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INPLANT 4.

0 User Guide

INPLANT 4.0 Users Guide Copyright Notice

Use of the INPLANT program, and its component parts and subsystems, is governed by the terms and conditions of a separate written agreement between your employer and Invensys Systems, Inc., its subsidiaries or affiliates. Copyright 2006 Invensys Systems, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, broadcasting, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from Invensys Systems, Inc. INPLANT, NETOPT, Invensys, SimSci-Esscor, and The Power of Simulation3 are trademarks of Invensys plc, its subsidiaries, and affiliates. TACITE is a trademark of Institut Francais du Petrole (IFP). Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows 2003, and MS-DOS are trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Compaq Visual Fortran is a trademark of Compaq Computer Corporation. Adobe, Acrobat, Exchange, and Reader are registered marks and/or trademarks of Adobe Systems, Inc. All other products noted herein are trademarks of their respective companies. U.S. GOVERNMENT RESTRICTED RIGHTS LEGEND The Software and accompanying written materials are provided with restricted rights. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subparagraph (c) (1) (ii) of the Rights in Technical Data And Computer Software clause at DFARS 252.2277013 or in subparagraphs (c) (1) and (2) of the Commercial Computer Software-Restricted Rights clause at 48 C.F.R. 52.227-19, as applicable. The Contractor/Manufacturer is: Invensys Systems, Inc. (Invensys SimSci-Esscor) 26561 Rancho Parkway South, Suite 100, Lake Forest, CA 92630, USA. Printed in the United States of America, November 2006

Trademarks

Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Introduction About This Manual. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 About INPLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 About SimSci-Esscor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Where to Find INPLANT Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Online Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Online Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 Where to Find Additional Help . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Technical Support. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 Chapter 2 Using the INPLANT GUI Graphical User Interface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Menu Bar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Toolbar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 Use of Color . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-12 Chapter 3 Defining an INPLANT Problem Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Input Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 Defining Fluid Properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Compositional Fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Non-Compositional Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Pipe Global Defaults. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Pressure Drop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-13 Calculation Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-14
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Chapter 4 Building the INPLANT Flowsheet Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Drawing a Flowsheet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Connecting the Nodes With Links . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Entering Node Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3 Mandatory Node Input Data for Network Boundary Problems . . . . . 4-4 Mandatory Node Input data for Flare Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 INPLANT Flare Problem Calculations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 INPLANT Flare Problem Depressuring Vessel Calculations. . . . . . . 4-7 Entering Mandatory Compositional Data for Source Nodes . . . . . . . 4-10 Specifying Fluid Composition Directly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-10 Specifying Fluid Composition via Reference to Another Source. . . . 4-11 Specifying Fluid Composition Via Distillation Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-12 Entering mandatory non-compositional data for source nodes. . . . . . 4-13 Entering Link Input Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-13 Adding devices to links. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-15 Deleting/Pasting devices from links: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16 Copying Devices Within Links: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-16 Link Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-17 Pipe Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-20 Equipment Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-21 Work Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-22 Heat Transfer Devices. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-23 Flowrate Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-24 Control Devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-25 General DPDT Device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 Pipe Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 Coupling Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-26 Entrance/Exit Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28 Control Fittings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-28 Chapter 5 Optional INPLANT Calculations Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Setting Up Case Studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Flare Network Sizing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 Line Sizing Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Relief Valve Sizing Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5 Flow Device Schedule Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Relief Valve Databases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8
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User-defined Phase Splitting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-9 Chapter 6 Running an INPLANT Problem Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Running the Calculations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Viewing INPLANT Output and Results. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2 Generating Excel Reports. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3 Printing Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3

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Chapter 1 Introduction
About This Manual
The INPLANT Graphical User Interface (GUI) manual explains how to use version 4.0 of INPLANT from SimSci-Esscor on computer using Microsoft Windows Operating Systems. This manual begins with an overview of the hardware and software requirements for installing the program and progresses through how to quickly and easily enter data for any piping system or flare relief system to be modeled. It concludes with a sample session where a moderately complex example problem is entered and executed. The purpose of this manual is to familiarize all users, novice to advanced, with how to set up and run a problem using the GUI windows environment. For more information on multiphase fluid flow theory and the solution algorithms used in INPLANT, see the INPLANT Input Manual. The User guide is divided into the following chapters:
Table 1-1: Quick Reference for INPLANT Users See Which Chapter 1, Introduction Chapter 2, Using the INPLANT GUI Chapter 3, Defining an INPLANT Problem Chapter 4, Building the INPLANT Flowsheet Introduces the manual, the program, and SimSciEsscor. Describes the features available in the menu bar and tool bar. Describes the minimum data requirements needed to properly define a problem and execute an INPLANT simulation. Describes how to position the nodes and connect them with links to form a network. This chapter also describes the required data for the sources and sinks, and describes the available link devices: pipes, equipment devices, and pipe fittings.

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See Chapter 5, Optional INPLANT Calculations Chapter 6, Running an INPLANT Problem

Which Describes the optional calculations available with INPLANT: case study, line sizing, and relief valve sizing Provides the information necessary to execute the simulation after all of the required information has been supplied by the user.

About INPLANT
The INPLANT program is a steady-state, fluid flow simulator for designing, rating, and analyzing plant piping systems. Engineers can quickly rate and analyze the safety of plant piping systems via the INPLANT Graphic User Interface for Microsoft Windows Operating Systems. INPLANT also enables the design of new piping systems or the revamp of a wide variety of existing systems. Applications range from simple, single pipe sizing and rating calculations to large, multiphase fluid piping networks with complex, nested-loop topology. INPLANT easily solves relief system problems involving networks with single or multiphase fluids at high velocities or in critical flow.

About SimSci-Esscor
For nearly 40 years, SimSci-Esscor has been a leader in the development and deployment of process simulation software, services, and complete solutions for oil and gas production, hydrocarbon and specialty chemical processing and refining, and fossil and nuclear power. Benefit from products that minimize capital requirements, optimize facility performance, maximize ROI, and produce assets for:
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Plant engineering design and simulation Integrated process engineering (FEED) Pipeline production analysis Asset model management Operational analysis Optimization Process control Dynamic simulation
Introduction

Operator training

Design/Operate/Optimize a safe and profitable plant subject to ever more stringent market and regulatory constraints. SimSci-Esscor software solutions are indispensable tools in solving these three increasingly complex challenges simultaneously. SimSci-Esscor is a business unit of Invensys Process Systems, owned by Invensys, plc.

Where to Find INPLANT Documentation


Online Documentation
Online documentation is provided in the form of .PDF files and .HLP files. The .PDF files are most conveniently viewed using Adobe Acrobat Reader or Acrobat Exchange. The .HLP files are viewed using the standard Windows Help system or WinHelp. You can install Adobe Acrobat Reader from the INPLANT CD-ROM. The online documentation is installed to the INPLANT40\MANUALS directory during the INPLANT installation process and no longer requires the installation CD to be present in order to be viewed.

Online Help
INPLANT comes with online Help, a comprehensive online reference tool that accesses information quickly. In Help, commands, features, and data fields are explained in easy steps. Answers are available instantly, online, while you work. All dialog boxes in INPLANT GUI have help buttons and clicking on the Help button will take you to the help content relevant for that feature. You can also access the electronic Contents for Help by selecting Help/Contents from the menu bar. A Road Map to Online Help will be displayed where you can select the help document you wish to view. From the desired online help document you can do a search for the desired topic. If you choose a .HLP file, you can search by selecting Help/Search for from the menu bar. If you choose a .PDF formatted document, you can use all the available Acrobat Reader search features to find the topic of interest. Please refer to Acrobat Reader online help for information concerning Acrobat Reader features.

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Where to Find Additional Help


If you want to... Learn how to install and simulate a simple flowsheet using INPLANT Obtain detailed information on the capabilities and use of INPLANT Obtain basic information on INPLANT keywords Obtain basic information on INPLANT calculation methods Obtain more detailed information on INPLANT calculation methods Obtain detailed information of component and thermodynamic properties See simulation examples See... This document INPLANT Users Guide INPLANT Keyword Manual Online Help INPLANT Keyword Manual SIMSCI Component and Thermodynamic Data Input Manual INPLANT Application Briefs Manual

Technical Support
SimSci-Esscor and its agents around the world provide technical support and service for PES products. If you have any questions regarding the use of the program or the interpretation of output produced by the program, contact your local SimSci-Esscor representative for advice or consultation. When calling one of the Technical Support Centers, be prepared to describe your problem or the type of assistance required. Also, to expedite your call, complete the following steps before calling Technical Support: Have the installation CD and all the provided documentation available. Determine the type of computer you are using. Determine the amount of free disk space available on the disk on which the product is installed. Note the exact actions you were takinwhen the problem occurred, as well as the steps you took leading up to that point. Note the exact error messages that appear on your screen, as well as any other symptoms.

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Introduction

Both new and experienced users will benefit significantly from attending one of SimSci-Esscors regularly scheduled training courses on PES products. If you would like to obtain a list of courses available, or if you have any questions relating to the use of a PES product, its methods, data, or technology, please call your nearest SimSci-Esscor support office. To contact your nearest SimSci-Esscor support office, select and click Technical Support...from the Help menu. A Help desk page is displayed. Click the Support Centres link to view the contact details of your nearest support centre. The SimSci-Esscor support centres are also hosted on our website. Please visit the following link:
http://www.simsci-esscor.com/us/eng/support/supportlocations/default.htm

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Chapter 2 Using the INPLANT GUI


Graphical User Interface
The INPLANT program is divided into two distinct modules, the Graphical User Interface (GUI) and the Calculation Module as shown in Figure 2-1. The GUI provides the user a fast and easy-touse method of graphically entering and displaying the system being modeled. The INPLANT GUI creates a keyword file, which is passed to the Calculation Module. The Calculation Module runs independently of the GUI, solving the network or flare simulation and creating report and plot files. The report and plot files are then transferred back to the GUI environment.
Figure 2-1: INPLANT Program Organization

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Older versions of INPLANT required the user to create and edit an ASCII keyword file, possibly containing hundreds of four-letter abbreviations, to describe the problem. This was not easy even for an experienced user, especially when modeling a complicated network without a graphical representation of the flowsheet. There are two major advantages to creating new problems from the INPLANT GUI instead of editing a keyword file: First, the GUI provides a visual representation of the flowsheet structure and allows the user to easily edit the input data and view the output results. Second, the GUI provides extensive error checks to prevent novice and part-time users from entering mistakes into the input file.

Note: If you have existing INPLANT keyword files created outside of the GUI environment, they can be imported into the GUI database using the File/Import Keyword File...menu option.

The GUI stores the INPLANT problems by problem and project name in separate DBASE IV database files for optimum data storage. The number of database files does not change; the same number of database files exist whether the directory contains one problem or hundreds of problems.
Note: No one database file contains an entire problem; every problem is divided between all of the database files. Each database file contains a piece of every problem. When creating a new project, it is a good idea to put the new database in a separate directory.

When running INPLANT, an input file (*.INP) and output file (*.OUT) are created, as well as several plot files (*.GR1 - *.GR5). The input file (*.INP) contains all the required data for the problem, but does not contain the graphical representation of the flowsheet diagram. If the input file is imported into the GUI database, the flowsheet diagram may have to be rearranged to be more aesthetically pleasing. All of the INPLANT functionality can be accessed through the GUI menu bar. This includes file operations, defining the problem definition and fluid properties, setting default values, choosing calculation options, and accessing the on-line help system. The toolbar buttons duplicate the most commonly used menu bar options, for quicker and easier access.
2-2 Using the INPLANT GUI

The flowsheet diagram is constructed by pulling node icons from the toolbar and placing them within the workspace. Links are created by dragging the mouse between node icons. Input data is entered by double clicking on a node or a link. If any node or link data is missing or incomplete, this information is displayed visually by that node or link turning red. When the entire flowsheet is blue, the problem is ready to run.

Menu Bar
The Menu Bar is divided into six menu lists as shown in Figure 2-2. Each menu list contains a group of related functions and commands. Any menu option that is followed by an ellipsis (...) brings up a dialog box for more information. Any menu option without an ellipsis simply performs the desired command immediately. To open the menu list: Click the left mouse key on the menu name. Then click on the desired menu option.

To open the menu list from the keyboard: Hold down the Alt key and press the underlined letter corresponding to the desired menu list. Continue holding the Alt key down and press the underlined letter corresponding to the desired menu option.

Figure 2-2: INPLANT Menu Bar

The File menu, shown in Figure 2-3, contains items for accessing the GUI database as well as the keyword input file. See Table 2-1 for a detailed description of each item. This menu allows the user to import a keyword input file into the GUI database, edit the problem, and then export the GUI problem as a keyword input file. This keyword input file can then be run by the INPLANT calculation module, which produces a keyword output file. Portions of the keyword output file can be printed, saved to the clipboard, or the converged results can be transferred into the initial guesses of the GUI problem. Finally, the user can exit from the INPLANT GUI when done.

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Figure 2-3: File Menu List

Table 2-1: File Menu Items File Option Keyboard Shortcut New <Alt+F><N>

Description
After closing the current problem, the user will be prompted for the new project and problem name. The user will be automatically led through the input dialogs required for defining a new problem. After closing the current problem, the user will be prompted for the next project and problem name to open. Converts an existing INPLANT keyword input file into the GUI database format. Because the keyword file does not contain any graphical information, the flowsheet diagram may need to be rearranged. Closes the current problem. If the problem has been modified, the user will be prompted to save the problem. Saves the current problem. Saves the current problem under a different project and problem name. The new problem becomes the current problem. Runs the INPLANT problem and converts the keyword output data to the GUI. The keyword input file will be automatically created if it does not exist.

Open

<Alt+F><O>

Import Keyword File

<Alt+F><I>

Close

<Alt+F><C>

Save Save As

<Alt+F><S> <Alt+F><A>

Run

<Alt+F><R>

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Using the INPLANT GUI

File Option Local Settings View Output File View Keyword File Print

Keyboard Shortcut <Alt+F><L>

Description
Allows local settings for all the simulations opened by INPLANT on this computer. Allows viewing of the output file. Allows viewing of the keyword input file. Sends the keyword out file, flowsheet to the printer. Also sends the selected portions of the keyword output file and the flowsheet either to the printer or to the clipboard. Closes the current problem and closes the INPLANT GUI window. If the current problem has been modified, the user will be prompted to save the problem.

<Alt+F><V> <Alt+F><K> <Alt+F><P>

Exit

<Alt+F><X>

The Edit menu, shown in Figure 2-4, contains items for manipulating the flowsheet diagram. See Table 2-2 for a detailed description of each item. For a current problem, this menu allows pieces of the flowsheet (units and links) to be created, copied, and edited. The user can also annotate the flowsheet by adding lines, rectangles, ovals, and text.
Figure 2-4: Edit Menu List

Table 2-2: Edit Menu Items Edit Option Keyboard Shortcut Copy Unit <Alt+E><N>

Description
Creates a copy of the selected node with a new name. The coordinates for the new unit must be specified, where (1000,1000) represents the upper-right corner of the flowsheet. Creates a copy of the selected link, including devices, with a new name. The FROM and TO nodes must be specified. Edits the input data for the selected unit using the keyboard. Can also create a new node or delete an existing one.

Copy Link

<Alt+E><L>

Edit Unit

<Alt+E><E>

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Edit Option Edit Link

Keyboard Shortcut <Alt+E><K>

Description
Edits the device data for the selected link using the keyboard. Can also create a new link or delete an existing one. Selects the desired node and allows it to be moved using the arrow buttons on the keyboard. Allows the user to annotate the flowsheet diagram. Elements include lines, ovals, rectangles, and text.

Move Node

<Alt+E><M>

Draw

<Alt+E><D>

The View Output menu, shown in Figure 2-5, contains options to display the results of the converged solution on the flowsheet. From the View Output menu, the user can also generate and view the results of the simulation in an excel spreadsheet.
Figure 2-5: View Output Menu List

Table 2-3: View Output Menu Items View Option Keyboard Shortcut View PFD Output Show PFD Options... Generate Excel Report... View Excel Report <Alt+V><V>

Description
Toggles between ON and OFF. When turned ON, the converged solution results of the units and links are displayed. Shows the display options available to view on the PFD. Allows the user to select and generate the reports required in an excel output. Allows viewing of the excel report.

<Alt+V><S> <Alt+V><G> <Alt+V><E>

The General menu, shown in Figure 2-6, contains items for describing the problem, establishing the type of problem, how the input data is to be interpreted, how the output data will be presented, the type of fluid being modeled, and the specific equations and methods being used. See Table 2-4for a detailed description of each item. The user can enter their name, the date, and a description of the problem so that they can refer to the problem later and understand what each problem was designed to calculate. The input dimensions must be consistent throughout the

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Using the INPLANT GUI

problem, and should be checked before each new problem. The amount of output detail and types of output plots can be set, along with the units used by the output report. Besides choosing the calculation method, the fluid properties must be completely specified. Different thermodynamic and transport equations are available for compositional fluids, while noncompositional fluids require only the fluid density. The user can also determine how the pipes are broken into calculation segments, which solution algorithm to use, and what convergence criterion to satisfy. To simplify the creation of large problems, global defaults can be established for pipes so that all new pipes start with common piping system parameters such as inner diameter or detailed heat transfer. Warning: If you go back and change the input dimensions at a later date, only the global default values are converted to the new units. The node and device data are NOT converted to the new units.
Figure 2-6: General Menu List

Table 2-4: General Menu Items General Option Keyboard Shortcut Simulation Description Simulation Definition... Input Units of Measurement PVT Data... <Alt+G><S>

Description
Allows the user to enter data descriptive of the problem: the date, the user, the site, and a brief description of the problem. (Required) Allows the user to define the simulation type and fluid type used in the problem. (Required) Allows the user to define the base units of measure to be used throughout the problem. (Required) Allows the user to define the fluid density and phase behavior used in the problem. (Required for noncompositional fluids)

<Alt+G><D>

<Alt+G><I>

<Alt+G><P>

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General Option Component Library...

Keyboard Shortcut <Alt+G><C>

Description
Allows the user to select the pure library components and define the petroleum pseudo-components used in the problem. (Required for compositional fluids) Allows the user to control the amount of detail reported in the keyword output file. (Optional) Allows the user to define the base units of measure to be used on the output report. If not given, the Input Dimensions will be used. (Optional) Allows the user to select the calculation options and network methods used in the problem. (Optional) Allows the user to set global defaults which are used on all devices in the entire problem. (Optional)

Print Options...

<Alt+G><R>

Output Units of Measurement Calculation Methods... Global Defaults...

<Alt+G><O>

<Alt+G><M>

<Alt+G><G>

The Special Features menu, shown in Figure 2-7, contains items for optional calculation methods, such as running several problems together as a case study or sizing the line diameters and/or relief valves. See Table 2-5 for a detailed description of each item. The user can also modify the relief valve database and the pipe schedule database. For steam junctions, the preferential splitting at a tee intersection can be defined.
Figure 2-7: Special Features Menu List

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Using the INPLANT GUI

Table 2-5: Special Features Menu Items Options Option Keyboard Shortcut Case Study <Alt+S><C>

Description
Runs the problem multiple times, changing some parameter values in between runs. This saves computation time by using the previously converged solution for the next run. Defines a phase split table for preferential splitting at steam junctions. Read or Write database files of compressor and pump. Add, Edit, and supply compressor performance curves to the simulation. Add, Edit, and supply pump performance curves to the simulation. Add, Edit, and supply DPDT curves to the simulation. Selects the smallest relief valves which satisfy the flowrate required at each flare source. Sizes the diameter of one, some, or all sections of pipe to meet additional boundary conditions. For Single link problems, the source flowrate and the pressure at both source and sink must be specified. For Flare problems, the back pressure at each flare source is required. This option is not available for Network problems, because multiple solutions may exist.

User Defined Splitting User Database Settings... Compressor Performance Curves... Pump Performance Curves... DPDT Curves... Flare Network Sizing...

<Alt+S><T>

<Alt+S><U> <Alt+S><M>

<Alt+S><P>

<Alt+S><D> <Alt+S><F>

Valve Database

<Alt+S><V>

Defines a set of relief valves to choose from when sizing relief valves. Defines a set of pipe schedules to choose from when sizing pipes.

Flow Device Schedule Database...

<Alt+S><W>

The Help menu, shown in Figure 2-8, contains items for accessing the on-line hypertext help system. See Table 2-6 for a detailed description of each item. The About INPLANT menu option shows which version of the INPLANT GUI you are running. You should note which version you have before calling for Technical Support.

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Figure 2-8: Help Menu List

Table 2-6: Help Menu Items Help Option Keyboard Shortcut Contents Search for <Alt+H><C> <Alt+H><S>

Description
Accesses the table of contents for the on-line help. Searches the chapter titles and subheadings of the on-line help for a specific phrase. Lists the phone numbers to call for technical support if you have trouble. Shows the version number for the INPLANT GUI you are using.

Technical Support About INPLANT

<Alt+H><T> <Alt+H><A>

Toolbar
The toolbar contains command buttons which duplicate the most commonly used features from the menu bar. As shown in Figure 2-9, the toolbar is divided into four groups of command buttons: File Manipulation buttons Unit Operation and Optimization buttons Component Library, Property and Calculation Options buttons Zoom, Refresh and Find buttons.

See Table 2-7 for a detailed description of each button. While the mouse cursor is over each toolbar button, a brief description appears in the message bar below.
Figure 2-9: INPLANT Toolbar

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Using the INPLANT GUI

Table 2-7: INPLANT Toolbar buttons Toolbar Button Description


Creates a new problem. This is the same as the File menu option New. Opens an existing problem. This is the same as the File menu option Open. Imports a Keyword Input file. Saves the current problem. This is the same as the File menu option Save. Run the problem. While the program is running, the icon will run in place. This is the same as the File menu option Run. Generates an excel report of the results. This is the same as the View Output menu option Generate Excel Reports. Print the selected output summary reports or send them to the clipboard. This is the same as the File menu option Print.

or

Adds a source node to the flowsheet diagram. After clicking on the button, simply click again in the flowsheet where you want the source. The icon changes to a flare source for flare problems. Adds a sink node to the flowsheet diagram. After clicking on the button, simply click again in the flowsheet where you want the sink. The icon changes to a flare sink for flare problems. If the icon color is dark yellow, then no more sinks are allowed. Adds a junction node to the flowsheet diagram. After clicking on the button, simply click again in the flowsheet where you want the junction. If the icon color is dark yellow, then no more junctions are allowed. Adds a manifold unit to the flowsheet diagram. The unit helps in creating a stable network model. Adds a calculator to the flowsheet diagram. The calculator is used to perform calculations on the information from the flowsheet and transfer the results to other unit operation on the flowsheet. Adds a hydrate unit to the flowsheet. The Hydrates unit predicts the pressure and temperature regime in which the fluid at a node (source, sink, or junction) is vulnerable to hydrate formation. Displays the input units of measurement window to define units at a global level. Displays the component library window to specify component data for compositional fluids. Displays the fluid property data window to specify the thermodynamic or PVT data. Displays the network calculation methods window to enter the network calculation data. Displays the Pipe Global Defaults window to enter the global defaults for the pipe.

or

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Toolbar Button

Description
Zoom in. Select an area on the flowsheet to be zoomed, then the flowsheet will be magnified to fill the screen. Zoom out. Enables you to zoom out of the flowsheet. Zoom 100% flowsheet. Enables you to display the entire simulation in the main window. Enables you to refresh the flowsheet. Enables you to find, view/edit a device or an object in a flowsheet.

Use of Color
Color is used on the flowsheet diagram to indicate the status of the input data for each node and link, as listed in Table 2-8. If all nodes and links are blue, then the problem is fully defined. Any red node or link is missing data and will prevent the problem from running. The currently selected node or link is green.
Table 2-8: Use of Color in INPLANT Application Windows Color Meaning BLUE RED
This indicates that all required data has been supplied for the node or link and the program will be able to execute the simulation. This indicates that there is required data still remaining to be completed for the node or link before the program will be able to execute the simulation. This indicates the currently selected node or link on the main screen. Any commands (such as delete or copy) will be performed upon all of the selected nodes or links. This indicates that the node or link is disabled and will not be included when executing the simulation.

GREEN

GRAY

Dialog boxes use a combination of black and gray text to inform the user which options are available and which are not, as listed in Table 2-9. All black items are immediately available. If an edit field or command button is gray, then it is not available. With groups of radio buttons, the fields associated with the non-selected radio buttons are usually unavailable, and are grayed out. To activate some items, it may be necessary to change a setting on another dialog box.

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Using the INPLANT GUI

Table 2-9: Use of Color in Dialog Boxes Color Meaning BLACK GRAY
A black item is available to the user for selection. A gray item is currently unavailable to the user. Either the current problem definition does not allow that option, or another action is required. For example, a paste button may not be active until something is cut and transferred into the paste buffer.

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Chapter 3 Defining an INPLANT Problem


Overview
The INPLANT Graphical User Interface (GUI) is designed to minimize the time required to create a problem, run it, and view the output. By drawing a flowsheet diagram on the screen, the engineer can easily define and analyze a complex problem. Input data is entered and output data is viewed simply by double-clicking on a node icon or a link line. INPLANT input preparation proceeds in the following fashion.

Input Preparation
Defining an INPLANT problem 1. Define problem type. 2. Define input dimensions. 3. Define fluid properties. 4. Draw flowsheet. 5. Enter node and link data. For construction of new problems, the first three steps of this process will automatically be accessed by the program. Once the problem definition is complete, the flowsheet diagram can be completed in any order. The flowsheet can be completely drawn before entering data, or data can be entered as nodes and links are added to the flowsheet. Upon entering the program, you must first choose between opening an existing problem or creating a new one. INPLANT simulations files are stored in the standard Windows directory and file structure.
INPLANT 4.0 User Guide 3-1

To open an existing file, select File > Open or click on the Open Existing Simulation toolbar button. (The names and function of each tool bar button is displayed in a tooltip when you hover over button.) This accesses a standard Windows Open File dialog (Figure 3-1).
Figure 3-1: Open Existing Problem

Creating a new INPLANT simulation 1. Select New... from the File menu or click on the New File toolbar button. The New File dialog box, shown in Figure 3-2. is displayed. 2. Choose a directory of your choice to save the problem. 3. Enter a new Name. 4. Click the Open button.

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Defining an INPLANT Problem

Figure 3-2: New File.

Updated graphic goes here

After the simulation names has been properly defined, it is necessary to define the simulation type and the fluid type. The Simulation Setup Wizard GUI will automatically prompt you to select the simulation type, fluid type, phase designation for compositional fluids, and default units of measurement. The available types of INPLANT problems are listed in Table 3-1. Defining the INPLANT simulation type and fluid type 1. A Simulation Setup Wizard is automatically prompted after entering a file name in the New File dialog box, shown in Figure 3-2. Click Next. 2. Select a Simulation Type from the available options. If the problem type is Flare, then a Flare Option must also be selected. Click Next. 3. Select a Fluid Type from the drop-down list box. If the fluid type is Compositional, then the Phase Designation must also be selected. Click Next.

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Table 3-1: INPLANT Problem Types Problem Type Network Flare

Description

A problem with multiple sources, sinks, and/or junctions. The link connections may form loops. A gathering system with multiple sources and only one sink. No loops are allowed. Three types of flare calculations can be performed: depressuring vessel, flare gathering, and both combined. Depressuring calculations determine the maximum vent rate of a vessel in case of a fire. Flare calculations determine the ability of the flare piping system to handle the specified flowrates. Creates a flash table to interpolate fluid properties. The filename *.PVT may be copied to other problems to speed up the calculations.

PVTGEN

Four fluid types are available with INPLANT: compositional, single-phase gas, single-phase liquid, and steam. Compositional fluids may be further defined as single-phase gas or liquid, or as a multiphase fluid. Compositional fluids use rigorous thermodynamics to calculate the phase behavior and physical properties. If a compositional fluid is single-phase gas or liquid, the flash calculations for phase behavior are unnecessary. Single-phase gas and liquid fluids use empirical correlations based on the fluid density to estimate the physical properties. Steam fluids use extensive steam tables to determine the phase behavior and physical properties. Defining the input dimensional units for an INPLANT problem INPLANT requires the user to define a set of input dimensional units, which are used throughout the program. If you have a set of units of measurement that you use frequently, which is not represented by one of the default systems, you can save your own set. Warning: If the input dimensions are changed after data has been entered, the node and link data are not converted to the new input dimensions. 1. After selecting a fluid type, click Next. 2. Select a System of dimensional units from the available options. The choices are: Petroleum, English, Metric, SI. Click Next. 3. Confirm your selections. Click Finish to exit the Simulation Setup Wizard.

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Defining an INPLANT Problem

By default, the output report uses the same dimensional units as defined on the Input Dimensions menu. The output dimensions may be set to different units than the input dimensions, if desired. The Output Dimensions dialog box functions the same as the Input Dimensions dialog box, except for a radio button between Add and Replace. By default, the new output units will be used in the output report, replacing the original units. If desired, a second report can be added, using the new output units.

Defining Fluid Properties


The next step in defining a problem involves defining the fluid properties. For compositional problems, this means defining the components to be used and the thermodynamic methods used to calculate the physical properties. For non-compositional problems, this means setting the density, from which an empirical correlation will estimate the physical properties of the fluid. When creating a new problem, the GUI will automatically prompt the user by opening the appropriate dialog box. If the new problem is compositional, the GUI will open the Component Data dialog box. If the new problem is non-compositional, the GUI will open the Fluid Property Data dialog box to add the first property set. For compositional problems, the Thermodynamic Data options may also be changed.

Compositional Fluid
Follow the steps below on the Component Data dialog box, shown in Figure 3-3, to select the components. More than 1750 pure library components are available from SimSci's extensive thermodynamics database. Petroleum pseudo-components may also be defined for crude oil systems where the hydrocarbon fluid spans a wide range of molecular weights. Several petroleum methods are available, each of which uses a different empirical correlation to estimate the physical properties of the petroleum pseudocomponents. Choosing the components for a compositional INPLANT problem 1. Add all of the desired Library Components by clicking on the Add (Library Components) button. 2. Add all of the desired Petroleum Pseudo-Components by clicking on the Add (Petroleum Fractions) button.
INPLANT 4.0 User Guide 3-5

3. Click OK.
Figure 3-3: Component Data

Specific pure component properties such as critical pressure, critical temperature, density, and molecular weight, may be overridden by selecting the component and clicking the Edit button or by double-clicking the component. If assay data are being used to calculate petroleum pseudo-component parameters, then the temperature range for each pseudo-component can be specified by selecting the TBP Cuts (Temperature Boiling Point) button. The component list may be rearranged by using the Cut and Paste buttons and obscure components may be given an easier-toremember name using the Edit Alias button. Once a component list has been constructed, the set may be saved for later use by selecting the Save Set button. The Library Component Data dialog box, shown in Figure 3-4, can be opened by clicking on the Add (Library Components) command button. Follow the steps below to select the desired pure library components. The default component family list is the Standard Production Set, which contains water, common gases, and the hydrocarbons C1 through C20. Other components are grouped by chemical type. If you have trouble locating the desired component, you can search the component database by the number of carbon atoms, by the library ID, or by the chemical formula.

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Defining an INPLANT Problem

Adding Library Components to a compositional INPLANT problem 1. Select a Family List of Components from the list box. 2. Select Specific Components by clicking the components from the Available list box. 3. Add the selected Library Components to the Component list box by clicking the Add Components button. 4. Click OK.
Figure 3-4: Library Component Data

Petroleum pseudo-components can be specified by selecting the Add (Petroleum fractions) button and following the steps below on the Petroleum Pseudo-Component Data dialog box, shown in Figure 3-5. A minimum of two out of three physical properties must be supplied: density, molecular weight, and normal boiling point (NBP). If only two properties are supplied, the third is estimated from the other two parameters. Empirical correlations are used to calculate the critical constants which are then used to determine the phase behavior of the component.

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Adding Petroleum Pseudo-Components to an INPLANT problem 1. Enter a name for the Petroleum Pseudo-Component. 2. Enter at least two out of three physical properties: Density, Molecular Weight, and Normal Boiling Point. 3. Click OK.
Figure 3-5: Petroleum Pseudo-Component Data

For compositional fluids, follow the steps below to change the thermodynamic and transport systems on the Thermodynamic Methods dialog box, shown in Figure 3-6. The thermodynamic method used for four physical properties can be changed: K-value, enthalpy, liquid density, and vapor density. In addition, the K-values can be reset for each flash and the saturation of the water phase can be set. The methods used for three transport properties can be changed: viscosity, conductivity, and surface tension. The mixing rule for oil/water systems can also be set. Once the thermodynamic and transport properties have been defined, the system may be saved as a SET for later use. Note: Unless otherwise specified, the Soave-Redlich-Kwong (SRK) thermodynamic equation of state will be used. Choosing the Thermodynamic and Transport Methods 1. From the General menu, select the PVT Data option. 2. Select an existing Property Set from the Fluid Property Data dialog box, or create a new Property Set by clicking New. Then click Edit. 3. Select a Thermodynamic System from the drop-down list box. 4. Override any of the physical properties by selecting the desired method from a drop-down list box. 5. Select a Transport System from the drop-down list box.

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Defining an INPLANT Problem

6. Override any of the transport properties by selecting the desired method from a drop-down list box. 7. Click OK.
Figure 3-6: Thermodynamic and Transport Methods

Non-Compositional Fluids
For non-compositional problems, fluid property sets are input through the Fluid Property Data dialog box, shown in Figure 3-7. This dialog is opened by selecting the PVT Data option under the General menu. For new, non-compositional problems this dialog is automatically opened and a new fluid property set is added. INPLANT allows up to 99 property sets to be defined, each of which should have a unique set of fluid property data.

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Figure 3-7: Fluid Property Data

The only required data for non-compositional fluids (gas, liquid, and steam) is the fluid density. For the Steam PVT Data dialog box, the water gravity is the only data input. For the Single Phase Gas PVT Data dialog box, the gas gravity is required and optional input includes: gas contaminants (N2, CO2, and H2S), the specific heat ratio, the viscosity correlation, and the compressibility correlation. The Single Phase Liquid PVT Data dialog box requires the liquid gravity and optional input includes: fluid type (water or hydrocarbon), viscosity (fixed or 2-point Antoine), the heat capacity, and the viscosity correlation. PVT data may also be set for compositional fluids to override the liquid viscosity. This may be necessary when the petroleum pseudo-components are not accurate enough to represent the heavy tars present in crude oil. The Compositional PVT Data dialog box allows the viscosity to be set (fixed or 2-point Antoine) for the hydrocarbon phase, the water phase, or the total liquid phase. For compositional problems, the computation time may be considerably reduced by using a PVT table to interpolate vapor/ liquid equilibrium, instead of performing flash calculations. If the problem type is PVTGEN or Use PVT File option is selected, INPLANT will generate a *.PVT file (* is the problem name). For PVTGEN problems, this DOS file can be copied to other problem
3-10 Defining an INPLANT Problem

names, and used again and again. If the PVT Table is generated for a specific compositional problem, the *.PVT file will be deleted afterwards. Note: To save computer time using a *.PVT file, all sources must have the identical composition. Once two different fluids are mixed, INPLANT reverts back to performing flash calculations. On the Thermodynamic Methods dialog box shown in Figure 3-6, check the Generate PVT Table... option and click the button to enter data in the Generate Compositional PVT Table dialog box, shown in Figure 3-8. If the problem type is PVTGEN, the GUI will automatically open this dialog box. Follow the steps below to specify the temperature and pressure values used for the PVT table. Selected property values for enthalpy, density, conductivity, viscosity, fraction, mole weight, and surface tension can be printed and plotted for each phase. Generating a Compositional PVT Table 1. Select an existing Source Name where the composition has been defined. 2. Specify the Temperature values. These may be evenly spaced from an Initial Value to a Final Value, or they may be unevenly Spaced. 3. Specify the Pressure values. These may be evenly spaced from an Initial Value to a Final Value, or they may be unevenly Spaced. 4. Click OK.
Figure 3-8: Generate Compositional PVT Table

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Pipe Global Defaults


Before constructing a flowsheet and inputting the data for each pipe section, it is good practice to determine what parameters the pipes in your flowsheet have in common. By setting global defaults for pipes, each new pipe will start with the common parameters. This can save considerable data entry if, for example, all of the pipes in your flowsheet are 10 inches in diameter and have 2 inches of insulation. Once the pipe global defaults have been set properly, the only required data for each pipe section is its length. The other advantage of using global defaults is that if you want to change a pipe parameter, all you have to do is change the global default value. All pipes using the default values will be automatically updated. Any pipes where the default values were overridden will remain unchanged. The available pipe parameters on the Pipe Global Defaults dialog box are shown in Figure 3-9. To enter Pipe Global Default data, select Global Defaults from the General menu. The default pipe inside diameter may be set as an actual value or as a nominal size and Schedule. The pipe roughness may be set in Absolute dimensions or Relative Dimensions (fraction of the pipe diameter).
Figure 3-9: Pipe Global Defaults

A global default for the heat transfer from the pipe can be set by providing the ambient temperature and the heat transfer conditions: above ground, below ground, underwater, or a constant heat transfer coefficient. Unless otherwise specified, the ambient temperature will be 80F and the heat transfer coefficient will be 1 Btu/hr-ft2-F. The overall heat transfer coefficient (U-value) can always be
3-12 Defining an INPLANT Problem

changed. If the ambient heat transfer conditions are set to soil, air, or water, INPLANT will calculate the heat transfer coefficient based on the heat transfer through the pipe and to the ambient. If the Default Heat Transfer conditions are changed to soil, air, or water, enter the ambient conditions by pressing the appropriate command button. For soil, the burial depth of the pipe and the ground conductivity must be provided. For air or water, the conductivity, viscosity, density, and velocity of the ambient must be provided. All three options (soil, air, or water) use the same Pipe Heat Transfer Defaults. The thickness and conductivity of the pipe and up to five layers of insulation can be entered by checking the box in front of the Pipe Heat Transfer Defaults command button. Conditions for different environments can be set simultaneously, so that the heat transfer conditions on the pipe device can be changed just by selecting the desired option. To activate an additional heat transfer option, check the box in front of the command button. If a heat transfer option is activated without entering data, the initial values for that option will be used.

Pressure Drop
Unless otherwise specified, the method used to calculate the pressure drop is Beggs & Brill - Moody (BBM) for multiphase flow and Moody for single-phase flow. Overall, BBM is applicable over a wide range of flow conditions and smoothly transitions to the Moody correlation when the flow is single-phase. For high velocity and critical flow systems, use the Beggs & Brill - Moody High Velocity (BMHV) model. See Appendix A in the INPLANT Keyword Manual for more information on the available pressure drop methods.

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Figure 3-10: Pressure Drop Defaults

The pressure drop can be adjusted using the Flow Efficiency to match field data. Unless conditions such as severely corroded pipe exist, other parameters such as the pressure drop method and the pipe roughness should be adjusted to match field data. Other parameters that can be set are: Hazen-Williams (HW) Coefficient (only for single-phase liquids), the Reynolds number for the laminar/turbulent transition, and Palmer correction factors for liquid holdup.

Calculation Methods
The Calculation Methods option under the General menu is used to control how the INPLANT calculations are performed. The available calculation parameters for the Calculation Methods dialog box are shown in Figure 3-11. If the minimum or maximum pressure or temperature is exceeded, INPLANT will abort the calculation. Calculation aspects such as heat transfer or the pressure drop due to acceleration may be neglected.

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Defining an INPLANT Problem

Figure 3-11: Network Calculation Methods

Each pipe device is divided into calculation segments; the more segments, the more accurate (and time-consuming) the solution. The Pipe Segment Length and the maximum number of segments can be specified. Normally the fluid physical properties are calculated at the midpoint of each segment, using the average pressure and temperature. The Shortpipe Algorithm calculates the fluid physical properties at the inlet of each segment, requiring just one flash calculation. The Shortpipe Algorithm saves computer time, but is less accurate for long pipe segments. For network problems, the initial pressures are estimated based on the pressures at the sources and sinks. Two options are available for estimating the initial flowrates: Diameter and Total Resistance. For Diameter, the flowrates leaving a junction are normalized according to the relative diameters of each pipe. For Total Resistance, the flowrates are normalized according to the frictional resistance of each link. The number of network iterations can be changed, as well as the minimum Pressure Tolerance (default 2 psi) required for convergence. If the network iteration is overshooting the solution and not converging, a Flowrate Damping factor can be used to limit the maximum flowrate change between iterations. Note: Complicated networks may diverge instead of converge, requiring a Flowrate Damping factor to reach a converged solution.

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Chapter 4 Building the INPLANT Flowsheet


Overview
Your INPLANT flowsheet is drawn on the main application window workshops and is made up of nodes and links. In this chapter you will learn how to: Draw the nodes and connect them with links Enter input data for nodes and links

The nodes and links may be drawn on the flowsheet before entering any input data, or the input data may be entered as each piece of the flowsheet is added.

Drawing a Flowsheet
The nodes are icons that represent sources, junctions and sinks. The types of nodes, their icons, and restrictions on their use are listed in Figure 4-1. New source, sink, and junction nodes can be created directly from the toolbar. To add a node to the flowsheet: Click on the toolbar icon representing the desired node. Then click again on the flowsheet to drop the node onto the flowsheet.

Depending on the problem type (Network, Flare, or PVTGEN), the number and types of nodes available on the flowsheet may be limited. If you have specified a PVT type problem, only a single source node is allowed and INPLANT will automatically position it
INPLANT 4.0 User Guide 4-1

on the flowsheet. A flare problem may have multiple flare sources and junctions, but only one flare sink is allowed. In addition, the flowsheet must be a gathering system, with only one link allowing fluid to leave each junction. There are no restrictions on a network problem. INPLANT keys off the problem type and is able to monitor and limit the number of nodes used in your simulation. If the toolbar bar icon for a given type of node is dark yellow instead of bright yellow, then no additional nodes of that type can be added to the flowsheet. To move a node around the flowsheet: Click on the node icon on the flowsheet. While holding down the left mouse button, drag the icon to the new location and release.

To move the node using the arrow keys: Select the node by clicking on it. Move the node with the arrow keys.

To delete a selected node from the flowsheet: Select the node by clicking on it. Hit the delete key. This will also delete any links attached to the node.

Connecting the Nodes With Links


Each node icon contains a small square for attaching links. Click once on a node icon. The node icon will turn green and the attachment squares will be revealed. For all problems, source and sink nodes are only allowed one link. The flow direction is indicated by arrows on the line segments. For source nodes the flow must be outgoing; for sink nodes the flow must be incoming. Network junctions should have at least three links, with at least one incoming link and at least one outgoing link. Flare junctions are limited to just one outgoing link, but may have any number of incoming links. To create a link between two nodes: Click on the attachment square where the flow originates and drag the cursor to the sink node.
Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

4-2

Click again on the sink node to draw the link.

Note: It is not necessary to click on the sink node's attachment square; anywhere on the node will do. After starting the link and dragging the cursor, the allowed attachment squares of all the other nodes will appear. To connect a link to a different node: Select a link by clicking on it. The link will turn green. Pick the link up by clicking and holding the mouse button down on one of the link handles. Drag the cursor to the connection box on another node. Release the mouse button. The link will connect with the new node.

Links can also be created, copied or deleted by selecting Edit > Edit Link... If a link is not allowed between two nodes, the link will snap back to its original location. Restrictions on the allowable number and directions of links for a particular node are summarized in Table 4-1.
Table 4-1: Node Quantity and Direction Restrictions Node Allowable Number of Links Source Node Sink Node Network Junction Flare Junction one-link one-link any number any number Direction of Link outgoing incoming ingoing, outcoming incoming, one outgoing

Entering Node Input Data


When a source or sink node is first created, the red outline indicates that the mandatory data for that node has not been supplied. After the mandatory data is entered, the node on the flowsheet will turn blue. Any node that remains red is still not fully defined. When all nodes and all links are blue, the simulation is ready to be executed. Portions of the flowsheet may be mothballed (turning gray), by checking the disable check box on the dialog box for the respective node or link. Junction nodes do not require any mandatory data and are always blue.
INPLANT 4.0 User Guide 4-3

To edit the input data associated with a node: Click the Edit Unit... option under the Edit pull-down menu and double-click on the desired node label or simply double-click on the desired node on the flowsheet. Once selected, the node will turn green. The window shown in Figure 4-1 appears for compositional source nodes.

Figure 4-1: Compositional Source Input Data Window

Enter the necessary data and click the OK button.

After the minimum required amount of data has been entered for the node, its color will change from red to green (selected) to blue.

Mandatory Node Input Data for Network Boundary Problems


The mandatory data required for each type of node varies with the category of problem as is summarized in Table 4-2.
Table 4-2: Mandatory Input Data Problem Type Node Type Network problem source sink Mandatory Data P and F fixed or estimated, T P and F fixed or estimated

In addition to those stated above there are a number of restrictions to the overall amount and type of data required for optimal problem solution.
4-4 Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

These include: 1. If there are a total of N sources and sinks in the flowsheet, then N parameters (pressures and flowrates) must be fixed and N must be estimated. This does not mean that each source and sink is required to have one parameter fixed and one parameter estimated. One source/sink may have both pressure and flowrate fixed, while another source/sink may have both parameters estimated. Note: Junctions can be ignored when determining boundary conditions because the pressure is always estimated and the total change in flowrate is always zero (fluid in - fluid out = 0). 2. At least one pressure must be fixed to establish a baseline pressure. 3. You may not enter fixed values for the flowrates of all the nodes (including source and sinks). 4. You may not enter fixed values for the pressures of all the nodes (including source and sinks). How The Node Input Data Determines Calculation Method It is important to understand that INPLANT will select a calculation method best suited to the configuration of the data you enter. We will illustrate this with two examples: Example #1: Source is completely known and the sink is completely unknown. Calculation Method (selected by INPLANT): Forward Calculation Network Problems: Sink pressure and flowrate are estimated Source pressure and flowrate are fixed Calculation Approach: INPLANT starts at the source conditions and calculates the pressure drop across the link to determine the sink conditions. This type of problem can be solved with a single calculation, requiring no iterations. Example #2: Pressure is known at both the source and sink, but the flowrate is unknown.
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Calculation Method (selected by INPLANT): Capacity Run Calculation Network Problems: Sink pressure is known and flowrate is estimated Source pressure and flowrate are estimated Calculation Approach: Network Solution: INPLANT uses the PBALANCE algorithm (see Chapter 6, Technical Reference, in the INPLANT Keyword Manual), where the pressure and flowrate are adjusted simultaneously. Any combination of boundary conditions is allowed, as long as there is one unknown parameter for each source and sink node. The only restriction is that at least one pressure must be fixed (or at least one flowrate must be estimated).

Mandatory Node Input data for Flare Problems


Table 4-3 summarizes the mandatory input data for flare problems.
Table 4-3: Mandatory Flare Input Data Problem Node Node Type Type Flare source depressuring vessel Mandatory Data P fixed, T vessel geometry, vessel initial conditions, vessel operating parameters not a depressuring vessel sink -------F, P, T fixed P fixed

INPLANT Flare Problem Calculations


The source and sink icons are different for flare calculations than for network problems to emphasize the different type of calculation being performed. With a flare problem, you do not have the freedom to choose arbitrary combinations of fixed or estimated boundary conditions. The sink pressure must be given, and the source flowrates must be known (or calculated from a depressuring vessel). INPLANT then uses a mass balance to find the flowrate at the sink, and calculates the pressure drop across each link in the gathering system to find the pressure at each source.

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

The flare source dialog box, shown in Figure 4-2, is very similar to the compositional source, requiring the same input data for the composition and the temperature. The main choice for a flare source is whether to specify the flowrate leaving the vessel, or to calculate the amount of fluid vented by the relief valve as heat input from a fire raises the pressure above the relief pressure (a depressuring source). If the flowrate is specified, the temperature and pressure are used to calculate the enthalpy of the fluid. If the flare source is a depressuring vessel, the temperature and pressure are used as the vessel initial conditions.
Figure 4-2: Flare Source Input Data Window

INPLANT Flare Problem Depressuring Vessel Calculations


If a flare source is designated as a depressuring vessel, then red triangles representing flames appear on the source icon. To enter data for the depressuring vessel: Check the radio button next to Depressuring Vessel and click the button in the Vessel Discharge region of the Flare Source window. The Depressuring window appears as shown in Figure 4-3. Enter all mandatory data for this vessel, which includes
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initial vessel conditions


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relief pressure maximum vessel pressure duration of the simulation time increments for the calculations.

Figure 4-3: Depressuring Vessel Input Data Window

The depressuring vessel starts with a known amount of liquid at an initial pressure and temperature. The fire is simulated over a specified time duration by adding heat according to one of several heat input models. The type of heat input model and the individual coefficients can be changed to simulate different emergency conditions. When the vessel pressure exceeds the relief pressure, the relief valve opens and gas is vented to the flare gathering system. If the liquid phase is vented in equal proportion to the gas phase, the 'Homogeneous' option can be chosen for the Vented Phase. If an Initial Rate is not specified, INPLANT will assume a vent rate of 5% of the vessel volume per time increment. If this vent rate is too small, the calculated vessel pressure will continue rising until the Maximum Pressure is exceeded. INPLANT will continue to lower the vent rate until the vessel pressure no longer exceeds the

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

Maximum Pressure within the time specified for the Simulation Duration. The Initial Rate and the Rate Increment can both be set by the user. The vessel shape and volume as well as the initial amount of liquid is entered on the Depressuring Vessel Data window, shown in Figure 4-4. To enter the Depressuring Vessel Data window: Click the Enter Vessel Data... button on the Depressuring window.

Required data depends on the vessel shape and volume as summarized in Table 4-4.
Table 4-4: Required Data for Vessel Shape and Volume Vessel Geometry Required Dimensions Spherical and Cylindrical Unspecified Shape Vessel Dimensions + Volume Factor + Liquid Volume Vessel Volume + Liquid Volume

Note: If an API heat input model is being used, the wetted area must also be given.
Figure 4-4: Depressuring Vessel Input Data Window

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If the volume or height of liquid in the vessel is not given, INPLANT will perform a flash calculation at the initial pressure and temperature conditions to determine the gas and liquid volumes in the vessel. The total specific heat of the fluid can be overridden by entering both the specific heat of the fluid and the total weight.

Entering Mandatory Compositional Data for Source Nodes


Compositional fluids may be specified in any of the INPLANT problem categories. Compositional data must be supplied for all compositional sources. For all such sources, as demonstrated in Figure 4-5. for the case of a source node, either the percentage of each component must be specified, distillation data must be provided, or the composition must be copied from another source. In addition, fixed or estimated temperature, pressure and flowrate must be provided.
Figure 4-5: Compositional Data Input Window

Specifying Fluid Composition Directly


The composition of the individual components can be given either in mole percents or in weight percents. If the sum of the compositions does not add up to 100, the compositions will be normalized to 100 percent.

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

To enter compositions directly: Check the radio button next to Define Composition and click the button. The spread sheet used to enter composition data appears as shown in Figure 4-6. Enter the percentage or amount of each individual component on the General Spread Sheet. Click OK.

Figure 4-6: Source Composition Spread Sheet

Specifying Fluid Composition via Reference to Another Source


To save time entering the problem, the composition can be referenced to another compositional source. The source temperature, pressure, and flowrate can also be referenced. Any changes made in the first source will be relayed to all subsequent sources. The source composition may also be imported from a PRO/II stream. To enter compositions via reference to another source: Check the radio button next to Use Composition From and click the button in the composition region of the source node window. The window in Figure 4-5 appears. Use a source from the INPLANT Network source or from a PRO/II stream.
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INPLANT 4.0 User Guide

Click OK.

Figure 4-7: Entering Composition By Reference To Another Source

Specifying Fluid Composition Via Distillation Data


If the composition of the fluid is not completely known, INPLANT can estimate the petroleum pseudocomponent parameters that bestfit the available distillation data. The mandatory data for the Source Distillation Data window, shown in Figure 4-8, are the average density of the fluid, the type of distillation performed, and a distillation curve of percent vapor versus temperature. To enter compositions via Distillation Data: Check the radio button next to Distillation Data and click the button in the Composition region of the source node window. Enter fluid composition and select Save from the Worksheet pull-down menu.

Often, the vapor phase is analyzed and the composition of the light ends can be entered, along with the weight percent of the vapor phase. If gravity data or molecular weight data were taken during the distillation, those curves may also be given. If the petroleum pseudocomponents do not accurately capture the viscosity of the heavy tars in the fluid, the viscosity may be overridden using a PVT property set.

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

Figure 4-8: Source Distillation Data Input Window

For more information on specifying compositional fluids see Chapter 4, Defining an INPLANT Problem.

Entering mandatory non-compositional data for source nodes


For non-compositional sources, a valid PVT property set and temperature (or steam quality for steam) are mandatory data. Note: If the problem is an adiabatic network, then the temperature is used only to set the initial enthalpy. The source temperature is then adjusted according to the source pressure to maintain a constant enthalpy at the source. The only other required data are the pressure and flowrate boundary conditions, either of which may be fixed or estimated.

Entering Link Input Data


To view the data pertaining to a link, simply double-click on that link to bring up the Link Device Data window as shown in Figure 4-9. The Link Device Data window has a central workspace for the device icons, a toolbar on the left containing eight command buttons, and an icon palette on the right containing an icon for each available device. When editing a new link, only the start and
INPLANT 4.0 User Guide 4-13

destination nodes appear in the workspace. These nodes cannot be edited from here, but are a visual reminder of which link is being edited.
Figure 4-9: Link Device Data Window

The toolbar on the left can be used to save or cancel the changes, or make more changes. The function of the individual toolbar buttons are listed in Table 4-5. The toolbar buttons can also be accessed from the keyboard by typing the underlined <letter>; this is different from selecting a menu bar option because the <Alt> key is not needed. A device can be edited either from the toolbar or by double-clicking on the device icon. Any device icon selected by a single mouse click appears with a green border, and can be deleted or copied to the buffer.The arrow keys can also be used to move between device icons. Information on the currently selected device is displayed in the status bar at the bottom of the window.

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

Table 4-5: Toolbar Buttons on the Link Device Data Window Button Function OK Cancel Help Reverse Cut Saves the changes made in the link devices. If any device contains incomplete data (red border), then the link will become red. Cancels the changes made in the link devices. A message box will appear asking if you are sure before deleting the changes. Accesses the on-line hypertext help system. Reverses the direction of flow in a link, changing the To node to From and vice versa. Deletes the currently selected device icon. This can also be performed by pushing <Del>. Any device that is deleted will be placed in the paste buffer. Places the currently selected device icon in the paste buffer. Pastes the device in the paste buffer after the currently selected device in the link. The starting node may be selected so that a device can be pasted into the first device of the link. Opens a dialog box allowing the user to change the link name, set a flowrate estimate, turn off the print options for the link, and to disable the link. Sizes the diameter of one, some, or all sections of pipe to meet additional boundary conditions

Copy Paste

Link

Sizing

View Profile A plot of the pipeline profile defined for the link can be viewed.

In this section we will begin by discussing how to add, delete and copy devices and finish by describing each device type.

Adding devices to links


Devices can be added to a link by editing the link. To add a device to link: Double-click on the link. The Link Device Data window appears for that link. This window will display the link with any devices already assigned. Click on the device icons desired from the palette of icons on the right hand side. For each device chosen, a window will appear to enter device specifications. Enter data and click OK. The device will appear on the main workspace area over the link. Click OK on the Link Device Data window to complete editing of the link.

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Deleting/Pasting devices from links:


Devices can be deleted/pasted from a link by editing the link. To delete/paste a device: Double-click on the link. The Link Device Data window appears for that link. This window will display the link with any devices already assigned. Click on the device icon on the link that you wish to delete to highlight it. Click Cut on the toolbar to remove the device. The deleted device is placed onto the INPLANT clipboard If the delete was unintentional, restore the device by clicking the Paste button. By default the device will be pasted after the selected rows device if not indicate otherwise. Select the row above the cut row to paste the device back into its previous position. Click OK on the Link Device Data window to complete editing of the link.

Copying Devices Within Links:


Devices can be copied from one location to another within a link. When a device is copied to the buffer, its icon appears on the toolbar and can be pasted back anywhere within the link. Any device pasted back to the link is placed immediately after the currently selected device. Note that the starting node can be selected, but not edited, so that a device may be placed at the beginning of the link. Other toolbar features include setting a flowrate estimate for the link and accessing the on-line help system. To copy a device: Double-click on the link. The Link Device Data window for the link. This window will display the link with any devices already assigned. Click on the device icon that you wish to copy to another location on the link. Click Copy on the toolbar to copy the device to a buffer.
Building the INPLANT Flowsheet


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Click OK on the Device Data window to complete editing of the link.

Link Devices
The icon palette on the right side of the window contains 22 device icons: one pipe device, ten pipe fitting devices, and eleven equipment devices. A brief description of each device, what its icon looks like, what data is required, and any restrictions on its use are listed in Table 4-6. Pipes and pipe fittings are always available. Depending on the problem type and fluid type, some equipment devices may not be available. For comprehensive technical information regarding these devices, consult the Inplant Keyword Manual.
Table 4-6: Device Data Window Icons Icon Pipe Device Pipe The pipe device models the pressure drop across a length of pipe. The pipe length, diameter, and elevation change are required. Device Description

Pipe Fittings - Coupling Fittings Bend The bend device models the pressure drop across a pipe bend or elbow. The diameter of the bend is required. The tee device models the pressure drop across a tee intersection. The diameter and orientation of the tee is required. The contraction device models the pressure drop as the pipe decreases in diameter. The inlet and outlet diameter are required. The expansion device models the pressure drop as the pipe increases in diameter. The inlet and outlet diameter are required.

Tee

Contraction

Expansion

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Table 4-6: Device Data Window Icons (cont.) Icon Device Entrance Description The entrance device models the pressure drop as fluid enters a pipe from a larger vessel. The outlet diameter is required. The exit device models the pressure drop as fluid exits a pipe into a larger vessel. The inlet diameter is required. The nozzle device models the pressure drop across a nozzle. The pipe diameter and nozzle diameter are required. Pipe Fittings - Entrance and Exit Fittings

Exit

Nozzle

Pipe Fittings - Control Fittings Venturimeter The venturimeter device models the pressure drop across a venturimeter. The pipe diameter and throat diameter are required. The valve device models the pressure drop across one of fourteen different valves. The valve type, inlet diameter and outlet diameter are required. Check valves that allow flowrate only in the direction specified on the Link window. The check name and orifice diameter are mandatory data for a check valve. The Discharge Coefficient is optional. The orifice device models the pressure drop across one of two types of orifices. The orifice type, the pipe diameter, and the orifice diameter are required. A choke is an equipment device which restricts the flowrate. The choke diameter is required. A regulator is an equipment device which limits the maximum pressure in the flowline. The maximum downstream pressure is required.

Valve

Check Valve

Orifice

Equipment Devices - Control Devices Choke

Regulator

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

Table 4-6: Device Data Window Icons (cont.) Icon Device Expander Description An expander is an equipment device which recovers energy from a steam system while lowering the pressure. The power recovered or the outlet pressure is required. Only allowed for steam systems. A compressor is an equipment device which performs work on a gas. The power, outlet pressure, or compressor curve is required. Not allowed for steam systems. A multi-stage compressor is a equipment device similar to the compressor. The curves, efficiencies and other parameters can be specified for different stages in a compressor. A pump is an equipment device which performs work on a liquid. The power, outlet pressure, or pump curve is required. Equipment Devices - Work Devices

Compressor

Multi-Stage Compressor

Pump

Equipment Devices - Heat Transfer Devices Heater A heater is an equipment device which adds heat to a stream. The outlet temperature or heater duty is required. Not allowed for steam systems. A cooler is an equipment device which removes heat from a stream. The outlet temperature or cooler duty is required. Not allowed for steam systems. A DPDT is a general equipment device which models any device which changes the pressure and/or temperature of a stream. A curve of pressure and temperature differences versus flowrate is required. A separator is an equipment device which splits some or all of the different phases of a multiphase stream. The percent or rate removed must be specified for each phase. Only allowed for compositional fluids. Only one separator is allowed in flare problems, and it must be the first device in the last link. An injection device re-introduces a stream that has been separated, or injects the flow from a lateral source. The separator or source name is required. Only allowed for compositional fluids.

Cooler

Equipment Devices - General DPTP Device DPDT

Equipment Devices - Flowrate Devices Separator

Injection

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Pipe Device
The Pipe device is used to transport fluid from one point to another, and is the only device with length. All other equipment devices and pipe fittings are simulated as point devices, with no volume or length associated. Pipe lengths should always be calculated to the center of the equipment device or fitting device. If an equipment device does have a significant vertical or horizontal displacement, this should be accounted for by adding an equivalent length of pipe. For example, the outlet stream of a separator may be several feet higher or lower than the inlet stream. If this vertical distance were improperly accounted for, the pressure imbalance due to gravity could cause network convergence failure. The only data that must be entered into the Pipe window, shown in Figure 4-10, is the Pipe Length. The elevation change defaults to zero, and default settings are available for all other parameters from the Global Defaults... option under the General menu. To change the inside diameter from the global default, either type in the actual diameter or select a nominal size and pipe schedule. If the nominal size and pipe schedule that you want does not exist, the Flow Device Schedule Database... option under the Special Features menu can be updated.
Figure 4-10: Pipe Device Window

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

Besides the pipe diameter and roughness, the pressure drop across a length of pipe depends on the correlation method used. The pressure drop correlation and other parameters which affect the pressure drop calculations can be specified by clicking the Pressure Drop Method button. See Appendix A of the INPLANT Input Manual for the fluid conditions under which other pressure drop methods than the default BBM (Beggs-Brill & Moody) are recommended. If the field data cannot be matched by varying the correlation method and/or the pipe roughness, the flow efficiency can be adjusted using Palmer correlation factors, which modify the calculated amount of liquid in the pipe. The heat transfer from the pipe is determined by the ambient temperature and the overall heat transfer coefficient (U Value). The heat transfer may be turned off, the U Value can be set, or INPLANT will calculate the appropriate U Value for the specified surrounding ambient conditions: air, water, or soil. To calculate the overall U coefficient, the thickness and conductivity of the pipe must be specified. Up to five layers of insulation may be added around the pipe. The resistance to heat transfer of each layer is summed and combined with the heat transfer from the surface of the pipe. The default heat transfer conditions can be set from the Global Defaults... dialog under the General menu. The default heat transfer conditions can be changed for an individual pipe by selecting the appropriate thermal calculation from the drop down list in the Pipe window and clicking the Heat Transfer Data button. For buried pipes, the heat transfer from the surface is calculated from the burial depth and the soil conductivity. For pipes in air or water, the heat transfer from the surface is calculated from the conductivity, viscosity, density, and velocity of the surrounding ambient.

Equipment Devices
INPLANT has eleven equipment devices, which can be grouped into five categories: work devices, heat transfer devices, flowrate devices, control devices, and a general DPDT device. Work devices include pumps for liquids, compressors for gases, and expanders for steam systems. Heat transfer devices include heaters and coolers. Flowrate devices include sales devices to remove fluid, separators to remove specific phases of the fluid, and injection devices to reintroduce separated phases or inject a lateral source stream. Control devices include a regulator to bleed off excess pressure and
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a choke to restrict the flowrate. The general DPDT device sets the pressure and temperature change as a function of flowrate and can be used to simulate many types of devices.

Work Devices
Pumps and compressors are used to increase the pressure in liquid and gas systems, adding work to the fluid. The temperature increase through a pump/compressor depends on the flowrate, the fluid heat capacity and the adiabatic efficiency; any work that does not increase the system pressure is added directly to the fluid enthalpy. On the pump dialog box, shown in Figure 4-11, the outlet conditions can be set in three different ways: the pump horsepower, the outlet pressure, or a pump curve can be defined. To define a pump curve, the differential head and adiabatic efficiency must be given for a range of flowrates.
Figure 4-11: Pump Device

Note: Be careful when fixing the outlet pressure of a pump or compressor. This adds an extra boundary condition and makes the upstream pressure undetermined. Cutoff values can be set for the maximum outlet pressure and the maximum pump power. If the outlet pressure or pump power exceeds the cutoff value, then the cutoff value is used as the new outlet condition. The Number of Stages for the pump can be

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

specified as well as the adiabatic efficiency. Pumps and compressor are not available for steam systems, while expanders are only available for steam systems. Steam expanders are small turbines that are used for energy recovery when feeding high-pressure steam into a low-pressure line. The steam expander recovers work in the process of lowering the pressure. The outlet conditions for the steam expander can be set in four different ways: the expander power, the outlet pressure, the pressure drop across the expander, and the pressure ratio across the expander. A minimum pressure cutoff value can be set as well as the adiabatic efficiency. A temperature estimate and convergence tolerance for the iterative calculation can also be specified.

Heat Transfer Devices


Heaters and coolers are used to increase or decrease the temperature of the fluid. On the Heater window, shown in Figure 4-12, the outlet conditions can be set in two different ways: the outlet temperature or the heater duty. Cutoff values can also be set for the maximum heater duty and the maximum heater temperature. The pressure drop across the heater can be set, either as a constant or as a flowrate dependent equation. Heaters and coolers are not available for steam systems.

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Figure 4-12: Heater Device

Flowrate Devices
Flowrate devices are used to add or subtract fluid from the system. The separator device, shown in Figure 4-13, removes a portion of a specific phase, either vapor, total liquid, water, or hydrocarbon. The fluid removed can be defined either by the total flowrate or as a percentage of the fluid phase. If the liquid phase is separated into a water phase and a hydrocarbon phase, an amount may be specified for both phases. Note: If water is being separated, it must be the first component on the list.

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

Figure 4-13: Separator Device

The injection device has two uses: to inject fluid from a lateral source stream, or to reinject a separated stream. A lateral source is defined by defining a source without attaching the source to the system with a link and is only allowed for single-link problems. The injection device is then used to set the injection point of the fluid. When a separated stream is reinjected, the separator name and the fluid phase must be specified. By default the fluid enthalpy is calculated at the pipe pressure and the separator temperature. If desired, the pressure and temperature used to determine the fluid enthalpy can be changed. The separator device and injection device are only available for compositional fluids.

Control Devices
Control devices include the regulator device which releases excess pressure, and the choke device which restricts the flowrate. For a regulator device, the maximum downstream pressure must be given; if the pressure exceeds this value, then it is reset to the maximum value. This can help in network convergence by preventing large oscillations in the pressure. For the choke device, the choke diameter must be given. The pressure drop across the choke is a strong function of the flowrate and the choke diameter. The pressure drop calculation can be modified by changing the resistance coefficient.

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General DPDT Device


The DPDT device is a general device which specifies a pressure change curve and a temperature change curve as a function of flowrate. This can be used to model any of the other equipment or fitting devices which do not involve altering the flowrate. The DPDT device is most often used to model a part of the system for which detailed data is not available. For example, a detailed description of a heat exchanger is not necessary to model the pressure/flowrate behavior. The heat exchanger pressure drop and temperature change versus flowrate can then be modeled using a DPDT device.

Pipe Fittings
INPLANT calculates the pressure drop associated with ten different pipe fittings, which can be grouped in three categories: coupling fittings, entrance/exit fittings, and control fittings. Coupling fittings include pipe bends, pipe tees where the flow splits or merges, and contraction and expansion fittings used to connect two different diameters of pipe. Entrance/exit fittings include the entrance of fluid into a pipe from a vessel or storage tank, the exit of fluid from the pipe into a vessel, and the exit of fluid through a nozzle. Control fittings include the venturimeter which measures the flowrate, and orifices and valves which restrict the flowrate.

Coupling Fittings
Coupling fittings are used to connect pipe sections together, either changing the pipe direction (bend), adding a third pipe (tee), or changing the pipe diameter (contraction/expansion). For the Pipe Bend Fitting window, shown in Figure 4-14, the inside diameter is required, either in actual units or defined in the pipe database as a nominal diameter and schedule. Both the inside diameter and roughness take the pipe global default parameters from the Global Default... window under the General menu. A standard elbow or mitre bend can be chosen for angles between 0 and 90 degrees. For bends greater than 90 degrees, the angle and curvature (R/D) can be specified.

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Building the INPLANT Flowsheet

Figure 4-14: Pipe Bend Fitting

The pressure drop is calculated from the resistance coefficient (K), which is equal to the K-Multiplier multiplied by the friction factor. The K Multiplier is multiplied by the pipe diameter to calculate an equivalent pipe length, for which the pressure drop is calculated. INPLANT will calculate the appropriate K-Multiplier for the type of bend that is selected. If other data are available for the resistance coefficient, the K-Multiplier or the K-factor itself can be specified. The coefficients for the Two-Phase Flow Model, which are used to calculate the pressure drop, can also be modified. The tee fitting is similar to the bend fitting; instead of specifying the type of bend, the type of tee is given, either a straight run or a branch. For contraction and expansion fittings, both the inlet diameter and the outlet diameter must be given. The resistance coefficient (K) is calculated from the angle the contraction/expansion makes going from the inlet to the outlet diameter. This angle may also be described by the length of the transition. If other data are available, the value of K itself can be specified directly, as well as the coefficients for the two-phase flow model. If the fitting exists in more than one place, then the number of identical fittings can be specified, requiring only one pipe fitting device to be added to the link.

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Entrance/Exit Fittings
Entrance/exit fittings are used to calculate the pressure drop when fluid enters or exits the piping system from a vessel or storage tank. Besides entrance and exit fittings, this also includes the nozzle fitting. The only input required for the entrance and exit fittings is the diameter of the pipe connected to the vessel or storage tank. The resistance coefficient and the two-phase flow model coefficients may also be changed from the default values. For the nozzle fitting, the nozzle diameter is also required. The specific heat ratio of the fluid may also be specified.

Control Fittings
Control fittings include the orifice fitting which has a fixed opening, the venturimeter fitting which measures the flowrate, and the valve fitting which is used to control the flowrate. The required data for the orifice and venturimeter fittings is similar to the nozzle fitting, requiring the pipe diameter and the orifice/venturimeter diameter. The resistance coefficient, specific heat ratio, and twophase flow model coefficients can be changed from the default values. For the orifice fitting, a thin or thick orifice plate can be specified. Fourteen different types of valves are available on the Valve Fitting window, shown in Figure 4-15. Both the inlet and the outlet diameters of the valve must be given. The default K-multiplier depends on the valve type chosen; some valve types have a range of K multipliers, depending on the specific valve details. If other data are available, the K multiplier or the value of K itself can be specified directly, as well as the two-phase flow model coefficients. For gate valves, ball valves, and tilting disc check valves, the angle of the valve can be specified. For velocity-dependent valves, the minimum velocity to keep the valve open can be supplied.

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Figure 4-15: Valve Fitting

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Chapter 5 Optional INPLANT Calculations


Overview
This chapter contains information on the optional calculations available with INPLANT. These include the Case Study, Flare Network Sizing (Line Sizing and Relief Valve Sizing), as well as specifying alternative pipe and valve databases. The user-defined Phase Splitting at steam tee junctions can also be specified. In this chapter you will learn how to: Set up and run multiple case studies Perform line sizing and relief valve sizing calculations Specify and modify the valve and pipe databases Specify steam phase splitting.

Setting Up Case Studies


You can use the INPLANT GUI to set up multiple case studies, i.e., variations on the base case problem you have defined. INPLANT allows you to change many flowsheet parameters e.g., the source pressure or composition, or a pipe diameter or heat transfer coefficient. To set up a case study: Select the Case Study option from the Special Features menu.

The Case Study window appears as shown in Figure 5-1.

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Figure 5-1: Case Study Window

Click on the check box beside Perform Case Study Calculations.

You are now able to add new case studies or edit, cut, or paste previously defined case studies. Each new case study will use the solution from the previous case as the initial guess. If you want to use the original solution as the initial guess, check the Restore Base Case Solution box. This resets all parameters back to the base case values. Otherwise, case study changes are cumulative. To add a case study: Click the Add button. The Case Study Changes window appears as shown in Figure 5-2. Optionally, you can provide a description for the case study in this window.

Figure 5-2: Case Study Changes Window

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Optional INPLANT Calculations

Click the Add button to change flowsheet parameters. The Case Study Parameter window appears as shown in Figure 5-3.

Figure 5-3: Case Study Parameter Window

In this window you can change source, sink, or device parameters to a new value. For devices, all parameters with a specific value can be changed globally to a new value. To change a case study parameter: Select the Source Name, Sink Name, or Device Type to change. For devices, you can either change just one device or all devices with a given parameter value. Select the Parameter to be changed. If globally changing a device parameter, the From value must be given.

Note: When globally changing a device parameter, only devices where the parameter value is equal to the From value will be changed. Specify the To value for the Parameter. If changing a source composition, click the Composition button.

Flare Network Sizing


The Flare Network Sizing is used to perform sizing on pipes and relief valves in the flare network.
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Line Sizing Calculations


Network Line sizing is only available for flare problems. For looped network problems, multiple solutions may exist. For flare problems, the back pressure at each relief valve should be given. Based on the known flowrates and pressure drops, INPLANT will calculate the minimum pipe diameter for some or all pipes. An additional constraint of the maximum fluid velocity can be set. By default, the erosional velocity will be used as the maximum velocity. The maximum velocity can also be defined as a curve based on the pipe diameter or the fluid density. For flare problems, the maximum velocity can also be specified as a percent of the critical velocity. The available pipe diameters can also be changed. By default, INPLANT will use the API schedule 40 pipe diameters. To set up line sizing calculations: Click the Flare Network Sizing... option from the Special Features menu. The Flare Network Sizing window appears. Click the Network Line Sizing button. The Line Sizing window appears as shown in Figure 5-4.

Figure 5-4: Line Sizing Window

Click the Activate and/or Enter Line Sizing Data check box. Select your sizing options, either Maximum Erosional Velocity or a Velocity Curve. For flare problems, the Approach to Critical Velocity, Approach to Critical Velocity and Velocity Curve is also available.
Optional INPLANT Calculations

5-4

Enter the appropriate constant or curve for the sizing option selected. Select the pipes to be sized by clicking the Select Devices to be Sized... button. By default, all pipes will be sized. To reduce computation time, the available pipe diameters can be specified, either in actual dimensions or as nominal sizes. By default, the API schedule 40 pipe diameters will be used.

Relief Valve Sizing Calculations


For flare calculations, you can size some or all of your sources as relief valves. Based on the flowrate through the relief valve and the calculated pressure drop, INPLANT will calculate the minimum cross-sectional area of the relief valve. Using a relief valve database, INPLANT will choose the relief valve large enough to handle the flowrate. To set up relief valve sizing calculations: Click the Flare Network Sizing... option from the Special Features menu. The Flare Network Sizing window appears. Click the Relief Valve Sizing button. The Relief Valves to be Sized window appears as shown in Figure 5-5. Click the Size Relief Valves check box. Select the source to be sized as relief valves.

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Figure 5-5: Relief Valve Sizing Window

Flow Device Schedule Databases


The INPLANT GUI allows you to easily modify a customized pipe database. You can use the industry standard pipe database, DIAMDATA, provided by SimSci, or you can create and edit your own pipe database. To create a pipe database: Click the Flow Device Schedule Database...option from the Special Features menu. The Flow Devices Database window appears as shown in Figure 5-6.

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Optional INPLANT Calculations

Figure 5-6: Pipe Database Window

Click the New button to bring up the Flow Devices Database Definition window as shown in Figure 5-7. Enter an 8-character pipe database Name and a Description of the database. The database Name will be used as the ASCII filename with .DAT extension. Add as many entries as desired by clicking the Add button. The required data is a 4-character schedule name, the nominal size, and the actual diameter. Click the Set Default button to change the default database from DIAMDATA to user defined pipe database.

Figure 5-7: Flow Devices Database Definition Window

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Relief Valve Databases


The INPLANT GUI allows you to create or modify the relief valve database for flow calculations. The API standard relief valve database for conventional and bellow valves, VC01, VC02, cannot be edited or deleted. To create a new relief valve database: Click the Valve Database... option from the Special Features menu. The Relief Valve Database window appears as shown in Figure 5-8.

Figure 5-8: Relief Valve Database Window

Click the New button to bring up the Valve Data window as shown in Figure 5-9. The valve Class Description and Class Name are required. Specify the valve type, discharge coefficients, liquid and gas pressure curves, and the relief valve sizes. Click the Set Default button to change the default database from VC01 to user defined valve database.

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Optional INPLANT Calculations

Figure 5-9: Valve Data Window

User-defined Phase Splitting


The User-defined Phase Splitting option is only available for steam systems. For steam problems, the liquid/vapor phase split at a tee junction can be specified as a function of the fluid Reynolds number. To specify a User-defined Phase Split: Click the User-Defined Splitting... option from the Special Features menu. The User-defined Steam Phase Splitting window appears as shown in Figure 5-10.

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Figure 5-10: User-defined Steam Splitting Window

For each Reynolds number, enter a curve of entering liquid weight percent versus leaving gas weight percent.

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Optional INPLANT Calculations

Chapter 6 Running an INPLANT Problem


Overview
After you have prepared the data for the problem as described in Chapter 3, Defining an INPLANT Problem and Chapter 4, Building the INPLANT Flowsheet, you are ready to perform the calculations. The INPLANT calculations obtain all input data from a keyword input file. If you entered data through the GUI, INPLANT will create the input file before running the calculations. If you need to edit the keyword file, you must first create the input file.

Running the Calculations


If all input data have been provided via the GUI, the user can run INPLANT by performing the following actions: Select the Open... option under the File menu or click on the File Open button. A standard Windows Open File dialog is displayed. Browse for the INPLANT problem (*.IPZIP) you want to execute or run. Click Open. The INPLANT GUI is loaded with the flowsheet. Select the Run... option under the File menu or click on the Right Arrow button. A Run Simulation and View Results window appears as shown in Figure 6-1.

INPLANT 4.0 User Guide

6-1

Figure 6-1: Run Simulation and View Results

Select the run and action type from the respective drop down lists. Click the Run button. The status of the simulation run is shown in the Run Status window. If the simulation run is successful, the same is indicated in the Run Status window. If the input data entered is wrong, during the simulation run, errors and warnings are notified in the Run Status window. The error and warning messsages can be viewed in the output file.

If you have created an input file entirely using keyword entry, or if you have modified an existing keyword file, you can import the keyword file into the GUI database and run the calculations.

Viewing INPLANT Output and Results


INPLANT offers various user-selectable options for viewing and printing your output. The results of the each node or link may be viewed on the flowsheet, or some or all of the output file may be viewed using an editor. Whenever a problem is run, an input and output file are generated. To view the output file or generate and excel report for the problem which is currently opened:

6-2

Running an INPLANT Problem

Select the Run... option under the File menu or click on the Right Arrow button. A Run Simulation and View Results window appears as shown in Figure 6-1. In the Run Simulation and View Results window, select the report you want to view and click the View button. The report is displayed using the default Programmers File Editor.

Generating Excel Reports


To generate excel report for the current problem, click the EXCEL button. The Excel Reports dialog box as shown in Figure 6-2 is displayed. The dialog box lists different Summary and Line report options available for generation.

Figure 6-2: Excel Reports

Select all the options under Run Options. Click Run Current Network. This will generate an excel report for the current problem and for the options listed under Run Options.

Note: Uncheck the Run Simulation option under Run Options, if you have already run the simulation through the Run Simulation and View Results dialog box.

Printing Reports
Click the Print button in the Run Simulation and View Results dialog box. The report for the current problem is printed.
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INPLANT 4.0 User Guide

Alternately, to view an output file or generate an excel report or print a report for an INPLANT problem existing in the database, the options in the File menu and View Output menu can be used. Select View Output File... option from the File menu, to view an output file existing in the database. Select Generate Excel Report... or View Excel from the View Output menu to generate or view an excel report for the current problem. Select Print... option from the File menu to send the complete OFD or part of the PFD to the printer.

6-4

Running an INPLANT Problem