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WOTIAGtsAHETO

cblbPXAHI4E

nPE.qI4CJIOBI/E......

...... 7 BbBEtrEHr YPOIIACBAHETO B EbJITAPCK'{TE ....."- 22 HAPO.qHyI BflPBAHr fr,........ Hapogna npegcma8a sa $ouacan .............. 24 ,4uaenocmuka Ha ypollac Banemo..,. :...'......' 38 Vpouac8auurm kamo sno8Pegen ..... 46 uraerocnuk VpouacBanemo kamo sfioBpegHa Ma?ufi..... 67 Pe grolvre na ananuircku eguk..'.. -r.................. 95 ..........101 Cnucrk na crlrpaueiurma

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YPOUACBATIETO

B nsPBadumHoma EgBa au unna "oBek ce sartunta&a, makap ga rte o6westBo, kofrmo u carwo om Epeme ua Bpenre c nlffiattrfrt
fi*erfivrc Opeigrp - "3satrnnama knouka"

ITBA)KAE M I4 qI4TATE JII^,

Maeugma u Ma?uueckume ErpBanua crnamcmByEam.eoBeka orn neeoBama nosBa go grliec. Heulo no8e.ae, me nponu3Bam qenun n'Iy gryr<oBelr u MamepuaJren c8gm. ,{pe8nomo Maeuqlro u MumoJro?uqno MucJreHe e napogHama QuJrocu$us, kosmo ueapa:kga rnpaguquoHnus MupoeJreg na Bcu.rku lrapogru no c8ema. Maau.eeckume BrpBanua uMam He8eponmna ycmoit,ruBocm BoB Bpennemo. Kopenume uM ca gp.ir6oko B natgrpe8nume nuacmo8e na r.roBeu.rkama ky.nmypa. HegaBucuMo om xuJrrrgoJremusma, kamo'mpagnrquoina Bspa me ca rku8u u gnec. Maeureeckume Srp Banufi uMarn orqe no-ne8 eposirura paenpoimpanrreMocm B npocrnpancmBomo. Hnlvra kyumypa no c8ema, I kosmo npeo6'nagaBautama rracm om uetnomo cograp:kanue ga rre ca me. I4 oute, 8tB Bcu'rku 4apogrnu kynmytrru, naaeu.reckume Esp8anus uMam eglHemunen xapakmep.

WOTTACBAIIETO
He8epoarn:ra e yuugepcarnrama u Bcenponukgaura_ ma uM cblunocm. Omkpuganre au naBcslmge g 6umuemo u cb3ualruemo Ha qogeka. Bcuuko moBa npaBu om Ma?ufima u uaaurreckume E4rBanua 0 e u o M e lr g qoBeurkama kynmlpa. Izlnmepectm krnr ues e cmap, konkomo ,, _". H" Maeusma e nocBemeuo oepoMno konurrecmBo knu:kuu_ na - 3a crtka.nenue uggan npegeJrume rra cmpAuama u Heg'ocmbnna ga rno6o3HameJruur 6rneapcku trumamen. A 6rnaapckama mpagnrquonna napogrua lryam1rya npocmo erurku om Ma?us. Bamoga orue B :fyflf -get knurhoBuukbm - gaMackunap fi ocue Bpagamu grskruk_ Ba: "...Ag no MH.o?o 3eMJru xogr.lx, Ho He cr*r gugten no Mnoeo 6pogmuqu, caurogu.rm r.r *aeuoc"ut1u, ko.nkomo y 6s.rraapcka geMr!" Hapogn:ama Maeu, u cBrpeauume c nes uaaurrecku 8rpBanua ca ocnoBnama crcmaBkaxa mpagnrquonuama napogrna kynmlpa na 6rneapume. Ts e ocnogama na mpa gruquonnume MupoeJre gmu npe gcma gu, Br;rBanu*, o6pegnr u o6urrau - eglra esuueckagpeBuocm, go*ruBra; go naruu gtHu. "5lrrufAPCKA HAPO.IHA MAf?If[,, e ueo6arnnama meMa rra notreguqama omkuueu, kou.mo npegocmaBinre na 6raaapckus reumame.n. flrp Bume cmrnku no mbMuume, maricm8euume, neuggecrnnu ... u unmepecuu gpy_ Muula na 6rnaapckurne &raauqecku gxpBanu", oa,ipr-,_ mekuuau na IIpOTIACBAHETO. Te ao uecnegBamkamo cbuluocm, npegmasBane u 6aene.
Anzea i|oeg

YPOTIACBNIETO
BbBEFHI4E

"... Bnp&attemo B ypoku e o6u'oqo0ery' ko.-- EaBcnk>ge, kr,ge o nPonuk&a emno zpai| ckomo usylata&an*,e' ce,cpetua n'oBefiue B ypoku; a B nanau qnu 6u 6utn ' Hepaspewunn saeagka' ako "a sencto' mo kttr1o ce HaMePu naPog 6es nolePun B Woku; makr8 urYuafr ne twoire u ga ce gan7cne, mr,fi kamo mo&a ule 6rge IPnakonPomu&oPequeebc . u enufr noPagzk Ha eJrelfienmaptrama ,tap o giHa n cuxoJro eu E "'7 B o6ruama cuomeMa om B*pBanua' cBtpsauu cbc ypocBprxecmecmBeno snoBpegnro Btagetcm8ue' ,r a c B a n e m o' uJru nopa:henuemo npuquueno om qenmpaJnro Mficmo' oukcupauo Jr o ul n o e Jr e gi saeMa oqe B panlrume nnacmoBe na lrapogtrama kylmylra

Itaagagam Ha

ucmopur..;#m

no-Betre' kamo Heurt eJreMenm' mo e :kuBo u grlrec' Heuro qpetuano aBneEue' Qeuomeurm y p o k u e oftuo'{ogeurko no cBema' drB Bcu.aku uuBa na kyrmlpume ---Hatr-cmapuflm ugmo'uuk, B koflmo cmaBa gryMa 3a nouro oko Jrotu noaJreg npulragJrerhu na akagnrme'z 3a \recmo cnortrenaBam knuuonucHume xangericku cb\ruu lreBurr no Ma?us' cmapume e?unemcku' ungutcku gpeBca?u' nepcufcku gaknunanu*, "*"po"eBepnr'lme auepukanqume' rre?puuume lrynmylru ua kumairuume' cJregome, ilrumeJrume na muxookeanckume ocmpoBu' nuvrupo8ume enu'eecku cbrruneBus, cmapoaaBenurume ga8am r, anolrpuilna ktru*rauna' Maoeci cBegenua

"a"rr"

WOUACBAIIETO
u gppeBuume nucameru Teo\rum, flnymapx, Bepau.nut, .&rononug, Xenuogop, nnunui u Mno?o gpyeu. Kamo uJuocmpauuff 3a urupokama p""rrpo"*po"_ Hocm na E4r8anusma-g gr"* r, gpegonocen no?neg u1e nocoquM uueoprramugao xskou rrp,r*epu om kynmypu, c:nosulu ganeqe egrua om gpyea. B grpeBnouryrvr"p"fr""* "Enoc'a lu.neaueur", En.rnin e oineok, c ,rgrriogaruo oaon oko u uMa cMbpmolrocen noeJreg.3 gecmg ulam nepcona:hu c oqu ugnrregaqu cMbpm, c "r"G_ n o eJr e g H a c M bp m m a,4 a cmpatunomo Jruqe na XyBaBa ua,ra y6uircm8enu orru:
uaJrese om cgog gou kegrpoB, c oqu ?u noenegHa, c oqu y6uficrnbegu.,,6

YPOTIAGBNTETO
nasBd om Bcsko 3ro e uso6patkenuemo na Okomo Vagrrkem. glgenmu(buqupauo c ko6pama -ypeyc /usnpaEena ga nanagenue/ 3nauume ur: Sropxy qapckume kopo($yr*lruu: HU u gnrageMu u3ff'JrlrlrBarn Saulunuru

r'ff na XoP aroesruomo oko Pm trreH ocBo6ogeno nrre sakPunr' lI mo Brp:ry're'nomo na Pa


6atuama na 6ozoBeme c8emu"ro
B uumouoeuflma na CeBepoanaepukanckomo rureMe Ogr:ku6Be egrno om uecmme c8ptxecmecmBenu ctruecm8a, ugne3ru om Mopemo e c npeBpraha na oqume' Ako yl/rupa tr Hflwra, xa kotmo'eoBek nonagmq no?JIeCIbm My' kamo nopa3eH om MbJIHur.ll flogo6tru Bap8anua ca nosnamu u Ha gpyeu napogru.l2 B grpeBnoaprukama uumofloeufl no?Jrega na Megry3ama foBeona Bkarrrreus8a Bcektr, koeomo noeregue. B cnaBmrckuml BrtrEamun Ba6a Eea e cJrfina u 6naeogapenue lra moBa, lkuBgme Moeam ga ug6eanam cMbpmma npu ipeuta T:"'it. " B ucmopufima cu fl.nunuir Nll,2,8,lnuure 3a ""'HflI(ou Ckumiku rleuu, koumO uloM Ce paSaneBenu na nql(oa., y6uBanu eo caMo c noeJregr ... a koakomo ce onrnacfi gp Maabocnuqume, 3a msx kagBam' qe uManu oqu, koumo qelpcnrac8ani." flak maM 3a mpakutckume rureMeua me*, " ... eo y mpu6a.rmme u uJtupuiruume uMafio xopa c aotuu orru. Crc cBos noaneg me.gokap8anu cMbpm tra qbpnrmu otlu"' moeoBa, koeomo ?JtegaJru' oco6eno cbc ,{pe8nopunrrckume ma6rmqu na geuerrn8uPume /450 ga Bcu'nku e. np.n.e./ npegBu:kgam cMbplruro xakagauue gon6okama ycmotuulruue, koumo ylrouacBam.la 3a '8oc*oa o6cms$laeJlcrn$omo, qb no Bnp8asemo aoSopu

.,XyBaga

ko.

Jleflga/ 6oaunsma_.rbgu; Xamop e nocmaBeua om pa ga cgoe Cuur.rego oko u,'g Morvleum Ha pa3gpaeieuue krnrr nslro?o ,,... oqume ir sa6necme,Tu om oeb's, noeJregrbm u ce pa3na"";;;": Eariku nrraM:bqu kamo koumo u3eapnm Bcuq_

rkeauemg na .eoBe.recmgomo", B i,Knuaa na uapmBume,, u Ha MHOaO gpyeu Mecma okomo ,-r*a *oerqa cuJra, kosmo nopaedBa Bcuqko.? Bmopomo gat<nrua'u;; nanupyca Bpeaauep-pung, omrd<gecmBaga rr". okomo c paspyr,uumeJreu nnaMrk.B B ,,Mumrm ",rrr**. ,; ;;-' rreEomo oko" /nanupyc om

CuuEo.rnrkama na 6o*ecmgeuomo oko6 B eeunemc_ kama MumoJroaua gognr ua\raromo ErtrrBanun Mnoeo npegu gpervremo om Tekcmogeme "" "*-";;;;; na nupaMugtume. Tanrr mo e nokagano kamo usfibuBatuo pagpyurumeJrua cuJra. Hanpunrep B,,Mumrm 3a ynuulo_

"rrr"al"i,,

Hai-rvroaaluuffm eeunemcku aMyJrem, korimo npeg_

WOUACBAIIETO

WO\TAffiNTETO
cmapomo nokoneuue. 9ecmo om ycmama Ha MJragTume ce uy8a "ypouacant cbM", "ngkoft rrre e ypoqacafl", "x8anah cru ypoku!1. Heruo noBeue, u gtlec naBcnkage uua Mrro?o npaknrulryBaruu 6aauku, koumo "qepflm" ]Doku. Mnoeo ca u nauuenmume unr yBepenu, qe ca ypoqacamu utrnr "BogRm lra 6as.rka" geuama u *tuEomnume kamo cMrrmam, rre ca "Oauaflu.yr)oku". Taau ycmoirtru8ocm npaBu om Brpama 81ryoku Qenonren, korfmo mps6Ba ga 6tge npoyqBan om emnoepaOugma' a u He caMo om nefl . Saqornokamo emuoepaOcku$akm yp o q a c B a n eompuqamenuo EnsgetcmBue, kamo peanen nono:humenen eQekm npu npegmasBane u nekyBane qpe3 6aene. OkanecmBsBanemo rvry kamo "6a6uuu geBemunu'f u cYe8epue ce gonrhuna moBa, ue crBpevreruamanay$a Bce oule ue rvrorhe ga o6scuu unorkecmBo neo6scnuMu' tto peaJrno crtuecmByBaruu RBnenux, B rrucnomo na koumo e u JrpoqacBanemo. ToBa e maka, 3atuomo mo e korun.nekcno gBnenue c Muoeo acnekmu, koumo u3uckBam wrnoeoacnekm:ro usyuaBane. Kamo o6ekm ga ugcnegBane ypo,rac8anemo uMa unmepgrucqunJrunapeu xapakmep. To uo*re ga 6rge ueyraBano u om gpy?u uayku c o?neg Ha paquonaJrr{u eJreMenmu, cBrp3aHu c ncuxono?uama' ncuxomepanufi ma, napogrBama Meguquua, MeguuuHama,Qapnraquflma, Qusuunume u Mlroeo grpyeunayku. To nprko pe(lnekmupa B ekcmpaceucopnume aBnenus u npegcmaBnsBa unmepec 3a naykume ganurura8atuu ce c mgx. Bcuuko mo8a ocmaBa ugBrn kptaa rra Eatuemo Bnuuanue, 3anuomo e o6ekm na gpyeu uayku u usuckBa gpyea u3cJregoBameacka vremogruka. Hauama 3aga\ra e cnequQu,rno enuroepaQcka - ga u3cleg8a gBnenuemo I ucmopuqecku nnan.
77

muguama Bnacm Harraea na gcu,{ku, noeJreg ga HOCsm mbMHU OquJra.

::fj:jf ?-:Ti l_1"""".1,; ; rc; T#11"ffi:: il;:tilffT:il


;:H:T:j:":1/":*ume
Ha smeurna ramanus/ Muoeo

Mue om qo_ Beurkus rkuBom. r reogeka, caMunm 1n"oc*ag;;;" motr, qaaomo ueaogo oot p"rt u gcrrot o .rogeurko

me H^a 6aneapckama napogtra lrynmypa. C moga ce naga8aue, qe uscrregr8ane;o *" e"!"": O""""pJf.ri 9""j. I 96.to*o paaenerkgane na'sgaeuuemo. , Brp8auunma g anogp"grr" g*gtcmBue ca cbluec_ mBen gsr om B*:*1 na 6a"reai,rme. Cmpaxbm om p"tr npucrcmByga 6ykBarnro g;g gceku

Ha Brpganemo g lpoku onpegerrs neeoBama garknocm u 3uaqeuue kamo o6ekm 3a u3cJregBane om enrHo?paeuxma. CpagnumeJruomo uy ueyua8alre e uskrnoqumemro cnor*".; dt;;;;;;_ g'a garjku moB a, uue 'ra. O cr cu no.*. g ma tlen - gra pageJregaMe ylrouacganemo " "1,-Jh ;;l_ "* caMo B pannku_

ff Bognru sa rrouro oko, "erp".";ilJ oko, noeJrel, Jroura gpeula. 11lo ls 'O6uro.roBeurkomo uguepenue

::*Tu

eors *::*:ly ynorracBo""a Bc.rok, Haposru uMa srrruu, y ;lJ];;ffil

crarp,#;;ffi?;'Hi.

mo pearrEo

cbluecmByBa.Peanaokamo

Baueo6xoguMocmma_omllasefierkg"""n""o-""""]" ycmofivuBocmma nry grB 'ro8eka om grn6oka grpegrroc*, ,oo u galec kamo Erpa u npakmuka g cbguanue;;;;;; "'X,,rgo

-sa Brsgeficm8uemo nqagu o* oo"roo*o npucEcm_ EyBaur semarin ere eceku;;;;; ""ro om uaposmama kynmlpa. B amo ga u ecae gg anemo Ha r.p ueo6xogrunao, 3a gra ,.r"""", ;;;;;.*. """qbul'ocm u "il."."]i"T "" Mffcmomo uy I cucmeMama Ha Eapogrnume gspgq.nug.

laocre

6rse ypoo."."o.

"** tagu-n*.,g";;=ffiT;

gpe*e*;.-A;#ffi;;;
;;;;

10

WOIIACBAHETO
Oure nrp8ume aanucBauu tra uapogtnu ynromBopenufl y nac o6psulam Buuuanue tra BrpBauemo g rcotu ..kamo cr6upam npeguMuo noekcmogela 6aene 6"r"_ ku denerkku c8rpaanu cbc cuMnmoMume u nputruuume_ " n1. Tasu mpagruuun npogrra:haga u go ggec. irln([opnna_ mu8nu Mamepuarru, cBrpaanu c lpoo"cBalremo l"bo_ rkam no.rmu Bcu'dlru omgeJrxu, ufiu nepuoguquu qu sa (loaknop u Hapog'ru p,romgopeuua, "Ooi"-"_ uuorhecmgo HapogonucHu Mamepuamr g 6rneap-ka*" rr"progn k;,, gpyeu uegalluff, neny6aukyBa:ru ganucu om *y="fr*,r,, gpyeu apxuBu; omnoceJruupru npoyrganur u omgremru mepenuu Banucu.lz Konuuecmgeuomo uampynBaae na eMnupuqen MamepuaJr no meMarna noggonsBa no-n'JrHa u no-qfiJrocrnna paspa6ornka. Ypouac8anemo I 6onaapckama ernuoepaQus e cJra_ 6o npopreno. Kamo meMa e mpemupano cauo un$opua_

WOWICBAHETO
cu naxolkga B napoga, a no'oepantu*leHo"' BoB Qorknopuama cu 6euerkka "Jloulu o'{u" A'II'Cmouno$le pasane*ga nalpamko ushou npegma3uu spegcm8a npomuB lpoku u no-cnequarnro Banlanmlle, cBrpealru c non.nro8ane u nrafi'runo o6nugBane. A8moplm npaBu moBa nog Bnuanue na ny6rnrlryBanama npegu moBa pa6oma na H.O.CYMuoB. flpea t9212. Cm. JI. Kocmo8 ny6nulryBa cmamutma "Anrynemu npomuB ypoku"zo. B uex pasene*ga aMynemtume 0oprvru 3a npegrnaSBane npegnrMHo om (longa qacm ua Flapogmus erftro?paQcku rrnyseri. B yBognama moft npaBu kpamtk npeeJreg 3a pa3npocmpadenue na B4p8anemo B nskoukyrmypu no cBe5na, caom8emuume uau*renoBanutr u xapakmepa ua ueaoSomo ecmecmBo' Orrre B cavromo HaqaJro pa3epanu\laBa.gBe ocnoBuu npuqulra Qopruu na snoBpegmomo Blsgeircm8ue. Kamo npueMagaBucnnma u nega ypo\lacBaxemo aBmoprm go6po:kenameacm8omo. B pe3ynmam om m,nK' om okomo ua 3jronaMepeuama Jrurruocm u3rru?a cuJra' Soamo 8peg,r. Pesynmamrm om ues gaBucu om Bonsma na npumeilrameJrf,' lto B uuoao cJrln'rau nrt ce nporBa8a uegaBucurr,ro. Ommyk a8moprm koncmamupa, ue "[ouruflm no?Jreg e npucbtu kakmo rra fiotllu, maka u na gofuu xopa", ga}nro.reuue, cnopeg nac ney6egumeJlno' BaaurutcmgyBarro om cmanoBuuemo na S. Selignnannzl' HegaBucuMo om moBa, go mo3u MoMeHm' a u Mlroeo eognuu cJleg usrru3anemo upaspa6omkama uq CmJI'KocrnoB, uakap u klramka, ocma8a egn*rcrnBeuama nocepuo3ua pa6oma Bspxy ySro'eacBanerno. B nonynrpna ibopwra 8tpxylryo'+ac8anemo ce cnupa u C. Bame8.22 ABmopbmpaseJlelkga uakonko crr1ruafi ua ga6o.nentl gieqa, qusmo 6onecm no oSruo v:senue 6u*a 13

muBno,

ErpBanux. llpoB B. rlonakoS npeg 1 gS9 ?. ce.cnupa ua ypouacBa_ Hemo kamo koutrperuo grpgane.rs To[ omrruma pasn_ pocmpaneuocmma trry qpeg Mnoeo napogfu u grrn6okama lry Ekopenelrocm y ornlafume, koulo-"p"L""g"* ;" neeo noqmu.Scska 6onecm u neycnex. Kamo ornnaca Bxp8anemo konr J'.tucfiomo Ha ncuxoJloeuqnume npeg_ Memu" a8moprm paacrrkgaBa ga ucmuuuocmma grB BrsMo:l$rocmume na Bpegclnoclrufl noeJreGlr om "glrute8nomo uyBcru8o na gagucrnrna". Hakpaa ""gLp""u" kon_ cmarnupa "... Bu:hga ce, qe ga napognromo -Bapgaue mpa6Ba gra MucrruMe Ee kak sa cyeBepue, . k"k ,. 848ane ucmu$Ho, camo mpn6Ba ga ao npue*ranae ne kak
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mogi ce npaBu napaJreJrno g o6urus konmekcm-Ha gpyeu

tra omgeJrnu neaoBu crrlpa,us. B no$e,aemo cJr] rau

nafi-o6tu_acnekm u.rm Spaanreumapuo, c o?.lregt

YPOqA@AHETO
npurrunena omylroku, onumBafiku ce gra gage paquoualr_ no o6gcuenue n'a npuquuume. Kamo paecr*gaBa gap:ry uapognromo Eurkgane sa ylrokume, mofi nognrepma ga, ue me, "cnopeg Boaanegnrme Ba rlaruus Bapog ca npuquna_ ma Ba ga6ons8anemo ua Greqama',, u ue ,.lpogacganemo e neo6ncnuMo u Eneganno ga6onsBane,. npuqulleno.om noeJrega rla gpye uoBek,, upee uakakrB cu sbJr giJrx, koaomo ga ga ao u3eoHfim, 6agm Ha ypoqac""o*o rr^, nrk rrny qemam c8eulenuuu". Mo:hel"r ga nocorluM u ugJreaJrume nanocJregbk nskou Haruu paepa6omku23, koumo paaane*rgam omgeJrHu
pesy-Jrmama u cmpykmypama rra ypouacBanemo, npeg._

WO\TACBAETETO
pama useparkga cucmeMama om Haqurtu 3a Jlet'relrue u npeuaxBanerra ompuqamennume nocJregruqu' Taka eneMeumume na BrpBauemo epa8umupam okono mpu cmpykmlpuu sgpa, onlegeJlsulu cbulnobmrna na nBne*rrre-o, npegmasBanemo u 6aenemo. Taeu nocJrego8aqsmeJrrocm npueMaMe .ra cmpykml4poonpegeJrfitua 3a Jrocnurama paePa6omka. ts nrpBama knuea, osaana8eua "VpouacBanemo B 6rnaapckume lrapogrnu Exp8anus" lue ce onumaMe ga uSficnuM cbtuHocrnma u xapa}mepa Ha Erpgaxemo' 3a uenma e neo6xogruMo ga onpegeJruu karrecm8enume xapakmepucmuku xa o6ekma u cy6ekma fpouacau ypouacBauy', ecmecmBomo ua mexnume BeauMoornnorueuut onruocuo npuquua u pe3yJlmam. Om maSu ocnoBa tue nogxognraa ktrr,r pekoncmpykuus lra cmpykmypuama c*a*" na BspBanemo' cbolrutecena ktu cmpykmypama Ha Ma?usma. ToBa e neo6xognrMo, 3aluomo ]rpo,{acBa}remo e cBprxecmecmBeno Br'egeficm8ue u cr'grbp:ka kognrpanu Bcuuku cmpykmypnu Maeuqecku ene-' Meumu. BrB Emopama knua a, "llpe gmaa BaHe om Jrpoku" ueumbpbmna Enurvrauue e Saulumuama cucmeMa' o6esnetra8alua neyaeBunaocmma lra 3acmparueHume' Illupokuam o6xBam ua snoBpegnromo Bragefcm8ue ugBukBa na ilru8om nmoeo6poiuu u pa3lroo6paelru cpegcm8a u Bapuanmu ga Batuuma. Konu'aecmBeuomo pasuoo6paeue Bampygtlrfl Ba msxnomo cucmeMarnusupaue' C oale g na moBa u sa cb3gaBane. rra onpegeJreua nocJlegg8amennocm B ueno*(enuemo lra Mamepuana tue nocma8um. qoBeka karno o6egnrnumeJreu qelrmbp Ha saluunutama cucmeMa. 3a qenma tue npocJreguM cpegcm8ama u Bapuarrmume 3a Saluuma om ytrrokn om gaT eBanemo u
15

cmpanu ua Erp8anemo, ornnocno ry6ekma, o6ekma,

nag8allemo om Heeo npu pa:hgane, cBam6a u gpyeu crry rau, 6aenemo u nepconarkume usgapurgaulu Jreqe_
nuemo. Heo6xogmnao e ga cnoMeueM, qe uu($opnramuBno u nalrpamko mo e o6ekm na Bnunnanue B nskou ny6nuka_ uuu, pa3eJretkgautu npo6uennume Ha Hapogruama Megu_ quna, npegcma8ama 3a 6onecmurne, 6aenemo u nskou lrapogrnu ErpBanua.2a VpouacBanemo e urupok koa,rnnekc. om gspgauufr, npegcmaBu u o6pegrnu npalmuku. Ifsnocmnomo My pasarie*gane nocma8g uuolkecmBo Brnpocu opueumu_ pauu B ucmopuueckupaepe3, meMamuuen o6em, mepu_ mopuaJren o6x8am, ceMaumuqen u cmpykmJ4)en auanu g. ToBa naJraea gemari.rnro pasenelkgaue na omgeJruume kounoueHmu.lra konurnaekca ypoku kakmo "i*r, "u ce6e cu, maka u BrB EsaunroBprgka u ggaulrosaBucu_
MOCm.

3noBpegmuam xapdlmep Ha lpouacBauemo narraea omBemnu peakquu. flrpBama om msx e saulunura cuc_ meMa om cpegcmBau Bapuanmu 3anpegrnaagane. Bmo74

WO\IACEAHETO
lra gememo Bats gosxogaula grapacmoga nocnegoBaraeJniocm. Toga nu gaBa grsMolkur"ilu*og_ pemel$ro u napaJrenlro ga pageJregaMe npegmagganemo npu Ecuuku .lo8eurku gefinocmu, Ha,ruua_ Irufr u sBresun npes qeJrua My *ruBom. "r**o"*,urr,il6npnenr tltre Buua,ranue u ua o6pegErume npa},auku cgrpealru c lra_ pogmun kaneugap, mpygogama gerinocm ornnoruenua, B"koumo no Maeuqecku nrm "L""..il"il " ce aafiaeam Uukau'&ro mpaequ,npe gB apume""" ."o;;;r;;;;;:
pa:k(?anenno

WOUAGBAHETO
parkganemo u gro ceea. II{e nanpaBuu onum ga usepagruM npegcma8ama ga 6ag.rkama I ponrma Ha o6pegen nepcona:k c netnama coquaJrua u MumoJro?uqua xapakmepucmuku. Kamo omqumaMe, ue I gocearunume paspa6ornku 6aeuemo e 6uno o6ekmua Buuuanue caMokamoesuko8a Soprvrauua, nacouBaue Butruauuemo cu krlvr mpuegtrHHama rvry cmpykmypa Ha Maeuqecku o6peg, cbgbpilraur geicmBuemo, gaknunanuemo u uaau.reckomo 8etuecmBo. Om 6oaarnusm eMnupuqeu Mamepuan ule ce onumaMe ga us8neueM unJrocrnxama cmpykmypa na o6pegmomo 6aene, kamonpegnr moBa pekoncmpyupaMe omgeJrnume aeeoBu koMnoneumu. HagaB?rnae ce ga nocrnueneM moBa c noMoluma lra ceManmutreu anaJru3. B sakfiro.renue HacoqBaue BnuuaHuemo cukrnrr o6o6ulenue rra ecmecmBomo u xapakmepa Ha ErpBanemo B lpoku u ule nombpcuM Mficmomo My B o6tuama cucmeMa na snoBpegmo BregetcmBue. Pagenerhganemo Myom mpu cmpauu useparkta qsJrocnlnama npegcmaBa ga ueeo. Kakmo Berre cnovreuaxMe, uscneglBanemo ce npocmupa Brpxy 6uaapckama ernnuqecka mepumopur. 3a nbrruomo mepumopuaJrao nokpumue usnonsy8aMe MamepuaJru om Ecurrkukpauula, 6es ga npernenglrpaMe sa paBnoMepno konu'recmBexo cbornuorueuue. flpeo6nagaBaura qacm om ueEopume ce omuacsm sa nepuoga cpegama na XIX go oceMgecemlne ?ogtuuu na XX Bek. 3a pasurup*8ane na EpervreEume epauuqu na u3cJregiBanemo ugnoJr3yBaue ugmoqHuuu om no-palruu ky-nmypnu nnacmoBe, koumo no noHsrrlnu npuuunu konurrecm8eno ca no-pranko. Xapakmepbm lra usBopoBume gannu e pasnoo6pa17

nod<6u.

ponerinu c,pegcmga.

xu-a o6ekm u npoaonBaue Ha eaoBpe gruurr aeeum c anom_

Bspxy ocnoBama na pageJrerhgauua eMnupuqen MamepuaJr ule uanpaBuu ceuaHmuqelr axalrug na npegr_ nasnume cpegcmga. Toga ule nu nogBorm g",r."p.;,.L cucmeMa rra mflxnomo epynupaue. OcuoBeu not asaieo sa mo8a ca npuxuunume lra npomuBogeficmgue, koumo nafi-o6ruo ce onpegenfimkamo usonallua rla ,u"*p**"_

Om apxeoJroeu.recku u3morrnuuu ule nombpcuM nff_ kou napanerru no-gi:brrSoko BrB gpenaemo. i;d;;;;;_ cs npeguMno 3a epynanra Ha aMyJrernuume ([opuu. _ B mpemamalrouaa ,,Baeue aaypoku,, ttlu $oprvrume 3a fieqenue u uaqunume ga npeuaxgane "" "rrp"*"" na ompuqame.mrun eeekm om llpoqacganemo. Maeuqecku_ sm xapakmep na enoBpegrnomo BrsgeficmBue orrp"g;rri crom8ernromo Ma?u.recko rr",a""rrloro. 3a lpouacBauemo ocnoguam. ""*""*Bo 6aenemo. HeeoO"p*" e "" Eume kopeuu ce lrpunm otr1e I pan5ume cmbnana lla .acgeurkama ucmopus. Kamo Sop*a npocnegnru I npakrnukama ,,a nopume ocno8nu "" "";;;;;;;;; ernnutrecku komnoueuraa - npu mpaku, cnaBsnu.u opaOr*eap u, $ c-p e grrioB eko' n a ru* o""irp"t*u oo"**, ;d;;;_

lo

w,Qilvaffi-4;ggTs
pana knurhnu:ra, Baaporkgencku, cpegnroBekoBsu u aumuqlru aBmopu, apxeoJro?u.recku ar"*oo"rrqrr, mJn)Hu npous8egrenua, "r,r*up"_ - Mnoaonaacmogugm xapakmep Ha pasene*rganomo sBnenue Harraaa npu u3cJregBanemo My ga ce nogrxogru g. kounnekcua Memogorro?us. flpu konu,rec*Belro.io lampyrr8ane Ha eMnupuqnua MamepuaJr npuJraeaMe Qopnrume na noneBama ernnoepa$ux _ HenocpegrcmBe_ nomo aa6nlogeHue, paenun:gane, 3anuc a"r.l*-"p""". Barkno uscmo omgerrsMe u Ha npoyuganuam" " kyBanu, apxuBusdpanu u gpy?u Memepuan", "iiOrr,r_ "a k;;; npegJraeam uneoprvraqus no meMama. Brpxy urupoka_ ma usBopo8a 6a ga rrpe 3 pempocnekmuB"amapeko""*_ pykqus tue ce onumaMe ga u3epagnrrvr cmpykrr;;;;; Eceku omgerre' korvrnoaln* " cbu[rocmma r."*o * no. 3a ga o6xBaneM usJrocnuro "u-g"pga"emo Ha sBnenu_ emo u ga Bauknenr I crgrspdranuemo Ha omgeJr5;; ; eJIeMeHmu ue nonaygaMe u Memog na korrnou""*",r" anaJrus. Krnr o6ulamd qen e u cmpykmrrpno_Ovntuuo_ HaJrEua nogrxog Ha uscne gBanemo. 25 0',co6euo Bnuuanue omgeJrfiMe. tra ceManmukama na gcuriku eJreMeumu, useparkgautu Brp8anemo g 1poku.
aJru, noceJruulnu npoyuganux, ano\>uena u kanonu-gu_ gen. Izfgnonay8arvre mepennu 3anucu, apxuBnu r*amepu_

WOIIACBAHETO

Bene:kku ktvr BrBegeHuemo


1' CynnuoB, H. O., Ilu.+rsre o6epeau om ceJra3a. XaprkoB 1896, c.1.
2. KocmoB, Cm. JI. Auyrremu npomuB ypoku - IzIHEM, 1 92 1, Iftt.2,c.93-94. 3. JluukoBcka, K., K.Illoilruncka. Mumonoeus ua MeconomaMus. C., 7984, c.70.

fiak marrr, c.110. flak mau. 6. flogpo6uo y KopocmoBueB M.A. Penueus gpeBneao Eeunema, M., 1976; AHmec P. Muilonoeun B gpeBxeu Eeunme. - B_: Mu<lonoaux gpeBneeo Mupa, M.,7977,.c. 55-121; Mamre M.e. flpeBleeeunemckue uui[u. M-JL, 1956;Tokape8
4.
5.

9r"g me3u gyMU, ygarkaenau qumameJrro, ga naBne_ eeM B-mbMlrume ge6pu Ha napogrHama grpa. Ho mr& kamo Bcsko HaqaJro e 3acmpatuu*o o* 3Jru cuJru, ga cu norke.rraeu go6rp kpari c ynugepcaJrHama "O"*.r". $opvryna'Xa, gta He Hu e ylroku"!

B ucmopusma Ha Hapogume. C., 1983, c.208. KnuaanarurpmBume xagpeBnume eeurunsnu. C., 1982, c.5O,72,79, 80. 8. Jlununcka,.f[., M. Mapuunak, Mumonoauf; Ha gpeBnun Eeunem, C., 1981, c. 166. L nak marvr, c. 101. 10. Knuea na nrrcpmBume ..., c.50. 11. Mu<lrr napogoB Mupa. M., 1980, T.1, c.306. 12. Mamse, M.3. lpeBueeeunemckut o6pag omBepsanun ycm u orret. BI4PA, T.5, M., 1958; IzIBanoB, B.B. 06 ognoir napaJrerru k eoeoneBckolu'ry Buro - TgC, T. 5, Tapmy 1973. 13. Mu0u napogo8 Mupa, T.1, c.306. 14. KocmoB, Cm.JL Anrynemu ..., c.94. 15. Ilogpo6Ho 3a HauMenoBaxusma 3a ypoqacauo y pa3nusuume Hapogu y KocmoB, Cm.JI. Auynemu ..., c.94-97. 16. Oepo*rnusm o6epr na meMarna I o6utoqo8euku nnan uauckBa koxkpemnu paspa6omku sa BepBanunma I ypoku na Bceku Hapog noomgeJruo. Kamo npuMep 6uxnrre nocoquJru uecne,gBanemo 3a crp6ume na Tebophebuh, T. P,3ne oqu y BepoBay Izly:hnux CnoBena - Beoepag 1985. 17. Izln<loprr,ramuBnume u3morrnuuu cBrpsanu c ypolrac-

C.A. Penuaunma
7.

18

19

WO\ACBNTETO
Eanemo.ca rrnnoeo6porllru, C oeneg tra npeeJrernocm u ga He ce ymerkxxBayBoga Re rue 6rgam uurnupanriH" caom]gem_ Hume Mecma B xoga ua ugnorkenuemo. B. - __1 1859, q.I, KH.I,3a ypouacBaHemo - iErnaapcku knu*ruqu, tr.II, 9.-Y9rako8, c.-gO-gO. 19. CmounoB, A.!I. Jlouru o.ru. / Qonknopna 6enerkka/ _ p, -- , 1918,8p.4, c. 108-109. CyMqoB, H.(i. Jlu.ubre ,.. !!. $ggmoB, Crn.II., A,uynemu ..., c.91-110.

YPOIIACBAHETO
me Bxp8anug B 6rneapckume 6agnus - fBnilIU - QO'T'SA' 1991, ;. 25-47; MopQonoeus na 6tnaapckume naparreJrucmu.rlru 6af,Hus - f BfiI4III - OO, T. 1 14, 7987,c. 8 1- 106 ; floemuka xa 6rnaapckume 6asuus - B: Bmopu konapec, !' 15J Cr 1988, c. 83-9b; TaulenenueBa fI. 3a slrakoBama c-urvrBonulca B 6asuugrna na mppnckama elrlxoepa<lcka epyna I fpyg-o,8cb9 - }IMIOfiB, T.9, flnoBguB 1986, c. 145-149; finakueBa-X., IzI. Iagf(anoBa. Jle.renue qpel 6aene B Cnu8enckux kpat - ITIMIO-1983, c. 207-2A4; llempoBa P. Ktm I4E: T, VIII, flnoBsu$ npov.rBanusma r.a 6asnusma B Cnu8encko - B I Qonknopxama nipdgru,r* na CnuBenckua kpat. PilEO' T'?,c,,1989, c. 144 15b; Mag:ltapoB fI. Eaxnux u sakfiunanus I penepmoapa Ha egna noium-e.nka ria <lonknop om ?Igmo"rHus gsJI na CmpaHs;ka- FO, 1979, KH.1, c. so-so; "Cmopunsma" u "npaBuHnlq?" Iruraausma/ BtB rbonknopa u 6uma Ha cmpaugrkanuu - E(D, 1985, KH.4, c. 51-59; BomeBa C. Hapogxu neqeuus c 6aene om flnedencko - !{MC3B, T. 14, 1988, c.177-127; KouroB C. Maauu om Pasno:kko - BO, 1980, KH.4, c.98-108;TogopoBa lut. Easnus u Ma?uu lTIo rvramepuarru om MuxatnoB".Paggkg/ - Bj O-T I\rnaok go Irlckrp. PhEO, T.l,c., 1989, c. 6l-77; KggqBg-U. Hapogrnir BepBanun u nekyBanug om XackoBcko - I4MI0?1B, T.10, flno8gu8 1987, c.725-L41' iS. omriocuo u3noJr3yBanume lvremogu no-nogpo6no:CBog cinnoepailu.eeckux nonsmuft u mepMu]loB - Smuoepa<[gn u omerkntre gucuururuxbr. Smnoapa<luuect<ug gy6s999qq,Iunbl. lllkonsr u ianpaBnenuR. Memogsl. M., 1988, c' 2O5-224;Xa' gtkunukonoB B. Teopemuko-t*emogo.noauuecku npo6nennu ila emxoepa<fukama iayka - B. TrprroBo, 1979, c' 178'213.

8p.6.

Seligmann, S. Der b6se Blick und verwandtes _ Berlin _ ^,?1, 1910, I, 4. 22. BameB, C. Vpouac8anemo - BmOB,I.VI,31 uafi 1g30,
23. IoeB, A. Brnaapcka napoqna npeqcmaga sa.,,vDouaIMCB,KH.XI, Bapua 1985, c:16s-ize] npegcmadina sa

'VponacBaul"B6anaap-ckumeaapogiauoxpednu?-f MCB,K* c. tOg -Z tZ ; Cmiyfrnypaina xa ypo.rac B;]re_ mo kamo,enoBpegna uaeur - gU, t-gAg,"K$.3, c.3- i2; nrp"gn;u_ 8.19_"p^-yp_oku" npu parkgaue - B: Emrp, T.l, fa6po-Boigg9, c. 115-162; Korwuqnume en-ervrenrnu B 6rjleapckarni xapoqna cBarn6a kamqcnggcq8o_.3a npegna3eaue oni..ypotru'; u r3rioB_ p:g{^9rygeircm8ue" -B: C*rexLm BrB gonknopa. C., 19g2, c. 294-298; O6tuo6rnaapcku uepmu u.nokinnu oco6enoc*u i.. Hapoguume npegoxpa'umerrHu .p"g.*gi np;*"d il;fi; 3roupeggg BbsgetcmBue B napognarna cBarn6a om il6poB_ cko - ?: sHKq, Ia6poBo- 1 9eA, c. 126- t g7; Odpegnomo rr".r"n,.r" upes.6aeue_8 6rneapckarna Hapogtna rraegiruina _ B: Umnle_ pagclu npo6nervru na napognrama fyxoenitrynmypa. C., iggg, c. X22-157; O6paarm na 6as'{kam;-B 6rnea6ck"ina naooo*" npe,gcmaBa - IMCB, T.IX, Bapna 1993, c. 169_144. 24. fuxqeB, II. Hgkonko syMu 3a Haruume napoqnu 6as_ nun - Tpyg, TrpnoBo, I, 1889, C.Zg6-2g9; Hruo no 6rieapcki_ ma Hap'ogHa MegnruuHa - C6HV, KH.'[I, 1990; BacanoBu.r IrL {uarnepuaJru no caHumapucrma emxoepaSun ua Erneapus. I Jlluvrckunm okpre . C6Hy, Kn.V, 1891;c.'3-186;Api. fe*"tvrufi, Hapogrxu noBepun, o6pegu u o6u.rau. tutdmgpu;";" ucmopufi Ha penuauume - fcy - Fe, T.X, C., 1943; leopeugB M. Maeu.rxu npegcmaBu sa 6onecm:ume - AT, tgZZ, fn.a', c j i 4 1 ; Mlarl.rlr_uqre nekyBalg q I 6aneapckarna Hapogr,i *eg"_ uuna. BE,,1980, Ku.3; fraaal,rckume napognu np6g_ cma8u ga 6onecmma -"-r!-?7;1 g8g, c. gT - 12 I ; OcrioB-nu EfI, C., eop#u Ha npegcmaBama ga 6onecmma I 6rneapckama na-oocr"" MeguuuHa - HnH, 1 9 79, Ne3, c. 230 -234;.[urnikoBa f . Haplogiuu_
XIV-, Bapna, 1988,

c_an" -

2A

27

YPOTIACBNIETO
rua.

YEO.VAIGB4'HF*W
n o qy g u-ll a, n o qy gu u u, n o q y

guul e' nrrl

u-

YPOTIACBATIETO B ESJITAPCKI4TE

HAPOEH'I BffPBAHI,IE

Kofr au c Jrotl.J,u ov,u ypouacBa nfiu rnf,ragomo cmago?

Bepeu.nufi

"Bykonuku" - Ek,noea III, 103


8e.re kagauomo om H.O. Cynnu onureceM cMucbJra rrny krvr npegeJrume na 6nneapckume 3eMu.naucmuua, 8rB Bcska mfixna moqka

Alo nepegpa3upaMe

rlo81

(lukcupano BrB Bceku eJreMelrm Ha Hapogmama ky.nmypa. Teprrunonoeu.rnomo nny o6oena.aa8ane naBcrkoge e no3namokamo ypoku u no'eygu cnpoua8ogtrume uM ypok, ypouu,pouu, 3apek, 3apouu, Jro-

\re ?o qpeluaMe,,E no-eonsMa uJru no-pra.nka cmenell

omlcpuBarvre BrpBanus B y p o k u. Heuto noBeue, myk ce namnkBalvre na BxpBauufi c Eucoka cmeneu Ha ycmotuuBocm u eoJrsMa EapuamuBuocm npu (loplrlume Ha mflxHama ugs8a. IzI ou1e, yp o \r a c B a H e m o gomo.nko8a e noJryrruJro ynuBepcaJrnocm I rhuBoma na 6rnaapuna,

Cnopeg nrpIomo peunukoBo mrnkyBane2 ypokume ca "npunagrrk, 6onecm, noBpega, r{mo y:k cmaBanu Htrkonny, unu Ha lteqmo, koaamo nshofi ao noaJregTue c noruo oko umr ao noxBanu He 3a go6po". B ctulusm cMucbJr ca u cnegBatuume peunukoBu onpegenenus.3 Om mgx cma8a scno, lre nocJreguqume om lpokume u noqygume ca egfnakBu, om koemo qecmo gBeme nauvrenoBaHut ce paS6upam e grno3lra\rBo. flpu uscnegBane Ha gageno g8nenue mpa6Ba gematnno ga ce pa3eJregam gBama uy ocnoBnu noJrroca' ToBa e neo6xognrvro, 3atuomo cbulnocmma My ce kpue B xapakmepa u BgauuoomlroureHusma na ocnoBnume cmpykrr44pnu eJreMenmu' Cnopeg Hapogrnume npegcmaBu ypouac8anemo e pesyrrmam om BsauMogerlcmBuemo rvrelkgy HocumeJrs Ha J4)oqacBautama cuJra u o6ekma mbpnfiul Br'pxy ce6e cu Jroruut no?Jreg. B mogu npoqec gBeme cmpanu ne yracmByBam paBuocmoino. Vpouac8aulusm e a?pecuBnuam, almuBen eJreMeHm, a)4)oqacanug e nacuBnug nomrpneBur. Pesynmambm om moBa uMa ompuqamenen e(fekm Brp>ry o6ekma. 3a ga cmu?lreM Jo cbu*rocmma Ha ylrouacBanemo e lreo6xo gtuMo ga ce onpe greJrsm xapakmepucmukume. lra gBama nepconailra. Heo6xognrMo e u guaenocmuqupaue 8bB BrsMo:kno nat'urupokua giuana3olr. 3a noeu'rHama nocnegoBameJrHocm na ugnorkeHuemo e nyrkno B na''raJromo ga ce u3?pagnr Hapogrnama npegcmaBa 3a o6ekma, korimo mbpnu Brp>ry ce6e cu Jrotuufi noeJreg.

r.uo

oko,noruu oqu,Jroru noeJrog, noqyga,


22

23

YPOUACBAHETO

VPOqACBAHETO
lryokume Mo?am ga naea3sm.roBeka "om nosBama ldy na 6f,n cBsm go neeoBama cMbPm", Mankurne geqa ca nogno:kenu na BceBugvro*ruu ga6ongBanus, koumo I no8e'-remo ctryqau ce npueMam kamo pesynmam om ypoku'7 "flernemo e kamo sitle, kagBa Hapogbm, om Bcu.rko *rorke gra ce pae6onee u ga yMp, gopu omnoruu ortu".8 BspBa ce, qe geqama cmpagrem om ypouacBane MHo?o noBe're, omko.nkomo Bre: pacnurume.e Om myk e uno-?oneMunm Sporl npegmasnu cpegcmBa u lrapogfHu npakmuku, npegnraslraqeuu ga ganagflm uankume greqa om ytrrouac8ane. B parvrkume ua gJemckama Brspacm nai-yas8uvru om cBprxecmecm8enomo srrogpegrno BosgerlcmBue ca moIry- ruo pogeuume, neJrelraqemama u geuama om egna go mpuaoguuura Btap acm. Bnugaulume B me gu epanuqu ca a6conrornno nogaruruBu na ypoku. B megu cJryqau lrapogrnama Erpa e kameaopuuna: "Cu'rklrme nnanku geqa oi y6aBu u rvlunu.rku..,4eme ?po3xo EeMa, aamyir gokarao ce turcrruqku Bunaau eu eonsmypokume".lo flosBama na nbpButr gb6, nponrnsaBanemo, npaBenemo na ntpBama lrpauka, npoao8apnuemo, 8c*ko nlpBo netuo, go6pomo tgfpaBe, go6pua Bug, kpacomama, Bc*ko xy6a8o Beulo y gememo, Moeam ga npuBnekam Elpxy lreeo Jrotuume
noaJregru.

uama cuna Erpxy xopama. B napogrt*ume BrpBanux

Elapogna npegcmaBa sa ypoqacaH flog BtagetcmBuemo lra Jroulufi noeJreg ca u gno:kenu pasnurruu no xapakmep obekmu. Hapogrrm grpBa, ue "Bcu.rku lreula B npupogama u om mpume qipcmBa Moeam ga 6rgam ]4)oqacaHu".a B 3aBucuMocm om msx_ rtomo ecrruecmBo nopaseuume o6ekmu g na[_o6q ac_ nekm ce o6oco6sBam I mpu ocuoBHu ?pynu: 1. XuBu crulecmBa 2. HeogryueBeHu npegMemu 3. .(edcmBua, crcmofllrus, narrunauus u sBnenug. Fpynama na*ru8ume cbulecmBa cnopeg ecmecmBomo u Buga ce nogpa3geJrn Ha )rpoqacaHu xopa u ]lpoqa_ canu rkuBornuu. Om Hanqquume ugmoquuqu ce Bu:kga, qe nat-nogamnu8u na ylroku ca xopama. 3amoBa me ce omg,eJrffm kamo caMocmosmeJrna nogepyna u ce page_ nerkgam na nrpBo Mfrcmo. flpu EaageficmBuemo Ha Jroruufi no?Jregr Brpxy xopa_ ma ce sa6erggBa nogruepmana BrspacmoBa u karrecm_ Eena us6upameJrnocm. Hafi-qecmo u Jrecuo xBaulam ypoku luariku geqo,s Mfiagu MoMu u MoMqu,6 Mfiaenr 6ynku u neBecmu, rvrr:ke u rkenu B pasqBem. ,ogr"rr_

"a me cu. Ko.nkomo BaspacmoBusm noka3amen napacmBa, cJr]ruaume Ha ]T)oqacanu HaMangBam. 3a yllouacauu cmapu xopa usmo\rHuqume cnoprena8am pagko. Tpys_ Ho e gra ce nocmaBu koukpemno onpeg,eJrelra ?oplra BrspacmoBa epauuqa aa BragetcmBuemo ypoou"B._
"u
24

flpu geua uagr mpu-qe mupu ?ognnuxa Btspacm gnoBpeguomo Bregetcm8ue na ylrokume npox8n8a ug8ecmHa ug6upameJrnocm, nacoqelra ktrrn o6ekmu c nonolku-

menHa ka.recmBena xapakmepucmuka. Hapeg c ufiagocmma, aa ]4)oqac8alle e nogro:keua u kpacomama. HocumeJlurne ua rnoBa ka'*ecmBoca u3JIo*enu na ua&-unmesgu8nomo Etsgetcrn8ue" Hapogruo-

26

wo.TIAcBNIETA
mo Erp8ane onpegeJra xi6ocmma kamo ,,uat_npuvraM_ nu8a ga ypo.kume" u s nocmaBs na nrpgo Mrrcmo qpegt gpy?ume ka'aecmBa, npuBnuuauru Bpegonocnus noe_
Jreg.

YPOqACBAHETO
u cu eguH gpy"uMy fryMam: - Om krge myfl uonnue uf,trago,' xentr MJrago u xeM xy6aBo, kam cJrbrrue ?o He Bugx.no, Kexan xogu uB ceJro, us ceJro xogu u Euka: - Koe e myfi uego nesnafiHo, Hesrrafixo, monkos xy6aBol rlyna u JreJrs nry u kasarra: Tyfi nu u nukyfi gpyeu, moBa tua gra e lraut Hegko! Kam e Ha Meegarra omuulJra, omuurna u ulo ga Bugu: korr.remo Mlr ca nykrrarro, a Hegko'nagar yMupa ...r4

Om anaau3a Ha Bcu.rku o6ekmu, koumo mbpnsm Brpxy ce6e cu BrageircmBuemo Ha sJrume oqu, npume_ rka8auturne ka.recm8ama :ry6ocm u trpacoma ca nari_ unoeo6potnu. flo.rmu HsMa cr4ruat, onpegeJren om tra_ poga kamo y:poqacau, I koirmo nog egna urru grpyea $oprvra ga He <luaypupam lqracomama u try6ocmma. . Xy6aBo gteme, MJraga u :ry6a8a MoMa, MJragr u :<y6aB
epeex,11 MJraga u xy6aBa 6y.nka umr neBecma ca eecmo cnoxorkgauu om ypoku. He c.rryuatrHo lrapoglltama no?o_ Eopka kas8a: "MHo?o xy6ocm He e Ha go6po". Crrrema_ Huemo MJragocm - rcy6ocm e cr6upameJreH qeumbp Ha okoanrume noeJregu, oco6eno 3a Jroruume o.ru. B grpeBno_ u gmoquama Mb grpocm na "Xufi xga u egtra Hou1 uemeM " :

A:(, mo3u cmpaHen momsk c ksgpagu kocu my ilrpaqHa eopecm 6ygu, my pagocm 6ea"panuqua, qygecHa gBofirn 6enka nurlemo rvry kpacu u no"negume nrogcku ksu ce6e cu npuBrruua.r2

Xy6aBama MoMa Bunaau e B qenmrpa na gaBucrruruSume noeJregru, koumo n ypouacBam. ... u omEopu Bpama u nengrhepu ulo ga Buguur, Mope, ruo ga rryetu: CBemna n,roura, kamo ficHo cntrrqe. Peguuu x) om BJramo nJtemeHu, Bumuuu ro om cpe6po 8uenu, XBana MoMa ypoku npok.nemu, .[e aacmaBu u maM ]nrrpnd ...15

B 6uaapckume Hapogtru neclm )T)o\racaE MJrag u trpacuB ucnvmk e \recmo cpeulana meua.t.
... Hegko om korr.re cu cJre3Har rna ce r*a xopo xBana, go gBe MoMu gBe 6ausnema. flopge xopomo uskapa, 6cu'rku cu arraBa ue8uBam,

' '

Saegrno,c Jruqnume ka.eecm8a Mnagoqm u xy6ocm o6ekm Ha Jroluus no?Jleg e u o6neknomo /rlpevrgnama/. Tasu mpu eJreMeuma o6r:knoBeno ce olnHacsm 3a egino nuue. B ngkou om Eapuanmume na Hapogruurr neceuell qultrn "Vpouacau MoMbk" krnn mgx e npu6aBelr gon'bJr-

26

27

WOVACRAIIETO
numeJrHo npu8nuuaul eJreMeHm _ Morvrkogusm kou, crulo MJragt, r<y6a8, cuJreu, o6ku.reu c npelrpacua aMylruuua.

YPOVACBAITETO
kakrBmo aoge ga uge, ua&ka My gpeu mtpcelue gage My pusa naMyqHa, gage tl,ry Myp?u nomype,
... a naafika wry ?o He nyqa

llrrna.no xaBaa, unfiaJro, eguH ep"eEUH Ha Mantra, nafi -:ry6aB u nafi -npeMeHeH...

'

Hegko ce ry6aBo npuuenu: o6y cu genrufi zaiimauaufi, onaca cu nosc gro "tpgu, o6rre.re eJreqe rykueuo, naxJrynu kamak gu yruu ua ka;rnaka kumka rnpenepyruka u ce rra hon re npeuemHa ... Sauepa Hegko, samponal goge opo aao6ukorru, cuqku ce opa crrdcaxa, *renu ce no gge c6upaau, egEra r gpy?a g:yMarlu; - Eaase Ha ma3u uafi.ruqa, gemo e mo3 elr"eH poguJra, poguna u orn?Jregarat rro no-6.lra3e Ha mac Monfia, gemo mo3 epeen ule 3eMe. Tpurk llegko xopo o6trkoau u nagua Hegka Ha senrfi, Hegko ce c gywa paegerru ...16
.

flpye Eapuaxrn ]ra neceuma om c. Ionsrra Xensgna, Tpomrcko I gemairnnu nogpobnocmu npegcmagfl eu3ga8ama Hocus u nanemur Bug na:rydag vrorvrck, kofimo ua xopomo e JrporracaH U yMupa:

gage nry 6eue uopane, o6y uy qepnu o6yu1a, gage nlry cunfix cpe6tpeu, gage rvrlr nosc konpurreH, gage ttlry crrnbo rru6age, u lta cuHborno 3eJreHo, r U Hd SeJIeHOmO My gagel aneno xoBo uu6age, a nag aJrernomo tltry gagel u uoBa gpexa .renkerrcka. Eage nry ka"nnak carvrypex, go karrnak pego8 kpu8uqu, no qeJro Hapeg k:agpuuu. Mafika nny gpexu gaBaure, 6aqei my konue ctrna?aluel cHaxa lt/4r numa Meceule, cecmpa nry humka kumetue. Hegko ce ka.ru na kon re 6aqa my nyurka nogage, nogage nyuka Gofiaus... fla ce Ha opo ynoBu. EBa ngmu ckokna saaopcku, mpu nrmu Euksa aagorrcku... Monau u 6y.nku arsrraxa: - Snaaa 6una mas aaa&ka gemo rny[ .rego poguJra.

28

29

y?otrACBNIETO
Hegko ypoke Qarrane, om MoMurrume saBugu, om BgoButukume'noanegu. fioge ga cmueHe neJtrr cu mofi cu om korr.remo naguan, Hegko ce c gytua pasgerru ...r2 flpegcmaBama na Hapoga 3a Jrurren u:ry6a8 ep?eH e kolnc6uuamuBno usno om rkugnelra MJragocm, ecmecmBena xy6ocmu ausgaBa Hocus. O6nekrromokamo gonbJrHumeJreH npugamtk kt*r Buullama klracoma cuJrHo

YPOW,CBATIETO
no !)D6em gapa6omu gnonaepmk B Ilapuapag. Kam cu goge Mu goHece apMaeaH egma aa6pagka, aMa Mnoeo y6aBa. Epyea kam xes myk neuaure. fa ce aa6parkgax c slt u ugJru3ax u3 ceJromo cska ilrena mu Bukaule: 'fMtpu, uu y6rBa at6pagkr!" ,[okamo ce npu6epr B krqu, lr,ruue Ha MuHe Epence, mok.'vrr ga6onu enr'Bamn u Mu cmalre unHmaBo. Toaag 6a6a nuu kasBaure, qe ca Mb J4)oqacanu |l rio8ama u y6a8a sa6pagkt. Izlg.nuga.nr cbM c Hefi nemtuccrn nbmu u Bunaeu cb Mb Qauanu l4pykumu c Hes. Htae gua ru 6e g sa6pagkama - Hutuo Mu HeMa. Ommoeag oDM f, ckpuna B paknama u lle cbM fi cJra? ana.Ili ommo?a3 ypoku ne ca Ma ea3urur',zo Vpoku xBaulam u npu nrpBo o6nurrane na Bcska noBa gpexa. Xy6aBomo o6nekno npu8nuua 8rp:ry ce6e cu J4)ouacBlulume no?Jregru, no He mbpnu HenocpegcmBeuo gnoBpagnromo unr BtsgeircmBue. flpu Bcuuku crrl lau nopa*cuuemo e Btp:<y npumerkamena. Omgennume eJreMenmu om o6rrama kpacoma lra roBeka, Bgemu noomgeJrHo, cbluo npuBnuuam Jlotuume orlU.,fionaokocama MoMa, BrpBa \re ule syT)oqacam ako rdtorl npogrrn*rumeJruo eJlegra kocama u.21 Aoaaama u gn6cna rvrovruncka mumka, 5g{lomo rutle, Bumume Be*gtlr, xy6aBume oqu, mrnkama cna?a, cmporixomo mffJlo, lrptunama noxogka, lvrolvruuckama cBennuBocm u peg gpyeu karrecmBa npaBrm Mrragrume MoMu u neBecmu nOgamnuBu ua y;:oku. Crulomo goBe:hgam u aHaJroeurrIume urrkku ka.aecmBa Vpouacanume xopa ce pa3geJrtrm na gBe apynu. Egnrume ca mpygrgo nogamJluBu, a gpyeume xBautam ypoku Jrecno u qecmo. Cknonnocmma tra nocJregErtrme lllu uecmo ylrouacBame ce o6scngBa c Bapognama grya31

npu8nuua gaBucmau8ume noeregu. Carvro rno unu B cbqemauue c gpyeume g8a eneMelrma gonpdlraca sa konrlenmpaqunma Ha Jroruume no?negm Brpxy npume:kamens. Om myk e u npegrynpe:kgeuuemols BnB Bcurrku Hapogrnu necuu c8apsanu c ylrouacBane:

KakBomy oguru ga gogulur urr gE HU gb npun,IeHstu, uu Hu gb Jrotuu op3ms,

optmb u kynnuuumu, mBosms y6yc urr Bugam, u ult mr Hegko aaBugem u ult mr ypyku y.rryBem ...1e

Xy6aBomo o6nekno na 'aoBeka npuBnuua ypouacBaruume noeJrpgu ne canno kamokocmloM, I koirmo Bnugam 8cu'{ku HeaoBu enentenmu, a u kamo omgeftra gtpexa uJTu nakum. Izl s BopoBusm MamepuaJr npe grrae a pe gnrua crryuau, ko?amo npu u3Jru3ane c oripegenena gpexa, npu moBa uoBa u xy6aBa, qoBek Euuaau noBu lpoku u ce pas6onr8a:" ... Ia 6ax vrnaga 6y.nka urrhrm Mu omuge 30

YPOTTACEAHETO
nucmuqna npegcmaBa 3a 6op6ama Me)kgry go6pomo u BJrorno. Tesu xopauMam c n a 6 a H e e r.22 "Ako rra
.roBeka vry e cna6 axaeJra, Jrecno ao noBnrn ygrokume u ao aonnrn 3Jrume culu".23 P a gnu.enama nogarrlJru Eocm krrvr ypouacBane HapogrsmoSacngBa oule cbc s B e e ga nna lr a q o B ek a.2a "C.na6oa8e3gnJme" xopa, oco6eno c,na6ocBeggiume geua25 necuoylrouac8am. Csulama auaJroeus ce npa8u u ea
me.30

WOTIACBAEIETO
rkume, BgrpaBume, pa6omnume, r<y6aBume u
Jrutrnu-

xopama cbc cna gk a kpa 8.26 Hapeg c xopama ypo.racBam u rku8ornnume.zT 14 npu rngx karrecmBenama ua6rrpameJruocm e nafi-Barhna. O6ekm na ylrokume ca noBopogenume u nna.nkume. Hapogtbm 8rpBa, qe me npu Ecuuku cJryqau ypouac8am, samoBa gokamo ca cr8cepr r,rranku, He eu nyckam uaBrn ga He ?u eJregam xopama. "HaBpememo rru ce pogru egrno Muoeo xy6aBo a?bnqe. TakBpg go ce?a He tru ce 6eure pa:hgano. Egrun geu ao uskapax c gpyeume oBqe ga nace. Ha nu8agarna 6erue egrnako*ruruika u kamo Buga aauemo, satlrka c eeuk u kaga: "Mapuuu, uu y6aBy aanu uMbull" Muna kBo ca MuHa, !mln1 mu Mu aebnqu, naFra, afimrri 6es nutqy, kakr:ty cu 6euru gy6pe.flagrua, npupuma u yvrpe. Vppracr ey mbc :kuna, sa egnromy qygy ?y ]rpyqaca u ylrlrpu. 3a ugnrsmr y6yc ey ypyqacb u samPu"'ag

Irlu$opnnamuBnusm rrramepuaJr npe gJraea MHo eo crryrrau na ]4)oqacanu uanku u:<y6aBu konuema, meJrenrla, kosuuku, Maeapeuqa, MaJraqema, nuJrema, nyiruema, namenaa u gpyeu *ranku g:ouaurnu rhuBornnu. Ho om Bcutlku mrx na[.-necuo x8argam tvrankume npace]rqa, Maraqernama u nyiruemarn?.ze Hapa8rao c uranlrume )T)oqac8am u rku8omnurne S pasq8ema Ha curuume cu. Cpeg mxx uair-ysg8ururu ca.
1

"Ha8peMemo nskori gsgo Cmanro om c. Cman.:eB xau, TtrreBnencko, uMaJr nai-:<y6aBume, 3gpaBu u sku kone B cerromo. Begmr:k mpb?Barr Ha na3ap B ftaBua. Okono ueao ce nacr6paJr Mnoeo Hapogr ga ?nega koneme. Hnkakr8 .ro8ek c Muoeo ocmpu oqu eu xapecaJr u uckan ga eu lnrnu. Cmonanunrm omkagaJr, gaulomo ne ?u npoga8an. 9oBeksm eu noeJregrual! oule ludnko-u cu 3aMuHaJr. Cneg grecemulra Munymu eguHufi om koneme 3anoqHaJr ga mpenepu, eJa ce g:bpna, nagEiaJr gro 3eMsma u om ycmama My ganoqlraJra gra u3Jruga nfilla. Bcu'{ku naokono ka3aJru, tre kounm e J4)oqacau om "cuflHu oqu".31 Mnoeo npuMepu nogrqepmaBam npegmoqumanuemo na ypokume kru pa6ornuus cenckocmonancku go6umrk. "Egun mpeBuencku konu6apun Enpeenan BonoBeme cu gaxogru ia nasap. H*krge no qpegama Ha nbmlr ?o qperuualra Heno3nama *rena c Mnoeo ocmpu ouu kamo na guus. Te 6unu vrnoeo 3eJreuu, cakaur nponugBanu u na noeJrega u nukori ne rro*ren ga ycmou. Xenama noga?Jregana EonoBeme u omMulrana. Koaamo noBrpBaJr cmomuna-g8ecma Mempa, no-r<y6aBuam Bo.n Bsen ran ga mpenepu, nagrna[ Ha 3eMrrma, npupumaJr u yMpfin. Xenaura eo ypoqacara".3z Oc8ea egunuqnu ekserrnnrpu nog ErsgetcmBuemo ua Jroruus noefieg nonagam u uenu *u8on:uucku cmaga. Hapggrm 8rp8a, qe nafi-necuo x8atuamlpoku oBuume, kogume u 6u8o.nckume. flpu cmagfama, kakmo npu xopama u omgeJmume :huEomnu crqecmByBa us6upameJrBocmu npegrroqumalrue krru xy6aBomo, yaoenomo, 3gpaBomo, nnogoBumomo, IIpaBu Bne.ramneHue, rle cJ4 raume Ha J4)oqacagu rkuBomnu u cmaga ce onuracfim caMo me3u om eJoMarueu 33

JZ

YPOUACBAHETO
mun. yl3morrlruqume u uHoopMamuBHufftn MamepuaJr
Hukbge He cnoMeHaBam 3a nopasenu gnr8u lkuEomnu.
3aegmo c rhuBume crulecmBa Moeam ga 6rgamlpo,-racBanu u HeogytueBenu npegMemu. HuBu, epaerulru, JrO3g, nJrogrHu grprBuema, nqeJrullu, kbtqu, cmpoe:ku, nokrulnuna, unBenmap u gp.33 nonagamnog ErsgetcmBuemo Ha Jroruus no?Jreg. Cengrtunrm B*pBa, ue go6pama nuBa, ako us8egurlk "neulo no\rne gra He BopBu", nskori fi e ypo\racafi:"... Egna ?ogntra nuBsma cmauaxa Mnoeo xy6aBu. Iulvrax egma nuBa, nnk ma 6eure om Bcu.rkume nuBu naokono nat-xy6a8a. OmkposBaure ce I ueJrufi krp. Ko[ om grem MuHe, Bce nes ?Jrega. Kovrurusma Mu qecmo ce gaggnBaure, nourkBa c esuk u ule peqe: 'fBpe, 6pe, kBot myir uygo 6e!" Egnrn krp, nrk mBotma nuBa nat-xy6aBa!" Mune lte MuHe, nak gano.a8a: "Bpet, uygo nuBa". flo egftro Epelae na nuBama neulo u cmana ,.. " Bse ga kpema, ga Bexne, ga:krnmetr, cBu ce u nakpaa Huulo ne ugnbge omnetr. To om Muoeo xy6ocm Bgexa,.re f, ytr)o\racaxa, aMa sa myir nat-unoeo e BunoBen korvrurufima.3a

YPOTIACBAHETO
:henama qecmo 6onegryBa u'e Bepasnonorkena. Tesu cbcmosnus ce'npueMam om xapoga.kar,no pe3yfimam om,,naMeca na cBprxecr,necm8enu cuJnr ;u ylroku.,f{pea \lemupugecemgmeBnutr nepuogr cneg pa*<gtane,,Ecsko EnoruaBane na ggrlraBemo Ha pognrnkama u gernemo ce npenucBa Ha cbruume Bpegrumenu. Akmrm lra Henocpegcm8enomo ocBo6orkgaBaxe om nJroga e nafi-yasBuM om lpoku. flopagnr ma3u npuquna pa:kganemo /npu xopa u rkuBomnu/ e cmpo?o ma6yupano. He ce nosBonaBa npucrcmBue lra usrrulunu u oco6eHo na qylkgu xopa. OcBen'mo8a pogruJrlrusm nepuog e ,o6e gne'+en c nair-nnnoao6porlnume u nati-currnume npegnasnu cpegim8a npomuB y1roku.35 Jlourume ouu BrageircmByBam cuJrlro na vrnago*renuume no 8pe,ue na cBam6eHus qepeMonuan. Oco6ena npe grnoqumaeMocm npoxB aBam l<ru 6ynkama. Bcu'aku noenegu u rlfiJromo Bauuanue no Bpeue na cBam6ama ca omnpaBenu npeguMno krrt Hefi, 3amoBa Eepoarn:locmma ga 6rge ypoqacaHa e Mnoao no-aoJrsMa, omko,nkomo sa unagorkeneqa u ocmanaJrume yqacrnnurlu. ToBa nomBnpilrgaBa u npucbcmBuemo B cBam6enume o6u.rau na peguqa npegma3nu cpegcmBa u geicmBua npomu81ryoku 36, koumo 3aulumaBam vt.nago:henqume u c8am6enume nepcouarhu. flocnegErume cbulo nonagam nog s.noBpegnromo B:ssgeircmBue na.nourus noeJreg, no I pasnuuHa cmeneH B sa8ucuMocm om Mffcmomo u ponama uvr B o6pegmocmma. I{nnama cBam6a cbruo vro:ke ga 6rge
'i r{
b: {r

BragerlcmBuemo Brprry xeogyureBenume npegMemu He ce npocmupa npou3BoJrno u 6espas6opno Brpxy qeJrufl neogryrueBeu cBsm. Te B paaauqna cmenen ca cBrpsanu c lkuBoma u gefnocmma ua xopama. ToBa ca o6ukuoBeno Heula, nompe6nu na,aoBeka, neo6xognruu sa BcekugleBnug vry il<u8om. Hapogrrm Brp8a, .re pa3Jruqnume reoBeu.rku getcm8ua, crcmosnurr, Hariuuanus u gB.nenutr Moeam ga 6bgam ypo\racanu. B movrenm na Barknu cbcmosrrufl 6pelvrennocm, parkgane, cBam6a, eoJIfiMo ulacmue u pagrocm, I o6pegma cumyaqufi - rroBek e nair-nogamnuB na snoBpegrHo ErggeircmBue. B nepuoga na 6peueulrocm
34

': $
$

yI)o\racaHa. Bnaeono.r4ruuemo, uMomnocmma, 6oeamcmBomo, krcruremrm u Bcu.rku gpyeu rkenamennu cbcmosuutr ca o6ekm na gaBucm u noganuruBu na 1poku. Ako I gagelr MOMeHm me npembpngm ompuqameJrHu u3MeBeHus,

,j

35

WOTIAffiAHETO
Hapog:bm npueMa, qe moga cmaBa om )4)oqac8aqume noenegu. Brp8anuama na MHo?o Hapoenr u noqmu 8cu.rku uauru Bapogonucnu MamepuaJru npegJraeam ueo6uJrue om npuMepu: ",.. ToBa o6a.re uM ce eaBugu u me 3anoqnaxa ga Mu ea8u:kgam 3a 6oeamcmBomo u Muo?omo cmoku, koumo 6ax Eampynaa, u me :kagrno noeJrbluaxa c oqu Bcu'{ko Moe."37 ToBa crcmomrue MHo?o mo,lno gouaBx Emlr flenun: "HeeoSomo na}ouo oko anegaue cbc ga8ucm Eceku noxy6aB uMom. Irf 6pamoBume tvry uuBu, koumo ne:kaia pegoM c neaoBirme, My ce 8u:kgaxa no-:ry6aBu u noeoJreMu u Eakakr8 srn uep Befi moky uraBaue B brpuemo My u eo kapaure ga prnvrrku u ga cmtrcka 3s6u".3 Bcnko no.rroilrumeanro karrecm8eno ugMeuenue B nnogopogruemo, onpegefieuo om Bapoga kamo "go6rp 6epekem, r<y6aB 6epekem, Hacnoprur eocnog ma3u ?oe[una, gaJr eocnog go6pa cmoka, me:kak uMom" e 3acmparueno om p a s B a Jr a, npegusBukana om noruufl noeneg ua negoQporkeJrameJr" [o npu6upaHemo ua pekonmama ceJrfilrulrbm *uBee I nenpekrcuam cmpax om l4poqdcBane ua mpyga pry. Hapognrusm u3pag ",(okamo ue Bnege B xanc6apa,'Bce eguo rre BaMaru uuulo!" ca8ceu moquo uJrrocmpupa cbcmosrluemo na neugBecnrnocm u onacuurocmma om snoBpegnre. flpu6panama pekonma npogfbn*raBa ga 6rge nog yeposama Ha Jrpo\racBaulama cuJra. fls,nuusm xarvr6ap Bunaeu e sacmpauen. 3amo8a uyirg rroBek ne mp*68a ga Eauea 8rmpe, ga He 6u uourusm My noeneg ga nopa3u cmokama. Hapogrnm 8apBa, .re 8cu.rlru qo8eurku geficmBua u Haqunanufl Moeam ga ypoqacam: "...Moilre ga J4)oqeme pa6omama na reoBeka, mbqeme u*koe nJrarnuo Mlro?o

YPOTTACBATTETO
klracuBo, ko8eme nshot *renegen ctg, npaBume 6r'rBa, morluJro, umeme gpexa q np. u pa6omama Bup8u Jrecuo u go6pe; gorfge ngkoil ga 8u nocemu, noenegrne pa6omama u fi ypoqaca. Cueg myir pa6omeuume netua ce pa38a.n*m, pa6omama ue 8tpBu". SnoBpegrnomo EtagetcmBue 8rplry pa6omama Mo:ke ga ce Eranpueue egrno8peMenuo ir noomgerno. Om egnra cmpana, ypoqacBa koukperruro getcmBuemo, koeamo ce Brpuru ugkycuo, cpbrino, c yMeuue, c Jrecuuna, wratcmolreku, a om gpyea, npogykmtm Ha mpyga, ako e klracuB, cr8rpr.lren, aenoBmopuvl u "xBaluaur oko". flog ]Doqacana pa6oma uapogbm pas6upa u g8ama c.ny*raa, pas?JregaHu noomgeJrHo uJru cl'qema}ru egrnoBpeuelrHo. Pa gnurrnume troB eurku Haqunanrus, oco6euo cBrp eaBume c nbm.u nrmyBaHe, B na'eannuf, cu eman ca cunuo aaBucuuu om Jroluu* no?Jreg. TpaeBanemo na ayp6em, lra opan, na rkemBa, tra na3ap unu 8ro6qe Bcsko mpbaBaue onpe gena 6naeono.rryuua umr ne 6naa onorryueu lrp at na saMucJrelromo B gaBucuuocm om ntpBama cpeqa. Buuaeunpu Jr oura cp eq a 3e uauutlaltuemolre ce ocstuecmBgBa kakmo mpn6Ba, npoBana ce uJru H e I r p B u. B mogu c.rryuari uapogrlromo onpegeJlellue e, rle 3anoqlramomo e Bugnuo om Jrotu no?Jleg u e J4)oqacalro. . Beg gausuepn8aue nnroao6porinume crryuau, Hanpa' Benuam npeeJreg ria un$opmamu8nus pramepuaJr, onpegeJrrnu npegcmaEama Ha uapoga 3a Jrpoqacauuff' Mo*errn ga uanpaBuu cJregrHume usBogru: - O6ekmu nognorkeuu rla ypoqacBane Mo?am ga 6tgam pagnoobpasuu eJreMenmu om Sugruvrus cBnm u ,ro8eurkomo 6umue: :kuBu ctuecmBa, neogryureBenu npe grMemu, pagruqnu .roBeurftu cbcmosuurr, getcm8ua, HaquHauua u sBnenus.

36

37

WOqACBAIIETO
- Om Bcu'tku nomrpneBruu o6ekmu xopama cmpagam nari-uecmo om 1poku. 3noBpeguomo BrageircmBue npal<ou koc8eno Buna?u e Haco\reno ktu rroBeka. flpako, kamo HenocpegcmBeuo nopa:kenue nag He?o u kocBeno B crryuaume, koeamo ca ]4)oqacanru ocmauafiurne o6ekmu -nbeo8a co6cmBenocmuJru cBnpsanu c Heeo. CnegoBarnenuo, c$epama na Epegonocuomo Bnugnue o6xBalua couuanno ycBoenomo npocmpancmBo. - Brnpeku urupokus o6x8am nopaseuume om ]4)o.racBaulama cuaa ce onpegerrsm om rcuo ugpa3ena karrecm8ena ue6upamennocm. flog BregetcmBuemo ua Jroruus noeJreg nonagam caMo obekmu npumerhaBautu ,n o Jr o *r u m e Jr n a ka'eecmBena xapakmepucmuka, kosmo Eknron8a qeJrur cnekmtp na Brsxogaulo cmenenyBanu nonorkumennu kaqecmBenu gageuocmu. - IlogamnuBocmma ktnr lpouacBane ce onpegeJrf, om cmenenma lra noJrorkume.rmama ka'aecmBena xap akmepucmuka. flpu no-Bucok ka.aecm8en nokasameJr nogam.nuBocmma e no-?onrrMa u o6pamno, no-nuckama karaecmBeua cmenen npegmoJraea no-ua.nka nogarruru8ocm.

YPOqACBAHETO
flrpBama o6egruug8a npu3naqume, koumo onpegrerrsm cbcmotrHuemo B narl-o6uta oopvra: n o B s x B a n e na xy6ocmao, cn6apa gorry kon u e3gaua1, c b c u n I a
leuama u cBunenunuepBeta2, uatreBamga c Jr a 5 e s m u nat-cunnume no mstoa3, Ecu.tkama uM nbJrnorrlo u3: Begn*rh gano.rBa ga ? a c H ea4, o n p o n a c m ff B a uuom, gokapBa pa6omamana p a 3 B a rr a, m on u uo8eka, ,roBek ce c nbp nym B a, gano*rBa ga c bxH eas, gememo knenBas,age eo, nue ?o, cyruu ?o, Mb\lu eo' JroMueo,kbpuru eo, ?opu eo, u3eaI)s ?o' yHuul olka B a nuBa, cmago, nuBaga, eopa,p a a I aa s. xy6aBo kruq6rz. Jlourusm no?rreg uo:he ga B t s g e tr c m B a a u 6 e rr lr o Brp:ry sgpa8e, xy6ocm, nrrrhecmBo,6oaamcmBo, SnaeonoJrfr{ugaa-ga p a 3I an u c$am6a, ga n o n p e q u Ha *rena gra 3aqeHeae, 9o np e k b c ll e 6peuennocm, ga 3 a mpy guu pa:hgane npu xopama u il<uBomnume, gfa p a 3 B a n u Bcu'alto rry6a8o. 3a xopama c Jroru noeJreg ce 8q>Ba, \re Mo?am c u sanarrf, m egTnono?Jrerkgaue ga cb6oprm Irynume ceno no nu8agnrme, ga cnonume xa uuBama,

npec y uram rvrnskomonaklra8amauJruga HaHec am M op noxopau go6umrk.5o

,fluaenocmuka na ypoqacBaHemo
flonotkumenuama karrecmBena xapakmepucmuka ua
]4)orracaHurr onpegeJra xapalmepa na o6ekma, krvr kori-

mo e Hacoqelra ypolracBaulama cuJra. Pesynmamrm om neirnomo Brsgeftcm8ue e 8a*ren eneMeum B o6rqama cmpykmypa na sBnenuemo.,[uaanocmukama uy EkrnouBa urupok kpbe om cuMnmoMu, koumo cnopeg xapa}mepa u mouHocmma Moeam ga ce pasgensm ua g8e epynu.
3B

3a tvtroeo cuJrelr y;rovacBau noeJreg "... maka pa3npaBn ce sa egult makrB uoBek, kotmo uMaJr neo6uknoBenno ?oJrf,Ma cu,na ga*1ryo.racBa, 'ae Begrntilr kamo noeJregHaJr c6c aro oko Brpxy xoMoma na Sanpeeuamu 6uBonu, xoMomr'm vruexoBenno ce c mp o tuu Jr na gBe. Crulusm kagan: "Ako uckaM, Moea MoMeHmaJrHo qa y M b p m I s u 6uBonume, Ho ctrkansBaM cmonanuna
uMtt,51

Hskou :q)ucmusncku vronum8u c egu.recka gaknunameJma ocnoBa, noco.rBam noparhenufima Ha ylrokume 39

WO\IACBNIETO
8rp><y xopama u Bcuqko cgrpeano c msx. Hanpunnep B "Mo.numBa o lregryeax, ylrokax u yl)o\rnuqax,, ompageo_ Eopa rue:kgi'y 6oa u lpok cmaga scno, .re ca mpteuarru ga Bpegnrn" .." epeguMo Balcnup ynpaBs Ha gemu, ompbe_ Hymu upka c kona, cgpo:luupamopa om gonoB, opa*,r_ mu nu8y; ucytuumu Bunoepag u guno ouemu o cemu gaBesamu ga He flo8rrm".F2 "roBu"* Bmopama ?pyna o6egnruaga cuMnmoMu c no_konk_ perrlno ecmecmBo. Te onpegeJrsm npeguMxo 6onec_ momE0puua xapakmep na gragetcmBuemo u ce onuracnm ugktroqumeJuro ga xopa u rkuBornnu.

YPOTTACBAHETO
ygapuxa ?o B euaBama, arraBama rqr pasuenuxa ...
Saegmo c Mscmomo, mekcmrm onpegena u xapakmepa na 6o.rrkama - "enaBama 6oau, cnkaur e pagqeneHa". 3a ma3u 6o.nka urvra koxkpemex lrapogeu ugpa3 "Eoru Ma, qe Mu uenu ?naBama!" B gpyea gaknuramenna $opnrryJra om Xaprvrannuficko,55 konklrenuro e Qukcupana 8gauuoBpoekama nredrgy cuJrama Ha 3Jrume o\ilu u Mrrcmomo na noparheHuemo:

enaBama, 8ue uru ce c8am, cBema Mu ce B;il;,;;;; enaBa, gaMarma ena8a, ouafno Mu e ua a,naBama, gaMa_ nna anaBa, enaBama Mu ce uenu, uenu Mu a,nagama, cmucka Mu cJrenume oqu, c'ua Ma B u3eapfi uu ?na8ama" ";";;;;;;; f.naBo6onuemo nokanu3upa egruo om Mecmama na noparheuue. B 6aunen mekcm sa lpoku om Cmaposaeop_ ' cko,sa korimo I nrp8ama cu qacm onucBa arr*" ga6ons8anemo qemeM: "u

Hari-qecmo cpelqalrusm npu3nak ga ]4poqacalro e a n a I o"6 o n u e m o. Bcudru u3moquuqu kameaopuurno ?o onpege,nsmkamo cueJ4)eu 6enea sa npuxBautine na y1roku.53 Bapuanmume ua e.naBo6onu"*o g puayrr*"_ Ha ]4)oqac8ane ca nosuamu cpeg Eapoga kamo: i,"a*auamaBane, uranmaBa ana8a, uranmago Mu e ,.a enaBama, Heuro Mu e ruanmaBo, paaurmena enaga, pa3Mbme_ Ho Mu e, anaBa ua Brpmu, grpmoanaBue, grpmu Mu ce

...9o?negaJru /uvrcmol, ygapunu eo c5c cuJrHu oqu, ga6o.nsrro eo nromo aaaBa...

'

HaBcsktge ce guae, ,ae "ypokume 6usm nrpBo

?naBama". ToBa nomBrprkgaBam gak.nuname.nnume Qop-

...Vmugyxay /umemo/ ny cpeguHoulur ny nyJr,rBoulu,


40

Myrru onucBatuu pas6onrBanemo. Crqurne mekcmoBe, galne8aqu 6onecmma ga u3Jre3e onpegeJrsm n:lmt kamo ganorrBam om anaBama: 'r...ugrregnu }ryok om eJra8a, u3neonu ypok ug paMena ... u m.H." Hskou om mekcmoBeme gemarinusupam u3Jru3aneme, kamo noco'{ B am Bcu.rku .racmu u op?anu na rroBeiukama anaBa : "...ugxe guu om koca, ugJre3nu om rreJro ...om ytuur om oqu, om ttoc, om ycma, om Bg6u, om- 6paga, ..."56, a ocmauaJTume uacmu om mfiJromo caMo ce Mapkupam. OcBeu o6uromo e.naBo6omre, Bceku ea6onffJr opeau Ha anaBarna ce npueMa kamo pegyJrmam om ypo\rac8ane. Om rnlrx oqnume ga6onsBauus'Euuaeu ce mrnkyBam kamo konlrpemeu npuenak ga mo8a. SavepBa8ane u cbrgenesT, nocrnofitrno cMbgene, enotkgeue u Jrromene, pasnrcmeuo u aannpe:keno anegaue Bapogtbm npunucBa 47

YPOTIACBAHETO
Ha J4)o\tacBane om Jroru no?Jreg. ToBa ce omuacfl npegnrMno 3a geuama. ,,...Ako e geme, scka eo g cnenume

WOTTACBATIETO
ma a kocrnume packonuaa, ma u cbpqemo nokrcaa...
...Mu cmrnuna Ha Bs.n.raBu ss6u, na Ban.raBu Br6u, Ha snruficku kocmu...6r

ortu, om oqume My cbJrgu mekam, u 8e*rgrume My ce sacyk8am. Om maivr ce nosHaBa, qe e yf)oqacano grememo. "58 HaBcrkrge, ako oqume eypy nxcB arn, "3aruu Bam " ce unu ako ce sacykBam $e:kgnrme ce npueMa 3a cueypen gnak.re urvra ylroku. Vpo.racBaulama cuJra npocmupa Br:geficmBuemo cu Erpxy Ecu.rku tracmu om .roBeurkomo msJro opuenmupaHu omeope Hagorry. Egnro8peuennoc enagama ytrroku_ me nopagsBam u msJromo. Tagu nocnego8ameJrlrocm nokae8am Mnoeo 6aunnu mekcmo8e, kamo HanpuMep om CnuBencko:se
...Te Bukxaru, eknarru, ygapunu s B arraBama, ygapuJru r I crraeama, Jrbox 6orke... Tenecnomo noparhenue ce npegcma8r B paamrunu Bapuanmu om o6o6tueao kru koulrpemusupauo paa6u_ paHe. B salnunameJrna Qoprvryna om Bpauancko6o e nokagano Mbqeuuemo na 6o.nnur: Cegemgecem u cegeM 8epu, oceMgecem u oceM 8epu, geBemgecem u geBem Bepu, mpuficem u mpu 8epu. fla ca mpb?HaJre, na ?o preuane c rrarkgpaqu gaparlu, ma ca ao I aope nonoMunu, na ca zo B mprne nokprcmurre... Ta a na gapaqu namrknaa, 42

-.Jna ce na6ona na guutcku kocmu, u rra opnoBu Hokmu...62


B napogrnume npegcma8u lpouac8anemo ce koukpemu3upa c Srmpeurnu 6onku cBrpaanu MHoeo\recmo cbc cbpqemo. ToBa nomBrp*ga8am u MHoeomo gaknunameJrnu Oopraynu ugnongyBauu npu 6aene om ylroku:

;..flourrro rwu e uarrko geme, yc npyke, nuc npyke. Cpeuna.na zo cpr.roBaguqa, u nrry e kprQ u3nuJra, u My gbpue npe8agura...63

rra

...Crp,te*o MIr Hamtknaxa mptnur Ha ?norkur


suMuncku kokanu.;.6{

.Ha

Ilocorreuume npuMepu cpaBnsBam 6onkama c y6o:kgane na mpbn, c anoaoB mpbn, crc grvru&cku kocmu, c Ernrru gr6u u oproBu nokmu. B 6rnaapckume BrpBanua y6ogeuomo om msx e Mnoao 6onegneno u goBe:hga go cMbpm. 43

YPGIAffiNTETO
florrmu Bcuqlru ugMeneuut B o6uromo Quauonoauuuo u ncuxurruo gbcmoffnue, oco6eno npu cpetua uJru noceulenue na uy*rg,roBek ce npunucBa na lpokume' O6ulama omnagnaflocm6s, Becma6umrocm I ktrrakama66, uepasnororkeuuef Jrtrnca na anemum6?, 3atrrutaBane, c'na6eene, ugcaxBane, meMnepamy?a, mpecka, npunagrbqu, Ene3aneu uJru Hecnupen nJlaq npu geqama' Hecn9kotno u Banpe?uamo cbcmof,uue' Era6ygrunrocm, uepBHOCm u MHOeo gpyeu gbcmosrrufi cnopeg Bapoga ce grsn:kam tra ypoqacBane om Jroruu o'ru. Couomo ce ornuacfi u sa iluBornuume "koeamo *ru8ornnomo nrtuka, nomu ce, u3e.ne:kga.necnokotno, tre ffge u ce paa6onee, rnoBa 3ltaqu qe e ypoqacauo".68 Cpeg o6tuunm konmekcm rra npu3naqum' noumu gcu.elru kor:kpemuo gnraeuocmupanu 6onecmu Moeam ga 6ogam npuquueuu om]4loku.flosBama ua gayurka, rhrnmerruqa, ucmepug, enuJlencufi, "cypMa", "go6pama", "Megexamar', "uepBeuka", 3r6o6oa u Eguukumg "cegrtgecem u cegreM u nonciBuna" 6onecmu I nnkou cJr' rau uapogrbm Br,enpueua kamo pe3yJrnoam om BragetcmBuemo Ha go6po:henamerr. Ir1mr kakmo o6o6rua3a B.9o,rako8, qe "...akotrocre koaamo cu omuge ?ocmbrn nskot om govau.lnume ga6onee Heulo' cu'{flrme kasBam mot e Jrporracani'.6e ToBa ce onuracfl npegruMno 3a MaJrkume geua u no-MJragrume. flogo6na koncmamaqus npaBu u cBerueunuk fI. Jlro6eno8. B c6opnuka cu "Ba6a qe E?a..."?o nuu:e: ".".Bcskoea, koeamo *rerrume Eudsgatn, uankomo greme e nepa3nonolkeuo u 6onno, kasBam, ue nskorf eo e ln)oqacafi, m.e. ]tpouu xBaaado". fonenrume 6onecmom8opnu Erguo*ruocmu tra ypokurne nomBrp*rgaBamu Mnoeo 6airmru mekcmoBe, koumo onpe geJrfim nopa3enume op?alru. B pasruuper*a gak-

YPOqACBNIETO
3acflgra 6onecmma: f'...maka ga ce pa3necam lpokume /na uuemo/, ga ugJregnam ug ?na8a, ug cbpqe, u3 nJretuku, u3 uuurku, ug kpaka, u3 nemu, u3 ytuu, u3 orilu, u3 ycmar ug lroc, ug koka.ne, ug nbpcme, u3 Hoxme, u3 ceka cmaBa... u m.H," Om npeanegra Ha cuMnmoMume u ([opnrume na nponBa ua ylro,eacBauama cuJra e Eugrno, qe mt uwraurupok o6xBam lra nopalkenue, B ocnoBama na koemo cmou .eoBeka. HegaBucuMor qe ocBen xopama, naypouac8ane ca nogJrotkenu MHo?o gpyeu o6ekmu, me B pa3Jruqlra cmenen ca BrB Eptska c.roBeka u o6lqpr:ha8atuus eo
JruEameJrna (lopuyrra om JlonackoTr nocnegoBame.mro ca us6poenu Bcuuku opeauu tra.roBeurkomo mfiJro, krgemo

pasane*rga I gBe uacoku: 1/ flpako, konlqpemno ytrrouac8ane na .eoBeka. ToaaBa sno8pegrnomo BregetcmBue e Hacorreno nenocpegcmEeno 8r'pxy neeoEomo (lusuraecko ecmecmBo. 2/KocBenolryouacBane, koaamo o6ekma ua gnoBpegnama cuJra e rroBeurkomo 6umoBo o6lrptiltenue. B mogu crryuafi mo npako noeMa ypokume, lro ompuqameJuruf, eQekm koc8euo gacsea .roBeka. Hanpurvrgp, ako gorvr aurxo *ruBornno e ]4)oqaca$o, mo ce pas6onnBa unu yuupa. Taka npekunm nomnpneBur e *ruBomnomo. Ho kamo co6cmBenocm rla .roBeka, enoBpegruemo ce npocmupa u Etpxy cmonanruna. O6rqusm npeerreg nokasBa, \le ypo.eac8autama cuJra npocmupa Bnugnuemo cu canro B c(|epama ua coquarrgomo npocmpaucmBo. Xapakmepbm Ha nopa3enus o6ekm onpegens QopMama, I kosmo ce npga8aBam lpokume. flpu:liuBume

6um. Cnopeg xapakmepa na o6ekma, krnn koimo e nacoeeno BrsgetcmBuemo, ylrouacBanemo uo:lte ga ce

op?alrueMue$ekmame

6oJrecm u cMbpm,
45

m.e..

44

YPOTIACBATIETO
6uonoau*lro u ncu:Kttruo uapyurerrue, a npu ocmanaJrume o6ekmu, ErsgeircmBuemo, npoa8euo B urupoka eaua om ompuqameJruu paanoBugrnocmu pro:he ga 6rge onpegerreHo nat-o6utokamo p a s B a fi a. Illupokuam u pa3nocmpanen o6x8am ua.nopa:heuuemo qpeg ylrouacBane uaBe:kga cbulomo om paukume na pas6upanemo My carro kamo 6onecmomBopuo. flpoamupaluo ce Erpxy usrrama c([epa,na coquarnomo npocfnpancmBo mo e Bceo6xBamno 3 Jr o I p e g H o BrageficmBue Bro6rue, lracoqelro Brplry o6ekm c noJrorkumenna karrecmBena xapakmepucmuka, ocrulecmBencj om grpya uoBek u.nu nskakBa cBprxecmecmBena ry6cmauqus, kosmo uMa cnoco6uocm ga ylrouacBa.

YPOTTACBAHETO
egrnak8o 3na\relrue - uoBek, npume*ra8aul )rpoqac8aqu

cnoco6nocmu, korimo ce Btgnonay8a om mffx u oule, nuqe, koemo gaegrno c gpyeu ompuqameJrnu cnoco6nocmu uo:ke u ga ypoqac8a. Bnndapckuxm unsopvtamuBen vrimepuaJr onpegiens O\rume kamO ugxcrgB:"r mO.rka na JpotracBatUama CuJIa. 3amoBa ne crrlneairno HapoglHama noao8opkakaa8a: ".[a 6u rrrrorkan b o.tu 6u eo u3nufi", "flo?negrnaJr ?o, ma ?o y6ufi", "C or-ru rroBeka 3ampuBa" u grpyeu. B napbgmume necnu qecmo ce ao8opu 3a Jroruu xopa, koumo c no?Jregr npuuuuxBam Bao.B egEra cmpang:kancka necen ce nee:

VpouacBauufi m kamo snoBpegen ruaerocnuk


-r'

...Mapruna uairka Brpna gyurnaanka, B prka gsp*ru kumka 6ocuuek. ' Koaym r-ro?JregHua , om korrem naHtra,...?2
3a ga ce onpegerru npegcmaBama aa ypouacBdwuff,
na nrpBonrscmo e nyrkno gra ceymoqnu Bugana)4)oqacEanlume o.au. Hari-o6rao napogrbm ?u onpegeJrs kamo

flpume*amerrfim Ha enoBpegma, c8prxecmecmBeua cnoco6nocm e ocnoBnus eJreMenm B npoqeca Ha ypo\racEanemo: Irtrsepa*ganemo Ha rnoqtrua nay o6paa e caodreu Srnpoc, mari kamo HapogErama npegcmaBa ga He?o e pasnocmpauua, pa3uupena, a B nskou cfiyqau u npomuBopeuuBa. B pasnuqnume Ispauua na cmpanama Jrpoqac8aqu-

ypoquqa, Jroru qo,roBek c notu noeBek, grrJreoBek, [g,.roBek c noruo oko, gaBucmnuk, ga Bucqu fi, g a B uc mru a, 6 e Jr s g aur{o B ek, 'eoBek c ouatno oko, oMaIuuk, ypog,
ffmeno3namkamo ypok,
M a ? n o c u u k. Pa3,[u.anume uauMenoBauug

cagop:ham

"rouro oko", "tloul noafieg". To ce cpeqa BrB Ecu.rku 6naaapcku u3moqnuqu. Jlouromo oko e o6o6qeuo HauuenoBanue na oko usm.aBaulo Bpegonocua cuJra. flpume:kamensm rta makoBa oko e napu\ran om lrapoga Jr o ru rr o B e k. Hapogrsm 8xtrrBa, \re Jroruo oko upram koneae?3,6eJrfi3an \ro8ek?a, utpmBopogeuo, a cneg moBa orhuBgno gemeTs, noBmapauTo,'no8pameuuqeTT, ua,nko geme, koerrro go qemupugecemmsx gena e npucnuBaao 6eg rvrarika cu78, cr6omxukTe, cmapa-6a6uuka80, EgoBuua81, nrumoJro?uquu crruecm8a u c8ptxecmecmBenu cu47

46

WOITACBNIETO
Jru82,

YPOTIACBAETETO
fioulu u Mrio?o clurHu' lloanegrrm uM e c m n k JI e rr, u 3tltkneH, oc mbP, Bnu B alr, u gnuB aul, c m p a tu e n. Ha ueeo nuko{i ne rvroilre gra ycmou' Vpo.racBauemo na,aoBek cac guutfcku otru uJru om SMus goBe*ga go Mlro?o merkku nopalkenus' qecmo 3a8bpurBaulo cbc cMbpm' Ilouromo oko e paBnoenauHo rta o ? lr e H o m oe6' To "ugm.rBa Bpegonocelt o?blt, koimo npuuuuaBa 6onecm u 3Jro, eopu eo kamo oebu, xBrpna ao B oeru, u3?aps eo"' BonecmomBopnume uy cnoco6uocmu npegnrsBukBam "nraMenuua" u "oeHenul1a"s7, 6orecmu' 3a koumo ce BrpBa, qe canpegtlgBukanu om ypoku. B grpyeu BapuaHmu ypouacBauomo oko e o M a t n o' To onpe geJrs npe gusBukanume om ypoku cbcmoflHus lla "ovr ariB arre "es - 3aule[,Iemx3arre, 3aMagHa, pa3Mbmena enaBaee.flognamoeoulekamo cyxo u Mbmu0100" Hapogn m Brsnpuevra cyxomama karno 6enee Ha 3aBucmma /uecyuruna My noeJrega/, a vrtmnus tlBsna na
snama yMucbJr /pasvrrmuJra My noanega/' flpea.negrsm ua BpegoHocuume o'au nokagBa, 're rne ca cbulecmBen omJruqumenen 6erea om usJrocrrlnufi o6pas Ha ytr)o\racBauus. O6uknoBeHo no m'{x Hapogbm omkpuBa nocumeJrume na Bpegonocnu cunu' IzI ne cny.rairno B napognrama noao8opka ce kagBa, rle "Jloulustrn .roBek no oqume ce no3HaBa". fipyeu 6enegu 3a pa3no3naBane Ha J4)oqac8aulume xopa ca epynupaBu B npegbma8ama aa 6 e n fi 3 a H ,r o I e k 101 /6enssan om 6oea uoBek, T oBek c 5oilru 3uak, 6o*u uo8ek, sa6ene*(un'aoBek' nuurannus/' 3a 6engganus .aoBek fropgare IZoBkoB kagBa: "Cakamo nrk sno' Bensgan eo eocnog, om 6ensgan troBek ga 6aaaurf''102 Eerregume, koumo onpegenfrmnpegcmaBama sa 6e49

uu?anu, m]4)qu, gtpy?oBepqu83, Ma?bocnuqusa, Hegrea8u, cmapu MoMu u ep?enu, ,ryrkgu xopa om gpy?o Mtrcmo, nslrou rhuBomuncku Bugo8e. B omge,nnu Bapr.la-

nmu Jroruomo oko ce cpeu.la kamo gaBucrnnuBoss u cryxo86. Jlouomo oko ns*ra moquo onpegerren q8emoB nokasamerl. Konopnama vry xapakmep"rcmuka Eapupa I urupoka eavra om cBemr.n go rnbMeu u3sm. B o6ruus cnekmbp npeo6naga8auta e c8emnanoa moHannocm.

...CuBu oqu Mere3aHu, qepHu oqu Mene3anu...e

.,.floapeca.rry cafi nrnealry rruc pycu oqu, Huc qepnu o.ru...Eo

.".flpr'crrarru cia mutr oqu, 6e.nu.nu car cuBu.nu ca, cu8u rru ca, qepuu Jru ca...Ee
Yepnuam /msnrnusm/ qBsm ua oqume kamo ypouacBaruoonpegeJrsul ce qpeula no-o?paEuq.eno, gokamo cBernnama moHaJrlrocm I pasrmunu Eapuallmu e kor*pemen 6eaee ga pagnosna8aue lra yporracBautus. Cumro ypouacBautu ca culrumeeo, cuBumeer, gakbpecmume /urapenu, nbcmpu, na morrku, ua nembnqa./ez, Benexumee3,:kb,rtmumee4o c gBe nynomret ouu. Kau c8ernnama onpegeJreuocm Ha ypor{acBaqusm no?Jregi ca u sMu[ckume o\ru- sMufickunoeJreg, earrrcko oko,. 3rvrcku noeJre g, noeJre g Ha gbM, eJre ga kamo gMus. Hapogom cMflrna megu oqu ga u3knro.aume.nno 48

YPO\{ACBAT{ETO
Jrrr3alius cnopeg ecmecmBomo cu ce geJrsn.{ na 6 o:k u g n a k u k y c y p. rlo8ekrm c 6o:ku sxak uMa na qeJromo uJru Ha gpy?o Mf,cmo no mfiJromo, kprcmuei nernuo, moraka unu gpye "nuurar*". B napognume BrpBanr.lx mesu sllaqu uMarn npornuBopeqirEo mr.rilry8axe. CrurecmByBa uxenue, qe me ca snak aa go6pu L: ulacfiuruSu xopa, eakpunxnu om 6oaa, un6pannurlu na c ug6arna. llpomuBnomo pa:*6upa$e, eu onpegeJrs kamo uoctrnneJru }ea gno8peglru ka'eecmBa. Bo.lkume 3naqu ce om&acffm sa @usu,.recku sgpaBu u HopMa.'rnu xopa. Bmopama epyna Senegu EknrouBa pagJruqnu Bugmnau $usuuecku LiJru ncuxu.recku negrasu/iryc]ryu/. .fiennm ce ria g8enogepynu. Kp u B u me yp orlu ca cakarnu u
g"pog.ruuBu

YPOTIACBAHETO
VpouacBaruu cnoco6nocmu npumerhaBam xopa c Jrs8o onpegeJrelrue - neBuuapu, neBauu. Fonecmnomo cbcmosnue npuqunelro om msx e no3namo kamo n e B u y p o k u106. SnoBpegtrama urr,r ga.no:k6a ce onpegreJrfl om noguqufi ma gff cHo-JIs8o, ktgemo Bmopama cmpauauMa ompuqameJrua ceManmuqlla namoBapellocm, npueMana kamo Jrotua u cBrpaana cbc cMbpmmalo?. Hapognama npegcmaBa ga 6enggan T oBek e Bunaau ompuuameJrna. Cnopeg Hes "...Eoe 6enerku noruume xopa'c 6o*u 3nak, sa ga ce naSfrmgo6pume om mfix"108. OcBen no Bugnrvru 6enegu /oko, Queuuecku, ncuxuuecku negrre/ uapogrom hpueMa 3a ]rpoq.acBautu u ngkou xopa, sa koumo ce gHae, qe uMarn ompuuameJrlru qepmu I xapakmepa cu: 3aBucm, ano6a, Jroulomus, Jroua cpetrla. flpu ma3u kameaopufl xopa ompuqameJrHume 3ano:k6u ce BrsnpueMam kamo gageHocm, 6eg Btnuren Bgg"* uspa3. Te ce 3nafim B cenuulemo u Bceku ce na3u om mfrx. I4 gmo.*ruqume onpegrengm saBucmnuBume xopa kamo yf)oqacBautu. O6o6urenama npegrcmaBa sa ]rpoqacBautufi saBucrnlruk ce onpegeJtt om Bnnulrug rvly Bug. Tot ce pasnoaHaBa no Jrutlemo. O'aume My ca cyxu u Mbmnu, 6ygume xJrbrnuaJru, Berkgrume yBucnanu, Jruuemo e noBexHaJro, lkanmenukaBo u 6nego.10e ' ' SaBucmnuBume B napognrume BrpBanufi He ca egrHo3lra\ruu. Cnopeg xapakmepa u ecmecmBomo Ha Bb36ygnrme,nr me ce paggeJrsm Ha: t/ O6urogd8ucmnuBu - moBa ca xopa c ecmecmBeno gagena gaBucm. Te saBuilrgam na Bcuuku u 3a Bcuuko u Moeam ga ]4poqacBam Bcskoaa u Bcurrko. ' 2/ Konkperrlno 3aBucmnuBu - koeamo gaBucmma e nopogeHa om konkpenuro onpegeJlen crryuat- B magu
51.

xopa, koumo om.llocllo cuMernpufima ca

npomuBoBecm Ha npegcmaBama 3a lropMaJrno Ougutrecko cacrnosnue - u skp u I eu, kp u 8, metr) c e ne


.roBek1o3"

Bmopama nogepyrla na SensgaHunle xopa ce onpeg'enff ornxaupreuoBauuelnoqyge H qo g e k104. Toice omnurla$a c Heuro neoSu*aa{uro uJtr.i }reecmecmBeso ga o6ulama Maca ont xopa. ToBa ce onrrlacs npegutluo ga queaHurrie u 3a xopanla c mbMlra nueMeHmaqus Ha korkarna. Te ce Srsnpueuan0kamo "rayggu" u crorn8emno npumerlia8auiu ypo*aacBaula cu.na. Hapogrrm rapunuc8a Ha uueanume peguua ornpuuarnennu \repmu cknounccrn ksru'l y6u&cinBo, nusucrnBo, .nrrhnuBocm, Irp arh6a, M aeboclru\recrnBo, Jrouromufi . C r.remaBanemo Ha qygell u Jroru xapakrnep au nocma8s kamo usJro qpeg xopama c y4pouacBautu cnoco6nocmu u mo c nogFrepmano u3paselra cuJra. B usBopo8us Mamepuan ytrrotrac8aruume om rnagu nog?pyna ca nosBamu kamo q e p - rr yg e n uoBekros. 50

YPOTIACBAHETO
epyna ce npuqucrfiBam Jruqama JrurueHu om lleruo, 3a koemo unram cunno :keJranue, Ho ca I neBrsvrorknocm ga eo noJryqam. Tyk napogbm nocmaBs 6esgemnume /snoBume/, cmapume MoMu /cmap epaen/, BgroBuuume,
/BgoBeq/.

YPOqACBAHETO
ga gotgam u om troBek, korfmo ne npumerkaBa anoBpegnu cnoco6Hocmu.113 Ako ngkotr go6ponauepen unu 6nugrk.aoBek 6eg BcskakBa yvrucun ce pagrBa, yrygBa unu Ergxutua8a na nskoao uJru Ha Heulo, Beposmrocmma mo ga 6rge J4)oqacano e Mnoeo ?oJrflMa. B mal<uBa c.rryqau HapogrbmkaeBa, qe ca ao xBananu n o .ry gu m e.

Hapogram BrpBa, qe Mumuqeckume ctulecm8atlo geMouurrHume nepcona:ku - pas.nuqHu teMolru, gyxoBe, gytuume Ha yMpeJrume u gpyeu cBprxecmecmBenu cunu, B nakou cJn/qau om gaBucm u ovrpasa krbM cMbplnaumel11 Mo?am ga l4)olracam Bcekueo. Om magu ?pyna anomBopau aeeHmu nat-.aecmo cpeulaHume ca c a M ogu I c ku me yp oku. Te nopasa8amnpegnrMuo MJragu MoMuu oBuapu u MJragu MoMu: Toeu clorkem e ocno8en B wtroeo no8ecmBoBamennu mekcmoBe na 6aunnu $opMyrru sa lpoku:

flpoBogunu Cmogua Ha caMoguBcko rruBage cuBo cmago ga nace. Tofi sacBupun c Megen kaBan. Cr6panu ce canrroguBu, nanpaBurru xopo canao guBcko, no?negHaJru Cmosua ygapunu eo ctc cuHu oqu, ga6orrgrro eo Jrpmo erraBa...1r2 flonskoaa napogbm cprecBa npegcmaBume sa caMognrBcku ypoku u carvrognrBckama 6onecmnpu\rulrena om naeagBaue Ha caMogruBcko c6opuule, Ho B noBe.remo cJryriau np a Bu p asnuka vre*gy gBeme 6onecmnu cbcmo'IHU'I.

SnoBpegnromo BragericmBue, koerno ]rpo\racBaulusm ynparknaBa Brpxy nororkumennu kaue c mB euu o6ekmu, onpegeJrs ypouacBauemo kamo npougBognro B cQepama Ha Bpe gonocnama Maaun. llpume:hamenume na makuBa cnoco6nocmu ce Branpuevram om Hapoga kamo gJromEopnu MaebocHuuu c pagJruuna BrsgetrcmBena cuJra. Cnopeg L. Mairlla me ca "nepconuQukauus Ha 3romo'1, m.e. "geicmBusma Ha Maebocnuqume ce s8gBam kamo alrmume3a na xy6aBomo". B napogmume BrpBauus Ha nuqama, koumo ce 3Hasm, rre ca Maebocuuqu ce npenuc8a 6escnopna cnoco6Hocm ga ]rpotracBam. Hapogram o6acnsBa'moBa kamo pe3yJrmam om Epogenama uM Jrotuomus u cknonxocmma krvr nerroBeurka rkecmokocm.ll5 Kpraom Ha ]4)oqac8aulume e MHo?o urupok. B neao Bausam pa3Jrureuu nepcona:hu, uskou om koumo peaJrno He ce Branpuevramu ne ca nognamukamo Maebocnuqu. HegaBucuMo om mo8a, me ce pas6upam om Hapoga kamo Jruua, npume:haBatuu I pa3Jrutrlra cmenen cBprxecmecmBelra Maebocnu.recka gagf enocm. CaegoBamea-

Ilo ypoqacBaulusm

e MaebocHukukamo

Ha8cgkrge

e no3Hamo BrpBanemo, rle

ypoku Moeam

nepconark morl mpa6Ba ga ce pa3?rre*ga kamo makr8. Maerocnurreckama xapakmepucmuka na lpouacBaulus u3epa*ga gBoeu cmpykmypen o6pas. Om egnra 53

52

YPOUACBAIIETO
cmpaBa moli e uoBek, JruqHocm, qJreH Ha couuaJl]rufi konekmu B. lloene grnam om mo3u netn moir npuna gnelku lla couuyMa cbc csomBemnus couuaJren o6paa. Om gpyea cmpana, moir npume:kaBa Ma?bocuuqecku cnoco6nocmu u\ uua cBprxecmecmBeno uSMepeHue, koemo uaepa:hga MumonoeuqHutr nny o6pas. .Euxomo*rufima lra nepconalka eo npa8u gunaMuqeu eJreMeum, kotimo onepupa egraoBpennenno B gBama cBrma. flpuctcmBuemo Ha )T)oqacBatuus I gBeme c(lepu na 6unapnama ono3uuufi Ha c8ema onpegeJrfi cnequQu'euomo uy uacmo B npocmpancmBenama nokanugauus. Kamo \rnelr Ha couuaJruus konekmuB morf ne npuHagJre:hu cavlo u llanbJrHo Ha cotluyMa, a cmou I neao u ug8rn lre?o. flo csulus naquu npucrcmBuemo vry B gpyaus cBsm He eo npaBu npunagnerkatu cauo Ha ma3u c$epa. CnegoBameJrllo' vregnramuBHume $ynkquu na )4)olracBaulus, npocmpalrcmBeno ao noka.nugupam kamo npunagJrerkaul'nocmosHHo na epauuuama vre:kgy gBama 6uuapnu noJrloca. ToBa rvry gaBa Brarvrorknocm egrno8peuenlro ga npulragne*u u B crruomo BpeMe ga cmou usBrn gBeme cOepu ua MupoeJlegrnume npocmpancmBa. Brp>ry ma3u ocuoBa, pa3ebpnama na pa3Jru.enu nuBa ce uaapalkga gEotnux o6pas Ha ]4)o\racBaqus. 3a ga aualru3upaMe couuaJruama u MumoJroauqnama xapalmepucmuku na ]4)oqacBaruus, ycnopegnro c 6rnaapckus MamepuaJr ule npu8ne'aevr un$opuauus om gpyeu kynmlpu na nuBo panen cmagrut na pasBumue. Coquannama xapakmepucmuka ua ypouac8aulufi cbgbplka npuglrauu, koumo onpegeJrsm neaoBun Maebocq

YPO'TACBAE{ffiTO
apxauqlru kopeuu sac8ugeme.ncrnBy8anu B nrpBo6umuoo6ulunlnufr crnagut na pasBumue. Cnopeg cmano8uluemo na C.A.TokapeB "...cot1uaJrnantra ocuo8a na Epegoraocl$.omo Enusuue ca ItnerkgynneMeHuume pa3Jru\rus u o6oco6enume ycnoBux na rkuBom na eam8openume B ce6e cu nrpBo6umnu epynu
Be

ylk

gu

qo

urvra

nu.recku nomeuquan, Cpeg mfix Ha nrpBo Mscmo e npegcmaBama 3a q y :h eI, 3acmbneua B pasnuuuu Bapuanmu. Brpama 8rB Bpegonoclromo Bnusnue na
54

na ueepailrgane Ha nrpBo6umno*n "l*ouloBekrm ce onpegre.nx B pannkume Ha konek' cb3nauue muBa kamo usJro u ce npomnBonocmaBs kamo konekmuB na gpya konekmuB. CanroonpegeJreuuemo lla qJrenoBeme Ha mosukonekmuBkamo Hu e cenpomu8onoc* maBs Ha gpyeuskonekrnuB, koumo ca me. OcBen moBa, Bmopunm konekrnuB ce BrenpueMa om nrpBua kamo Heulorranbirnouy*rgou Bp a * ge 6no. Co6crnBenusm koneknru8 I coScmtseHume cu o\ru Bu.naeu e camo go6rp, gokamci uyrkguam npu Ecuuku cJr] {au e 3.lro u onacHo neutro. Ommyk e B*pBanemo, qe Bceku'{y*g.ro8ek nenpuuagaerkaul kru nJreMemo uJru poga e praerocnuk u nocumeJr Ha BpegouocHo Bnusu.ue. flo mogu noBog 17 om6ena3Ba, ue "...u3ruerkgy B cu.rku onac,{:lc. Operi erp llocrnu gnrBakrm nair-vrnoao ce cnlpaxyBa om mbvruomo *akycm8o lra Maebocnuqume u Beuluqume u rnoil nogrosupa Ecuuku uyrkgrenqu, qe ce gaHuMaBam c nogo6na geinocoa. IIpu moBa nonorkenue eJreMenmapirarna My npegnasJruBocmno8ensBa ga ce na3u om snoBpeg:rorno BruRnue, ynpa:kua8ano Bonuo u.nu neBorrno om n:flx". Elskou a(lpukancku nneMena B4rBam, ue qenu uyrkgnr poger8u epynu ce cbcmoffm caMo om Ma?bocl*ruu, a nari-cu.rinurne *uBesm B gpyeu cefia.11e flanyacurne ctrao ca yFepenu, qe Bpegoaocnume Maabocuuqu rhuBesrn caMo B grpyeu ceJruula u nJreMelra u uukoaa ne npenuc1

""o;;;".eca

55

YPOTIACBATIETO
Bam noura Maeufi u snomBopcmBo Ha xopa om cBoemo cero.lle B xskou ungnrtcku BxpBanua SJrume Ma?boclruuu Eunaeu mpa6Ba ga ce mbpcsrn I grpyeu ceJra, pa3no-

YPOqACBAHETO
MeHHume Berru uvra uyBcmBo, ue Bap8u no oMaebocalra

no*renu 3ag nnauullurne,lzo a 6paeu.nckume 6akmapu cqurnam, \re rne rkuBesrn caMo B grpyeu cera.12t Cnopeg J.Buxton, "...y vraugapume u nshou gpyeu a$pukancku nJreMelra Bce oule e *uB cmpaxa om BpegolrocHama Ma?uff u Enusllue Ha xopa orn galreulru u uylkgnr uecmatt.722

Brp>qf cmpaxa om Bpegouoclromo Snusnue na uyrkgnra uoBek ca u3epageuu cnequaJrHutne o6pegnr u3nbJrnsBanu npu cpeula, nocpeulaHe, npueMeiHe u npeMulraBane. [*t. Qperigrp cro6uaBa, "....ee Mnoeo Bepoxmno e uomuBrm ga nskou uepeMonuu, uSnbJlnflBanu npu nocpeulaHemo na uy:ltgeltuu, \ruemo npegiHaSuaeeuue He e ornkpumo 3axBeno, e ue rhenanuemo ga uM ce okarke qecm, a no-ckopo cbulus crnpax".123 Koeamo I nnetraemo uJru ceJruulemo npucmu?am "rpkgu xcpa, uJru ce lranaea gra npeMuxam npeS nJreMennume SeMu' LlJru no ngkakrB gpye no8og ce Hafiaea ga Bnesam B koumakln c Mecrnuorno lraceJrenue, nrpBo eu noeMam rhpeuume u usBrpurBam nag msx cbomBemuurne o\rucmumennu o6pegnr. Te ca npegllagnaqenu gra npeMaxnam Bpegrnama cuJra Ha ,eyrlcgeneqa u ga xanpa8am 6sugocmma My 6e3onacHa. Mnoeo6porinume oqucmumemru o6pegrul2a c8rpsareu c .eyrkgnrrne xopa, BapuamuBHomo uM MHoeoo6paeue u cco6eno gagrrn:kumenuorno ugnbalienue noka3Bam cme. neHma na Erp8auemo BrB Epegonocr*ama cuJra xa uy:kgua uoBek. Crtuomc ErpBane Bailru u npu na6rmgane B uykga u nenognama mepumopus. Koeamo gnrBalrm ce omgaJreuaBa om ceJrorno uJru nanycne mepumopufima Ha nJre-

seMs u npegmpuema nrepku ga ce npegBasu orn Maeuume u Bpegmomo Bnusuue na upkgnrme o6umamenu.t25 O6uryBanerno c upkgnr xopa Ha msxlla rnepumopus uJru npu npecrnori na uyilrga 3eMfi cbulo Hocu onacrnHocm npu eaBpoulalle B konekmuBa. TakrB.roBek ce Bisnpueua kamo nocumen aa Bpegonocno Bnusnue. 3a ga 6tge npuem cpeg cBoume npu ga8patuane om uy:kgto u grarleqno Mrrcmo, mofi npevruna Ba npe g onpe gerenu o6pagnr sa o*rucmBane. Paa6upanemo 3a Epegouocnama nomeuuuf, na reyil<guf, u3eparkga gocmu?HaJromo lo Hauru gmu BrpBane, urupoko nosnamo y Hac' tre Eceku t{Ykg u Heno3nam uoBek, gpyeocefieq, "s6angnkufi", om gpyeo Mxcmo Mo*re ga lryouaca Bceku u Bcu.tko. KonekmuBnomo caMocb3nauue u npomuBonocmaBane usapa:hga npegcmaBama 3a sno8pegnro Blumrue Srptcy 6unapuama ono3uuus g o 6 p o - 3 n o /uue-me, qBofi-.ry*(g/. ToBa pas6upaxe e npucbluo na apxauqna-' ma no npcicmoma QopMa Ha op?anu3aqus, kamo ueo6xoguM u saggrpaBumgJreu ereMelrm Ba apynoBama egrulrHOCm.

Bompeuuromo pagcJroenue Ha o6rlnocmma npoMelrn npocmpaucmBenama nokarnrgauua na Epegonoceua. Om npegcma8umeJr caMo na lrecoquaJlnama cQepa mofi npeuuxa8a.B koaekmuBa. Kamo neeoB qrre$ mo& e c ts ori u Enusa I o6uiamanpegcmaBa 3a uue' Hokamo Hocumen Ha sfio u c8prxecmecm8eua nometsquff moir e kru npegcrna8ama g 'r y lk u cu ocmaBa npuBagiJre*tau sa m e om gpyeus cBsm. Ha mogu eman Epegonoceqbm om a6conromxo uyrkg npueMa u3Mepelrue Ha onruocurneJftro qy:kgr. ToBa gaBa ocnoBanue na M'Douglas126 gra 57

56

YPOqACBAHETO
onpegeJru gBa ocuo8uu muna MaebocuuqecmBo - o68uHeuue na upkgnr uo6Buaenuena Bamper:ruu a,nomBopnu Maeboclluuu. EBonroupalremo na Epegonoceqa I panakume na konekmuBa uyBcm8umenno pasruups8a couuaJrBume My u3Mepenus. Coquannama My xapa}mepucmuka Bknro.{8a .lepmu npucbulu Ha coquyMa u I cbulomo Epervre Brsnpuevrauu kamo uy*rgnr, npuuagJreiraqu Ha gpyeume. Om npegcmaBama sa cBoe kamo go6po, Bcqka npoa8a Ha ompuqameJrno noBegenue B epanuqume lra konekmu8a ce kameaopu3upa kamo 3Jro u cromBemnus usBspu.rumeJr ce Bpsnpuerra kamo lrocumeJr Ha 3Jro, cnegoBameJrno onacen u 3acmpauraBatu. B couuanen acnekm npoaBama lra gaBucm e na[-

YPOTIACBAHETO
Cnopeg pe.llrko8omo murlryBane gaBucmma e Benpusgnelro uyBcmBo npu 6naeonorryuuelze uJru Henpusmno uyBcm8o, koemo ce sBg8a npu Euga na uy:kgnrme ycnexu uJru gocmotncmBa.r3o Ts e omnotueuue rue{rgy xopama B npoqeca Ha coquaJrnomo urrn o6uryBane'131 Kamo uyBcmBo nopail<ga cmpervrerk kru npume*ranue u B crtuomo Bpervre ce uenpaBfr npeg neBrgvlorhnocm 3a moBa. Cumyauunma cnlpeMe*r - neBrguorhnocm onpegeJrs npucr'ulama na Bcxka gaBucm cmpevrerk kru ytruruorkenue Ha Hegiocmu:kuMomo, Mnoeo moturo 0opMyJrupauo omnapoga, ee "u1oM He e Moe' no-go6!e ga rre e Ha nukoeo!". Taka SaBucmrna e egrnoBpeMeuno ompuqameJrlro uyBcmBo u SJroBaMepeuo noBegHu.: 3a8ucuvrocmma 3a8ucm - sJro e npegcmagena konkpemno B onucanue Ha J4)oT acBatuusm gaBucmlruk: ""'BeaoBomo egnnrcm8euoymeureuue ce cbcrnou B 6egcmBr'lemo ua gpy"ume - ga Bugnr nagieuuemo rra moeo3u' koirmo e Brs6ygrun neeoBama saBucm. SaBucmnuBume ga no-gpegrumeJmu u om uatr-xgoBumume at "*u*am s8epoBe. flocnegrnume, qpe3 pauama uemrBam cBor ag uoxanauomo Mficmogano'eBa gaenue noneka-neka, a ga gaBucmnuBume nskou MucJrsm' rre npeuacnm Bpega caMoc egEro no?Jrerkgane, mrtuomo ommexuus ga8ucm.nuB noeJreg gano.rBam gra cna6esm u xat-cuJlnume no msJro. Bcu'rl<ama uM nbJlnoma us8egulrk eanouBa ga eacne, kamo lle Jru om gaBucm.rnrBume oqu ce uenu8a ngkakrB onponacmumeJren u Bpegolrocelr u uampe6umeJrex nomok... nenaBucmnuqume na go6pomo lrenpekrcuamo ce cmpeMfim ga ce BtgnousyBam om uaMepeHurrma c1J".132 Tr:kgecmBomo saBucm - 3Jro onpegeJrs lrapogrnomo Bxp8ane, ue "lpouacBauemo uge om 3aBucmma", a om maM Bceku saBucrnfiuB T oBek uMa cno59

munuqnama qepma I xapakmepa lra ypouacBaqua. HaBcakrge ms ce npueMa sa ocnoBa na Bpegonoclromo Bnu.enue. Cnopeg a(lpukanckume 6akBepu ""..krgemo uua gaBucm, maM e u Maebocnu'eecmBomcf",127 a cnopeg agange "...8 Haqaromo ugBa 3aBucmma, a cJreg lres cnegBa Ma?bocHuqecmBomo".128 Cbcmoslruemo na gaBucm kamo cumyaqufi sa Bpegonocno B,nuxnue e ompa3eno u B 6u6yrusma:
orue, Bugrx ae Ecskofi mpyg, u Bcsko cnoJrfreno geJro. IIe aa moBa xa.re.noBeka My sa8u*ga 6rurhuufi rrrryi I4 moBa e c'lrema u o?Hemexue Ha gyxbm, 6esynorurm casBa ptqeme cu u fige nJrrmma cu. /Ekknucuacm, ea.4,cm.4, 5./

ff

58

WOTTACBAEIETO
co6uocm ga ypoqac8a. B coquanuomo noBegeuue rta fiuqnocmma ce o6egnrnsBam ocmanaJrume qepmu om o6utama npegcma8a aa Epegonoceqa. Bcf,ka nponBa ua ungnr8uryarru3bM, samBopenocm I ce6e cu, e?ou3tnr, udyBarkeuue uuenorrumaIre tra ocmauaJrume,.cmpalrene om o6wume eagraruheuua, ueBrsgtprkanocm, BeeocmonpueMcmBo u gpyeu $opruu na ornk.nouelrue om cmepeomunuomo coquaJnro noBegenue ce kameeopu3upam kamo qyrkgu u onacuu. 3a'mesu xopa ce 8apBa, rre ca EocumeJru na Bpegonoora cura u Mo?am ga na8pegam na ko.riekmu8a u xa Eceku qJreu om He?o. Taau npegcmaBa uMa apxauura ocuoBa onpegereua om xapakmepa rra npouaBogcm8omo npu pogoBo-naeMenuomo o6utecmBo. fltpEo6umnama i[opMa ga csutecmBy8auemo ua rroBeka u neeoBus mpyg ca ueBrsn rolknu 6ee o6qomo cnnoms8ane. S gpaBunama na Bamperuuo-epynoEama Bpreka u o6utoapynoBomo egnrucmBo ca 8a:kau ycnoBur ea *ruguecnoco6nocmma ua epynama u onpegeJrnm crom8enurume couuaJrnu uopuu aa no8egenue. Bcako omknoseuue om nrflx e 3arurarxa Ba rlfiJrocnrmaua b6ulnocmma, eamoBa BapyurumeJrfl ce npueMa Ba npurruua u us8rpuumeJr rra 3Jro. Hgkou usl{enenus B coquaJmomo cbcmosnue rra JrurrHocmma, Eaenpuenranu |ramo pasnuqnu om o6rlonpuemume go8e:hgam go ErpBanemo, qe mexrrur nocumer e nomeuuuaJren uJru peaJrex npume:kamen na enomEopnu cnoco6nocmu. Taku8a ca Bgo8cmEomo /Bgo8uua, Bgro8ety', pas:keaBanemo /pasocma8uuua, pa3ocmaBuuk, ocmanHuqa, ocmaBm.rlt, napficnuqa, napabnuk, paa8egeua, pasBegenl, eakrcasJro 3agrouq8ane /cmapa MoMa, cmap epaen/. flpuauaqume, koumo uaaparhgam couuaJrHama xa60

WOTIACBAHETO
pakmepucmuka na ]n)o\lacBatuus ce gontn8am u om $usuueckua o6pas. Izlsepagen Bopxy ocnoBama na 6rnaapckume uu$opuamu8nu ugmot'*ruqu moti e ugenmuqen c npegcmaBama 3a Maebocuuuume.l33 Ornpuqamennunmxapa}mep na mslotomo Quauuecko u ncuxurrecko ecmecmBo ?u grucmauuupa om o6tuama Maca na konekmuBa, kotmo npu Ecu.eku c.l4 rau ce caproBr3npueMa kamo nopManen. B mogu c,rprarl Qugu.reckama EeecmecmBenocm e egEra om ocnoBnume trepmu onpegeJrtrruu ypoqacBatuus. Om myk e kameaopurruoclnma Ha Bapoguomo Brp8ane, .re Eceku lrr7q, arp6a8, cakam, eny:q tq)oM, kroce /aono6pag, ke.n*8/, .aun /'runonoc/, grpe6octk /nuctk, g:kyg:ke/, Muoeo 8ucok, Mlroeo ge6en, MHo?o ena6 /knnorua8/, eposen, cmpatuen, rregloltocqel rrepeu, doamenr:ka8 nnoaam ga ]ryoqacBam. Izlrnocmpuparu npuMep sa cpaBnumemra auafioeus B moBa omnoruenue e ErpBanemo B gnomBopcm8o 8rp>ry ocnoBama ua u8emo8amanueMeumal,luf, uaxopa om gBe paeuuunu pacoBu lrynmypu. BapBanemo y 6anaapume u npu gpy?u napogru c 6sn uBsm ua korhama,tto 'le Bceku'roBek c mbMua u qepua nu?Menmauufl Mo:ke ga npuuunu ypoku, uaMupa o6parnnomo pag6upaue qpeg Hapoerume c ecmecm8ena mbMna nueMenmatrug. AQpukalrqume u nocnequaJnro ykaelpy, no garuu na T.O.Beidelmanl3s npueMam Eceku .ro8ek c neneanEo6sn u"mr 8to6qe crc c8enrau u8rm ua korkama 3a Jruqe, koemo nao:he ga npuqunu 3Jro, gla npaBu Maeuu u ga ypor'lacBa. flonoBomo greJrelrue lra Jruqnocmma Euaca onpegenena o6o6rueuocrn B npegcmaBama 3a ypoqacBatuus. Ha8catmge ce 8rp8a, qe lkenume npu\runsBam )Troku Mlro?o no8e.re om ur:heme. B ngkou cJrlnrau maku8a cnoco6nocmu ce npenucBam Ba Bcu'aku:heuu. Hanpu61

WOTIACBAEIETO
Mep Mbrkeme om Bueeputckama epyna Byrre Budhgam BrB Scska *reua labarocuuqa, Bpae na utdra u ur:kkama 8nacm, koumo eu ganJratuBam c Maeuume cu u Eunaau uM npuquusBam 3lt0.136 B 6rnaapckume BrpBauua npeo6naga8atuo Muosuncm8o cpeg Ma?bocnuqume ca :keuu.137 Hapogrrm cMtrna, qe msxnama lryouacBarua cuJra e no-eonsMa om ma3u na rrc:ken-:e, a ylrokume npuquuenu om ilreua ca no-merklru. Bcuuku ne'aumeirku ca y6egenu, ue *r e n c k u m e yp o k u ce neky8am mpygrno u Muoeo rrecmo om rrlrx ce yMupa. Bpegonocnomo ilrencko BtsgerlcmBue e B saBucuMocm om,Mncmomo'Ha *lenama I onosuuunma 9o61ro sno, krgemo e nocmageua rra cmpanama Ha 3Jromo
lncl}ol.r3e

YPOTIACBAHETO
6a6u'aka, c b c y xp e tr a 6a6uqka, n a 6p b qk a n a 6a6urrka uaBcakrge ce npueMa, .re uMa nouro oko.
:

BaepacmoBugm nokasamen Enacs xoBu uepmukrru o6utama npegcmaBa sa Bpegonocuama rnlenocm. HaBc*krge e pa3npocmpaneBo BapBanemo, qe Maebocltuqume ca cmapu 6a6uqlru. Ha mru< napogbm npunucBa eoJraMa ylrouacBaua cuJra. B uapogrnume necnu, ksgemo cma8a gyMa ga g.noBpegrno EasgeicmBue, npuqugumeJrume ca Euuaeu:keuu I uanpegrnana Brgpacm; .., Om.ge oa y3exa mufi cmapu' cmapr1, erp6aBu Eetuuuu,

Bewuqu, Btpuu 6pognruuu...ls

B panrrkume na BrspacmoBus guana3ou cnoco6nocmma 3a Jdro.eac8ane e konqeumpupana okoJro aopnama BrgpacmoBa epauuqa. Hskou oco6eno munurrnu ga cmapocnrma ueprn-'u ca 6eacnopen npusnak 3a pa3no3naBane Ha ypoqac8autur. Hanpurrnep n p e e r p 6 e ua
62

SaBucurvrocmma cmapocm - 3Jro MHo?o moluro e gonoBeia om frocu([ Bpagamu, kotmo B XVIII 8ek nuure: "...Tako Hue lf';ruMe rkenume goege ca MJragu ga ce uakumam u ga ce npeuenyBam, npeJraulasm ne3no6nrrBu gryruu. Eega ce gacmaperom one cmanym Ma?ecnuuu. IrI cmanym Jrromu u cbpgumu, no.ruym ga kutnym u ga ce gaknunsm u ga He npoulapm kofi uttl Heulo ca?peurum".1& flpugaaqume, koumo usapa:hgam coquaJrnama xapakmupucmuka Ha J4)oqacBatuus onpe gerrfi m i[opuanlrama My npuuagne:knocm kbM npegcmaBama ea uylkg, 3a lrocumeJr Ha 3Jro, ua ugBaru om glpyeus c8*m. Epyaa ?pyna npu3lrauu oOopugm MumoJroeuqnusm rvry o6pas u onpegeJrfim peaJrHama, cnopeg Hapogrume nlregcmaBu, Bpreka c gpy?ufl c8gm. Om myk, Btnpocrm 3a npou3xoga oQoprvrs ? e H e a Jr o ? u q lr u m e npuSnaqu cBrpsanu na nrpBo Mscmo c neeoBomo c B p b x e cm e c m B e n o s a q a mu e. ToBa e Bprgkama ga pasapocmpanenama no qflJrama cmpalra npegcmaBa, nre k o n e Jr e /geme pogeno 6es 6aula, om MoMa, om Bgro8uqa, om napscnuqa, orh anoBa tkenaL/, koeamo nopacne ute rvrorhe ga lt)oqac8a u ga npaBu Maeuu. Cruomo 3naqenue uMa BrpBanemo 3a geme omneugBecrrluu pognrmeJru /nogxBrpneno, BaMepeno, ugocmaBeno, npugoruno/. Ha8cakrge ce 8rpBa, ue snoBpegnume cuJru uMam HaMeca npu gaqamue no Bpeue ua M p b c n u m e g n u u npe3 gpy?ume nepuoJu tra npexogl. ToaaBa Ecuuku xmonuquu cuJru u3Jru3arn u" Ermsgm ompuqameJrllo, 3amoBa "a.ko gememo e BaqeHamo npe3 Mpbcuu-

63

YPOTIACBAHETO
qume, koaamo nopacue, kakBomo no?Jregrne c oreu eo ytrro,eac$a". Kamo no kscua :q)ucmuffBcka nacuoirka, Bap8anemo ce pasuupsBa u 3a "cBemufne guu npes eogrlruama". ToeaBa rkena ue mpn6Ba ga ce cr6ripa c ur:h, aanrlorno ako sa.reue, moBa cmaBa c naMecama ua gaBona. 3a,{egamo geme om cnorueuue Ha rkena c MumoJro?urinu crulecm8a go6u8a eno8pegrnu gano*r6u. B 6aaaapckume BspBanus om ncomuBa "MoMa ganro6ena om 3Meil", pogenomo greme - guefi.re tuoM nopacne ganorrBa ga ypoqacBa u ga npaBu uaauir. Cuuume ka.recmBa go6uBam Bgu?Bamume om 8u:rpynku. Eeqama na ireuume, koumo ylrouacBamuJru ca Maebocnuqu nacnegaBam ka.recmBama na lwaikume. Pa:hganemo Ha gememo onpegeJrs Mccmomo, koemo ule saeMe no-krcno B o6ruecmBomo. flepuogrmna 6peMenxocm ce npueMa kamo MoMetrm na npexog om onrr cBam B,mox, om xaoca B Kocuoca.lal 3amo8a npocmpalrcm8enama opueumaqun lra nJroga I rvrorvreuma na pa:hganemo onpegers npuo6uaBanemo na noBopogenomo ksna o6tuecrnBomo B karrecmBomo na cEofi uJru ycrnano8sBa npulragJre;*nocmma nry kru orur cBsm u eo paabnerhga kamo uy:hgo. floaBama aa 6sn cBgm c aaa8ama nanpeg, kakmo HapogrbmnpueMatropMaJmomo palkgaue, oka.recmBaBa gememo kamo nopMareg.roBek u eo npueMa Ba cBot. Bcu'rku anoMaJruu npu oc8o6orkgaBane om 6peuennocm /pa:kgane c kpakagna nanpeg, cegafiululro, c grynemo Hanpeg u grp../ ce npueMam 3a nenopMaJruu, a pogeuume maka ce cMrrmam 3a uy$rgru, npunagJrerkaruu Ha otrfl c8gm cbc cbomSern:rume ga.no*r5u sa arom8opcmEo. B kynmypume na MHo?o aQpukancku aapogu geqa64

YPOqACBNIETO
ma om anoMaJrnu pailrganua ce cMsmam ga nomenuuaJrHu Ma?bocnLfqu ullocumeJru ua gno.1az 3a gace npeginasrrm orn msx qneg parkgalremo au aaxBtpnam B eopama, a uafikume uM uaeo]r8am orq ce,nomo.1a3 Ha grpyeu uecma ?u npegaBam B prqeme na ceackume:kpequ, ga gra us8rpuram c mrrx oSpega n p e B r p m a H e 3a lreympaJrugaqus na gJrama nomenuus.laa B 6rnaapckume ErpBanux poJeuume auoMarrno ce cMfimam sa Jrouru xopa u Moeam gaypoqac8am. 3a msx uMa ugpagu kamo "pogeno c ebga Banpeg", "ersa rry npeg ueeo 8tp8an", "pogeno Ha mepceue". Te ce u3noJrgyBam ga o6ognarraBane na Jroru'ro8ek. B crulunm cnnucbn ce pa36upa u BrpBanemo sa cma8aue om cbn "Haeope c arsa". 3a cmanan maka rroBek ce 84rBa, lle npe3 ueJrufl gen e nour, Ecu.rko My e kpuBo, uMa Jroura cpetua u koeomo noeJregme ule eo ]A)oqaca. B mosu c.rryuat Jroruama onpegeJrelrocm ce npocmupa caMo B pavrkume na genfi go cnegBaluufi cbn. Hapogrlm 8apBa, rre koaamo.roBek cnu glylxama My nanycka msJromo u omu8a ua orlf, c8am, a koaamo ce cr6ygnr omnoBo ce Bpruta B mosu. flpexogrrm om cblls krnn peannama getcm8umennocm ce s8gBa kamo npexog om ons krvr mo3u cBgm. O6rpuamomo cma8ane e 6enea sa npuuagJrelknocmkrur om8rg?romo u cBprxecmecmBenomo cbc cbomBemnume ganolk6u aa snom8opcmBo.

Pagnuqnume Eapuanmu ga npeo6rpnamo naBnrrsane B mogu cBgmca 8rB Bprskac uomu8a sa np e o6rspu a m o m o m fi Jr o npucbulo }ra MumonoeuqHama npegcmaBa 3a Maebocnuqume. O6rpuamomo e ynu8epcaJreu guak ga Hetrucmomaraa, ga npuuagJrelknocm krnrr uylkgTua, nerro8eurlru c8xm,las a o[lmaM u gnak sa Epego65

YPOTTACBAHETO
Hocna nomenqus. B nskou BrpBanun mo8a cbcmosuue ce npunucBa na urpmBume o6umaBauu gpyeuf, cBgm.16 HenpognruraJromo uoBopogeno B crcmoslrue rta quanosa /sagyureno, nocuunno/ cneg pailrganendo ce npueMa omuapogakamo rvrop m B o p o ge tr o, a cnilgrnoBa o:kuBsno. HaBnuganerno Ha gememo B mosu cBgmkamo vrrpmBo, cnopeg BrpBanuama nocu c8prxecmecmBeHume ompuuameJruu 3aJro:k6u na ous c8gm. Cneg neo6xoglrMume 3a cJryrrafi cJregpocJuJr]lu Ma]rtrnyJrauuu 3a nponrakBaHe; Ha o*< u B g n o m o greme ce npunucBam ]Do'eac8atuu cnoco6nocmu. Om npee.negra u auaJru3a na usBopoBus uamepuaJr, ko[mo ga8a unQopMaqufi 3a Bapogprama npegcmaBa ga ypouacBaruua kamo cy6ekm, uo:keu ga nanpaBunr cJregnomo o6o6ulenue: - VpouacBaulu cnoco6uocmu npume:ha8am onpegeJrenu xopa, ndrou rkuBomuucku BugoBe u cBprxecmecmBeuu crtuecmBa. Om usnama ?pyna na enomBoptlume nat-nrrnoeo ca xopama. Te uwram scno u3pagena ompuqamenna ka'recm8ena xapakmepucmuka, kosmo paako konmpacmupa na o6tuun coquaJreu 0oIr. OmpuuamenHama uM clsuurocm onpegeJrfi 3JroBaMepeHocmma Ba me:crume 3aMucJru u tesrtut, a om maM 3JroHaMepeIrocmma na noBegeuuemo uM. - flpegcma8ama sa ytr)oqacBaqus e u3?pagena om coquannama u MumoJroeu\ruama vry xapakmepucmuku. IzI gBeme ?o npegcmaBgm kamo npunagrre*raul Ha gpyaus cBsm omkrgemo no.nyuaBa cEptxecmecmBena cnoco6nocm ga BrsgetcmByBa ompuuameuuo Brpxy o6ekmu c noJro:humeanu u3Mepenus. EcmecmBomo na BsggerlcmBuemo ce Ersnpueua 8rB BrtrrBanunma kamo uaeuuecko, a ommaM u ylrouacBaulug kamo Maebocuurrec-

YPO\TACBATIETO
ku nepcona* c pasJruqna bmeneu ua Maeuqecku nomeuquaJr. Cunama ua ylrouac8anemo onpegeJrs cmenenma tra ompuuameJnruxm uykauecm8en nokagamen. Konkomo e no-?onnu, mo,nkoBa no-aonsMa e cuJrama xa 8rsgetcmBue. flpu cna6o uspaabn ompuuameneu nokagamen, ypokume ca no-cna6u.

VpouacBaHemo kamo 3JroBpegHa Ma?utr flpu crnocmaBkamana npegcma8ume ea ylrouacBax u ypouacBalu ce ga6ensg8a ?oflsMama noJrrpnocm na ka.recmBelrume uu xapakmepucmuku. O6ekmrm npumeilra8a caMo nonorkumennu katrecmBenu gagenocmu' a cy6ekmrm uMa cuJrno u3pa3eno ompuqameJrno ecmecmBo. Ctu[rocmma na gBama nepcoaarha npocmpancmBeno au nokaJru3upa kamo gnraMempaJrllo npomuBonono*<nu nonrocu ua 6uxapnama ono3uuua g o 6p o - s n o Ary6aB-rrolu, cBot-*ryrkg/. B no-urupok acnekm ypotiracanurrm BaeMa coquanuomo npocmpallcmBo, a a?pecu8nusm a?elrm npunagJre:hu na neycEoenama qacm om lre?o. flrpBusm e HopMaJreH' ecmecmBen ''roBek, gokamo Emopu*m e nepcona:h c onpegeJreHu c8ptxecmecmBbnu cnoco6nocmu. Mscmomo urvr B prupoaJregHama cucmeMa onpegreJrs xapakmepa na Bgauuoorrtuourenusma urvr. Kakmo 6eure om6eqggano, me ca nepa8nocmoitnu. VpouacBaulusm e aepecuBnutm'aeenm, a o6ekma e nacuBuufi nombpneBur, kotmo noeMa ompuqameJrxus eQekm om 8sggetcm8uemo Ha Jrotuufi noeJreg. flpegcrnaBeno apa$u. Ho, J4)oqacBanemo usene*rga maka:

66

67

YPOTIACBNTETO

WOqACBAHETO
npr8 noerreg nuncBam ocnoBnume cmpykmlpoonpegeJrrulu eJreMenmu rra Maeuqeckua o6peg - getcmBuemo, 3aknunanuemo u Beruecm8omo. Bugmo e caMo, tre g.noBpe guomo EtsgeircmBue ce ocrulecmB aBa nenoclregcmBeuo om okomo u no?rega ua snomBopeqa: "...floeJregnaJTu /uuemo/, ygapuJlu eo cbc cuJruu o'eu, Sa6o,nnJro eo Jrromo era9a..."l4? Mnoeo6potrnuam 6o,naapcku unQopluamu8en Mamepuan kameaoputtlto u neg8yclaucJleno nocoT Ba, r{e npu ]rlro'eacBanemo oqume u noeJregrbm ca Epegouocnu. Cnopeg HapogFrume Exp8auut( om Jrotuume otlu "'..u3ru3a nskakrB onponacmumeJlen, Bpegouoceu u uampe6umereu nomok",14 koimo nopaesBa 8ceku, krvr koaomo ca lracoqenu. Tegu o.ru ca oule 3 Jt ur c m p a tu H u' Jr lo-

vPoqAcBAIrI
3br, [oul,
t4yrkg

YPOTIACATI
.Eo6rp,:<y6a8, cBot

Om kaganomo gro myk u om cxeMama e Bugrno, tre ompuqameJrnusm e(lekm ce npocmupa 8tp:<y qaJromo coquaJrlro npocmpaucmBo. ToBa gnatru, \re J4)orlacBanemo e Eceo6xBamno sno8pegnro Brsge&cm8ue, naco'reno 8rp:<y o6ekm c noao*rumenua kaqecmBena xapa}mepucmuka, ocrutecm8eno om .roBek c Ma?bocltu. ecku nomenuuaJr uJru gpyea cBprxecmecmBeua cy6cmanuun, koumo uMam cnoco6trocmu ga J4rotracBam. Taka cmueaMe go o6utama.Bepuaa ry6ekm - BtggetrcmBue - o6ekm - pegyJrmam, kosmo e ugelrmuwra c rvraeu.eeckarna Bepuea MaebocEuk - uaaus - oMa?bocan, a mfi om cBon cmpana e paBnosuaqna ua yporracBaru l4rouacBane - ypoqacan. CmaBa ficllo, ue ynuBepcaJrlromo snoBpegmo ecmecrnBo na y;rouacBanemo, ocbtuecmSeno om nepconailtu c Ma?uqecku cnoco6uocmu, onpege.ns x8aeuuemo kamo M a e u q e c k o c Bcutrku ka.aecm8a na gnoBpegnama Maaufi. B cryuaa o6aue, Mexanu3Mbm na naaeu..reckug akm ocma8a clcpum. Ha
6B

mu, oelle.rtu.

flpaBu Bnerramnenue, rile na Mnoeo Mecma I uaBopo8ug uamepuaJr Jrotuusm no?Jreg ce onpegeJrfi caMo om egtromo oko. Tau qecmo crnaBa gyMa ga oko uanonsy8ano B egnnrcmBeno qucJro. OcBeu moBa, B unoao 6aurmu mekcmoBe saylroku, Jroruomo oko nokasanokamo o?neno e npomuBonocmaBeno ua grpyaomo /Bogenol, onpegeneno kamo go6pomBoPno:

...ffsresra e SMutl

gn8onoBY koPene. C egno oko EogeanY' c gpyeo oko oanearrY. Ilyknarry cafi Eogealry' ma ny?acu oeueauY...tao

ts'mdsu cJryqau uMa noJrf,pnocm nnerkgy cmoirnocmnurne xapa}mepucmuku ua g8eme o'ru. C t grrprkanuemo 69

YPO\IACBATIETO
Ea,3akJruHameJrBufim nrekcm npegcmaBfi npoueca pa36o.nsBaue'- osgpa3aBane c ek8uBarear.na ua g8eme ouu. ToBa guaeu, {re egmomo e 6onecmornBopno, a gpy?omo

YPOITACBAHETO
...Cecrnpa u nogckouu passpeHo om mpoHa u omnoBo cegHa cecmpa u lra mpoHa. Ta Eguana ksnr rres oqume cu orru Ha cn/l3pmma, sa6rrrBa krnr rres crroBama cu crroBa ua paaBana. Buk nagage krrvr Hetr Hakasalrue 6erue Bukrm u ... B mpyn ce npeBrprra necmnutomo mturo...153

go6pomBopno. Ako kru rnagu.noJrapuocm ce npunorhu grpe8nama Irapogua npegcmaBa ga ncBomo ugcmo kamo 3Jro, nro*rem ga gonyclreM, qe snoBpegnrama cuJra na ylrokume u3Jru3a om nsBomo oko. Koncmamaqusma, qe Jroruuf,m no?neg npuuurnBa Bpega ne paskpuBa tlanomo uaeu'recko ecmecmEo na ylrouac8anemo. ,4o myk e ficuo, .ee EregetcmBuemo cmaBa nocpegcmBonn noanegra, no Brmpeuurutrm Mexa! Hu3bM na Bnusnuemo ocmaBa nepaalqpum. B aaknunameJrnume mekcmoBe ea ylroku 3aeglro c o\rume ce cnouena8am u gpyau ilakmopu, koumo nognoMaeam u gonrn8am pagpyruumeJrnomo geJro. Hanpuvrep, "...nykHaJru ca mufl oqu urmo no?Jregcraa, tumo npopekoa u omcekoa..."150, rr...cbc 3Jru oqu eo noaJregEraJr, cac npopyku eo no?JreepraJr, cbc 3Jro rrrry npopeknn na /urvremo/..."151 ,{3pagume "cbc gJro My npopekrrn", "npopekoa u omcekoa", "c npopyku ?o no?negrar" onpegeJrffm npucbcm8ue na c.n o B o B eroBpegrnufi akm na ypouacBanemo. HaBcakrge xopama ce cmpatcyBam om Jroruufi noeJreg, rro "ako mofi e npugpyrke]r cbc gJru gyMu e OUfe nO-CmPaUrrtO".1s2 Bgauuoga8ucurvrocmma vreilrgy noeJreg u cnoBo I snoBpeguu* akm e ompa3ena moquo otue B gpeBnouryuepckume mekcmoBe. B "Enocrrn ga lunaaMeul", rnekcmbm Ha Muma 3a cJru3anemo na 6oeunsma Izlnana I noggeMnus cBsm, onucBa nocpeluanemo om cecmpa u Epeuraukalr u nocJregrcmBufima om cMbpmonocnume u cnoBa u noeJreg:

flogo6uo onucanue nalr malrr uMa u 3a nopa3sBarrrama cuJra na lzlnana: Bugg,[yrvryau gpexu paakotuxu... BrB Tn Eguena ksm rreao orrume cu oqu Ha crvnbpmmar onpaBu krrvr rreeo crroBama cu crro.Ba pa3pyruum eJrHu, onpaBu krvr rreao crroBama cu crroBa uakaeanue...
...Tann

B 6rmaapckume 6aunnu mekcmoBe aa lpoku orrrHotuenuemo cnoBo - no?Jreg /me 8ukna,nu, eksalu - ygapunu s B anaBama./, na nskou Mecma paskpuBakonlrpemno crgrrprhanue na c,noBomo:
...,4a ugeme y llemkana, ga fi ycmpenume B cspqemo,

gasGyruumeunaJrume, u y apo6 ga fi npamume...154


71

7A

YPOTIACBNTETO
Cno8ecnusrn u gka g na ilrenanun p'e eynmam ce s8sBa kamo saknunamenna ([opnry.na B snoBpegnrur akm. Tatra cnoEomo npugo6u8a crulecmBenu $ynhluu I npoqeca lra J4)oqacBauemo. Konlrpemnomo My npucrcmBue npa8u om neaormpykmlryoo6pasyBaru erreMenm. Sno8pegnomo Ersgetcm8ue na cnoBomo I npoqeca ypo\lac8anemo ce ocrtuecmBq8a no nrkonko nanpaBlra Jreuus. Ha nrpEo Mscmo mo BrsgericmBy8a upee o6utama Maeuqecka cuna na cnoBomo Bro6rue.15s Om gpyea cmpaua, ganorkenomo B neao cvrucnoBo crgrprkanue cnopeg Hapogtrume Eap8anun npugo6u8a peanna cmotHocm no cuJrama Ha apxauquomo pas6upaHe, "...ue ga norhenaeu neulo nxkorvry uJru ga ao cpa8nuur c Hetuo u my[ ga ao uskilheru e gocmamrrruo ga eo cmueue."156 Apxauunomo Mucrrene omrrkgecm8sBa ry6ekmuBHomo c o6ekmuBuomo u gamr.raBa ?panuuama ueilrgy npoqeca ua MucbJrma u npoqeca na peaJrnus cBnm. Ha masu oclloBa n:sp8o6unll{ufim qo8ek urupoko usnonsy8a c.noBomo ga Maeuqecku uenu c y6elkgenuemo, "...9e cmuea 6gmo neruo ga 6rge noMucJreno u uslragano, mo mpa6Ba ga uacmbne uaucmuna",l57 m.e. crgrrpr\anuemo, ceMaumuqHusm cMucbn na u3peqeuomo cao8o ce sBsBa kamo 3anoBeg, kosmo uega6aBno ce usnbJrtrfrBa".1s8

YPOTTACBATIETO
pena unu 8pa*rge6na cuna. HaBcnkrge no c8ema ce cpeulam grauriu sa oBeqecmBeno pasSupane ua cnoBomo. E. Evans-Pritchard B u3cnegBanerno cu Ba asalrge onucBa, kak uaenocnuii{grn xB arrta Sgnrama na c Eoxrna :kep rn8a u nocpe gcmBom uen usnpaula 6onecm na .roBeka.lse B uykomckume EspBanus ce eo8opu sa uoBek, koimo ct6upa B prka8uuama cu Bcu.rku glrMu Ha xopama, koumo ce onumBam ga nfreuHaqam cryMume My.160 Hapognrme om Ko*ru Bnanprreuam cnoBomo kamo c rnpe Jra uJIu gpye ocmbp npe gMem, ko[mo Jremu om eguu 'aoBek krrvr gpye u Hanacfi ]ra nocnegmur pana, om kosmo npou3Jlu3a 6onecm.161 Cnopeg .alrymckume Hapogrnu npegcmaBu ryMama npou3Be:kga lrenoclpegcmBeno Br'sgeircmBue ne caMo Ha xopama, no u na neogryureBenume npegnremu.l62 Brneapume qbulouMam BrpBanus sa o8eluecmBsBa' He na c.rioBomo. B egma npukaeka 3anucana omJI. Kapa8enoB, egnlr Sanaapult kamo ce MueJr I pekama, ugmbp'Ban u aaay6un egnncmBenama mypcka gyMa kosmo suaeJr, a cneg moBa sanoqnaJr ga lr mbpcu BrB 8oga.ma.s3 Kamo gaJre\rna peMunucuexqus na pag6upauemo sa cfio8omo kamo Bpa*gre6na cuJra Moeam ga ce pa3enerkgam u uskou 6tnaapcku HapogEru uspa3u kamo:

B grpeBnama kynmlpa npegcmaBama ga cnoBomo uvra gEotna Bampeuura cmpykmypa. Kamo a6cmpakmno pas6ripane mo onpegrens kameeopuxma, kauecm8ama u cEorfcmBama Ha npegMemume. B crqomo Epenae mo ce paa6upa kamo neluo ugrenmururo cbc caMufi npegrMem, korimo uspaen8a. O8eruecmBenomo pas6upane ua cnoBomo B apxauunamalrynmlpa e He caMo cpegcmBo ga o6qyBalre, Ho u akmuBno geficmByBaqa go6ponaMe72

ocmpo kamo xoil<,pelke kamo Ho:k, 3a6u8a ce karno Hork, 3a6uBa ce kamo cmpena, Bnu8a ce, ocmpa gyM8, c gyMa eo y6un, c gyMu eo 3ampuJr.
Ocuucnsnemo rta cfo8ecnorno csgnp:hanue kamo u sno8pegrro uMa npogran:hurneJrna eEonroB apxautenama kynmypa" HauaJromo $a rno8a pas6uuus pane rn1:sa8a orn nnp8ume aByqu xa 'roBeka usgaBariu orn heao$urne sJracnu op eanu " Kpacrktrn u Eukrm naconaaeurrecko

73

,YPOUfiCBNIETO
I{enu kbM rhuBornnomo uMam om6panumeJnru u 3arUumrru Qyl*quu. flpoeonenomo om Buka ilruBornno acoquupa

YPAqACBAHETO
gtoce?aurnomo cmpykmJ4)upane tra Ma?usma lre ce om-uuma moqHo Mscmomo, 3}raqertuemo u poJrtrma Ha ocnoBnume u konnnoHenmu, oco6eno msxuama EsauMoBpraka u BgauvrogaBucuuocm. Ommau cmpykmlpama na Ma?uflma e u3aparhgana egrlrocmpauno u HenbJrlto. Bmopo, mbpcenemo ua Bprskama ue:kgy cnoBomo c gerlcmBuemo u BeulecmBomo, ule noMoene me ga 6rgam omkpumu kamo eJreMenmu I cmpykmypama Ha Jrpoedcr Banemo. B magu Epraka un(loprvramuBuo u na\>amko cu nogBo.nsBaMe gra npocJreguM ocno8nume cmanoBuula 3a . cmpykmypama na Maeuqnomo BrsgetcmBue' B crulecmBy8aulume kaacu(fukaquu Ha uaeu'reckume o6pegnr HsMa egnrnno cmauoBuule 3a ponfima u Mficmomo na cao8omo B vraau.reckomo BrsgetcmBue. Hskou aBmopu paaanerltgam Maeu\reckusm akm carvlo kamo npousEogen na cnoBomo u ug8erltgam kopena na vraausrrla om 84>ama B neaoBomo pas6upaxe kamo cBprxecmecrnBena nomeuqufi . A.A.flome6ns16a u A.BemyxoB165 Errrkgam B caoBomo ocnoBnama u nrpBuuaa ilopvra Ha Maauf,ma Bro6ure. B.Malinowskilo6 npunucBa caMo na cnoBomo caMocmotrmeJrna u ocnoBna pone B pasBumuemo na Maeuqeckama o6pegnrocm. Kamo usxo:hga om npeo6nagaBaxemo na cnoBomo BrB Bcuqku akmoBe, moi Bud<ga B uaeurreckomo gerlcmBue Bmopocmeneu u llegnaqumeJreH eJreMenm 6eg oco6euo 3lraqenue. B cyMapnama knacuQukaquf, na Maaunma pa3pa6omena om H.Hubert u M.Mauss167, cro8ecnama Maeuf, e omgeJrena caMocmosrieJrlro kamo c n o B e c u u o 6pegu /gaknunanue/,ycnopegrHo c pbqrru o6peg n uJru nrraaurrecko gerlcmBue. Pag.rneneHusm no moSu Haqun rvraaurrecku o6peg gaBa cauocmoiuo 3lraqeHue na gBama rvraau.recku kolvrnoueuma noomgfeJrHo' koemo

nrp8ume npegcmaBu sa Ma?urreckomo ecmecmEo ua s8yka u cnoBomo. flo-krcno qneuopa3gerruama peq no-.
enrra 8rp>ryce6e cu u uyBcmBumeJruopa3urupnBa Ma?u.reckus o6xBam xa cno8omo, Branpueuano kamo Mamepuarrno, c koemo. uo*e ga ce 6opaBu kakmo c Bceku Mamepuaneu npegMem. Ha magu ocnoBa, koulrpemno HasoBalromo eJracno umr 6eeanacuo rhenauue, no cunama Ha apxauqno pas6upauus uMumamuBen npunqun npoue8erhga cromBerrluomo ug:enmu\uro BragetcmBue. Crcmoglruemo na ga8ucm kamo usxogHa cumyaqufr sa ano8pegnro BrsgerlcmBue, noau.aecku go8e:kga go anacoB unu 6esanaco8 ugkas na ompuuameJrnus:kenan pe3yJrmam - "cbc 3Jro My npopekru". .[o myk ylrouacBanemo ce ocbulecmBsBa om Ma?uqeckama cuJra Ha norkeJraxuemo upe s cuoBomo. Cae goBamernro, snoBpe gpromo Eaegetcm8ue uuacmofuocmna B e p 6 a Jr H a M a-

euf,.
Hauu,euemo na cnoBo u neeoBama ponn I s.noBpe gnromo BregeicmBue, na npr8 no?rreg onpegens )po.racBaHemo caMo Qopruanno kamo Bep6anen mun Ma?us. JIoau.recku ugnukBa Brhpocrm, gBJru caMo mo onpegeJrs Draeuqeckua xapakmep Ha )rpoqacBanemo, paskpuBauro ce go myk kamo Bep6anno ecmecmBo. 3a ga ce omeo8opu Ha Brnpoca e nyrhno ga ce ymo\ruu Mficmomo Ha cnoBomo I cmpykmypamaHa Maeuf,ma Bro6ule, m.e. ga ce onpegenu BgauvroBprskama u EaauuogaBucuuocmma rvry c ocmaualrume g8a ocuoBlru cmpykmypuparuu Maeusma eJreMenmu - uaaurreckomo geicmBue u Ma?uqeckonoo EeulecmBo. Tagu neo6xognrnaocm lre e caMoueJrHa, a ce naJra?a nat-nra.nko om.gBe Hetua: napBo, B

74

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WO\IAffiNIETO
3tsaqu, qe cbulecm8yBam caMo Maeus na caogomo u caMo Maeua ua getcmBuemo - cmauoBuule, nat_ateko kaeano ney6egnrmeJrno. flpu meopemuqnomo paserre*rgaue cmpykmypama Ha Maeusma, gtpyeu a8mopu Burkgam g nraeu.reclomo ge[cm8ue mpBocmeneuua uefiua r;lacm, a c.nogomo cauo kamo peue Bo onucauue Ha usBrpurganomo geficm. 8ue. Cnopeg cmano8uulemo na H.O.flosgalrckuirls uaeu.reckomo gericm8ue nopBonalraJrno ce grpuru 6es cuo8o, mofi kamo gericmBuemo uspasaBaao qfiJromo uaauqecko crgopdranue. Bnocnegcmgue, koeamo Ma?u_ 'reckomo gericmBue cmaBa Henonflnuro ga u3nbflHume_ nJr u ga naqueumai, ce a8r8a ueo6xognrnaocm om c.nogec_ no Eranpoua8e*rgaue na Henonrnruomo gericmgue, m.e. cnoBecnama gaknuramenna $oprvryna noscnggafia ca_ Mo cMucbJra Ha Maeu\reckomo gericmBue. Cnopegcrqo_ mo cmanoButUe, ncaau.reCkOmo geiCm$ue nOCmene3go aaay68a gnaqenuemo cu u gakrnnameJmama ilopnryna npugo6u8a caMocmosmelrna rlynkqun - npeBpu[a ce B "caMocmofimeJrua *raeurreclra cutra".t6e CmanoBuulemo Ha flogaancku& o6xBaura egrnogpeMeuno u gBanra eneMenrna. B crnpykmlryupanemo o6a_ qe, eaMo egrno e ney6egrume,mro, kakmo cno.npr.nrBo om6eafigBa C.A.TokapeB, kamo saga8a Brnpoca - ,,...Om kak8o co6cm8eno cnegBa, ue nrp8ouarranuo Bceku oG pe g e HsM u, ue cno8ecuama eopMyrra ce npucreguuaga kura ueao Snocaegcm8ue?',rzo Kamo omeogapa na 0upoca c Ernpoc - "...A Ne mpx6ga.mr ga npegmoJrorkuM, qe npouauacnuemo Ha megu rilru gpyeucnoBa - noilre,nanue, eanoBeg, sa6pana - qa crrcrnaBssBanu oule om cana<irno lraqaro ueorngeruMa \racm om caMua o6peg",trt noot kana.rmsupa gBama ocxo8nu eJteMerrma ua uaeusrna g

YPOTIACBAHETCJ
eguo8peMeano geircmByBaruu u ripoa8n8aulu ce HegeJruMu \racmu Ha eefuunurr Maeu\recku o6peg. B noglrpena na mo8a cmanoBuqe uolkeu ga pa3?JregraMe cbonruourenuemo uahgry cnoBo u getcmBue B nairnrp8uunama u npuMumuBua cumyauus npu nponarhgauemo na rhuBomuomo om uoBeka,-ocMucJreua kamo nrpBa lrpavka Ba Maeuqecko Ensgetcm8ue. IzI naucmuua mpygnro Mo:keM ga cu npegcma8unr nrpBusm qo8ek I cmamu.nro cbcmosnue ga onrnpaBs krnr :ku8omnomo cairao EukoBe u klrncrqu. flpu,8cu'aku crrlqau moBa e

crnpoSogelro om gBu*enux na pbqeme, kpakama u Irrfirromo, m.e. cno8omo e cbnpoBogeno c omnukgaulu rkecmo8e u.nu rkecmoBeme ca npuglpy:kenu c egrno8peMelruo usnousyBane ua cno8o. flapanenuama ussBa na geficm8ue u cnoEo usapa:kga ocuoBama rra nnaeu*leckuR akm, a ganorkeuomo I m.s:r uMumarnuBno crgroplkanue onpegeJrf, Maeu'reckomo ecmecmEona o6pega. BaB Erexogfiulusmnpollec Ha apxau\rEomo MucJrese, pasBumuemo Ha rr,raeu.reckus o6peg eEoronupa u cno8omo nocmenenno no.r4nlaBanpe8ec, a I nakou crrprau EanbJrllo gaMena o6pegnromo gefcmBue. flo mogu Haqulr I cnoBomo ce konqeumpupa qeJrun Maeuqecku gapfigi, uo moBa lre Bnapu, qe caMo.noo onpegen* xapakmel)a na o6pega. Crgrrp*ranuemo Ha Ma?uueckomo geircm8ue ce mpaxc(lopMupa I crgrrp*anuetno Ea cno8ecuama sakJruuameJrna tlopnrryna. Om peaJIeu Maeurrecku eneurenm geficm8uemo ce npeBpruta 8rB (loprvrarrlro Maeur{eckonpucrcmBue k o gup a n o I aaknuuameJruama $opnryna, 6ea ga eySu uivrumamu8ltug cu uaau.recku norsenquan. CnegoBameJuro, c.noBomo ce sBsBa kogn:paut uMumamu8en uaeurrecku r,rogen ua :henanua pegyJrmam, noJrlrqen om.ge&cm8uerno u

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77

YPOqACBAHETO
gaknunauuemo. B cbulomo Bpevre mo e cmpykmypen eJreMenm om Maeuqeckua o6pag, eJreMeum cu ocma8a u kamo Mo[eJr, a moBa 3Haqu, qe ]re nrorke gfa uMa munonoairqna cauocmoirnocm npu cmpykmyp oonpe genfrnemo Ha Ma?usma. B masu nocnegoBameJrnocm ylrouac8anemo He Mo*ce ga ce paeanerkg'a munoJroeutrHo caMo kamo Bep6anHa Maeufi. B crgrrp*rauuemo cu mo Bknro.rBa u ganorhertug B c.rro8omo uMumam-uBeu rvrogen na *renanuemo. A moBa gllareu, qe ypo\racBanemo e oule u snoBpegrna Maeus om u M u m a mu B e n mun. BaB BpegoHocHuf,m akm na ylrouacBanemo, poJrsma na clo8omo, npou3ueceio enacno, a B noBe\remo c.rryqau noJ4/eJraclro uJru 6eganacno, lre onpegrens ueJrus MexanugbM na Bragerlcm8ue. B xapognrume BrpBau.us, HeBegnrrrk kagBaao goceea, ylrouacBaulama cuJra ce peaJru3upa nocpegcm8ovr orrume u Jrotuuf, noaJreg. Egnro8peMeHuomo npucbcm8ue na gBa akmuBnu eaenaenma /oko, c.noBo/ onpe gens cromBerruromo uM Mscmo u poJrfi B akma na ErggeicmBue. Cno8omo I ponama ua uMumamuBen Moger useparkga snoBpegrnomo lkeranue, a noeJregrbm ce aBs8a npenocumeJr rra Maeurreckama cuJla. B ma3u cu poJrfi Jroruurrm noeneg ocbulecmBxBa ge&cmBuemo na akma, kamo ugnamrsBa ($ynkquume Ha M a e uk o m o ge ir c m B u e I o6pega. Cnego8ameanro, '.r e c B akma ua )rpoqacBauemo coruecmByBa kognrpano u o6pegrnomo geicm8ue, koemo ce nponBaBa upee noenega. Mexauugmbm ga npenacfire Ha ypo.racBaulama cuJra pasurupxBa munoJroeu.*rusm o6x8am na Btsgeficm8uemo. Hafi-npocmufim cnoco6 ga uetnomo npeHacfiue e EenoqpegcmBenusmkonmakm. flpu lpouacBanemo Brg78

YPOTIACBNTETO
getcmBuemo ce uaBtpurBa om pa3cmofiHue, 6eg Eugnruro Queuuecko ctnpukocnoBenue. .A,pxauunomo Mucnene kamo onpegMemsBa cnoBecuomo crglp*raaue oBeurecmBgBa u neaoBama npoekqurr ocbulecmBena upea noerrega. ToBa o6ycnaBx paanpocmpaneuomo Brp8ane Ba MamepuaJuufi xapakmep na noeJrega u Bpegama om Heeo npu npegrnaMepenomo rvry enoBpegrno opunmupane. TakoBa paa6upane ocuaylraBa npegmocmaBkume sa ocrtuecm8gBane na konmaknocno nned<gy yporracBaqus u neaoBus o6ekm. B 6rnaapckr-rme Brp8anux, a u 8rB E4rBanuama na gpy?u Hapogru, Epegonocxo Bnunxue rrorlte ga yka*e npucrcmBuemou 6.rm3ocnrma lra vraerocnuka unu 3romBopeua. B eBonroquonnomo cu pasBumue Maebocuuqeckuem nepcona:k nocmenelrlro HampynBa B ce6e cu uaeu.lecka cuJra, kosmo*rorke ga BrsgeircmByBa 6es moir ga usBrpurBa rvraau.recku o6pegnr. Co6cmBeaurrm Ma?uqecku nomenquaJr ce pae6upa kamo MamepuaJru3upaHa uaeu'aecka cy6cmanqur, koamo e nognrulreua Ha Maarocnuka u npu ny:hga ce usnpalua kru na6ers3auus o6ekm. Agpecanmrm B nnno2o c.rryrrau yceula ueiuromo npucrcmBue. HaBcgkbge no 6ueapckume 3eMu e noslramo yceulanemo Ha noeJreg, oco6eno, ako mofi e 3nolraMepeB.

flo-oce gameJrno Mamepualrugupaxomo ecmecmBo na anoBpegrnama cuJra e om6enggano I ky.nmypno u3ocmaHaJru Hapognr. Hanpuuep, aBcmpanuirckume a6opuaeuu om nJreMemo Bypagepu Brp8am, 'ee Maebocnukrm u Bceku snomBopeq rvrorke eta usnpaqa om ce6e cu Ma?uuecku kpucmaJru uea.nau, koumo nega6aBno npouuk8am B rkepmBama. Te ne ocrnaBsm nukak8u crregu no msJromo, llo nopa3enus uyBcmBa npucmbn ua ocmpa 6on-

79

YPOVACBAHETO
ka.172

YPOT{ACBAHETO
nrruoaoo6pague. Bknro.aBa Bep6anlto, uMumamu8no, koumakmno u unuuuaJtro BtsgeircmBue, koemo o6xBaqa ueJrufrm guana.solt na saoBpeglromo uraeu.recko Bnusnue. ToBa npaBu orn]rpo\rac8anemo ynuBepca.neu gno8pegen akrn, korimo uvra cmotnocm ua saoBpegHa Maeufi. OcrulecmBs8auemo u qpe3lpouac8ane cma8a c Ma?u.,reckama cuJra Ha anorn8opnufim nepconatk u c'e s8sBa kamo kogmpan MogeJr Ha Maeuqecku* o6peg. Tpanc$opMauuffma na snoBpeguufi wraaurrecku o6peg I nepcouarrna gnoBpegiua Maeuqecka cunae pe3yJrmam om eBonrouuonnomo pasBumue na Ma?urreckomo Mucfleue, koemo npeBprura o6pega B vraeu.aecka nomeuqus lla Maeboclruka. ToBa npaBu om ypoqacBanemo no-Eucoka eEonrouuonna cmenelr Ha snoBpegmama Maeuff cbc 3ana3en vraaugecku cmpykmlpen,Mexauu3bM. Cnopeg Hapogrnume ErpBanus ompurlamenno 8rggerlcmBue vrorhe ga npegru3Bukane caMo snomEopeq, no u go6podrenamen. B mo8a cay6egenu Bcuukuno qsrrama 6r.naapcka mepumopus. Ako nskoir go pouarvrepeu qo8ek, 6eg BcskakBa 3Jra yMucbJr ce yuyg.u, 8r3xumu, sapagBa, EagknuuaBa, xBatu uJru no nshakr'8 Haqun u3pagu HenpegmaMepeno nono:humeJrlio omnoutrenue knnr neulo, mo lvrorke ga )4)oqaca u noeMa Brp>ry ce6e cu sno8pegrno BrageicmBue. Tagu curnyarlus na8cakrge e no3nama kamo n o q y g u, xBananu eo no\ryefume, noqygnrqe, no\rygmua, 3auyguqa.176 Pesynmamrm om noqygume e egmakr8 c mo3u na lpokume u Mxoeo .recmo B npegcma8ume na Hapoga g8eme nauvrenoBanua ce pas6upam pa8noguaquo. ToBa yegmakBsBaue ce gra.n*u Ha egiunlrux kpaen pe3yJrmam. EgnrakBuam ompuuameJren eQelcn ne uslffilo.r8a npultuunnomo pasJruque I npoqecume na BrsgretcmBue. flpu

3a a$pukanckume a3ange gno8pegrnama Ma?Lr\rec-

ka cuna e nskak8a Beulecm8ena ry6cmauuus B mgnomo na Maebocnuka, aarnBopena I uepxa nogrymuna lmyrvrop/ I kpax na .lepnus grpod, kosmo no Bossma na anomBopeua npor*ukBa B rnsnorno lra rkepm8arna.lT3 flogo6no pas6upane ga MamepuaflHama cuJra Ha nnaerocnuka ce cpeqa-u 8:lB Bsp8anus{ma ua rc&nokanrepyeckama emnu.recka epyna 5emu. Cqopeg rnax, 3no$pegfnume Nraebocuurlu u xopa uMam oco6eu opeau, napeqen e B y, kofimo uanycka cuJra cnoco6na ga y5uBa.l?a BtB Eclluku opengnrcmuunu ErpBanun, Bkrno\rumenuo u I 6rnaapckume, *raarocnukbm uMa cBppxecmecm8ena co6cmBella cuJrar c kosmo uorke ga onepupa'no co6cm8eno rkenanue u Bunaau nno:ke ga s ugnpamu ktu na6ensgaHama rkepmBa.lTs Hapogmomo pas6upane aa auo8pegnama uaeu.recka cuna kamo MamepuaJrusupana cy6cmanuur Eognr go ocrulecmBsBane na np*k konmakm Me*gy gnomBopeq u o6ekm. C moBaypo'aacBanemo npueMa xapalmep orue na k o H m a k m e H mun praeuqecko Erage{rcmBue. OBeurecm8s8anemo ua Maeu.i8ckama cuna Bknro.rBa B ce6e cuukognrpa M a ? uq e ck omo B e tu e c rn B o, koemo I crryuaa e paBnosnaqlto na o6pegnrua pekBuaum npu ruaeuqeckume o6pegnr. Tyk omkpuBaue mpernufl ocno8en crnpykmypoonpe gre Jrsru eJreMelrm H a braeufima - uraeuraeckomo Seqecm$o - kognrpano I Maeuqeckama cuJra. ' ,[o myk cma8a fic]to, \re ]4)oqacBa]remo kamo anoBpegex akm crgpprka I kogn:pan 8ug mpume ocnoBuu crnpykmlrynu eJreMenma Ha Maausma u uaeu,reckus oSpegr - uaeu.reckorno greircrnBue, gakrruName,nnama &op&[y$e u a{ae!.rqeckorno Eerue*rn$o. Tunosoauta}rorno e{y

80

81.

YPOTTACBAEIETO
ylrokume Epegama nacmrnBa om npakomo Ersgeficm8ue na Epegonocnus nepconark, a npu noqygume go6poHaMepeBama ruqHocm cr'sgaBa caMo cumyauusma 3a Ersgetcm8ue, a konlrpem:romo 3rromBopcmSo uaBrpur8a cBprxecmecmBena cuJra ugBrn nog6ygnrmenx. BrsgeicmBuemo lra noqygnrme e c8rp3axo c ErpBalremo sa Eiiegonocuomo Euuruue ua cBprxecmecm8eHume cuJru noqpegcmBorvl msxuomo HauuenoBanue, noBukBaue uJru uuulluupane. Cnopeg apxauqnomo MucJrene, na3oBaBanemo xa Bpegonocuama cuJra e paBnocmoirno na uetnomo no8ukBane. Crruusm cMucbJr uMa u pas6upanemo sa paBencmEomo na uMemo u npulragiJre:haulomo My nuue. "flrpBo6umuufim uoBek, nurue Erh.Opetgbp, cMsma uMemo cu:hu8a qacm om co6cmEenama cu nepcoHa u ce epu:ku no nogo6aBaru na.run ga
neeott.177 SaBucurvrocmma uMe - Jruqlrocm o6yc.na8a 84rBanemo, rle 3nomo cmopelro Ha uMemo e 3Jro cmopeno Ha caMomo Jruqe. Tagu Bgaunaoga8ucuuocm uMa urupoka pa3npocmpauerrocm, nomBrpgena om MHoao6porinume

YPOql',ffiAHETO
quu npu noao:humeJtro onutoureltue kru treulo. Muoao uapogrnu uspasu nokaaBam cmpaxa npeg Btguo*crocmma 3a unuquupanre na cBprxecmecm8euume cbluecmBa: "Mrnrru, ta He qye B[omo!", "Mb[nlu, ga tte qye gr8ona!", "MbJruu, rre gJromo uyBa!", "Mb[.tu, r're 3Jromo cfiyuta!", "Mrt[uu, ree gnomo ge6ne!", "MbJruu, ga tte gorige gJromo!", "Mbfl9u, gaue gokapaurefiomol", "Mb.rrqu, ga He npegruaBukaur crg6ama!", He ce pagBafi, ga He eo ypoqacaur!", "He tty ce pagBarl, qe HeMa ga mpae!", "Tuxo, qe 3Jromo nogkavrrk cmou!" u oule Muoeo gmyeu. C megu ErpBanun ca c8bpsanu u anomponetnume getcmBus npu pagocm u npunoBgnranamo omnourenue, HanpuMep gannroBanemo, npekmrcmBanemo u gpyeu npegna3Hu 3Hauu. Om Bcu.rko kaoano go myk cmaBa trcno, ue ylrouacBaHemo e anoBpegmo Ma?uuecko BtsgerlcmBue c Mnoeo urupok o6xBam. To e naco.{e}ro ktlt tlsJromo coquaJruo npocmpancmBo, I uenmtpa, tra koemo cmou qoBeka. Vpokume uMam us6upamefiHa cnoco6uocm cauo krvr o6ekmu c nonorkume.nna ka.recm8ena xapakmepucmuka. VpouacBaulume ca BpegoHoclru nepcouailru c Ma?bocnuqecku u cBpr'xecmecmBeu nomeuquan. B ocnoBama Ha BsauMogetcmBuemo ue*tgy )4>o.aac6aqug u nbmrpneBruufi cmou npomuBonocmaBsnemo tla mexllume noJrfipnu xapakrnepucmuku, koumo ca onpegenelru om npocmpancm8enama uu nokanu3auufl B rvrupoefiegHama cucmeMa. 'Kamo snoBpegmo BrsgetcmBue, ypouacBanemo" e rrlaaurrecku akm, kotmo crgrtpilra Bcurrku cmpykmlrynu eJreMenmu Ha Maeusma u Ma?uqeckur o6peg. Bcurrkume cmpykmlpoo6paey8arlu uaeu.recku kolvrnonenmu

npuMepu onucanu I numepamypama.lTs .[o6ponaprepe]romo Bagxuulenue, yuyg8ane, BrskJruqauue u pagocm usepa:kgam cuuEonuqnusm o6pas na JTuqemo uJru npegrMema kamo nonorkumeJrHa gageHocm. ToBa crcmoffHue na go6po*reJrameJrs ilakmuuecku n a 3 o B a I a konkpemnus o6ekmu go uaBe*rga B cumyaqun Ha nbJrna gaBucuwrocm om cBprxecmecmBeHume 3JronaMepeuu cuJru. HagoBaBanemo rra o6etrnna uuuuuupa snoBpegmume cuJru u me ynparhns8am cBoemo ompuqamerruo EragetcmBue Bapxy ga8ucuprus 8eue nombpne8ut. . BrB Bprska c onacmnocmma om s.noBpegrnomo nopa:*enue Ha noqygnrme ca u Muoeomo ma6yupanu cumya82

83

YPOTIAffiATIETO
lra ypoqacBanemo ca kognrpauu I ypouacBaqama cuJla. Tn e uaau.reckuam nomeuquaJr ua ypo,eac8aululr u mot onepupa c Hef, no co6cm8euo *renanue" OcBen qpe3 Brrom8opcm8o, I ruupoku* cnekmrp na aro8pegnro BasgeircmBue nno:ke gf ce ypouac8a u om go6p onarvrepeuocm. Pe synmamrm om gBe me 8as getcm8us e egrnakrE. Vpo.racBanemo kamo Maeufi Bognr uauaJromo cu om apxau\ruume nnacmoBe na kynmypama. To cr'nbmcmByCIa uo8eka oure om nrpBume My cmtnku,.. ornkpuBaMe eo u grnec. Taau ycmoi*ru8ocm BtB Bpemerno npa8u om Brp8auemo I ypoku $enovren B napognrama kynmypa.

YPOTTACBAHETO
Ee.ne*rku

i0omomunno usg./ c359; q.4,C., 7977, c.249. 3 Ernaapcku-mrnkoBen peuxuk.III usg. C., 1973, c.747, 1048. - -4 forr"*anoB, f. Mamepuanu no Hapoglnarna Meguuuna ug FopnoopsxoBcko. C6I{y, X)0(, 1914, c.33. 5 9onako8, B" 3a ypouacBauemo. Baneapcku knuthapnuuu, 1895, q.I, KnJ, c.80; Bakapeficku, Xp. MapmeHuqume kamo napogen o6uuat. BP,X, 1935-1936, IOt.6, c.182; Maqgno6, ,[. Hbpogna Bxpa u penueuosuu Hapognu o6u.rau. CbI$/, )S(Vm, 1914.c.17; XuBa cmapulta. Bnp8anux unu cye8epur Ha lrapoga. Kn.i, Pyce 1891, c.80; Keno8,Izl. Hapogonucllu, :kuBornonucllu rt eguho8u MarnepuaJru om c. Eo6oureSo, ,[ynnuruko. C6Hy, 42, 1936, c.136; fonennaxoB, I. Mamepuanu no... c.33; Bame8, C. VpouacBauemo. BmOB, VI, Ep.6,3X lvlat tr930, c.42 ; SaxapueB, IZ. Kauenuua. Ieoepa<fuko-emnoepa$ cko ueyua8ane. C6HV, 40, 193 5, c.4 12 ; JkX6euo8, fI' CauoBunu u cauoguBu. C.,1891, c.4; UenexkoE, Iz1. Eaeug_,?1_yp9t19. C6Hy, XV, X898, c"75;IIIutukoB, Cm. 3aypouu. C6HVIV, c'182; Apx. Emtp, T.I, c.67; T.II, c.87. 6 HilTJI, c. 109- 1 1 6. 3a eonsrvrama nogamJruBocm na uortqume krnr ypouacBane Bu*r wrnolkecmBomo Bapuanmu Ha Hapoglrume necHu u3epageHu Bapxy cro:kema "Mourk yuupa.om ypoku". flogpo6no 6en.13. 7 Munrko, JI.I4. SxaxapcmBo. Munck 1971, c.136'
8 KenoB, Ir1. HapogonucHu Mamepuuru..., c.136' 9 (IonakoB, B. 3a ypouacBanemo. c.85. 10 I4H0. L{axa PycunoBa PageBa. Max. Capo8uu, .4psnoBcko.

2 IepoB.H. Pe.rxuk na 6rneapckur eguk" q.s,C.,

1 Bilr. 6en.1

kru

y8oga.

1978,

11

rracau rvrotvrck": HfiTJI, c.109-116; MapmunoB, An' Hapogonuinu MarnepuaJru om lpaoBo. C6[IV, 49, 1958, c.300-301; JIroSenoB, II. C6opnuk om pa3Hu Hapognu yuomBopeuufl om KrocmeHguncko. 1896, c.33; Ka'ranoBckurl, B. flarrnsrnxuku 6oneapclioeo Hapogtuoeo mBopuecmBa. Bsrn.l, Cn6. 1BB3' c.31; Cmoun, B. HIITB, C., 1928, Ne 2380; YonakoB, B. Brnaap-

12 Xunaga u gxa notu. C., 1971, c.66. 1 3 3a paexuqHume Bapuanmu na Hapogrnarna necelr

HilTJI, c. 109-116.

"ypo-

84

85

WOiTTAffi.NIETO
cku napogeu

WOqACBAHETO ['
qoBek xe ao noBcm ypoku uJru eo cnoxorkgam pxgko. Cna6ama sBeega xe vrodre ga 3aruumu uoBeka, gamoBa mori rrecmo ,6onegyBa u eo noBsm ypoku. 25 MapunoB, A. Hapogna Bapa..., c.77. B napognume npegcmaBu uankume geua uMarncna6a sBesga, 3aulomo ca oure xeykpenHaJru. C pacmelka uM HapacmBa u ykpenBa aBeegama. SamoBa ypokume,6onecmume u Jtotuomuume MHoeo HaJrumarn Ha mf,x . IAab. f uua Tanaco8a, c. Cmapocenuu, gan. 1 989.

:"Oop*"k' P',;i.;;xe /frcpeng:huk/, ARaucko' geiru,ra:fi t'ft ,lJ$'e?::s','ril"e"iHhp"$i.q;il: e25' c'27 2t PakoBcku'
,

Eonepag

787

c'1o2:flemkorru'reB'

c6gy. 46, 1 e 53,

".6 r.c. flokis"r,",r, .'i0""tiui

1,

6e;iicE o trr.-v,. 1 -cBtiii' xh/'


c.340, Ne 85'

c'5

; c6trv' )oo$/'

Z.lae.liz; c6rry,

48, c.47L'

14 HITTJI, c'L71-Ll2'

16 HfiTJI, c-7tL-712' 17 HnTfi, c.709-710' rra nec^eHHurrn uukrn'Vpo18 B pasnuurrume B"pttartmu npucrcm gy g a npe gynpe:k9-"11t: " *t" rrac ar, vrourk sa ne ce lJ""iii6-iil*ikrm mprane na c6opcu gpexu' c euegu c noB" npt*t"", t i"-jotge "6ukn"Benume cnas B a saprkama' x B aua B no Becmo g."ut*o vpoku u YMuPa. 19 HnTn, c.776' Ba' uax'C rpouu' [p nxoBcko' 20 lz1n0. Ilana PycunoBa Page

i6 .i;;J;6. s. sgc,

26 BnpBa ce, qe go6pume xopa uMam cnagka kpr8.


Ke5roB, I4.Hapogonucuu

27 3a ypoqacauu *ruBomnu y:

#;;;;",

"*Jiio

;#"ftm-ne

Marnepuarru... c. t 36- 1 37 ; fi nakueBa, X. I4.Iag*ranoBa, HapogHomo JreqeHue B CnuBenckun kpat. OIzIM CnuBen, 16.e./ c.6; MapuxoB, ,4. XuBa cmapuHa, c.gO; mantapeB, KA. C6Hy; 18911 c.199-2OO; BacdneBa, M. Kanengapnu npa3Huuu uo6uuau. B :.[o6pyg]ka. Emxoepar[cku, Qonknopuu u e aukoBu npoyuBarrun. C.,7974, c,330; EnueB-Bugro.Irl. Cmapu u noBu

naMernHuuu om.[o6py$ka. C., 1918, c.55; MapmunoE, An.

21 C6HY,I, c'80'

,r""i-*"ri't"'t,;gBai;i""etki"seaoBomop"tkq""-"-:-:"

22

iHapog:,lrn BspBa,

qe Bceku 'roBe-k uua cBot

aueen-

ifjlff txa";"qtlr:lh*::ft:f i:Hff fr?"1;'.'J""d;'; Mv paMo &;"#;"tt";d;;; "*i"" u 6oneimu' Ha nsBomo #T$; i:i;*s:*ffi "cureu aueen"'
"t"*ilis;ru'T$E:s*'1"sfl
Ba u
e

uMa iaBucu noBegenue;:;"io6;i;' doge* ToeaBa uoBekrm BppgBy6o* koeamo B Ako nagvroulue }e uru go6pu g.rr", ""?ti[s;8"^-'"tt"t sgpaB' 3nume cuJru ?o "t-6o'riegyBa gt""m" Ht'"oBeka ca noruu' o no B rm ypoku' Egeue gnBona,
c

poB,A. Pawragan6eeoBu capau.-B: floBecmu u paakagu. C., 1968, c.432; Pn, 19O4,kH.MII-IX,c. 1 3 9 ; I/hC,79 72,KH. 19-20, c. 19-20 ; Apx.EI4M, Ne 967 -II,c.187; Apx.Emrp,T.I, c.63,65,69,71; T.VI, c.57,58,59,60; T.II, c.89; lleBopoBugm MarnepuaJr npegnaea eoJrsMo paenoo6pasue ua cJryqau 3a ypouacauu rkuBomuu. flpuBegexume myk ca carrno vranka qacm om nat-xapakmepHUme.

Hapogonucnu nrramepuaJru..., c.732-733; flonoB, An. C6Hy,I,c.80; CmotkoB, E. C6HY,V,c.118; AxeenoB,B. C6Hy,KI, 1 895,c. 1 5 ; c. 1 56 C6HVXV, 1889,c.65 ; Cmparuunrru-

ffi

f "r.#ic. H#j#?lli{trr::lo; dd,:3'J"': na A * gan' 3' aneetiu-,' Tle Bxencko' flempoBa, ne6enoxo:ks

am'.t"*o,Toi;;";;a;"^tsy
E

197

28IAn$. Mapue IzIBanoBa Togopo8a, c.HukonaeEo, Tpe& nencko, san. 1973. 29 Apx.Emrp, T.VI, c.58. 30 Jlur+ru - koumo nuearn om gafleq, sa6enesBam ce, xa6uBam ce Begnaaa 8 o.ru. Mnoeo xy6aBu. 31 IzIttQ. Bari'ro {aneB, c. Cman.reB xan, TpeBnencko, gan.
7972. 32 IIak maaa.

z4Haposs* B;A;: uI c p-adtv*emo Ha 'roBeka isBe ssama na xoBoposeno;A; *o lJ gelngma uua sBesga na ne6emo-' mo qeme. Bceku r.roBek ni

il;t;d;d

A;"i'

$fi ffi"gg:-l6'.ffi lxJmm^-";sr"i'fffi gg*tu*. no-cuJruo'


ttio.

:*;ft:

moB - Kumkama, Max. Kauranuu, TpeBnencko, gan.1973. 34 IzIn0. Paga BoxeBa IzIBanoBa, c. Benenuu, TpeBxencko, gan.1973.

33 MapunoB, A. Xu8a.cmapuna. c.80; IzlirQ. Ilanro Xpuc-

cBemsm l9pya iopa. ctinriffiSi:ffi#I?"i.:A m, se;ssu "" "" ",r'*r*" ipegnasBa eo om6onecmu' Jrot ""-gtk.,
B6

35 loe8, A. flpegnasBalre om ypoku npu pa*gane.B:Emrp,T.I, Ia6poBo 1989, c. 1 15-162.


87

YPOTTACBNTETO
mu Ha HapogHume npegoxpanumeJruu epegcmBa npomuB ypoku u snoBpegxo BrageircmBue.-B:V HKE, Ia6poBo 1988,
c.290-298:
37 Xunaga u eglra xoru. c.43. -flenui, Cr6p a:ru cb\luHeuug. T.II,C., 38 Enun
19 7 2i

f
tu

$.
5

WOITACBNTETO
Bmuaut, Hapognu noBepua.. :, c. 1t1- 1 5' Apx.Emrp, T.I, c.28. Apx;Emrb, f.L c.66; trrtnO. Henqo HukonoB Hen'reB, c. Ilpecmo-ir, TpeBienctto, san. 1972 ; Konro MumeB flposopkoB,
5 Apx.E

36 IoeB, A. O6ruo6s.neapcku uepmu u nokannu oco6enoc-

56 57

c.|M.

C6HYJflI,1895,c.156.

40 AnaenoB, B. VpouacBaxe uru

39 MapunoB,,4. Hapogna 8xpa..., c,177-178.

ouait8aue.

u-ax. npoeopkoBuu, TpeBnexcko, san. 1973' 59 hurrairo8a, I. EapogHums BrpBanua B 6rueapckume 6agnui. - fBIIIdru - OO, V-e,Illyr,ren 1981, c.44. 59 finakueB4 X., fiI.Iag*ra.noBa, Hapognomo Jreqeuue"',
c.7
"

45 .Yonako8, B. 3a ypouacBanemo. c.80 46 IzIn0. Paga FoneBa I4BanoBa, naax.Beneauu, Tpe8xencko, ean. 1973. I4n0. Cmorika Kone Ba XpucmoBa, *rax.Beneuuu,

M flak maru.

41 flak mau. 42 flak maru. 43 XeneskoB, M. 3a ea8ucmma. q,7874, Kt.18, c.528.

60 Apx. OIzIM'Bpaua,'8, c'57. 61 nak mav, c.2t7. flogo6nu Bapuanmu c'45. 62 nak marrn, c.77, EaPuanmu c.66. 63 Jlro6exoB, fI. CquroBurru u cgl,4oguBu' C.,1891, c.5. 64 flnakue8a,'X,, ft .f agil<anoBa, Hapogtxomo Jreqeuue'.",

c.7.

TpeBuencko, 1973. +z Cowv',)fiI, c.156. 48 KenoB, IzI. Hapogonucnu MamepuaJru..., c.136. 49 Apx.Emrp, T.II, c.89. 5O FonqeB, E. 3nu ouu. Eckynan,1934,Ep.6, c.3. 51 Apx.EBmunru[, Hapognu noBepur, o6pegu u o6u.rau. Mamepuanu no ucmopuf; rra peJlueuume.- fCy-8QXX,1934,
c.22. 52 UoneB, B. Onuc ua prkonucume u cmapoleuamnume knueu B Hapognama 6u6,nuomeka. T.II,C",1910, c.150. 53 Eacaxo8uu, IzI. Mamepua.nu no cauumapna,ma enuroepaOus na Banaapus. Jlonrckusm okpte. C6Hy, V,1891, c.88; Hegen.eeB, ,{. u kon. Kynmypnama ucmopus xa c.Kparrnontur. Ia6poEo 1938, c.28; loneuanoB; f. Mamepua"nu no..., c.33; MapuroB, A. XuBa crnapurla, I, c.80; Ten6ugoB, M. BenoBaTen6ugoBa, Tpagruuuonen 6um u kynmypa na 6anarilckume 6rneapu. C6I{y, 5 1, 1 9 63, c.2A7 ; Irlnqe Ba, M. Basnus, EpauyBanur, nekyBarruc. C61fy,V,1891, c.115; Apx.EIzIM, Ns 967-tr, c.787;Apx. Emrp, T.I, c.63, 69-77: T.tr, c.85; T.VI, c.58-63; I'1tt0. Enena Krxe8aMaxeBa, Max. Benexuu, TpeBnencko, ean.1972; Henqo HukonoB HenqeB, c.flpecmo{r TpeBnencko, saa.7972;

'

cko, gan. 1972. 67 Apx.Emrp, T.I, c.63,66-67. 68 Pn, 1904 KH. VIU-IX, c.263. 69 gonakoB, B. 3a ypouacBanemo. c'80. C6opxuk om Pasfiuquu ?O JIroSenoE- II. Ba6a Eaa unu C6opx 70rJlro6eno8. fL rrrrr 6agnu* u o6tltrau BapS'anua, nelryBanu*, ![aeuu, 6aqurrq rr o6urrau I Kpcmerrguncko. lbpno-Bo 1887, c.4B-49 -'Z i Cmaiutcku, Il. Baanua, Bpauy8anun, nelryBanux' C6[IV, )(II,1895, c.143.

65Apx.Ernrp,T.I,c'63-71;T'tr,c.85;T.VI,c.63.66 I4iO. Eneia KtueBa ManeBa, Max. Be.neuuu, TpeBnen-

74 Mapunoe,

c.61-63;T.II, c.89; T.VI, c.63. 75 Apx.Emrp, T.I, c.28,34,41.

fl.

Hapogpla Brpa..., c'153; Apx.Emrp, T.I,

Konro MumeB flpoeopkoB, Max. flpoaopkoBuu, TpeBnencko.

?6 MapuxoB, ff. Hapogna Blpa..., c.156; XuBa cmap-un, o.80; Apx.Emrp; T.I,-c.log, 0g-zoJ TJI, c.85,89; Apx.EIzIM. Ne 167-tr, C. 187: IloBmapax - geme om6umo gactfru u 3anor$rano Bmopu nsm. floBmopeuo, noBpameuuue' 7Z UarrkapEB, K.A. C6Hy, Kn.VII, c.29.
78 Apx.

Cmotka Ko.neBa XpucmoBa, Max. Benenuu, TpeBneucko,


gan.1973. 54 l.Pyccecku, C6HVJOC, c.265.

ean. 1973. Boriko l{aneB,c. Cmau.reB xan, TpeBnencko, san.1973;

eapume hamormuu.- I'IIV$OB, T.VI, ng9!gu8-1980, c.100; Apx.Emtp, T.I, c.63,69,90 T.II, c.85,89, T.VI, c.63. 89

79 XinaqeBa, M. TpaguquoHllu pogluJlnu o6u*rau- na

OllM BPaua, E, c.28.

6lu-

88

WOTTAffiATIETO
Epagamu, fn. S a lkexume. - B: Cmapo6r.neapcku cmpalruuu. C., 1968, c.548. 8l HITJI, c.770. 92 KocmoB, Cm.JI. Anrynemu..., c.93. 83 Apx.Emrp, T.tr, c.85; T.VI, c.63.
8O

YPO\IACBAIIETO
MumoJroeug, C.,1983, c.73: BexoBcka, M. 3a cneuu<luwromo B cucmeMarna om npegcmaBu na 6ur?apuua ga cBema.-B:(Don-

84 flrnuruir, Irlcmopur, Itr, 103. 85 XenegkoB, M.3a gaBucmma. 86 fiak mau. c.528. 87 C6HYJV, c.108. 88 C6I{Y, XII, c.149-150. 89 C6I{Y, )CI, c.150. 90 C6I{y, )fiI, c.149-150; Apx.Emrp, T.I, c.61,63; T.tr, c.89. Xunxga u egxa Hour, c.474. 91 I4xQ. Ko,rro MumeB llpoaopkoB, aaax.flpoaopkoBuu, TpeBneucko, 1973. 92 Apx.Emrp, T.I, c.63. 93 Apx.Emrp, T.I, c.63; T.IJ, c.89.

knop u ucmopus. C.; 1982, c.174. fOg CnaBetkoB, fI.P. Buaapcku npumuu uJru nocnoBuqu u xapakmepxu gyMu. C.,1972, c.280. tbg XeneskoB, U.3a gaBucmma. c.101: flonoB, K.3aBucmnukrm. HM, 8p.167,.14 ronu 1976. 1 10 Pycecku, l. C6[IVJO0,c.256.
111 KocmoE, Cm.JI. Arrrrynemu..', c.93.

112.{urrnkoBa,

Hapognume BepBaHul B 6rneapckume

6asnus.

sma/ BrB-Qonknopa
117

113 KocmoB, Cm.II, Auynemu..., c.92. 114 Mair.L. Witchcraft. N.Y.1969, p.38 115 Mag*tapoB, fI. "Cmopuxnma" u "npaBuxgrna" /praau-

6uma

lla

cmpaHg*ranuu.-E(p,

sarl.7972. 95 flnuxuri, I4cmopur, III,

94 !'Inr["Fatuo UaneB, c. CmanqeB xau, TpeBxencko,


1.

1985,Kn.4,c.56. 116 Tokape8,C.A. Pannue $oprvrdr penueuu mue. M.,1964, c.91.

u ux pasBu-

C6HV,V,c.120;Bo:kkoB, C. C6ffy, )fiI, c.149; 9onakoB, B. EHCr c.114. 97 Cmofikog, H. C6I{Y,il,146.


98 AneenoB, B. C6IIYJfiI, c.156.

96 IIIurukoB, Cm. C6HV,[V,c.102; CmouJroB, A.il.,

Operlsrp, Alk, Snamxama knonka. C., 1984, c.250' 118 Mernrk-Cul,tott*tt, K.A. O6pas Begyna B mpagruuuoHHbIx a<lpukanckux BepoBanusx.-C3,X978,Kn'2,c'50' 119 TokapeB, C.A. Pannue..., c'89' 120 Weblter, M. Magie. A socilogical study. Stanford
B, c.A. pannue..., c.82. Buxton, J. Mandari witchcraft.- Witchcraft and sor122 cery in East Africa. N.Y. 1964, p. 109. -123 Opesrp, Ail(.Snamnama knonka. c.252. 124 Pasru.rxu Bapuanmu 3a nocpeulaue na uylkgru xpph u cromBemnume oqucmumeJruu o6pegu, nogpo6no y Qpetrgrp, .[ilr: 3namnama knonka. c.249-255. 125 IIak maiu, c.253-255. 126 Douglas, M. Introduction: thirby years after.- Witchcraft, oracles and magie. p. )OflIII' 127 Menuk-Curraonsn, K. A. O6pas Begryna..., c.48. 128 Ewans-Pritchsrd, E.E. Witchcraft, oracles and magie amond the Azande. Oxford 1973, p. 107. 129 leopaueB, B. u kon. Eraeapcku emuuonoeuqeu perrnuk. C., 1973, T.I, c.575. 130 Brnaapcku mrnkoBeu peunuk, C.,1973, c-224' t3t KapmanoB, A. OcrsnaBalre na saBucrruna I gorvrapkcoBama Ounoco0cka nrucrn.-flK, 1986, Kn.4, c.54.

1948'

p';43'

cko,

99 IzIx<!. Paga UaneBa flempo8a, uax. Banaefqu, TpeBnen-

gan.1973.

C6HV,XII,c.

103 Pycecku, F. C6Hy,XXI,c.265: 3namapoB, C.


1

MapunoB,.{. Hapognra Brpa..., c.153. 101 Xenegko$, M.3a saBucrnma. c.528. 102 ?IoBko8, Izf. Crqunenus. T.II C., 1968, c.350.
1OO

50-

15 1

C6HY,V,c. 1 15; fixakueBa, X., trf.f ag*ranoBa. Hapogndmo neqenue..., c.5-9; IIIHQ. Toma IIanoBa HaigenoBa, c.Mekpe, JtroEeruko, gan.1971.
104

C. C6Hy,XII,c. I 49- 1 50 ; CmofrkoB, E. C6Hy,trII,c.t42 i Bong*ue8, 3. {6EIVJC,c.88; ,[unrumpo$, M. C6HyJg,c.91;]InrreBa, M.

: Cmanutcku, U. C6try,V,c.l42i ForkkoB,

flak

manr"

_ 105 BatpakmapoB, C6I{yJOfi, c.263: Apx.EI,lIvI,, Ne 181, c.3-4. 106 ffonoE, Arr. C5IIy,I,c.79: PfI,1933, Kn.4,c"131. 107 fiogpo6no y feopeueBa, I,IB. Erneapclra napogma

:l

90

91

frs

YPOTTAffiATTETO
133 3a rlusuueckama npegcmaBa Ha Ma?bocnuka nonogpo6uo y fIonoB.P. Eonaapcku Hapoglru BnpBanun 3a Maesocnuuuine.-8, 1985, Iftr.6, c.4445. 134 CpaBnu no-eope, c.38 135 Beildenman, T.O. Witchcraft in lJkaguri.- Witchcraft and Sorcery un East Africa, London 1963, p. 174. 137 flonoB, P. Srneapcku napoguu...,c.M. 138 llo-nogpo6tro sa rkelrama kamo sna onpegeneHocm IzIBanoE, B. 8., B.H.TonopoB, I,lccnego8anug B o6nacmu cJraBgnckux gpeBnocmeil. M., 1974, c.259-304. 1 39 IIIankap8,_K. A. C6I{y,T.I,C., 1968, c.86. X40 Epagamu, tri. 3a:hexume. c.548. 141 llogpo6no y Menuk-CuMoumr, K. A. O6pas Begyxa..., c.46. 142 Beilderunari, T.O. The Kagyri. N.Y. 1971 p.39-40; Singleton.M. The muminous amond tho Nildes and NiloHamites.- Cahiers des Religions Africanes.v.4,N7, 1970, p. 1 1. 143 Tolbot,.P.A. Life in Sontheri Nigeria.- London 1923, p.20 144 Tolbot, P.A. Ttre peoples of Sonthern Nigeria, London 1969, v.2, p.725. Begyna..., c.46. . 145 Menuk-Cuuoxnl, K. A. O6pas 146 Ellis, A.B. The Yoruba speaking people of th Slave Goast of West Africa. - tondon 1974, p.244; Alexandra,D.N. Madie and mystery in fibet, London 1971, p.40. 147 Apx.E Emuwrut, Hapognru noBepur..., c. 14 1 5. - 148 XeuegkoB, M.3a eaBucrnma. c.528. " 149 C6HV,IV,c.102: Bapuanmu COHV,V,c.120: C6[IVJ0G,c.164. 150 Boilrko8, C. C6ffY,)gI, c"150. 1 51 Emnoepa$cku nramepuamr om CrraagoBo. - ITICCO, 1931,
c.403.
132 XeneskoE,

YPO\M,ffiN{ETO
8oprr, XapkoB 1878; Benenckuri, O. UI. O saeoBoprrx. Irlcmo' pui pasBumue eaeoEopa u anaBns-re eeo Qoptrl-a.ntue qepnrbl.

M.3a gaBucmrna. c.528.

Xap[o8 1897: Kpyuretickut, H.

napognoirnoesuu. BapuaBa 1876: Jlsqkutr, E: A. K Bonpocyo aaioEopax. 9.O. 1893, Ne 4: Murrep,Acuputckue- 3!.ryn1 llus u bycckue nap. saao8opu. Pycckax MucJrb,'1896 Ktt.?: flomepanckufi, fI. O. 3aeoBoprr. Onsrm uccnego8anus nPog3io:kgenur aaao3opnrrx ibopr'ryn. 3I4OQIry, tI.136, 1917: Bemyx6B, A. SaeoBoprr, gaknuninun, o6epe_eu u grpyeu Bugor uapogxoeo Bpa*eeBaau$, ocuo8alutHe na Bepe I cuny c-noBa. BabuiaBa 1907: flome6ns, A.A. O6scnenue Marropycclqx-u cpognrbrx Hapogrxbn( necen. T.II, Baprua8a 1 887 : Acxamo0a, A M. &go)kecmdexu o6pas u'uupoBoepenqeckuf snemenm B aaeo66pax. M.,1964: Psr6ako8, B. A. Sgrnregm6o grpe8nux caaBmr.M.,1981, s.133-145: Izlnrunckas, B. H' 3azo8oprr u ucmopuqeckar geircmBumenonocm. PO, T. 1 6,JI', 1 976'c.200207: XaghoE-, I4. MomuBu ga knem8a E uaurgme Hapogilru
Iz1. MomuBu ga knemBa 8..., c.307. 157Ap*raygo8, M. Er"naapckume Hapoguu knem8u. Krnn xapakmepucmukama rra lrapogruus MupoeJlequ HapogHomo m6opuecrnBo.- flpegeoBop k*u.{a6ena, M' Euneapcku na-

Saeo8opr_r kak- 8ug-

pycckot

necHu. P'!CCQ,Z79O7, c.305-370.


156 XagfroE,

poguu k,nem8u. C.,1934. -158 flogpo6xo y Senenun,


cnoB..., c.510.
159 Evans-Pritchard, E. E. 161 flak mau. 162 nak rnarvl, c.5.

[.

K. Maeurrackasr r[yxkuua

amond the Azande. London 1976, p. 393' 160 3enenun, g. K. Ta6y cno8..., c.4.

Witchcraft, oracles and magie

I. Hapognrtrrne B*pBanu* ..., c.44. 153 Jlu.rkoBcka, K., K.Illa*ruucka, Mumonoeus Ha Meconomanrus.C., 1984, c.110. 154 C6HY,IC(\ffiI, c.181. 155 3a rvraeu'aeckar-na cuna He cno8omo no-nogpo6no y:
,152 Eurr,rkoBa,

163 KapaBenoB, JI. flarrnsrnnukl Hapogxoeo 6smta 6oneap.9.I, c"t7l. 1MIIome6Hf,, A. A. O6scxenue nnaaopycckuxucpognbrt HapogrHbrx necex. T"II,BapuraBa 1887, c.61 u cn165 Bemyxo8, A. 3aeo8oPsr..", 166 Ma[howeki, B. Argonaults of the Westem Pacific.

CeBepnori Asuu.-C6IvIA9,T.VIII-D( 1929: Idaauqecka* Oyukuur cnoB u cnoBecuux npouaBegenut.-B: C6. Eqecmll-fi .ftdoP: Munako, JI. Snaxapcmso, MunEk 1971; CynauoB, H. Q. Saeo-

Senenun, A. K. Ta6y ciro8 y napogo8 Focmorelroir FBponrr-u

London 792d,p.4A8. 167 Huben, H., M.Mauss. Esquisse d'une theorie generale de la magie. - L'Annee Sgsiologique, T. VII, 1932-1903. 168llos]ianckuri, H. O. SaeoBopar" II419tr7. 169 nak mau, c.148. 1?0 TokapeB, C. A. Cyu*gocrns u npouaxorkglrue Maeuu'

92

93

WOTIAffiAHETO
TYLO,T.5t, c.24
171

WOUACBATIETO
CASTING THE EVIL E TE IN THE BTTLGARIAIV FOLK BELIEFS

Oceania 1947,v.XVII, 1, p.71. 173 Evans-Pritchard, E. E. Witchcraft, oracles and magia amond the Azande. --London 7972, p.27-22. l74[Iqpo6uoy trlopganckui, B. B. Xaoc u aaplronut. M., 6rneapckume BrpBanut nogpo6no y EeureBrmeB, B. Pemreuf,rna .Ha npa6rneapume. 8I4F,1934 T.tr,c.29-60: Brpamaxa npa6aneapume. f CV-IzIOO, T.35, 1939. 1 76 HaunaenoBanuemo npou3Jruga om qytfi , qygeHe, qygs ce, ouygBarra ce Ha lleruo uJru ornHeulo, nopogeHo om neo6ukxoBeno, -xy6aBo unu pxgko cpeulano karrecmBo. 177 (ppeisrp,,q*. Snamxama knonka. c.310. 178llogpo6no Qperisrp, []k. 3namsama k.nonka, c.310334: 3enenuu,,[.K. Ta6y cno8...,
B

172 Bernot, R. M. Wuradieri Magns und 'Clever Men'. -

IIak mau.

vol.I
Angel Goev
(SummarY)
i
:

1982, c.195-196. 175 3a opengu3Ma

According to the folk beliefs casting the evil eye is a result of the harrnful power's action of the cast-doer on the object. The harm-doer is the aggrressive, active element, and the object of action - the passive sufferer. In orderto reveal the nature of the process the traits of both characters are investigated and defined. The sufferer is analyzed first. According to their character and nature the endangered objects are classified into three gnoups: 1. Living beings. 2.Inanimate objects. 3. Actions, states, undertakings and phenomena. The available sources show that people are most pliable to casting ttre evil eye. Ttre effect of t}re evil eye is definitelydependant onthe age and gualityof objects. Most susceptible are littie children, ydirng people, men and women in their prime. Ttre cases of casting tJ:e evil eye lessen with aging; but all children are pliable. Tradition everywhere accepts that most of the children's physiological and psychic disturbances are result of casting tJle evil eYe. It is stated ttrat of all traits, distingnrishing the individuat from the grouP, beauty is decisive. Youth and beauty define the grreat extent of pliability, increased by compiementdry acceptable elements, connected with clottring, omaments, hairdress etc.
95

94

WOqAffiAHETO
The review of the impact on animals shows thatthey are pliable tothe evil eye accordingto the same qualities. Except single species, tJ:e object in sonoe cases canbe a whole herd. trt is noticeable that only domestic animals are subject to the evil eye. there is no nrention of wild animals, subject to it, in ttre available sourses. This is indicative of the very nature of trre exarained phenomenon. The impact on inanimate objects and agricultural areas is not arbitrary. It depends on the extent,of their connection with life and activity of people. The harmful look$ threaten all human states and spheres of activity. Ttris enlarges the scope of tJle evil eye's effest to a grreat extent. Ttre conclusion is thatthe sphere ofttre harrnful effeet covers socially assimilated space. Ttre impact - direst or indirect - is always orientated at man. Direst - as immediate hdrm on him, and indireet . in the cases, when the objects of the evil eye are connected with him" Objects of casting the evil eye are only those possessing positive gualitative charasterization from human .point of view. Ttre pliabilrty to the evil eye depends on ttrat: the more "hurnanized" the object, ttre nearerto the supreme degrree of the traditiond system of values it is, the greater ttre degrree of pliability. Ttre result of the harrnfirl effect is an important elementinthe structure of the phenomenon. Its ciiagrnostics includes a wide variety of symptoms which according to ttre character and p:*ent of preCision are united in three grroups: The fust includes indications, defining: most geuerallythe state. They showtibe negative ehanges inbroadest aspect. The second group-unites particular sympOA

WOTTACBATIETO
toms. They define ttre predominantly disease-causing character of the rlnpact. Headache (in its differentversions) isdefined as most characteristic indicator of casting the evil eye out of all symptoms" AII t}le other parts of the body, orientated from above downwards, are susceptible. According to the general context of the symptoms all diseases can be prodgced by casting the evil eye. Ttre analysis shows that the character of ttre harmed objest defines the form of manifestation of the evil eye. In living organisms the effect is disease and death, i.e. biological and psychological destruction. Ttre impact, rbanifestated in wide scope of negative varieties in tJre other objects, is defined generally as "spoiling". The castdoer is ttre main character in the process. Bulgarian source material defines his/her eyes as the startingr point of his/her power. They are evil, bad and envious. It is stated ttrat people with such eyes are socially incompatible persons, with psychic and physical deformations, and most impoftant -with supernatural characters. The result ofthe harmful impact defines castingofttre evil eye in the sphere of harrnfirl magic. The cast-doers are perceived as harmful magicians witJl different powers. The structure of their magical charasterization is double - with social and mythologrical dimensions. The social characterization includes indicationS, de'finingthe magician's potential ofthe castdoer. Analysis proves that it is grounded in ttre archaic notion of the socially alien person as bearer of harmful influence. The evolution of the notion of the harmdoer in the range of the group andttre extension of his social dimen97

WO\TACBNIETO

WOUACBAEIETO
magncal nature and possesses all qualities of harrnfirl magic. On this grround attempt is made to reconstruct the structure ofthephenomenon.Ttre structure of magic and magic ritual is taken for basis. Ttreir main structuredefining elements have been sought - ttre magical imitative action, the conjuring formula and the magic substance. For that purpose conjuring murnbling incantations against casting the evil eye have been analyied' There are other factors inherent to them, which help the destructive action of the evil eye. Ttre verbal e:qrression of the desired negative result and the conjuring formula are among:them. The astion of word in casting ttre evil eye is realized through the known mechanism - tJle archaic notion of the magic power of the word as a whole. The presence and role of the word in the hannful act imparts to castingthe evil eye the value of verbal magic. The archaic notion of the substantive charaster of word materializes its projection throughthe look, which is the carrier of the magic power. It provides for the contact between the subject and the object and tums the process into magic impact of contact type. Ttre "materialization" and the magic power includes and codes the

It contains traits, innate to the socium, simultaneously accepted to belong to"the alien world"" Accepting that the idea of the own is grood, every other manifestation of negative behaviour in the scope of the gnoup is cathegorized as evil, and the doer - as bearer of danger. It is shovrrn that in social aspect the manifestation of envy is the most tlpical trait in ttre character of the castdoer. It is proved ttrat according to the same notion enruy is the basic reason for casting the evil eye. The social behaviour and negative social changes in the person's state, uniting all other traits of the general image of the harm-doer have been analyzed. His/her physical shape and gender are examined, as they add to the characterization, defining his/her forrnal belonging to "the alien world".
The indications, forming the mythological
characterzation of the cast-doer, are examined in detail. It defines "the real" belonging of the character to the beyond. The genealogncal indications, especially those connested with his/her supematural conception, are most important among them. The analysis ofthe gualitative characterization of the subject and object of tJ:e evil eye leads to the conclusion that they are polarized. Ttreir nature spatially locates them as polar opposites in ttre "good-evil" binary opposition, resp. assimilated-not assimilated space. The place each of ttrem occupies in the system of moral values defines the charaster of their interrelations. Ttrey are realised via the universal chain subject-impact-obiectresult, identical with the magic line magician-magncbewitched. It is clear that casting the evil eye is of
98

sions has been traced.

magic substance as element of tl:e structure of the

process. This sequence proves that castingttre evil eye follows the model of magic and magic ritual. Ttre variety of verbal, imitative, contact and initial impact includes the

whole range of harrnfirl magic inlluence. This turns casting the evil eye into dniversal harrnfirl act equal in
value to harrnful magdc, contained in the personal magic potency.

99

WOTTACBAETETO
Ttre versions of the negative results of amazements have been examirred. In spite of the factthat their result is the same as of castingthe evil eye, ithas been stated, that ttreir author is a good-natured person. It has been

YPOqACBAHETO

CrkpauleHus A
A
Apxeonoeux Apx.Emap Apxu8 xa ApxumekmypHo-rnxoepafuku kou nnekc E{ntp la6po8o. Omgen,{yxoBna kyn
E tI E BHC EHT BP EC

proved that the well-wisher creates the situation for influence, and the very hann is done by the supematural power or substance outside the initiator. This is connected with ttle belief in the harmful effect of the supernatural forces through uttering their name, calling them or voluntarily/involuntarilly initiating a magic situation. Castingthe evil eye isthe firsttheme ofthe "Bulgarian
Folk Magric" sequence.

B B I4 P A BmOB
Bmopu

mypa" Ameucmu'*xa mpu6yna Brneapcka ucmopuqecka 6u6,nuomeka Brnaapcku Hapogen c6opxuk Brneapcko Hapogno mEopuecmBo Brneapckapeu Erneapckac6upka
BekoBe

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1989

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100

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eapckume emnoepaQu . ErnnoapaQcku npoyrEanus xa la6poBcku okpse. fa6poBo 1988

Cor[u* I,fHMB llgBecmus na Hapoguux rrryaeir BrB Bapna TAOPfrC IzlgBecmus omgenenur $cckoeo gerrka u cJroBecxocmu INIp I4cmopuuecku npeeneg IICIATrT{I Ir1sBopu 3a cmapama ucmopus u eeoaparlun ua Tpakun u Makegonur rcQO}Ia IrlgBecmug xa Cenrunapa no CnaBsxcka rfunoJIO?Ug

Izls8ecmus lra HayrrHus apxuB npu B A H IrlsBecmug na Hapognus enrno?parDckr lry-

&eperruus flema naquonarrira korr<lepeuuus na 6rn


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Pogonu PasBumue Pycckutr anmponoJroeu.reckut rlrypxan Pogoncku npe?nCt Paskonku u npoyuBaxux . Peeuonanuu npoyuBanus no 6rnaapcku

I4MIOE

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or4o on q 90

rlonknop Pggoncku cmapuuu C6opuuk Myaex axmponoJroeuu u orrlnoepa0uu C6opnuk sa 6r.neapcku napoguu yuomBopenue xayka u knu:hnuna Cprncku emnoaparlcku a6opnuk Cnucanue na Ernaapckama akageuu* Ha Haykume CoBemckas emaoeparlue CrBpeuexna Mguuulra Tpygrr no anakoBuM cucmeMaM Tpygu Izlxcmumyma no arnnoepa<[uu Tpygrr Xopeuckot skcneguuuu OunocoQcko ucmopurrecku Qakynrnem Qunoco<lcku npeeJreg tlumanutue Omnoepa$uueckoe o6ospenue

Hapogxa rr,rnageilr HeBponoeus, ncuxuarnpue u neBpoxupypeuf, Hapognu necnu om Tuuok go Bum C.,1928

102

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