing this experiment? = cm cm GM (left) cm For unloaded condition GM (right) cm GM (Avg.) cm

13 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Title: - Verification of modified Bernoullis Equation. Objective: - To verify Bernoullis Theorem. Theory: - In a fluid flow, each particle of the fluid possesses energy in the form of potential energy, kinetic energy and pressure energy. The sum of these energies of a particle is called total energy or total head. Bernoulli found that for incompressible fluid, flowing along a streamline, the total energy or total head of each fluid particle remains constant, if no energy is gained or lost between any two points along the stream line. Total Head H Where, Z is position of center of conduit w.r.t. datum V is velocity of flow p/ is piezometric head (h) Descriptions of Apparatus: It consists of a conduit of varying cross-sectional area as shown in figure. Piezometers are fitted to measure the piezometric head at each gauge point. A measuring tank is also provided to measure discharge. Procedure: 1. Note down the area of the conduit at various gauge points. 2. Open the supply valve and allow the flow of water to remove air from the conduit. 3. Also remove the air bubbles in the piezometers. 4. The pressure heads at various sections of the conduit are measured from the piezometers. 5. Measure the discharge of the conduit with the help of measuring tank. 6. Repeat step (2) and (4) for two different discharges. 7. Tabulate the readings and calculate the total head for each run. Observations and Calculation Table: Internal plan dimensions of collecting tank: Breadth (B) = mm Length (L) = mm (i) Discharge: Vol. of Water collected (Lt) Time in sec Vol. of water collected in mm3 Discharge Q=Vol. / t (mm3/sec) = Datum Head + Velocity Head + pressure Head = Z + V2/ 2g + p /

Run no 1 2 3

(ii) Total head: For Run No 1 Sr. No Cross section area (a) (mm2) a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 a13 a14 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 240 280 320 360 Discharge (Q) = Velocity V=Q/a (mm/sec) Velocity head V2/2g (mm) Pressure head p/r (mm) Datum head Z (mm) mm3 / sec Total head T (mm) Velocity V=Q / a (mm/sec) Discharge (Q) = Velocity head V2/2g (mm) Pressure head p/r (mm) Datum head Z (mm) mm3/sec Total head T (mm)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

For Run No. 2 Sr. No Cross section area (a) (mm2) a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 a13 a14 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 240 280 320 360

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

For Run No. 3 Sr No Cross section area (a) (mm2) a1 a2 a3 a4 a5 a6 a7 a8 a9 a10 a11 a12 a13 a14 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 240 220 200 240 280 320 360 Velocity V=Q/A (mm/sec)

Discharge (Q) = Velocity head V2/2g (mm) Pressure head p/r (mm) Datum head Z (mm)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

Sample Calculation:For cross-section No.: - ---------------Internal plan area of collecting tank, A = L Discharge, Q = AH / t = = Velocity, V = Q/a = = Velocity head, V2/2g = = Pressure head, p / = = Datum head, Z = = Total head, (H) = = = B = = mm3/sec mm/sec mm mm mm Z + p / + V2/ 2g mm mm2

Graph: Plot the graph of pressure head, velocity head and total head taking the cross section no. on X-axis.

Precautions: 1) Before taking reading, ensure that the flow is steady. 2) Check that air is not entrapped in the piezometers. 3) There should be no leakage between upstream and downstream ends of the conduit. Questions for Lab Quiz: 1. State Bernoullis Theorem. Also state corrections when it is applied to real fluid. 2. What is hydraulic gradient line and total energy line. 3. If piezometric tubes are replaced by pressure gauges, then how will you calculate pressure energy and potential energy of flow? 4. What assumptions are made during derivation of Bernoullis Theorem? 5. State practical applications of Bernoullis Theorem.

BERNOULLIS APPARATUS

18 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Calibration of Venturimeter

Title: - Calibration of Venturimeter. Objective: - To determine the coefficient of Venturimeter Theory: By contracting the passage of flow, the velocity of the flow and hence the velocity head can be increased. This increase in the velocity head causes change in the pressure head. The pressure difference thus created is measured by a differential U tube manometer. The discharge through the pipe is calculated by the formula, Qact = Cd Where, Qact Cd H C C (H) 1 / 2 ---------(1)

= actual discharge through the pipe; = coefficient of Venturimeter; defined as the ratio of Q act to Qtheo = difference of head of water column between inlet and throat. = constant of Venturimeter = a1*a2 (2g)1/2/ (a12-a22)1/2 Where, a1 = area at inlet, a2 = area at throat.

Description of Apparatus: The apparatus consist of a Venturimeter to be calibrated fitted in a pipeline. A control valve is fitted in the pipeline to regulate the discharge through Venturimeter. Pressure tapings are taken out from the inlet and the throat of the Venturimeter and are connected to pressure measuring device. A measuring tank is provided to measure the actual discharge. Specification of Venturimeter: Diameter of inlet section Diameter of through section Procedure: 1. Start the flow by operating the control valve and wait for some time so that the flow is stabilized. 2. Check the pressure measuring device for the air entrainment and record the readings h1 and h2 of piezometers. 3. Collect the known volume of water in measuring tank and note down the time for collection with the help of stopwatch. 4. Change the discharge with the help of control valve and repeat the above procedure. = = 50 mm 25 mm

Observation Table: Size of measuring tank = 35 Sr no 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 h1 (cm) h2 (cm) Venturi head (h) (cm) 45 cm Depth of water collected (cm) Time required (sec)

Sample Calculation :Area of inlet (a1) Area at throat (a2) For Observation No.-----= =

Constant of Venturimeter (C) = a1 a2 (2g) 1/2/(a12 - a22) 1/2 = = = C (H) 1/2 = = cm3/sec

= = =

cm3.

= = =

cm3/sec.

20 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Calculation Table: Obs No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Graphical determination of Cd :The discharge through pipe is calculated by eqn (1) Qact = Cd C (H)1/2 let; k = Cd x C, then the equation may be written as; Qact = k (H)n ---------- (2) By taking the log of both sides of eqn log Qact = n log H + log K---------- (3) Now here the eqn (3) is the equation of a straight line. By plotting the graph between log Qact Vs log (H), a straight line can be obtained. The slope of graph will give the value of index n while intercept can give the avarage valuf of K. Graph No 1:- Log Qact Vs log H Obs no 1 Log Qact (on Yaxis) Log H (on Xaxis) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Venturi head ( h ) (cm) Theoretical discharge (cm3/sec ) Actual discharge ( cm3/sec) Coefficient of discharge ( Cd )

Graph No 2 :Plot graph of differential head H on X-axis Vs actual discharge (Qact) on Y-axis for calibration of meter. Results and Discussions:The average value of Cd for Venturi meter (analytically) The law of Venturi meter = The average value of Cd for Venturi meter (graphically) = =

Precautions:1) There should be no air bubbles entrapped while taking reading of liquid level in piezometric tubes. 2) Check that the top level of measuring liquid is same in the two limbs of the differential manometer. Questions for Lab Quiz:Calibration of Venturi meter 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What is meant by calibration? What are different hydraulic coefficients and there definitions? What is usual value of cd for venturimeter? What is constant of meter and its value in your experiment? What is throat ratio and its usual range? Explain with significance and value of the same in your experiments. 6. What is acceleration and retardation of fluid particles? 7. What precautions to be taken while installing venturimeter? 8. What is calibration curve and what are its uses? 9. How are the results affected, if the venturimeter is not horizontal? 10. Would you make any correction to the piezometer readings if the meter were mounted with its axis vertical? 11. Why the divergent cone is longer than the convergent cone?

VENTURI METER

23 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Title: - Study of Minor losses due to pipe fittings (expansion, contraction, bend, elbow, gate valve, globe valve etc.). Objective: - To verify the losses of head due to bend, sudden enlargement, sudden contraction, analytically and experimentally. Theory: - In a fluid flow through pipe, because of resistance to flow, energy is lost in flow direction. These energy losses can be classified as, Major losses: - Loss of energy due to frictional resistance is called major losses. Minor losses:- Minor losses are those caused due to change in velocity. When velocity of flowing liquid changes either in magnitude or direction, large scale turbulence is generated due to formation of eddies in which a part of energy of flowing fluid is utilized, which is ultimately dissipated as heat and it is considered to be lost. Change in velocity is due to change in cross section, presence of bends and elbows, valves and fittings of all kinds. Although in long pipe these losses are of minor importance and can often be neglected. They may however outweigh the frictional losses in a short pipe. Loss of energy is proportional to the abruptness of the velocity change. As losses of energy vary as square of mean velocity, they are expressed in terms of velocity head of liquid.

Various minor losses are: 1. Loss of energy due to sudden enlargement: HL = (V1-V2 )2 2g 2. Loss of energy due to sudden contraction: HC = V22/2g {(1/ Cc)-1} 2

= k V22/ 2g velocity at contracted pipe. coefficient of contraction coefficient depending on ratio of diameters as given below

D2/D1 k

0.0 0.50

0.20 0.45

0.40 0.38

0.60 0.28

0.80 0.14

1.00 0.00

3. Loss of energy at the entrance to the pipe from a large vessel, HL = 0.50 V2 / 2g, (for sharp, square edged entrance)

24 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Where k depends on type of fittings, Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Name of pipe fittings Globe valve fully open Angle valve fully open Gate valve fully open Gate valve half open Gate valve quarter open Return bend 900 Elbow 450 Elbow k 10 5 0.19 5.60 24.0 2.2 0.9 0.42

Description of Apparatus: The apparatus consists of a pipeline that has a reducer changing from 50mm to 25 mm diameter, a 900 bend, a 900 elbow and an enlarger from 25 mm to 50 mm diameter. All these four types of fittings are provided with pressure tapings at upstream and downstream end of each fitting. These connections are attached to peizometers / U tube differential mercury manometer to measure the piezometric /pressure head difference. A measuring tank and stopwatch are provided to measure the discharge. Procedure:1. Connect pressure tappings to the manometer through the common change over box. Initially all the connections are in closed position. 2. Start the flow and regulate it by using the valve at upstream end. Initially keep the discharge low. 3. Collect the known volume of water in measuring tank and measure the time for collection by stopwatch. 4. For particular discharge passing through the system open sequentially pressure tapping connections going to the manometer and note down the readings of manometer one by one for all four fittings. 5. Increase the discharge by operating the valve and repeat steps 3 and 4. 6. Take total 5 sets of observations.

Observation Table: Diameter of Main Pipe (D) = Diameter of Small Pipe (d) = Pipe fitting /pipe Obs No 1 Sudden 2 Enlargement 3 4 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 Manometer reading Left limb Right limb Discharge measurement Volume (cm3) Time (sec)

Sudden Contraction

90 Bend

Calculation Table:Pipe/ pipe Obs. fitting No. Discharge Q (cm3/sec) Velocity of Manometer flow on reading Upstream and downstream (cm of Hg) V1 Sudden Enlargement 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 V2 Diff. of Expt. Anal. pressure head head head /diff loss loss pressure tapping

Sudden Contraction

900 Bend

1 2 3 4

Sample Calculation: For Observation No: (I) Sudden enlargement: Discharge (Q) = Volume/Time = = cm3/sec. D2 )

cm/sec.

Difference of pressure head, h = x[( sm/s1) 1] = = Theoretical head loss, hl = ( V1-V2 ) 2/ 2g = = cm. cm.

Velocity on d/s V2 = Q /( /4 x D2 )

27 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

= = cm/sec.

where k =

for d2 / d1

Results: The values of head loss for different pipe fittings are as follows: Experimentally 1) Sudden enlargement 2) Sudden contraction 3) 900 bend Discussions: Theoretically

Precautions: 1) Air should not be locked in connecting tubes of manometer. 2) Wait for at least 2-3 minute between two set of observations (i.e. after changing the discharge. 3) Do not operate valve while taking the reading.

30 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Calibration of V-notch.

Title: - Calibration of V-notch. Objective: - To determine the coefficient of discharge (Cd) of Triangular notch. Theory: - In hydraulic engineering, notches are commonly used to regulate flow in open channels. The relationship between water level upstream of the notch and the discharge over it is generally known, so that discharge at any time may be found by observing the upstream water level. Notches usually have sharp edges so that the water springs clear of the plate as it passes through notch. Following are the equations for discharge past sharp edged notches, Q=2/3 x (2g) 1/2 L h3/2 ------------Q=8/15 x (2g) 1/2 tan ( /2) h5/2 ------for the rectangular notch. for the triangular notch.

Where h is head of flowing water over the apex of the notch. The above equations are based upon the assumption listed as follows: A. The height of nappe at the plane of the notch opening is h. B. The velocity of flow is normal to the plane of the notch opening at all the points. C. The velocity of the approach channel is negligible. D. There is no contraction of the stream as it is passes through notch. In practice, however, none of these assumptions are satisfied. It is therefore, customary to rewrite the equation in the form: Q = Cd 2/3 x (2g)1/2 bh3/2 Q = Cd 8/15 x (2g)1/2 tan /2

5/2

Where, Cd is coefficient of discharge of the notch is defined as the rat io of actua l discharge (Qact) to theoretical discharge (Qth). Description of the Apparatus: The apparatus consists of rectangular tank in which water is fed through a regulating valve. This water is made to enter in lower container, so as to reduce the approach velocity. Water that flows over the notch is collected in collecting tank. The collecting tank has an outlet on the side of the tank and a piezometer tube on other side of the tank for measurement of the depth of water in collecting tank. For measurement head over the sill of notch, single column inclined manometer is attached. Procedure: 1. Internal plan dimensions of the collecting tank, breadth and angle of the notch are measured. 2. The supply valve is opened and water is allowed to rise only up to sill of the notch and supply valve is closed tightly. 3. The sill level of the notch (h1) is measured with inclined manometer that is attached to the side of notch tank.

31 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

4. The supply valve is opened slowly and the water is allowed to flow through notch. Reading in the inclined piezometer (h2) is noted. 5. The outlet valve of the collecting tank is tightly closed. The time (t) taken for the known rise in the collecting water is noted. 6. Above procedure is repeated for the gradually increasing the head of flow. Six different discharges for each notch should be sufficient. Observation Table: Internal plan dimensions of the tank, Length (L) = Breadth (B) = Angle of the triangular notch ( ) = 60 Obs. No Mano meter readings

45 cm 35 cm

Sample Calculations: For observat ion No:Internal plane area of the collect ing tank A = L = = Actual discharge, Qact = AH / t = =

cm2

2h5/2

Calculation Table:Obs. No Head over notch (h) (cm) For triangular notch1 2 3 4 5 6 Graphical determination of Cd:The actual discharge over the notch can be calculated by using fo llowing equat ions:Qact = 2/3 (2g)1/2 bh3/2 for the rectangular notch 1/2 5/2 Qact = 8/15 (2g) tan( /2) h for the triangular notch The above equation may be written in the form Q = k (h)n Log Q = log k + n log h If the experimental results are plotted on graph having log h as abscissa and log Q as ordinate, then provided that k and n are constant over the range of the results, they will lie on a straight line having slope n and intercept log k on the axis of log Q. From this, find the relation between Q and h. Compare this with discharge equation and calculate the value of Cd. Sample calculation: From plotted graph, (For triangular notch) Slope (n) = ---------------Intercept on log Q axis = ------------The relat ionship between log Q and log h is thus LogQ = ---------- + --------- logh So that the relat ionship between Q and h is Q = ---------- h5/2 Actual discharge(Qact) (cm3/sec) Theoretical Discharge (Qth) (cm3/sec) Coefficient of Discharge (Cd)

Comparing this with Q = Cd x 8/15 tan (/2) (2g)1/2 h5/2 Cd = Result: The coefficient of discharge (Cd) is found as: For triangular notch Cd (analyt ically) =-----------------Cd (graphically) =------------------

Precautions: 1. As the correct discharge measurements are very important, there should not be leakage at any of the regulat ing valves. 2. The apparatus should be leveled. 3. For measurement of the h, the mano meter reading should be taken accurately.

Questions for Lab Quiz: 1. How notch differs from venturimeter /orifice meter? 2. What is nappe? What are different types of nappe and factors on which it depends? 3. For measurement of water surface in notch model, inclined piezometer is installed, why? 4. Compare different types of notches on basis of C d, discharge, contraction etc. with each other. 5. What is velocity of approach? How it is taken into account? When it is neglected or how to reduce it to zero?

Title: - Study of flow net by Electrical Analogy Method Objective: - To study of flow net by Electrical Analogy Method. Theory: - If the Velocity potential and the stream function satisfy the well-known Laplace equation, then family of curves given by = constant represent the equipotential lines while the family of curves = constant represent the streamlines. The equipotential lines and streamlines are orthogonal to each other. Thus the streamlines and equipotential lines form a net of mutually perpendicular lines, which is called as a Flow Net. The plane ideal fluid flow pattern through a passage of a given geometry can be plotted in the form of flow by 1) Mathematical analysis. 2) Hydraulic models 3) Graphical methods 4) Analogue methods Description of Apparatus: - The complete apparatus can be divided into two major parts 1) Experimental Setup 2) Analogue field plotter The experimental setup consists of a transparent tank of 400 x 450 mm crosssection area and 75 mm depth. In this tank the model under study is to be installed. The model is to be designed as per the requirements out of copper and Bakelite plates. A sample model arrangement is given along with the equipment as shown in figure and three types of experimental models can be studied with the help of sample model. A probe mounted on the trolley which can traverse in two planes is fitted on the tray to locate equipotential lines X Y co-ordinates of the probe at each point can be located on the scale fitted on the cross sides. Procedure for installing the models: - To get general idea about how the models are to be installed one specimen case have been illustrated Flow through sudden expansion or sudden contraction 1. Arrange the copper and Bakelite plate strip as shown in the sketch. 2. Paste them to the bottom and at individual joints by applying wax manually. 3. See that arrangement becomes watertight and fill water inside the model. 4. Now, it we have to study the flow through sudden expansion fitting then apply +ve voltage through analogue field plotter to copper plate-II and apply either 0 or ve potential to the copper plate-I. A potential difference between these two plates will show some potential gradient through water. 5. Now go on plotting equipotential lines say 3-4 points for each potential in the model and note down there X-Y co-ordinates on the table. The intermediate potential values can be chosen at the initial stage also. As soon as all equipotential lines have been located, draw a scale drawing of the model on drawing paper and the equipotential points can be plotted on it. Draw smooth lines through equipotential points. 6. Now the base work is complete and we can construct flow net on this diagram. Flow lines are normally perpendicular to the equipotential lines

36 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

and two consecutive flow lines from approximate squares between them also. With this background smooth curve perpendicular to equipotential lines can be drawn which denote flow net. 7. To get experiment on flow through sudden contraction fitting other procedure remains same. Only copper plate I is given +ve potential and plate II is given ve potential and same process as explained above is repeated. Observation Table: Type of model under study : Sr. Potential points No to be located Points located 2 3 X Y X cm cm cm

1 X cm

Y cm

Y cm

4 X cm

Y cm

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

90%= 80% = 70% = 60% = 50% = 40% = 30% = 20% = 10% = Type of model under study :

1 X cm

Y cm

Points located 2 3 X Y X cm cm cm

Y cm

4 X cm

Y cm

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Verification of Friction Factor for Laminar and Turbulent flow through pipes.

Title: -To find Friction Factor for Laminar and Turbulent flow through pipes.. Objective: 1. To study the change in nature of flow by establishing the upper critical Reynolds number and lower critical Reynolds number for a given pipe. 2. To study the variation of friction factor f with Reynolds number Re Theory: - The concept of critical Reynolds number that distinguishes the regimes of laminar and turbulent flow is indeed useful in the study of various fluid flow phenomena. Applying this concept to flow of any fluid in circular pipes, one may predict that the flow is laminar, if Reynolds number is less than 2000 and turbulent if it is greater than 4000 The following relations give the variation of the friction factor f with Reynolds number for a flow through circular pipes, For laminar flow, f = 64/Re For turbulent flow, f = 0.316/(Re)1/ 4 Also the head loss during the flow is hf = f l V2/(2g d)

Description of Apparatus: - The apparatus consist of four horizontal pipes mounted on fixed platform .The manometer tapings are provided at a fixed length L in meters for measuring the loss of head hf occurring in this length. The head loss can be obtained directly from manometer reading for particular discharge. The control valve is provided to regulate the discharge. Procedure: 1. Set the experimental setup on flow table. Join the connections of inlet, outlet and manometer. 2. Start the flow. Control it by control valve. For this flow measure the head loss from manometer reading. 3. Collect the flow for some specific volume and note the time required for it with the help of stopwatch. 4. Operate the control valve in such a way that minimum 20 to 25 observations of different discharge values can be obtained. 5. Take two sets of such observations. One set for increasing flow and another set for decreasing flow. Observation Table 1. Diameter of pipe 2. Length for which head loss is to be determined 3. Dynamic Viscosity of Water = = = 6 mm 750 mm 0.01 poise.

For Increasing Flow Sr hf Volume of No cm water (cc ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 (2) For Decreasing Flow:Sr hf Volume of No cm water (cm ) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

1)

Time Sec.

Discharge

Velocity cm/sec

Re

Time sec

Discharge

Velocity cm/sec

Re

21 22 Sample Calculation:For observation No.-Discharge (Q) =Volume of collected water/time required = = Velocity (v) / cm3 /sec

Calculation Table: 1) For Increasing Flow: Sr. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 hf cm hf/L Velocity f Log f Re Log Re

21 22

Graph: 1) Plot graph of hf/L Vs V on log log paper 2) Plot graph of f Vs Re on log log paper Results: -

Discussions: -

Questions for Lab Quiz: 1. Define laminar flow, turbulent flow, laminar sub layer, upper critical point and lower critical point 2. Explain the variation of friction factor for a) laminar flow b) Turbulent flow 3. What is relative roughness? 4. What is gauge length? 5. What graphs are plotted in this experiment? 6. What is Moodys diagram? What is its use?

44 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Title: - Study of Heleshaws Apparatus. Objective: - To study flow around the bodies. Theory: - There are two types of flows in real fluids; laminar, turbulent or it can be in transition state. To visualize the flow around bodies it is necessary that the flow is laminar and the Reynolds number should be less than 2000. For water to flow in streamline i.e. laminar flow, the space between transparent sheet is kept very small and the water and colour dye is introduced in alternate flow pattern to differentiate from each other. As flow passes around a body of geometrical shape, flow patterns are developed due to the shape of the body and are different for different bodies. The information achieved from this experiment is useful for design of transition in flow passages. Description of Apparatus: - The apparatus consists of channel of small width formed by two transparent perpex plate ;a overhead tank having two compartment -one large for water and other small for dye; controlling valve etc. The compartment is having perforations at different levels which allow the flow in channel. The various objects of different shapes are also provided to study the flow. Procedure :1) Introduce little water flow through base valve till all the air is drawn out and its place is taken by water. 2) Close the outlet tap primarily and maintain a drop by drop flow through it. 3) Introduce a water in upper reservoir having perforations at bottom and a dye in upper reservoir having perforations at distance from top. 4) Vary the flow rate by controlling the valve. 5) Observe and trace the flow lines thus developed around the object. 6) Change the orientation and study the flow pattern around various objects.

45 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Object

Sample Calculation :Discharge ( Q ) = Volume collected /time = = Velocity (V) = = = Reynold No ( Re ) = V D/ = Results and Discussions :cm/sec Q /area cm3/sec

Questions for Lab Quiz :1)Define stream line and its path when flow is laminar. 2) Define stagnation point, separation point and their significance. 3) What is wake region and its significance in various bodies. 4) What are different types of bodies. 5) Plot stream line pattern in circular, triangular with apex up and down, rectangular cross section. 7) In Heleshaw Apparatus, top tank is having perforations in peculiar way, How and Why ?

HELESHAWS APPARATUS

47 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Measurement of Pressure

Title: Study of pressure measuring Devices. Objective: - To study the various pressure measuring devices like U tube manometer; differential manometer; micro manometer and mechanical gauges. Theory: Pressure is defined as the force exerted over the unit area. Measurement of pressure is essential at many places e.g. given fluid flowing through pipe, boiler etc. Depending upon the pressure and accuracy of measurement required various devices are used for pressure measurement. There are two types of pressure measuring devices 1) Manometers. 2) Mechanical pressure gauges. 1) Manometers: - Manometers are devices used to measure pressure at a point or pressure difference between two points in a system, in terms of head of liquid .To measure higher ranges of pressures; heavier liquids like mercury are used as manometric liquids. Lighter liquids like water, carbon tetrachloride etc are used as manometric liquids for lower pressure ranges. Types of manometers: - The common types of manometers are 1) Piezometer tube, 2) U Tube manometer, 3) Differential manometer, 4) Single column manometer, 5) Inclined tube manometer. 2) Mechanical pressure gauges: - Mechanical pressure gauges are devices used to measure pressure at point by balancing the fluid column by mechanical element. The commonly used mechanical pressure gauges are 1) Bourdon tube pressure gauges 2) Diaphragm pressure gauge 3) Bellows pressure gauges 4) Dead weight pressure gauge Description of Apparatus: - Experimental set up consists of board on which various pressure measuring devices like pressure gauge, vacuum gauge, U tube manometer, differential manometer, single tube manometer etc. are mounted.

Procedure: 1) Connect water supply pipe to inlet of the device board, 2) Open the gate valve (exhaust) completely, 3) See that mercury is filled in the manometers and bypass cocks are open, 4) Now, remove the air bubbles and observe manometer and gauges readings. 1) U-Tube manometer: - See that mercury is filled in the U- tube. Now open the inlet cock slowly, observing the mercury (sudden opening of the cock may causes mercury to be forced out of tube). By operating the cock provided at the T- connection, remove the air between water and mercury and note the rise of mercury level in the limb which is open to atmosphere. The difference in the mercury level in the two limbs is the pressure of water at the tapping.

50 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

2) Differential manometer: - Fill up sufficient mercury in the manometer. Follow the same procedure as for U-Tube manometer, for opening the cocks and observe the difference in the mercury levels. The two limbs of the manometer are connected at inlet and outlet of an orifice, so that the manometer directly shows the pressure drop across the orifice, in terms of mercury head. 3) Single Tube well manometer: - For measuring the pressure with higher accuracy, well manometers are used. For observations, fill up sufficient mercury in the well. Open the cock slowly and remove the air in the reservoir. As we go on closing the gate valve, pressure begins to rise. Measure the level of mercury initially and note down the rise of level for different gate valve openings 4) Inclined Tube Manometer. To take the observation, follow the same procedure for vertical tube well manometer. 5) Pressure Gauge: - When the pressure is above atmospheric, bourdon tube type pressure gauge is the simplest device of pressure measurement; because it gives direct reading of pressure. Pressure gauges are available in various ranges. For observation of pressure, open the manifold inlet cock (located on the back side) and slowly go on closing the gate valve. As the gate is being closed, pressure will go on rising, which will be indicated on the pressure gauge. Observe the pressure gauge reading while closing the valve. 6) Vacuum Gauge: - Vacuum gauges are used for measurement of pressures below atmospheric; i. e. negative pressure. Negative pressure is created at suction side of pump; the vacuum gauge used is bourdon tube type. Observation and Calculation Table:1) Piezometer: Observation N0. 1 2 3 4 5 Rise Of Level (m of water) Head in m of Hg Pressure intensity (p) N/ m2

51 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

3) Differential manometer: Observation No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 4) Single Tube Well manometer: Observation no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 5) Inclined Tube manometer: Observation no. 1 2 3 4 5 6 6) Pressure Gauge: Observation no. 1 2 3 4 5 Sample Calculation: For observation no. ---------1) Piezometer:52 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

Rise of level (h) = ------------- m of water Head in m of Hg = h x s1 / s2 = x 1.00 / 13.6 =----------- m of Hg Pressure Intensity (p) = x h = = N/m2 2) U Tube manometer:Deflection shown by manometer (y) = Head in m of water (h) = y x s2 / s1 = x 13.6 / 1.00 = --------- m of water. Pressure Intensity at a point (p) = x h = 9810 x = ------------ N/m2 3) Differential manometer Difference in mercury level in left limb and right limb (y) = Pressure Head in terms of water = y x ( s2 / s1 1 ) = x (13.6 / 1.00 1) = -------------- m of water. Pressure difference between two points = x h = = ------------ N/m2

4) Single Tube well manometer:Rise of manometric liquid above initial level (h) = ----------- m of Hg. Area ratio (a/A ) = (7.5 / 66 ) 2 = 0.013 where a - tube inside diameter and A - reservoir inside diameter. Pressure head in m of water (p/) = h x s = x 13.6 = m of water. Pressure at point = x h = 9810 x = N/m2 Result and Discussions:Questions for Lab Quiz:1) What is law of fluid statics? 2) How different pressure measuring devices are classified and state their working Principles. 3) What should be the characteristics of the manometric fluids? 4) Name the instrument with which atmospheric pressure is measured? 5) Name the instrument with which blood pressure is measured? 6) State the principle of micro manometer and when it is used? 7) What are different types of mechanical gauges? 8) Which factors are considered while selecting the pressure measuring device?

53 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

9) State the situations where the pressure is below atmospheric. 10) What are directions of graduations and units in Bourdon Pressure Gauge and vacuum gauge. 11) How the atmospheric pressure can be expressed in different units? 12) When inverted U tube manometer is used?

54 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

- Research paperЗагружено:Nilambar Bariha
- FRICTION LOSSES IN PIPESЗагружено:kelechi24
- To Measure The Head Loss (Hl) In A Pipe Of Uniform Diameter (D)Загружено:Syed Ali Hasnain Naqvi
- spargerЗагружено:Nishevitha Gangatharan
- 832708.pdfЗагружено:MechWell
- Diemnsionless No. in Fluid MechanicsЗагружено:Chem.Engg
- Predicting HT During Flow Boilng in Mini Channels & Micro ChannelsЗагружено:Vivek Shukla
- Younis 2006 Ocean-EngineeringЗагружено:Abynhassan
- Effect of Column Diameter and Bed Hight on Min Fluidization VelocityЗагружено:Matthew Anthony Koen
- Wind Tunnel TestЗагружено:Kusal Kanushka Suraweera
- Study of Turbulent Flow Downstream From AЗагружено:IAEME Publication
- Wall Effect on UtЗагружено:Willie Fabregas Romero
- Effects of Initial Conditions__ in Decaying Turbulence Generated by Passive GridsЗагружено:Orkun Temel
- Fluid mechanics lab manualЗагружено:iabub333
- Proteus EngineeringЗагружено:Fusea Nicusor Sebastian
- ThesisЗагружено:r_skifton
- ExperimentЗагружено:Nor Farah Alwani
- OCW Drilling Hydraulics LectureЗагружено:freelancer2earn
- WInd Tunnel Tests of Parabolic Trough Solar CollectorsЗагружено:chorch123
- AADE-03-NTCE-35-PowerЗагружено:Amalina Sulaiman
- Tennekes & Lumley - A First Course in TurbulenceЗагружено:Stuart
- Tankers-Damage Stability GuidelinesЗагружено:roy thomas
- Design Hydrostatics ReportЗагружено:Mahmud Hasan
- Klein Jfe 1981Загружено:kenano
- ptp exam 1.pdfЗагружено:Keshia Saradima
- Onset NumberЗагружено:samik4u
- Brakes,Metacentre,ProjectionsЗагружено:rakesh
- 2.1 new projectЗагружено:Prashanta Ghosh
- Arjelle Thesis RecoveredЗагружено:Dominic Villamante
- 10.1016@j.enggeo.2019.03.019.pdfЗагружено:Jacquelin

- SP6-Steel Hand BookЗагружено:Amit
- Valve AssemblyЗагружено:Abhimanyu Bhagat
- 66_DESIGN OFЗагружено:Dattatraya Parle
- Geometrical TolerencesЗагружено:Abhimanyu Bhagat
- [Automotive]SAE - FSAE Suspension and Frame DesignЗагружено:marshall, of course
- MDCG is ConventionsЗагружено:Abhimanyu Bhagat
- Chassis Design for Baja SAEЗагружено:Vaibhav Bansal
- Sun 9Загружено:Anand Patel
- HT manualЗагружено:Abhimanyu Bhagat
- Turbojet EnginesЗагружено:vasubabuboddu
- Exam RegulationsAug07Загружено:Arvind Yadav
- Linear and Rotational Displacement MeasurementЗагружено:Abhimanyu Bhagat

- Adam Phillips · Thwarted Closeness_ Diane Arbus · LRB 26 January 2006Загружено:CarlosEduardoRiccioppo
- Technical Textile FibersЗагружено:Dr Muhammad Mushtaq Mangat
- Defacde.txtЗагружено:Hendri Saputra Hasibuan
- Combics-CompleteScaleЗагружено:Hous Sam
- Resume Pauline Luong 2014Загружено:paulineluong
- ANALYSIS OF MATERIALS ON THE PRIMARY STRUCTURE OF CAP BELL HELICOPTER, UH-IH (HUEY II)Загружено:Gustavo Adolfo Alfonso Rodriguez
- Level 8 Passage 1Загружено:Juan Nieves Bonilla
- dose-responseЗагружено:Silvio Favero
- RIP Kit ManualЗагружено:pires17
- Pregatire InterviuЗагружено:daniel
- FINAL HRM(2)Загружено:Pallavi Arora
- Lec18Загружено:spitzersglare
- Ddx3216 Eng Rev bЗагружено:Brendan Shurilla
- CubeЗагружено:Johnson Liu
- UfoneЗагружено:MahaAqeel
- 121784176-Pa-System1.pdfЗагружено:Toàn Vũ Đình
- Sony Svf15 Quanta Hkc Da0hk9mb6d0 r1a (1)Загружено:Luis Pedro Urroz Condeza
- Instruction Book FXe1-5 EnЗагружено:visaguy
- Manual Transmission (MUA Models).pdfЗагружено:Hartok
- blinds tech sheetЗагружено:api-257677429
- ASTM D 1452-80 Standard Parctice for Soil Investigation and Sampling by Auger BoringsЗагружено:Pablo Antonio Valcárcel Vargas
- Annexure 7 _ Cost EstimatesЗагружено:abhishek5810
- MEXICO EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM; CURRICULUM AND INSTRUCTIONЗагружено:Raymark D. Llagas
- Structural Inspection Report HMSЗагружено:jaime huertas
- RCC OHSR TankЗагружено:saxravi
- Dynamic Chainless BicycleЗагружено:Venkata Ramudu
- Flexibility of Human LanguageЗагружено:Rob Roy
- The Young Language LearnerЗагружено:harisiik
- The Chronicle of Muslim Nation- Retrospect and Looking into Future-Ambassador Syed A.Ahsani-Editor- in- Chief-210 Parkmead CT,Arlington,TX 76014 U.S.A.Загружено:Syed Ahsani
- (1)Cable Size Design (10.6.13)Загружено:Tigrillo