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Self-efficacy of Foreign Language Learners: What do Empirical Studies Entail? Your Name John A. Doe etc.

Your Departments Name Your Organization (Universitys) Name and Your co-authors name Your co-authors Department Name Your Organization (Universitys) Name ABSTRACT Self-efficacy studies in the realm of foreign language (FL) and second (L2) language learning have proved that self-efficacy should be more widely and constructively applied in FL/L2 teaching and learning. This paper reviews recent correlational studies conducted to investigate self-efficacy of foreign (FL) and second (L2) language learners. The empirical evidences reveals that, in the last 10 years, self-efficacy were mostly investigated in relation to three constructs: anxiety/apprehension, strategy use, and language performance/achievement, ranging from macro-skill level to language proficiency level. Findings indicate that there are connections between self-efficacy and the three constructs. Drawing on such findings, this review was able to propose a model which describes characteristics of efficacious and inefficacious learners. In addition, implications and recommendations were brought forward to the educators and researchers in the field who want to further explore the potential of self-efficacy. Key Words: anxiety, language performance, learner motivation, second language acquisition, self-efficacy, strategy use. INTRODUCTION The paper title, author names (full names only; titles (e.g. Assistant Professor or Assistant Dean or Head of School, etc.) and degrees (e.g. Ph.D., etc.) are not necessary. Title and author affiliations must be centered as shown above. Submit your final paper to the office of Conference Chairman as indicated in the accompanying instruction sheets. All papers need to be prepared in Microsoft Word and submitted either by email attachment or in diskette. If you submit in diskette, please include two hard copies and two diskette copies. What is Self-efficacy and How Does it Boost Learner Motivation?

The term self-efficacy was coined by Albert Bandura (1977). The principle underlying this notion is that individuals are influenced by their beliefs and motivations. Self-efficacy is an individuals beliefs about his/her personal ability to succeed in or perform a certain skill/task in a certain domain. Self-efficacy is dissimilar to self-esteem; it is not ones overall judgment about his/her ability as a person. Many people may question at what stage self-efficacy is generated in a process of learning and performing a task. Self-efficacy is not outcome expectancy which relates to a persons belief about the end result of an activity or a task. To have a better understanding about their differences, the diagram below (Adapted from Bandura, 1977b, p. 79) will explain. Figure 1: Efficacy Expectation and Outcome Expectation Person Efficacy Behavior Outcome Outcome

The diagram above implies that, efficacy expectation or selfefficacy occurs before outcome expectations. A good example may be a case of a student who assesses his/her ability in performing an exam. His/her self-efficacy is involved in the process of feeling that he would score high or low in the exam before h/she performs it. Yet, outcome expectation is the beliefs h/she forms about the result of the exam after h/she has performed it already. In summary, self-efficacy is the level of how one judges him/herself capable of achieving a task before h/she actually performs it. Table 1 Profile of Typical Travelers to Cambodia REFERENCES References must be listed immediately following the CONCLUSION or SUMMARY of the paper. Use APA style. Alphabetize by author, and for each author list in chronological sequence. List the authors names exactly as written in the source cited. Use no abbreviations. (Please do NOT list references as footnotes at the end of each page). See example below: Chon, K. and Sparrowe, R. (1995). Welcome to Hospitality: An Introduction. Cincinnati, Ohio: Delmar Publishing Company.

Gardner, H. (1981). Do travel agents listen to customers? Journal of Todays Tourism. Vol. 5(1), pp. 10-15. Pritzker, T.J. (n.d.). An Early fragment from central Nepal [Online]. Retrieved June 8, 1995, from http://www.ingress.com/~astanart/pritzker/pritzker.html Smith, P.S. (2001, October 23). The finest dining places in Hong Kong. South China Morning Post, pp. B1, B3. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT Acknowledgement is optional and should appear after the references and before the appendices. Any APPENDICES should appear at the end of the article after the list of references and acknowledgement (if applicable).